za angleščino v 3. in 4. letniku gimnazij
Creating your own space Connecting through cyberspace
Present and past tenses – revision and extension
Designing a classroom
Interview about classroom now and then Video: Google docs
Inventions and hoaxes Wishes and frauds Practical jokes
Conditional clauses − revision Mixed conditionals I wish/if only/would
Inventors Accounts of practical jokes Story about John Myatt
Interview about a hoax
Chefs and cuisine Food poisoning
Questions – revision and extension Tag questions and short answers Nor…, Neither…, So…
Description of a chef ’s job Video: Young chefs visit the Royal kitchens Quiz programme
Art today Art with a mission Graphic novels
Future tenses – revision and extension Present tenses to talk about the future am/is/are + to-inﬁnitive
2 emails about an art show and a shoot
Phone conversation about electronic art Video: Animals of the future Video: Spencer Tunick shoot
Music and dance
Past Perfect Continuous Linking words of addition and contrast
4 texts about folk music and dance
2 interviews with folk dancers
Online debate about beneﬁts of technology for society
Video: survey about Wikipedia
Module 1 Read this! ‘Love is in the air’
Internet and media
Passive revised Passive with inﬁnitives Past Perfect passive Passive with modal verbs: certainty/ uncertainty, present/past
History of ﬂight Space travel
before and after + noun/clause/ participial phrase having done this (participial clause) until + Present tenses/Present Perfect
Opinions on space tourism Article about astronaut training
Radio interview about the history of ﬂight Video: Russian plans for cheap space tourism Video: interview with an astronaut
Addictions Video gaming
Probable/uncertain hypotheses: present/past, modal verbs Speculating about possible events that did not happen Speculating about possible causes of events that happened
3 emails about different addictions 3 articles about different addictions
Video: video games as addiction? Video: training camp for video gaming addicts
Student conservation work Science studies Science museums
Adjectives revised + inﬁnitive structures Adverbs: manner, frequency, degree, word order Countability: many/few, much/little, more/fewer/less, so/such
Article: Teaching natural history 4 texts about different science museums
Video: conservation begins here
Bionics Being human
Relative clauses revised Adverbial clauses Linking words and expressions
2 texts about robots and cybernetic suits
Radio programme about bionic hands Audio about bionic eyes
Module 2 Read this! Dizzying moments
Talking about classrooms
Article about classrooms
Intensifying or softening meaning
Talking about frauds
Email Short story or letter about April Fool’s jokes
Polite offers and requests
Discussing a chef ’s work
Asking for clariﬁcation
Group discussions Mini-debate
Essay about art Comic book or travelogue
Discussing folk song and dance
Paragraph about musical traditions of the past
Opening sentences for essays
Writing essays 1: introducing the topic
Discussing space tourism Talking about astronaut training
Essay about space tourism Email
Writing essays 2: organising material
Discussing addictions, especially video gaming Giving a talk
Writing sentences for a guessing game
Writing essays 3: making points, supporting/illustrating
Talking about studying science
Essay about ﬁeld trips Email or advertisement
Writing essays 4: register
Reading: multiple choice, short answers Use of Language: gap ﬁll (tenses)
Listening: true/false Writing: letter or essay
Speaking: role-play Reading: answer completions
Use of Language: gap ﬁll Listening: full answers
Discussing what it means to be human
Essay about bionics
Writing essays 5: concluding
Work experience Work placements
Modal verbs: speculating, deducting, concluding need to/needn’t – present and past
Article about work experience
Video about work placements
Personal proﬁles Summer courses Gap years
Past Simple/Continuous, Present Perfect Simple/Continuous – revised Present Perfect Simple/Continuous (yet, still, already) – extended
5 texts about summer courses 2 emails about attending summer courses 4 texts about gap year projects
Radio programme about career choices
Applying for a job Job interviews
Future Perfect Simple will/shall/ going to + have done Future Perfect Simple vs. Future Simple/Continuous Future Perfect Continuous: will have been doing
Video: twelve tips for job interviews
Reported speech extended Reporting verbs Passive report structures
Article: Igor Akrapovič Article: Rock and Ruby Article: Young Entrepreneur of the Year
Video: The Call of the Entrepreneur Video about entrepreneurship Video: Jay Manara
Going to university vs. going to work
Inﬁnitive or –ing forms revised Adjective + to-inﬁnitive it as a preparatory subject + -ing form Phrasal verbs, make/do
Article: Is Higher Education Right For You?
Video: students about university Radio programme: preparing for university
Module 3 Read this! Hidden motives
Articles – revision and extension Quantiﬁers – revision and extension
Article: The Mother of all texts 2 texts about family lifestyles
Video about blended families
Gender differences Work-life balance Gender issues in education
Preference: I’d rather/I’d prefer to, present/past Past Perfect Simple/Continuous – revision and extension
Article about gender differences 4 texts about gender issues in education
Radio programme and video about work-life balance
Learning foreign languages English as an international language
Expressing ability, present/past/future – revision and extension Modal verbs for possibility – revision and extension
Article: Why study foreign languages?
Interview about learning languages Video: So why learn English? Video about Yu Ying Charter school
Immigration Sports Mixed marriages
Verb + object + -ing form Noun/adjective + -ing form/inﬁnitive Preposition + -ing form
Article: Advantages of immigration 5 quotes about sports Text about the charity Show racism the red card Article about an interracial marriage
Video about interracial relationships
Determiners: either, neither, each, all Verbs with two objects
Module 4 Read this! Gifts
CMYK 3 articles about marriages and relationships 10/100/90/0
Report survey about marriage Video of the Romeo and Juliet song by Dire Straits
Talking about work placements and experience Role-play
Paragraph describing a student
Expressing emotions politely
Role-play: interview Talking about gap year projects
Letter or email about a gap year abroad
Expressing willingness and unwillingness
Role-play: a disastrous job interview
Cover letter for a job advertisement Email to a friend about a job interview
Talking about entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs Presentation: school council meeting
Email with tips about starting a business
Talking about plans after leaving school Giving reasons for and against going to university Panel: university or work?
Writing a dialogue Essay about university
Dealing with criticism
Talking about families Discussing family types Line debate
Specifying how frequent/common things are
Discussing work-life balance Presentation on how to ﬁnd good work-life balance Group discussion: educational issues in developing countries
Essay about gender differences Letter or email
Talking about careers and learning foreign languages Discussing immigration Discussing sports quotes Project: sports activities promoting peace and understanding of other cultures Discussing interracial and interethnic relationships and marriages
Writing: essay Speaking: visual stimulus
Reading: gap ﬁll Use of Language: word formation
Listening: short answers Writing: essay
Giving advice/expressing opinions
Discussing marriage and marriage trends Role-play: interview Dramatising a scene Discussing and updating the Romeo and Juliet story
Writing a ﬁnal paragraph Email or short article
CMYK Describing feelings Essay about the institution of marriage Writing an essay plan 10/100/90/0
Speaking: written stimulus Writing: essay
Dear Student, Here we are once again at the beginning of a new year. Are you looking forward to the challenge of continuing on your Way Up to communicate fluently in English? By now you should feel you’ve achieved significant progress along that road. On the Way Up you have passed some intermediate milestones and now you are ready to tackle the final ascent. We want to congratulate you on all you have achieved so far and wish you every success as you press on. These are your last few years at school. You are nearing the point where you have to make crucial choices for your whole future. The topics we’ve chosen for you in this second book reflect that stage in your life and we hope you find them stimulating as well as challenging. As in the first level of the course, our aim here is to provide you with the tools you need to write and speak natural English as well as to recognise the different varieties of English that are spoken all over the world. We continue to focus on that basic function of language, communication. You will be given many opportunities to put across your own individual views and opinions, in increasingly sophisticated ways, and to engage with others in meaningful exchanges. Of course you are beginning to look ahead at the exams that will close this part of your schooling. The skills enhancement sections allow you to prepare in the best possible way for all aspects of those exams. The Workbook continues to provide you with more personalised practice in all the essential skills, as well as the chance to reflect on the particular areas of your own language learning where you have undoubted strengths or where you need to put in extra effort. We’ve also included, in the Read this! sections of the book, some examples of the work of English-language writers. Our hope is that this will entice you into the wonderfully diverse and fascinating world of the imagination that creative texts represent. Above all, as ever, we hope you really enjoy working through this second book. Remember that you can always get in touch with us and let us know how you’re getting on. We look forward to hearing from you.
knjigarna.com swis721 With our best wishes,
Joanne, Petra, Maja and the Rokus Klett team
Module 1 Join a word from box A to one from box B to make an expression that completes the sentences. Each word is used only once.
colour practical toxic graphic celebrity folk commercial art sponsored online
music foods exhibition scheme art joke novels chef shop walks
1 Three of us raised funds by going on a series of . 2 We used our money to buy tickets to a special in London. 3 We didnâ€™t like the of the display rooms. 4 But we enjoyed the displays of , like advertisements and from Japan. 5 While we were there, we attended a performance of from Peru. 6 We bought a video of it by using an internet cafĂŠ to access the . 7 We also visited a TV station where a was presenting a cookery demonstration. 8 He showed the audience some deadly mushrooms and other . 9 My friend pretended to eat some and started shrieking with pain, but that was just a .
knjigarna.com swis721 CMYK 10/100/90/0
1 Create your own space • Revision and extension of present and past tenses • Intensifying or softening meaning
1A Remodel your learning space 1 A Work in small groups. Look around you. Draw a plan of the classroom you are in. Put in the windows, desks, chairs, and other furniture. Then discuss these questions and make notes on your ideas.
