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The deficiency of insulin - A major factor which promotes movement of glucose into certain cells and as well stimulate formation of glycogen from glucose results in a condition called Diabetes mellitus. This deficiency disturbs carbohydrates, protein and fat metabolism. Insulin is a major factor required for the diffusion of glucose into adipose and muscle cells decreases thus in diabetes. The resulting effect of this is hyperglycemia -A condition in which the concentration of blood sugar rises This further calls for the kidney to excrete the excess. Here glycosuria occurs, that is, the appearance of glucose in urine and thus raises the osmotic pressure of the urine. More water and electrolytes are excreted causing the affected person to be dehydrated and extremely thirsty, a condition known as polydipsia. Diabetes mellitus as I said earlier disturbs protein and fat metabolism. This results from the inability of the body cells to detrack glucose in the blood capillaries by diffusion which is a major role played by insulin. This would no take us to the forms of diabetes mellitus. The two commonly known forms of diabetes mellitus are; Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus_IDDM. Also called Type 1 or juvenile onset diabetes mellitus. Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus _NIDDM. Also called Type 2 or maturity onset diabetes mellitus. Type 1 usually appear before the age of twenty and is an autoimmune disease, that is, the beta cells of the pancreas are destroy by the immune system. Treatment of Type1 is by the injection of insulin few hours before meal several times daily or implanting of the an insulin pump to deliver the hormones. Insulin today are produced from bacteria given human insulin genes prior to the 1980's when it came from pigs. In the future insulin producing cells may treat people with diabetes Type 2 appear usually after forty years pf age and accounts for over 70% of diabetes cases. In this case the beta cells synthesize but body cells are too weak or insensitive to it and thus resulting in diabetes. Causes of Diabetes Mellitus The causes of diabetes mellitus are not clearly known. It is a mystery and so medical scientists and practitioners are unable to solve the mystery. There are several factors considered to be risk factors which may lead to diabetes mellitus and individuals must check them. These factors are briefly discussed below


Diet Firstly diet is a major risk factor. Eating too much of carbohydrates, fats or proteins are all harmful. Our body requires balance diet for normal functionality and thus energy for these functions. Too much of any of these impedes the pancreas from insulin secretion thus increases increase in blood sugar and further diabetes mellitus. People's habitual eating of processed carbohydrates should be checked and parents must further curtail their children's intake of cakes , candies and so on. The ill effects of obesity should also be communicated as well as the importance of regular exercise. Obesity Obesity is another risk factor and seen as a condition of excessive body weight in comparison to the height of the individual. It is seen in patients suffering from Type 2 or NIDDM. Bulk fats in tissues hampers insulin functionality resulting in hyperglycemia. Age Over 40 years of age body functionality decreases. This is a risk factor as one grows older the activities decrease, weight gain occurs leading to the malfunction or dysfunction of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas thus insulin secretion leading to the scourge. Smoking The federal ministry of health warns that smokers are liable to die young. This has a link to diabetes mellitus. Smokers are prone to diabetes mellitus especially those who some frequently. They develop joint mobility and retinopathy quicker and thus chances of immature deaths. Africans especially those in tropical regions like Nigeria are advised to stop this habit as there is no reason to do so except health hazards. Temperatures are relatively average in comparison to Europeans or temperate regions of the world. Most African religions even warn against smoking. Infections Viruses such as Coxsackie B may infect the pancreas leading to destruction of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans impairing insulin secretion. Other factors include * Alcohol intake * Lack of regular exercise * Emotional stress such as depression, death of close relative and much more.

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Diabetes Mellitus - Know Up to Date