1 Use of space: Is there enough room to move around freely? How do you feel when you are working: comfortable or cramped? 2 Layout: Where are the teacher’s desk and the students’ desks? Can you move easily? What are the advantages of this layout? Any disadvantages? What other layouts might be possible? 3 Personal space: Does each student have a designated drawer for work materials? A space for their personal belongings? Is there easily accessed storage for things that you all use, e.g. board marker pens, rubbers? 4 Ventilation: How many windows? Are they slightly open ... kept wide open ... never opened? How important is ventilation? Give reasons. 5 Lighting: What is it like? Is it energy efﬁcient? Do any of you ever experience eyestrain or headaches after working in class? What could be done to improve the lighting? 6 Display areas: How many, and where are they? Do you prefer being surrounded by a lot of displays, or do you prefer a pared-down, calm look? List advantages and disadvantages of each classroom style. 7 Other facilities: Computers? Whiteboard? A drinking area in the classroom? A space for having snacks at break?
BUDDING SCHOOL DESIGNERS SCOOP PRESTIGIOUS PRIZE From our school’s correspondent Galan Imlah
A team of students from our own Glenwood Secondary 1 (just carry off) top prize in a competition organised by a national body dedicated to excellence in school design, the Association of School Architects. The project for this biennial competition open to all secondary school students 2 (involve) remodelling an existing classroom to provide maximum learning ﬂexibility and promote motivation and creativity amongst the students. A team led by Ben Duvalley, now in his ﬁnal year, 3 (work) for the past two years to remodel their sixth-form classroom space. They 4 (already start) making plans when they read about the new award scheme, which 5 (give) them just that extra incentive they needed. First, they had to ﬁgure out how to gather funds for their classroom makeover.
B Listen to Ben asking his grandmother about her classroom. Take notes about:
1 what her classroom was like 2 what students did during their class hours 3 what was expected of students C Listen again. Work with a partner. Focus on A or B, then compare.
Write down at least one clause or sentence with a verb in the ... A
1 2 3 4
Present Simple tense Present Continuous tense Present Perfect tense Past Perfect tense
5 6 7 8
Past Simple tense Past Continuous tense past using used to or would Past Simple passive
2 Read the article about a prize Ben and his team have been awarded. Write in the verbs, using the right tenses. 8
3 A Talk about the project you’ve just read about. How do you imagine the remodelled learning space at Glenwood for sixthformers at the school? Describe what you think the special workstations and chairs are like, and where they’re placed in the classroom. What else would you notice if you visited the classroom? B Listen as Ben takes his grandmother to visit the new classroom. Take notes about these features, and compare them with your ideas in activity 3A.
• • • • • •
The classroom layout The student workstations The students’ chairs Other facilities in the classroom The teacher’s role The colour scheme
4 Test your memory! Without looking back, quickly write the word with this meaning in the text you’ve read or the two conversations you’ve heard:
Scores: 3 average; 5–7 very good; 9–10 exceptional! With immense energy, they 6 (plunge) into organising fairs, sponsored walks and sports events, and they were soon on their way to the total sum they 7 (aim) for. But they 8 (still lack) several hundred pounds when a local businessman, who 9 (repeatedly express) his wish to remain anonymous, stepped in and 10 (fill) the gap. ‘This 11 (enable) us to commission the kind of furniture we wanted for our new learning space,’ says Ben. ‘We 12 (prepare) the designs for our special workstations and chairs beforehand, and we then 13 (have) such fun seeing the designs taking shape. Now, as we 14 (look) around our new room, we can hardly believe we actually 15 (manage) it! And, of course,’ he 16 (add), ‘when we 17 (be awarded) the prize, that was the best! I 18 (apply) to read architecture at university and I’m sure this will boost my chances.’ If you 19 (wonder) what an up-to-date 21st century classroom looks like, you can go and see the Glenwood team’s remodelled learning space this weekend, because the school 20 (host) an open day from 9 am to 4 pm on Saturday.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
grim, unfriendly appearance: f prevented from concentrating: d informal word for ‘chatting’: y to question if something is true: to ch informal for ‘annoyed’: m bewildered, confused: b happening every second year: b something that pushes you to act: i start to do something enthusiastically: p i 10 to arrange an event at your own place: to h 5 Look back at the plan and your discussion in activity 1A. In your groups, make a list of at least three things which you could do to make a better learning space for your class. 6 Ask two or three older people to describe the classrooms of their childhood. Write an article for a student newspaper, like Ben’s: ‘Classrooms Now and Then’. Consult the advice on writing and editing in the Workbook, pages 116-119.
G 1, 2 Present Simple, Present Continuous
The competition is open to all students. The school is hosting an open day.
3, 4, 5 Past Simple, Past Continuous
They were still lacking funds when a businessman stepped in.
6 used to and would
mum used to stand over me while I was doing my homework. CMYK My When I talked too much, the teacher would make me stand in 10/100/90/0the corner. Workbook, pages xx
1B Connect through cyberspace
A Pete P I’ve had recurring bouts of flu this winter and our classroom website has let me stay in touch with what’s been happening at school. My teacher has posted assignments to me every week and I’ve been able to send my work back to her. B Sonjaboo Our classroom is twinned with a class in Melbourne, Australia, via our websites. It’s been great being able to connect with the students in that far away city. We’ve been comparing notes about the subjects we learn at school, and we’ve learned so much about their country. We’ve been trying to raise funds for a ‘real’ visit by organising sponsored events, but meanwhile we love our virtual visits!
1 A A newspaper asked readers to voice their opinions of classroom websites. Read some of the comments. Which of the comments:
1 2 3 4
are from students? are from teachers? are from parents? mention communications between home and school?
5 point to some disadvantages of websites? 6 say that websites encourage creativity? 7 praise websites for building cross-cultural bridges? 8 claim websites extend schoolwork outside school hours? B Complete the questions about the comments in activity 1A, using the right tense, and write short answers. Number 1 is an example.
vQ: Why has Pete P been/stayed away from school this winter? A: He’s had flu. / He’s had recurring bouts of flu. 1 Why ... Pete P ... away from school ... winter? 2 How ... Pete P ... keep up with ... schoolwork? 3 What ... Sonjaboo’s classmates ... fund a visit ... Australian ...? 4 What ... cause teacher ... change her mind ... websites? 5 How ... Beanieboy ... beneﬁt from ... website? 6 ... problem solved ... for BrenW ... by ...? 7 ... main advantage ... of ... for ‘lightninrod’? 8 Why ... Dinomum’s children ... tired ... Monday ...?
C MetoYou I was very dubious about it all at first, but I’ve been astonished at how creating our classroom web page has given my students a new incentive to write. We started the website last year and for the past few months, they’ve really enjoyed posting their short stories and poems and getting other students to read them. They’ve even received replies and comments from other students, all the way from Canada to Australia. How motivating is that! D Beanieboy I love sketching and painting but I can’t write at all. The words just don’t come. Since our class started its website, though, I’ve really got into computer graphics. I bought a book to start with, then I found I could enrol for a Saturday afternoon course at our local college – and I’ve been learning some really, really cool techniques. Now my mates all want me to illustrate their stories. I reckon one good picture is worth a hundred words, don’t you think? E BrenW My youngest, Cheryl, is bright but pretty dozy at times. When she started at secondary school last year, she would always forget to bring home important letters like notices about swimming lessons, or field trips. Once she forgot to pass on the note about a coach trip that would only get back at 7 pm. There I was waiting for her to come home, beginning to panic. Of course she’d forgotten her mobile as well, hadn’t she! Now at least her classroom has got a website and I can find out what’s happening for the coming week or month. Actually, I’ve started reading it regularly because I quite enjoy the stories the kids write, and the photos they post ... There’s a lot of talent in that school. F lightninrod For me, the upside has been the chance to work with my best mate out of school hours. We’d done that before, but it involved a lot of travelling, because he lives on the other side of town. The website lets us compare notes when we’re doing our homework, edit each other’s writing assignments, or plan projects. The downside is having to hand in our essays online – makes it harder to dodge the deadlines!
C With a partner, read through the comments in activity 1A. Together, identify the verbs and the verb tenses. Then choose at least two examples of verbs that illustrate:
1 2 3
CMYK a ﬁnished event that happened in the past: an unﬁnished action, still continuing now: 10/100/90/0 a focus on how long an action has been happening until
now: a ﬁnished action that happened before another one:
G Dinomum My son & daughter have been spending the whole weekend at the computer! Come Monday morning, is it any wonder they’re bleary-eyed? Now they even have to send in their homework and get it marked online. C’mon, schools, get with it! What do we want: rounded human beings or technorobots?
2 A Match columns A and B to ﬁnd the features of a web-based programme for schools.
A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
It makes homework All students are able to participate You can access it from any Emailing ﬁles Users can collaborate Changes are saved Online peer review is Learning is happening at Comparing with others You write for an audience, It motivates students Learning becomes
B a b c d e f g h i j k l
all times of the day. previously bored in class. personalised. in real-time. makes your ideas better. made easier. not just for the teacher. computer, anywhere. is made redundant. in one particular assignment. less boring. automatically.
Work with it!
Intensifying or softening meaning 3 A With a partner, read the sentences. Decide whether the italicised expressions make the meaning stronger (intensify), or weaker (soften). Tick I or S.
S 1 2 3 4 5
B Watch a video made by Google to advertise their webbased word processor, which allows students and teachers to collaborate online. Go back to your answers for activity 2A and tick the claims made for Google Docs. Two claims are not made in the programme. Put a cross against these.
6 7 8
We’ve integrated computers into pretty much everything we do at school. This has really given my students control over their education. They didn’t quite get the story! I was really quite surprised at that. It would be kind of fun to get another opinion on the essay. These kids were totally uninterested in education. It makes the lesson a lot more interactive ... ... and it’s definitely improved learning.
B With your partner, prepare answers to questions below, using one of the expressions in activity 3A or one of these to intensify your meaning, or soften it. Then change partners and ask your new partner the questions.
C Word puzzle: complete the words or expressions from the video, using each of these letters once.
very very, very extremely amazingly a bit remarkably terribly woefully positively absolutely literally truly just downright rather certainly
1 2 3 4 5
1 to work out or understand: f 2 two-word informal expression meaning ‘we never get together’: z 3 the greater proportion (expression): l 4 to include as part of something: i 5 ready to work (informal expression): g 6 American for the underground: s 7 coming up with ideas as the ﬁrst step in process writing: b
Do you like using computers? Do you enjoy doing research online? Have you ever had a virus on your computer? Have you ever had an embarrassing email? Have you been getting frustrated in your English classes?
9, 10 Present Perfect Simple vs. Present Perfect CMYKG 7,Continuous We’ve enjoyed virtual visits but we’ve been trying to raise funds 10/100/90/0for a real visit. 3, 12 Past Simple vs. Past Perfect Simple
She couldn’t phone because she’d forgotten her mobile.
Workbook, pages xx
2 Inventions and hoaxes
B There are conditional sentences in each of the seven paragraphs of the text in activity 2. Find and write:
• Revision of typical conditional clauses • Mixed conditionals • Structures with wish/if only/would • Polite offers and requests
1 2 3 4
2A Qualities that make a good inventor
Two zero conditional sentences (type 0) One ﬁrst conditional sentence (type 1) Two second conditional sentences (type 2) Three third conditional sentences (type 3)
C With a partner, write one new sentence for each of the four conditionals. Instead of will or would, use can, could, may or might, or their negative forms. Compare with others.
1 A Do you know any of the inventors on these pages (A–G)? With a partner, match as many as you can with their inventions (1–7). Compare with others.
1 a garment worn by young people around the world 2 the ﬁrst public broadcast of a television show 3 the plastic zipper 4 a ﬂying machine 5 movable type printing which led to modern book printing 6 a light bulb that used a carbon ﬁlament in an oxygenfree bulb 7 the ﬁrst working automatic dishwashing machine
A Johannes Gutenberg
B Choose one of the inventors and with your partner decide on at least three qualities that you think helped this person develop original ideas. n C Thomas Ediso
2 Read an article about the qualities shown by Australian inventors. The six headings are missing. Add these four headings in the right places, and write an appropriate heading for the remaining two. Then compare with the qualities you listed in activity 1B.
a b c d
Self managing Doers not dreamers Breadth of interest Model building
3 A Revise the four typical kinds of conditional clauses. Match these sentences (1–4) with the appropriate description (a–d).
If I had more time, I would run through my ideas with you. If I come across problems with everyday gadgets, I always ﬁnd new ideas. Gutenberg wouldn’t have hit upon his invention if he hadn’t noticed how wine is made. If I do come up with a new idea, I’ll run it past my teachers.
a b c d
zero conditional: the action always happens ﬁrst conditional: the action will probably happen second conditional: the action is unlikely third conditional: the action is past and can’t be changed
da Vinci B Leonardo
D Levi S trauss
What makes a good inventor? When you first look at Australian inventors they seem to have nothing in common. They come from a wide range of backgrounds – engineers, farm hands, artists, university professors, businessmen and hobbyists. Some had internationally recognized careers while others had the barest minimum of schooling. However, if you look more closely, certain common threads emerge. 1 Nearly all of our signiﬁcant inventors showed a curiosity from an early age and a desire to understand ‘how things work’ – whether those things be mechanical or social. If they had been happy to accept an ‘off the shelf’ solution to a domestic, business, political or social problem, the inventors would never have tried to understand how it worked and whether it could be improved. This curiosity had often been fostered by a particular teacher, parent or relative.
CMYK2 Virtually all signiﬁcant Australian inventors continuously make 10/100/90/0 models – whether these models are mechanical, mathematical, electronic, computer models or social models. In the past, too, inventors were continuously making, taking apart, ﬁxing or reconstructing things. If they hadn’t made models, they wouldn’t have come up with so many new inventions.
4 A Sometimes things done in the past have present results. Events in the past can also be the result of things continuing in the present. For these, we use sentences with mixed conditional clauses: types 2 and 3 in one sentence. Read the examples and ﬁll in the missing types.
nčič r Florja E Pete
1A usual: If inventors hadn’t been so daring, the problems wouldn’t have been solved. (type 3) 1B mixed: If inventors hadn’t been so imaginative in the past (type 3), we would still be trying to solve many problems (type ). 2A usual: If I weren’t so busy, I would enter the Young Inventors’ competition. (type ) 2B mixed: If I weren’t always so busy (type 2), I would have entered the Young Inventors’ Competition last week (type ).
e Baird G John Logi
F Josephine Cochrane
B Write sentences that express these ideas. Number 1 is an example. Identify each sentence as a usual conditional structure, or a mixed one.
3 Most Australian inventors today would be bemused if they came across the recent American pop culture fashion that encourages people to ‘dream’ about what they want to achieve while repeating the mantra “I can do anything if I want it enough” while conveniently ignoring the hard work, knowledge and skills acquisition that are usually required. If inventors needed something nowadays, they would simply roll up their sleeves and do whatever was necessary.
1 If Zac were (be) more organised, he would be (be) a great inventor. Usual type 2. 2 If Zac (be) always so disorganised, (win) the competition last year. 3 If Edison (be) so clever in the past, homes (still be lit) by candles. 4 If schools (be) more creative in the past, there (be) more young inventors in the country now. 5 If Josephine Cochrane (not overcome) many difﬁculties, she (not produce) a working dishwashing machine. 6 If governments (not be) always so greedy, many problems (be solved) long ago. 7 If only my brother (be) more motivated, he (achieve) better results at school this year.
4 The motivation of many Australian inventors seems to have been quite simple – to make the world a better place. David Warren (the inventor of the Black Box Flight Recorder) was partly motivated by the fact that his father had died in an airline accident. Few were motivated by money. If you read the source materials on Australian inventors, you’ll ﬁnd the most common satisfaction they express is: “I have changed the lives of people for the better.” 5 Most Australian inventors displayed formidable talents of self management and working alone. Some inventions were the result of teamwork, for example the Bionic Ear. In most cases, however, if ‘the team’ had had its way, a great invention would never have been produced. The inventors had to ignore the team and head off doggedly to develop their invention by themselves. 6
5 Your English e-pal asks what you would do if you had as much money as you liked. Would you give some money away to people or to good causes? Which ones? Would you travel? Where would you go? Would you buy a lot of things? Write an email to tell him/her your thoughts.
G 18a Conditional clauses
Far from being single minded nerds, most Australian inventors had wide ranging interests. In fact, in many cases it was their breadth of knowledge that allowed them to recognize that an application in one area could be adapted to provide a solution in a completely different area. Had David Warren, an aeronautical engineer, not been interested in recording jazz performances, he probably would not have noticed the advances in tape recorders that allowed him to create the Black Box Flight Recorder.
Zero conditional: You can do anything if you try hard enough. First conditional: If you try hard enough, you’ll be sure to succeed. Second conditional: If he tried harder, he would succeed. Third conditional: If he had tried harder, he wouldn’t have failed so dismally.
CMYK 18b Mixed Conditionals 10/100/90/0 If you were more ﬂuent, you would have won the speaking competition last year.
Workbook, pages xx
2B Wishes and frauds
3 Sentences 1, 2 and 3 in activity 2 refer to one story, sentences 4, 5 and 6 to another story. With a partner, match each set of sentences with one headline (a–d).
1 A Work with a partner. First, write three sentences about yourself, beginning:
Brain eleecttrod des prod ducce instan nt laanguaage learning
1 I wish ... 2 If only ... 3 I think I’d be a good ...
A ten year study reveals facts t about immig ant chil
b B Now write three sentences with similar beginnings about a partner. Then compare the six sentences with each other. Tell the class about any surprising sentences. 2 Read the six sentences. Identify the structures (a, b or c).
If only I’d bought it when I saw it: it would now be worth a fortune! I don’t care if it’s a fake, I just wish I could paint like that!
I’d like all stories to have a happy ending like this one.
If only he had come back, he could have made a fortune selling his story! Today’s technology would have prevented this fraud. I wish the media would stop glorifying fraudsters: they’re sad people!
The biggest art fraud of the 20th century
ROUN ND-THEE-W WOR RLD SAILLOR R’S S YAC CHT FOU UND EMPTY
a a wish for the present or future b an impossible wish or regret about the past c would/would have for hypothetical (imagined) situations 1
n of to sss n
i nd Welsh des
n my. US in an increasingly global econo
ARS AFTTER SCIENTTIST DISSAPPEA FIINDING FLYING PENGUINS Die data vividlyy undersscoree the
4 A Work in pairs. Student A: read your part of the story on page 137. Student B: read your part of the story on page 138. Don’t show your parts to each other. Help each other to answer the questions.
1 How would John’s life have been different if only his wife had not left him? 2 What might he have done if Drewe had not contacted him? 3 What could have led the experts at Christie’s to make such mistakes? 4 What tells us that he wished he had not been led into crime? 5 What has his life been like after prison? B With your partner, discuss who was most responsible for the crimes John committed. Write 1 for the most responsible, then 2, then 3. Compare with others and justify your order.
John himself John’s ﬁrst wife Drewe the experts at Christie’s the public who paid huge prices for the fakes
knjigarna.com swis721 CMYK 10/100/90/0
Work with it!
5 With your partner, ﬁnd the expressions in either text which have these meanings.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6
legal (7 words) the police (6 words) gift for imitating (3 words) make money (3 words) revealed illegal practices (3 words) an appearance of good partnership (6 words) had an artist paint a relative (4 words) all paintings sold (3 words)
Polite offers and requests 8 A Listen to three short dialogues. Complete these sentences, using would. Number 1 is an example.
Dialogue 1 1 Would you like me to send you details of my exhibition? 2 I see ...? 3 you to give me ...? 4 go with me?
6 A Listen to an interview about a hoax that went wrong. With a partner, take notes and discuss these questions.
Dialogue 2 5 you mind ...? 6 Would the volume 7 please turn ...! 8 I be wrong in you
1 What exactly was the fraud which Don Crowhurst planned? 2 What do you think were his reasons for not coming back? 3 Do you think what he did was a heroic failure or a shameful scam?
Dialogue 3 9 at this email ...? 10 you as to 11 I be grateful if
B Now watch a trailer for a documentary ﬁlm made about Don Crowhurst. With your partner, complete your notes about his plans and motivation, and give your opinion: was he an ‘unlikely hero’ as the video implies?
me ...? me ...
B Which one of the above phrases is:
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 Compare your reactions to the two frauds in this unit and give reasons.
1 2 3 4
Which story did you ﬁnd more interesting? Which fraudster do you ﬁnd more congenial? Which fraud did you think was more inventive? Do you think it’s a good idea to admire fraudsters?
extremely formal, but used ironically? very formal, to be used in letters rather than emails? an offer? a very strong request or demand? a polite, fairly formal request for a letter or email? not a request nor an offer?
C With a partner, write a sentence of request or offer for these situations:
1 A letter to obtain application forms for a scholarship. 2 It’s cold. Ask a friend to shut the window. 3 You have been given two identical CDs: a friend might like one. 4 You have repeatedly asked your younger brother to stop using your computer. 5 An older guest might like some more tea.
G 19a Wishes for the present/future
We wish we knew more about this painter.
knjigarna.com swis721 19b Past wishes/regrets
If only he hadn’t set out before his computer was built!
19c Would for hypothetical situations
This wouldn’t have happened in today’s races.
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2C Harmless fun? 1 ‘Practical jokes’ are tricks played on others, usually to amuse. Compare your answers to these questions and discuss with others.
• • •
Have you ever played a practical joke on anyone? What was the result? Has anyone ever played a practical joke on you? What was your reaction? Practical jokes are usually meant to be harmless fun. List negative results they could have.
2 In many countries across the world, April 1 is ‘April Fool’s Day’ and people invent all kinds of weird and wonderful ways of playing tricks on people. Read the ﬁve accounts and write a title for each one. Compare your titles.
1 1989: On March 31, 1989 thousands of motorists driving on the highway outside London looked up in the air to see a glowing ﬂying saucer descending on their city. Many of them pulled to the side of the road to watch the bizarre craft ﬂoat through the air. The saucer ﬁnally landed in a ﬁeld on the outskirts of London where local residents immediately called the police to warn them of an alien invasion. Soon the police arrived on the scene, and one brave ofﬁcer approached the craft with his truncheon extended before him. When a door in the craft popped open, and a small, silver-suited ﬁgure emerged, the policeman ran in the opposite direction. The saucer turned out to be a hot-air balloon that had been specially built to look like a UFO by Richard Branson, the chairman of Virgin Records. The stunt combined his passion for ballooning with his love of pranks. He planned to land the craft in London’s Hyde Park on April 1. Unfortunately, the wind blew him off course, and he was forced to land a day early in the wrong location.
1978: A barge appeared in Sydney Harbour towing a giant iceberg. Sydneysiders were expecting it. Dick Smith, a local millionaire businessman, had been loudly promoting his scheme to tow an iceberg from Antarctica for quite some time. Now he had apparently succeeded. He said that he was going to carve the berg into small ice cubes, which he would sell to the public for ten cents each. These well-travelled cubes, fresh from the pure waters of Antarctica, were said to improve the ﬂavour of any drink they cooled. Slowly the iceberg made its way into the harbour. Local radio stations provided excited blow-by-blow coverage of the scene. Only when the berg was well into the harbour was its secret revealed. It started to rain, and the ﬁreﬁghting foam and shaving cream that the berg was really made of washed away, uncovering the white plastic sheets beneath.
3 1974: Residents of Sitka, Alaska, were alarmed when the long-dormant neighbouring volcano, Mount Edgecumbe, suddenly began to belch out billows of black smoke. People spilled out of their homes onto the streets to gaze up at the volcano, terriﬁed that it was active again and might soon erupt. Luckily it turned out that man, not nature, was responsible for the smoke. A local practical joker named Porky Bickar had ﬂown hundreds of old tires into the volcano’s crater and then lit them on ﬁre, all in a (successful) attempt to fool the city dwellers into believing that the volcano was stirring to life. According to local legend, when Mount St Helens erupted six years later, a Sitka resident wrote to Bickar to tell him, “This time you’ve gone too far!”
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1993: The China Youth Daily, an ofﬁcial state newspaper of China, announced on its front page that the government had decided to make Ph.D. holders exempt from the state-imposed one-child limit. The logic behind this decision was that it would eventually reduce the need to invite as many foreign experts into the country to help with the state’s modernization effort. Despite a disclaimer beneath the story identifying it as a joke, the report was repeated as fact by Hong Kong’s New Evening News and by Agence France-Presse, an international news agency. Apparently what made the hoax seem credible to many was that intellectuals in Singapore are encouraged to marry each other and have children, and China’s leaders are known to have great respect for the Singapore system. The Chinese government responded to the hoax by condemning April Fool’s Day as a dangerous Western tradition. The Guangming Daily, Beijing’s main newspaper for intellectuals, ran an editorial stating that April Fool’s jokes “are an extremely bad inﬂuence”. It went on to declare that, “Put plainly, April Fool’s Day is Liar’s Day.”
2008: The BBC announced that camera crews ﬁlming near the Antarctic for its natural history series Miracles of Evolution had captured footage of Adélie penguins taking to the air. It even offered a video clip of these ﬂying penguins, which became one of the most viewed videos on the internet. Presenter Terry Jones explained that, instead of huddling together to endure the Antarctic winter, these penguins took to the air and ﬂew thousands of miles to the rainforests of South America where they “spend the winter basking in the tropical sun.” A follow-up video explained how the BBC created the special effects of the ﬂying penguins.
3 A With a partner, match these comments with one or more hoaxes.
“The problem with this hoax was that it worked too well, and people believed it for years!” b “It’s nice that we were shown the technical side of how it was done: I’d love to see that.” c “I have to agree with ofﬁcials on this one. What on earth is the point of these childish tricks just because it’s the 1st of April?” d “The long arm of the law didn’t show itself at its best in this case, did it? Ha, ha! Bet there were some red faces down at the local station!” e “Imagine how much time, effort, and money went into planning and carrying out this silly stunt. Haven’t people got better things to do with their time?” f “This is the kind of April Fool’s hoax I like best. The people who believed it had good reasons to do so: they weren’t just fooled by silly nonsense.” g “I do feel that there’s more than a hint of cultural criticism in this one. No wonder it met some negative responses.”
4 A Look at the example below: a double-word expression functioning as an adjective. Find ﬁve other examples in the texts in activity 2, write the meaning, and try to ﬁnd another adjectival expression that uses one of the words.
vlong-dormant = that has been inactive for a long time; a long-lost relative B With a partner, read through the texts and extract three difﬁcult words or phrases. Write a sentence that illustrates the meaning, using a dictionary if you wish. There is an example to help you. Exchange partners. Guess the word from the text in your new partner’s sentences.
vNew sentence: The TV reporters provided a commentary on every single action in the game. Your partner guesses: ‘blow-by-blow coverage’
5 Choose one of the writing options and write a short story or a letter.
A Tell the story of an April Fool’s joke in as amusing and suspenseful a way as you can. You can imagine the story or go online to research an actual prank, and you can write it in the ﬁrst or the third person.
CMYK B Write a letter to a Chinese friend to tell him/her what 10/100/90/0 you think of April Fool’s jokes. Give your reasons. If
B Write a comment on one of the stories and pin it up in the class. Guess which hoax each comment refers to.
the Chinese started having April Fool’s jokes, would that be a bad inﬂuence from the West? Is the danger of the victim being embarrassed or ‘losing face’ too great to justify this kind of deception? 17
2D Skills enhancement Lunar meteorite project win leaves student over the moon!
Part I Reading 1 When you read, you don’t need to understand every single word. Train yourself to read a text quickly, read whole chunks without stopping, and pick up clues from the context. Don’t stop to worry if you don’t know a word. With a partner, read the sentences and pick up clues to ﬁnd the right answers.
1 The student’s project was analysing the xxxxx of a meteorite. A What part of speech is xxxxx? a verb b noun c adjective B When we analyse something, what do we usually do? a put it together b throw it away c examine it to ﬁnd what it’s made of C Which words do you think could replace xxxxx? a total sum b leftover c components 2 The young scientist has secured a place on a xxxxx voyage on a research ship. A What part of speech is xxxxx? a verb b noun c adjective B If you’ve secured a place on a voyage, that means the voyage a was hard to get on to. b was long. c was amusing. C It also means the voyage is likely to be a long. b exciting, rewarding. c boring. 3 I was xxxxx when I heard my name called. A Which of these words could follow ‘I was ...’? a said b scientist c shocked B What would you feel if your name came up at an awards ceremony? a sadness b surprise c anger C What word do you think could replace xxxxx? a happiness b amazing c amazed 4 He found that these new materials have potential to be used as safer, more xxxxx friendly yyyyy to other chemical reactions. A What part of speech could be substituted for xxxxx? a an adverb modifying ‘friendly’ b an adjective c a verb B Why could new materials be safer? a less expensive b better for the environment c more ﬂammable C What expressions could include xxxxx in the context? a warmly friendly b environmentally friendly c funny friendly D What form of words could be substituted for yyyyy? a verb b singular noun c plural noun E Which expression can substitute meaningfully for ‘yyyyy to’ in the sentence? a choices instead of b transforms in c patterns in
There can’t be many A Level students who can say they have contributed to the understanding of the formation of both the Earth and Moon, but 17-year-old Elisabeth Muller is an exception. And there’s no doubt that her project analysing the mineralogy of a lunar meteorite has opened doors for her after she won two amazing awards at the prestigious UK Young Scientists’ and Engineers’ Fair organised by the BA (British Association for the Advancement of Science) and held at the Centre of the Cell in London on Friday (7 March). Not only will Bedford High School student Elisabeth now get to represent the UK at the European Union Contest for Young Scientists in Copenhagen, alongside two other winners from the Fair, but she has also secured a place on a once-in-a-lifetime voyage on a research ship from New Zealand to the sub-Antarctic Islands. Elisabeth conducted her six-week, Nufﬁeld Bursaryfunded project under the supervision of Dr Mahesh Anand at the Open University in Milton Keynes. After the Young Scientists’ and Engineers’ Fair she said: “I was shell-shocked when I heard my name called – I actually tripped down the stairs! I plan to study Geology when I go to university in September and I’m particularly excited about the trip to the sub-Antarctic because as a geologist I love ﬁeldwork. I can’t wait!” Other winners at the national fair included Alex White, 17, from The King’s School Chester. He was awarded the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) prize to attend the world’s largest pre-college science competition in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, for his project analysing a novel group of materials. He found that they have potential to be used as safer, more environmentally friendly alternatives to other chemical reactions widely used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Alex was very positive about his research experience, also Nufﬁeld Bursary-funded, which consisted of four weeks working in Dr Andrew Fogg’s research group at the University of Liverpool: “It was brilliant to be able to get into a lab and work with Ph.D. students, using techniques and equipment you don’t have access to at A Level. It reinforced that chemistry is the area I want to work in.” Commenting on his prize, he added: “I’m taken aback and overjoyed at winning the Intel ISEF prize. I’m still taking in the huge scale of it. I spoke to two of the previous winners after the award ceremony and they told me what a hugely inﬂuential experience it had been in their lives. I’m really looking forward to it.” Sir David King, President of the BA said: “The achievement of the young people who gain these prizes is not just winning an exciting trip or a handsome trophy. In completing their projects they have been able to work like real scientists and engineers, and to ﬁnd out for themselves how enjoyable and rewarding that can be. It is terriﬁc to see this all come together at the Fair and I hope that many more young people will have this opportunity in the future.”
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Part II Use of Language
2 Now read the text quickly once through. Then answer the questions. Use short answers.
1 What was the material that Elisabeth examined for her project? 2 Elisabeth’s award allows her to do further work near which Polar region? 3 Where did she do the research for her project? 4 What was her reaction when she heard she had won? 5 What organisation sponsors young scientists in their projects? 6 What more advanced facilities were provided for Alex by the project? 7 What was conﬁrmed for Alex when he worked with more advanced students? 8 What could be a future result of such projects for young people? 3 Compare your answers with a group, as well as your experience of reading the text. Did you ﬁnd you could read it quickly through without stopping? Did you ﬁnd you could use the context to guess the meaning of unknown words? Could you use the context to guess the overall meaning of a sentence or chunk of text?
4 A With a partner, read through the text once and decide on the verb tense you would choose for each gap. Give a reason for each choice, or your clue in the sentence. Numbers 1 and 2 are examples of reasons/clues:
v1 The Present Perfect is needed because ‘ever’ brings the verb right up to the present – have you ever heard (up to now). 2 ‘Over the years’ is the clue: here it means over a period of time still continuing to the present – therefore, the Present Perfect is indicated. B Fill in the gaps, using the tense you opted for. C Join another pair and compare your choices and your reasons. Then share your experiences of doing the task with others.
• • •
Did you ﬁnd the text difﬁcult? If so, what problems did you encounter? Did you ﬁnd the task difﬁcult? Are there any tenses that you ﬁnd more difﬁcult to work with than others? What strategies could you think of to improve your performance?
The great Eskimo vocabulary hoax 1 (YOU EVER HEAR) that the Eskimo have several hundred words for snow? And did you believe that piece of information? Over the years, many, many people 2 (BELIEVE) it, and no doubt people 3 (STILL CONTINUE) to believe it no matter how many times it is pointed out to them that this is a myth. Once the public 4 (DECIDE) to accept something as fact, it 5 (BECOME) almost impossible to get the acceptance reversed. For instance, the notion that dinosaurs were stupid, slow-moving reptiles that soon 6 (DIE OUT) because they couldn’t keep up with the industrious mammals is stuck in the public consciousness. What insult can you hurl at some old but powerful idiot if not ‘dinosaur’? The new research discoveries of the last two decades concerning the intelligence, and agility of the dinosaurs 7 (HAVE) no effect on the use of the term ‘dinosaur’ and its supposed associations. No one wants to hear that dinosaurs 8 (DOMINATE) the planet with intelligence and adaptive genius for hundreds of millions of years and were far more successful than mammals have yet shown themselves to be. In the scholarly community we 9 (EXPECT) to ﬁnd a certain immunity, or at least resistance, to uncritical acceptance of myths, fables, and misinformation. But sadly, the academic profession 10 (SHOW) a strong tendency to create stable and selfsustaining but completely false legends of its own. In the study of language, one case 11 (SURPASS) all others: it is the notion that Eskimos have bucketloads of different words for snow. A few professors have published their evidence that this was not the case. No one 12 (LISTEN) to them. Very likely, few 13 (LISTEN) to me as I try to explain. The truth is that the Eskimos do not have lots of different words for snow, and no one who knows anything about Eskimo (or more accurately, about the Inuit and Yupik families of related languages spoken by Eskimos from Siberia to Greenland) 14 (EVER SAY) they do.
1 2 3 4 5
Have you ever heard
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9 10 11 12 13
3 Foods that charm, foods that harm • Revision and extension of questions • Tag questions & short answers, Nor…, Neither…, So… • Asking for clarification
3A Good cuisine is an art, isn’t it? 1 Fill in the quiz for yourself. Then join a partner, discuss your opinions and decide on the best way to complete the proﬁles.
Tick a number from ⁄ to 5 to show your opinions. ⁄ – I disagree completely. 3 – I’m neutral on the subject. 5 – I strongly agree.
2 A One word is out of place in these questions. Rewrite them. Find one subject question: label it S. Find one object question: label it O. Number 1 is an example.
vDo the words chef and cook mean the same thing?
ARE YOU A FOODIE? ⁄ Good food is really important for me in my life. ⁄
2 My main priority in food is health: I don’t like fussy dishes. ⁄
3 I love cooking: I put time and effort into getting a great result. ⁄
5 A nation’s cuisine is high art and part of its culture. ⁄
the words chef and cook do mean the same thing? distinguishes a chef from a cook what? a chef ’s job is all about food? what skills a chef does need? who the members of the kitchen staff supervises? how chefs can advance in their careers? why chefs are multitaskers? how do chefs have to be on their feet long? why handling food is safely important? many chefs get their own cooking show how?
B Look again at the subject and object questions. Complete the statements below.
4 Time spent preparing food is simply a waste of time. ⁄
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
In subject questions, we want to ﬁnd out about . In object questions, we want to ﬁnd out about the and the question word is the of the verb.
6 I hate celebrity chefs and all those cookery competitions. ⁄
C Listen to the description of a chef’s job. Write short answers to the questions in activity 2A.
7 I ﬁnd all aspects of catering fascinating. ⁄
8 The food industry is overpriced and overvalued. ⁄
Watch the video and check your answers.
3 You interview a chef at a prestigious restaurant. What questions would you like to ask? With a partner, choose ﬁve questions from activity 2A, rewriting them to make them more polite, OR write your own questions. You can use these expressions.
PROFILES: count up your scores separately for the even numbers and the odd numbers.
CMYK vCould I ask you if a chef is the same as a cook? Could I ask (you) whether/if ...? A high score (⁄4–20) for odd numbers: 10/100/90/0 Can/Could you tell me ...? You’re a foodie and . A high score (⁄4–20) for even numbers: You don’t consider food
Do you know what/if ...? I’d (really) like to know whether/if ... May I ask ...? I’m curious about ...
4 A Watch a chef at Buckingham Palace talking to some young chefs about his work. Discuss with others whether your questions in activity 3 were answered. Which part of a chef’s work would you like ... or dislike? In your opinion, is good cuisine a high art? B These comments from the video are answers. Write an appropriate question for each.
1 They’re surprised at how many meals we cater for. 2 We might have canapé receptions which would be up to about six hundred. 3 As chefs we tend to put that pressure on ourselves. 4 We have twenty-one chefs and nine general assistants in the kitchens. 5 Overall we have a team of ﬁfty. 6 The kitchen has to be able to function all the time. 7 If we’ve got a function for ﬁfteen hundred we use this space and more. 8 It’s just a lot bigger than I thought it was going to be. 9 I would look for a job doing a similar sort of catering. Work with it!
Asking for clariﬁcation 5 A Match each situation (1–6) with a request for clariﬁcation (a–f).
1 You’re in a restaurant. You don’t understand an item on the menu. 2 The waiter explains, but you don’t quite catch what he says. 3 In a bakery, buying some non-gluten bread, you want to check the ingredients. 4 You want to know more about the explanation you’re given. 5 A chef tells you to make a roux for her soufﬂé. You’re not sure what to do. 6 You write an email to a celebrity chef for more details about a recipe.
6 Research option A or B and write an appropriate communication.
A Research the schools for chefs available for you in Britain. Write a letter to the manager of one, requesting more information than is on the website about: the kind of courses offered, the availability of scholarships or other forms of funding, the number of years required for the courses, the possibilities of apprenticeships afterwards, the qualiﬁcations required, and the way to apply.
a Excuse me, I didn’t quite get that. Can you speak more slowly, please? b I wonder if you’d mind telling me exactly how much sugar I need in the recipe for fruit mufﬁns. c Could you tell me what ‘vichyssoise’ is? d Could you tell me what you use to make bread rise? e I’m really sorry, but I don’t understand. Could you explain, please? f Thanks, but what I’d like to know is what is in the ‘raising agent’, exactly?
B Research the national cuisine of another country and compare it with your own national cuisine in Slovenia. Write a letter or an email in English to your friend in that country. Tell them about the cuisine of Slovenia and the information you’ve found about the national cuisine in their country. Ask for more information about their regional cuisine, their favourite food/dishes, and their attitude to food.
B With a partner, decide on a situation where clariﬁcation is needed. You can use one of the situations in activity 5A or your own. Write a dialogue – at least three exchanges, starting with the request.
Subject and object questions CMYKG 17a Who supervises the staff? What did the young chefs ﬁnd surprising? 10/100/90/0 17b Indirect/polite questions
C Change partners. Read the ﬁrst request to your new partner. S/he guesses the situation and supplies an appropriate response.
Could you tell me if this is right? I wonder if you’d mind telling me if this is right?
Workbook, pages xx
3B Seafood can’t be harmful, can it? 1 A Match the medical terms (1–8) and their deﬁnitions (a–g). One deﬁnition is missing. Write it.
1 contaminated 2 infectious 3 virus 4 bacteria 5 nausea 6 diarrhoea 7 cramps 8 coma
B With a partner, read the text about food poisoning. Fill in the eleven missing words. Choose from the words below. Compare your guesses with others, discussing the clues you used to help you.
toxic illness transmitted onset vision legs picnics categories eating symptoms honey terrorists contaminated death seafood worst
a sudden severe pains in a muscle b a small living organism that can enter your body and make you ill c that spreads from person to person d a prolonged state of unconsciousness because of illness e dirty or polluted f a very small living organism consisting of one cell that can cause illness or decay g sickness that causes the body’s solid wastes to become liquid and be passed too often
Food poisoning Food poisoning is a general term for health problems arising from eating contaminated food. The known causes of : infecfood poisoning can be divided into two 1 tious agents, including viruses, bacteria and parasites, and 2 agents such as the poisons in some mushrooms or certain seafood, or pesticides on fruit and vegetables. Noroviruses are a group of viruses that cause a mild illness (often termed “stomach ﬂu”) with nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, headache, and low-grade fever. These symptoms usually resolve in two to three days. It is the most common viral cause of adult food poisoning and is transmitted from water, shellﬁsh, and vegetables 3 by human waste, as well as from person to person. Outbreaks are more common in densely populated areas such as nursing homes, schools and cruise ships. Hepatitis A causes mild illness with sudden onset of fever, loss of appetite, and feeling of tiredness followed by jaundice, which is a yellowing of the eyes and skin. It is 4 from person to person by contamination of food. Salmonellae are bacteria that may cause food poisoning: a moderate illness with nausea, vomiting, crampy diarrhoea, and headache, which may come back a few weeks later as joint pains. But salmonellae can also be a life-threatening illness, sometimes causing 5 . The illness is transmitted by undercooked foods such as eggs, poultry, dairy products, and seafood. Staphylococcus aureus causes moderate to severe illness with rapid 6 of nausea, severe vomiting, dizziness, and abdominal cramping. These bacteria produce a toxin in foods such as cream-ﬁlled cakes and pies, salads (most at risk are potato, macaroni, egg, and tuna salads, for example) and dairy products. Contaminated salads at picnics are common if the food is not chilled properly.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) causes moderate to severe illness that begins as watery diarrhoea, which then turns into bloody diarrhoea. There are many different types of these bacteria. strain can cause kidney failure and death The 7 (about 3–5% of all cases). It is transmitted by eating raw or undercooked hamburger, unpasteurized milk or juices, or contaminated well water. Clostridium botulinum (botulism) causes severe illness affecting the nervous system. Symptoms start as blurred vision. The person then develops problems talking and overall weakness. Symptoms then progress to breathing difﬁculty and the inability to move arms or 8 . Infants and young children are particularly at risk. It is transmitted in foods such as home-packed canned goods, honey, sausages, and seafood. Because botulism can be released in the air, it is considered a potential biological weapon for 9 . Mushroom toxins: Illness can range from mild to deadly depending on the type of mushroom eaten. Often there is nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Some types of mushrooms produce a nerve toxin, which causes sweating, shaking, hallucinations, and coma. Scombroid causes mild to moderate illness with facial ﬂushing, burning around the mouth and lips, peppery-taste sensations, a red rash on the upper body, dizziness, headache, may include blurry vision, and itchy skin. Severe 10 respiratory distress, and swelling of the tongue and mouth. Symptoms typically last from four to six hours, and rarely more than one or two days. It is transmitted in seafood, but can also be found in Swiss cheese. Pesticides cause mild to severe illness with weakness, blurred vision, headache, cramps, diarrhoea, increased production of saliva, and shaking of the arms and legs. Toxins are transmitted by 11 unwashed fruit or vegetables contaminated with pesticides.
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Listen to a quiz programme. Refer to the text in activity 1B. In the pauses, try to provide the answers. Work with a partner, and listen again.
1 Write the structure in the programme where one person gives a short negative answer and says it’s the same for the other member of the team. 2 Write as many tag questions as you can remember from the programme. 5 Complete the tags. 2 A Study the examples. Answer the questions, using short answers.
1 These sausages haven’t been thoroughly cooked, ? 2 There could be a problem with that,
vAre viruses the most common cause of stomach upsets in adults? Yes, they are. Would a mild infection of E. coli cause death? No, it wouldn’t.
? 3 Very few people get botulism from sausages, ? 4 That’s hardly a recommendation for the food, though, ? 5 She ate some mushrooms and barely survived, ? 6 Scientists have found an antidote for the poison, ? 7 I’d never serve anything that was undercooked, ? 8 Well, we all got stomach cramps, ? 9 Scarcely any of the food was eaten, ?
1 Have scientists identiﬁed bacteria that could kill whole populations? 2 Can bacteria affect a person’s nervous system? 3 Will schoolchildren die if they catch a norovirus? 4 Is it just a silly precaution to wash fruit before eating it? 5 Does scombroid make it difﬁcult for you to breathe? 6 Is there some danger in eating lightly cooked hamburgers? B Study the examples. Turn the questions in activity 2A into tag questions, both positive and negative.
vViruses are the most common cause of stomach upsets, aren’t they? Viruses aren’t the most common cause of stomach upsets, are they?
6 Match the two parts of each exchange.
3 A Look at the examples in activities 2A and 2B. Complete the general rules for short answers and tag questions in your notebooks and add an example for each.
Short answers (Yes,) + subject + same verb as the question, positive. (No,) + subject + same Tag questions Subject + verb (positive) ... + tag: (negative) verb + ? Subject + verb (negative) ... + tag:
I’m allergic to mushrooms. I’m not sure about seafood. I vomit if I eat crab. I can’t stand cream pies. I don’t like having diarrhoea. I’ve never had hepatitis. He won’t be dizzy. I’d like a hamburger.
a b c d e f g h
Nor does anyone else! So am I. Nor has anyone in my family. Neither am I. So would I. Neither can my Dad. So do I. Neither will she.
B Now look at these examples. Complete the rules. Add one more example to each.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Adults hardly ever die of food poisoning these days, do they? Nobody has survived eating the deadliest mushrooms, have they? Not enough research has gone into toxic substances, has it?
Subject + adverb with negative meaning + verb ... + tag:
Pronoun with negative meaning ... + tag:
Quantiﬁer with negative meaning ... + tag:
G 17d Short answers
Have you ever had a norovirus? – Yes, I have. – So have I. Did you eat those mushrooms? – No, I didn’t. Neither did he. Nor did my sister.
CMYK 17c Tag questions 10/100/90/0 Your vision is blurred, isn’t it?
You didn’t eat those unwashed fruit, did you? Scombroid seldom lasts long, does it?
Workbook, pages xx
4 All about art
2 A Read a phone conversation between Tessa and Rick. With a partner, match the verbs (1–9) with one of the ways of talking about the future (a–f).
• Revision and extension of future tenses • Present tenses to talk about the future • am/is/are + to-infinitive (future meanings) • Giving warnings
a b c d e f
4A New directions in art 1 A Write a number to show your opinion.
1 = very much
2 = sometimes
3 = not at all
How much do you enjoy the following kinds of art: traditional art: paintings from the great masters of past centuries Cubist/abstract art from the 20th century art photography public art, e.g. statues in public places recent art forms, e.g. installations, interactive art, video art commercial art, e.g. advertisements, greeting cards, CD/DVD covers B In groups, compare your preferences. Discuss these questions. Report to the class, giving your reasons in one sentence for each question.
1 Is art becoming more popular with people of your age? 2 Is there a difference between ‘high’ art and commercial art? 3 Will the concept of ‘art’ change over the next few years?
ﬁxed schedule spontaneous decision arranged plan prediction intention, seeing the future in the present something planned to happen at a particular time 2 7
T: 1Are you going to the exhibition tonight? 2I’m going with Pia, you know, my brother’s girlfriend? R: What time 3does it open? T: Mmm ... let’s see the programme ... ah yes, it 4opens at 5 pm. R: 5I’m deﬁnitely going to go, but I 6won’t be getting there until around 6. T: Can’t you get off work early? The talk on the future of art 7is at 5:30. I think it 8will be very controversial. R: All right, then. 9I’ll leave early and meet you there at 5:30.
B Write the verb tense used for each of these ways.
a b c d e f
ﬁxed schedule spontaneous decision arranged plan prediction intention, seeing the future in the present something planned to happen at a particular time
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3 Circle the right option.
1 I go/’m going to write a report on it for the school newspaper. 2 Several things will be/are being important for the future of art. 3 Soon, TV and videos let us see/will let us see a number of different things all at once. 4 Artists will be/are being able to show light interacting with sound. 5 Holographs may eventually replace/are eventually replacing two-dimensional TV or video. 6 In the near future, we are seeing/will see video programmes that can develop in different ways. 7 Soon, we are experiencing/will experience TV, computer, and video pictures that we can actually walk into and interact with.
Work with it!
The language of caution 5 A Complete the grid.
4 A Listen to Pia telling Derek about the talk. Check your answers in activity 3.
6 7 8 9 10
1 Be careful! Don’t touch the sculpture,
2 Watch out! You’re too near the painting,
you’ll trigger the
3 Watch your step as you go up this ramp,
4 Look out! The installation’s you’ll behind you, 5 Make sure you don’t take photos in here,
B With a partner, answer the questions from memory. Then listen again to check.
1 2 3 4 5
Second part of the sentence
What is Pia going to use her notes for? What is going to inﬂuence art in the future? What does the term ‘electronic arts’ include? What senses can be affected jointly by TV? What will artists be able to show interacting with each other? What will a person using a 3D helmet and glove be able to do? How will viewers change an interactive light display? What conditions will have to be fulﬁlled for us to walk into pictures? What does Pia accuse Derek of being? What does Derek want Pia to do tomorrow?
. . . .
the gallery attendant
B With a partner, write warnings to give in these situations.
1 Your friend is about to pick a ﬂower that’s part of an art installation. 2 Your younger sister wants to turn the video installation on and off. 3 Your mum’s walking back to get a good look at a picture and is about to walk into a fountain. 4 Your own situation where a warning is needed. C Read your warning for situation 4 to others and get them to guess the situation.
G 16a–e Expressing the future
Arranged plans: The artist is meeting the audience tonight at 6 pm. She’ll be signing copies of the exhibition catalogue. Fixed schedules: The gallery opens tomorrow at 2 pm. Intentions: I’m going to go to the talk after the show.
Spontaneous decisions: Are you? Right, I’ll join you then! Predictions: Artworks will become more interactive in the 21st century.
Workbook, pages xx
4B Art with a mission 1 Read the two emails quickly. Tick A, B, or both.
B is an email which ... 1 is about responding to an artwork. 2 concerns producing an artwork. 3 praises artwork for portraying current issues. 4 describes a popular exhibition. 5 hints at a controversial production. 6 reports reactions to a future action. 7 makes predictions about future actions. 8 is sent to a close friend.
A Hi Phoebe, I went to an art show opening yesterday, about animals of the future. It was so exciting to meet an artist producing works that really speak to our generation’s concerns. I found it inspiring, and I know you would too. Because so many people want to see it, the show’s to be extended, so I’m hoping it’s still on after you arrive next week. You’ll have a great time in LA once you get over your jet lag: there’s so much to see and do. Hope we won’t be too exhausted by the time we’re driving up to the Grand Canyon! I hope you have a really smooth flight over, lots of love, Phil
B Hi Callum, We’ve done it! Janet and I are booked to go to Switzerland! Unless something unexpected happens, we’ll be there from Friday to Sunday. The shoot is scheduled for Saturday morning, and all the participants are to be in place by 9 in the morning. Reactions from the family have been exactly as I expected: Gran: ‘I just don’t know what art is coming to these days. In my day, blah blah …’ Mum: ‘I expect you know what you’re doing ... but I hope you’re not really thinking of taking your clothes off ... in the snow!’ Dad: ‘I hope you’ve considered the consequences! Sounds dangerous to me.’ Kev, always the baby bro: ‘What a silly thing to do. I bet you catch your death of cold!’ I’ll tell you all about it as soon as I get back. xxxx, Leila
2 Circle the right option(s) to complete the statements. Add two more examples from the emails to illustrate each one.
After conjunctions of time, we don’t use the . a present tense b future tense c past tense Example: after you arrive next week (not: after you will arrive)
After hope or bet, we can use the . a present tenses b past tenses c future tenses Example: I hope you have a really smooth flight.
CMYK We use am/is/are + inﬁnitive for a . a spontaneous decision b prediction 10/100/90/0 c ﬁxed arrangement, often with an element of obligation Examples:
4 A Before you watch a shoot directed by Spencer Tunick, discuss these questions in groups and report your views to the class.
• Spencer Tunick
• 3 A Watch the video. Which email in activity 1 refers to this show?
B Watch the video. Complete the reasons given for the shoot.
B Find the right endings (a–h) to the sentences (1–10). Two endings are missing. Write them. Then compare with others and watch again to check your answers.
a b c d e f g h
has some similarity to sculptures. assembled the pieces in his studio. will not exist in the future. were also used. pay tribute to the surviving animals. will be altered by the actions of humans. have mostly been recycled. live in or around cities.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exotic animals ... That’s because their way or life ... Surviving animals will be those who … Survivors include ... The show is meant to ... The artwork in the show ... The materials used for the art ... However, resin or holographic foil ... Some pieces incorporate ... The artist ...
1 By Tunick himself: ‘So people can and reﬂect on, you know, the body’s , juxtaposed to the and the vulnerability of the glacier.’ 2 By the Greenpeace representative. ‘All these people came in order to decision makers because needs immediate action.’ 5 A The installations shown in the two videos both have an environmental ‘mission’. Show your opinion of A and B by standing in opposite corners of your classroom.
A Art should be for its own sake, not for any other purpose or aim. B These days, when art reaches a vast public, it should be used to help make a better world for everybody. B With others who share your views, discuss and prepare reasons to justify your stance. Make notes and think of ways of countering opposing arguments.
C With a partner, try to remember these adjectives from the video.
Four adjectives that all end in the same two letters, meaning: a art that is three dimensional:
Tunick is an artist who specialises in photographing massive crowds of nude people. What could be an artist’s aim in doing this? Discuss and give reasons. The human body has traditionally been a subject for art. Can you name any famous nude portraits? Do you ﬁnd them beautiful? Is there a difference between these traditional portraits and modern photographs of nudes? Give reasons.
C Use your notes to contribute to a mini-debate in class. 6 Write an essay on one of the two topics in activity 5A. Make a plan ﬁrst, and show it to a partner. Then show each other your ﬁrst drafts and ask for comments, before revising and making your ﬁnal versions.
b over the whole world: c central to everything, very important:
G 16f Fixed future arrangements: be + to-inﬁnitive
d something extra added:
Because of demand, the exhibition is to continue for a further week. The participants were to assemble early in the morning.
Two adjectives that end in the same two letters, meaning: e that has not been noticed:
16b Present tense after time conjunctions
As soon as I get back, I’ll email you. When the show closes, the exhibition will move to another city.
Present tense after hope/bet CMYK 16b I hope your show is a success. Two adjectives that end in the same three letters, I bet you’re glad when the shoot is ﬁnally over. 10/100/90/0 meaning:
f that has been used again: •
g unusual, foreign, exciting:
Workbook, pages xx
h made of a soft artiﬁcial material:
4C Words and pictures across the world 1 What is your opinion of graphic novels/comic books? Discuss these questions.
Which ones did you read as a child? Which ones do you read now? Do you still enjoy them or are they for children only? Can they be considered an art form?
2 Quickly read the three texts. What four different kinds of graphic novels are described? Which one(s) would you be tempted to read? A Last month Yen Press announced that it would print 350,000 copies of a graphic-novel adaptation of “Twilight”, the ﬁrst part of the immensely popular vampire saga created by Stephenie Meyer. Now comes word from Dark Horse Comics that it will print 100,000 copies of a graphic novel by Janet Evanovich, the best-selling mystery writer, which will continue her “Motor Mouth” series of novels. “Twilight” will be split into two graphic novels. Mr Hassler said that Ms Meyer was involved in “every panel of every page” of the adaptation, down to the dialogue balloons. “The characters and settings are very close to what I was imagining while writing the series,” Ms Meyer said in a statement. In Ms Evanovich’s case rather then an adaptation, Troublemaker! A Barnaby Adventure” will be the third instalment of a series. This two-part graphic novel is being written with Ms Evanovich’s daughter, Alexandra, a fellow comic-book fan. The authors collaborated closely with the book’s artist, Joelle Jones, to convey their vision of the characters. Of the graphic-novel process, Ms Evanovich said she marvelled at the end results. “The script was the structure, but it almost disappears,” she said. “All those words that we laboured over are now in bubbles over characters’ heads. The book becomes the action and the pictures.”
Dear Kirsten You asked what books I’ve been reading. Well, you’ll be surprised to hear that I’ve been looking at two new graphic novels that are travelogues by artists from the animation field. One is a record of a journey to Burma by a veteran cartoonist, and the other is an amusing chronicle of a journey to Venice. I was fascinated by the first, which provides an unusual peep into a culture dominated by an oppressive regime. The artist expertly captures the people of Burma, now Myanmar, and all the daily details tourists couldn’t possibly get to know. He even visits a Buddhist meditation retreat, and I learnt a lot about the traditions of this religion. I especially enjoyed the book about Venice, remembering our visit there last year. Of course Venice is a traditional holiday destination but this book just doesn’t look like your average comic book, mainly because of the beautifully painted images, pencil sketches and watercolours. It’s a unique achievement, quite unlike any other book I’ve read. The sequential storytelling pictures provide an artistic record of the journey, giving us landscapes and cityscapes of stunning simplicity and beauty. I’ll lend you these two books. I’m sure you’ll enjoy the compelling stories, and the wonderful insights into other cultures. I know you were doubtful about graphic novels, but I think these prove that it’s an ideal genre for travelogues. See you soon, Carter
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The art form which combines story telling and sequential images has been part of Japanese culture for a very long time. Early examples can be found in the work of Toba Sojo, who was a painter and a priest in the 11th century. His animal scroll paintings were full of whimsical humour that satirised the life of Buddhist priests. In his drawings, priests appear as mischievous rabbits or monkeys pursuing silly activities. It is thought that these scroll paintings inﬂuenced the development of modern comic books in Japan, now called manga, because although they don’t include the speech bubbles or sound effects that are characteristic of manga today, they are similar in showing a sequence of events that follow one another as the scroll is unrolled from right to left. Even today, the tradition remains, and manga continue to be read from right to left. Manga have become a very popular part of Japanese culture and most people read them, not just children but adults as well. In addition, the authors and artists who create manga enjoy a high status and their art form is well respected in their country.
4 Mark the statements T (True) or F (False), and correct the false statements.
New cartoon versions of vampire or mystery stories are based on the work of little-known writers. 2 The writers are involved only with the text of the comic book versions. 3 The graphic novel reduces a lot of text to brief statements in bubbles. 4 Two travel writers have collaborated to produce a new type of travelogue. 5 Burmese society is portrayed from intimate personal experience. 6 The depictions of Venice are all very colourful portraits of the city itself. 7 The new travel genre is more effective than older forms of description. 8 Telling stories in pictures is an art with a long tradition in some countries. 9 In Japan, the story develops in the same direction as in Western comic books. 10 Some of the earliest forms of comic books were critiques of life in their times.
3 With a partner, make sure you know the meaning of these expressions and phrases. Place them in the diagram as A or B, or in the shaded area if they can be used for both.
A This expression can be used for literary (print) works of art. B This expression is used for visual works of art (paintings, video, ﬁlm). • • • • • • • • • • •
scroll paintings • the animation ﬁeld word/dialogue balloons • sound effects sequential storytelling • satirised life vision of the characters • travelogues every panel of every page • chronicles saga pencil sketches and watercolours captures the people and the daily details the action and the pictures beautifully painted images landscapes and cityscapes
5 Choose one of the writing options: A or B.
A Create a comic strip (of at least ﬁve panels) to show a typical day, month or year in your classroom. Try to include as many comic incidents as you can. If you have any artists among you, encourage them to draw the incidents. You can also use photographs or collage illustrations. B Create an illustrated travelogue in the form of a graphic account of a journey, for visitors to your city or region. You can use drawings, photographs, or collage from magazines. The text should be in word or dialogue bubbles.
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4D Skills enhancement Part I Listening C Join a group and compare your key words. Together, discuss the details of what you perhaps know about Sam Taylor-Wood. Then give the opposite of each sentence above, in case it should be false.
1 Think about your experience of listening to audio or video in these ﬁrst four units. With a partner or small group, discuss these questions:
• • •
Do you ﬁnd listening easier than it was last year? Can you say what you ﬁnd particularly difﬁcult? Can you remember any strategies to help you understand audio better?
2 In this listening exercise, you are going to compare listening to words only (e.g. radio programmes) and listening while also watching images. Add at least one to this list of differences, and compare with others.
• • •
In audio, you have to concentrate more on words, especially key words. In video, you get some of the meaning from the images. My idea:
Listen and mark the statements in activity 3B T (True) or F (False).
5 In groups, compare your answers and say whether doing activities 3B and 3C helped you to understand the text. 6
Now watch the video. Revisit your ideas in activity 2, and talk about the experiences of watching as opposed to listening.
3 A One thing which usually helps us to understand speech is being already familiar with the topic under discussion. In ‘real-life’ situations, you often have to use your previous knowledge of the situation to help you. In a classroom situation, you are given clues to help you, for example pictures, or text. Here, for example, is a typical task that accompanies many listening exercises, some True/False statements. You can use the task to become familiar with what you are about to hear. B Read the statements. Underline the key words that can help you to understand the recording you are about to hear. Remember that some of the statements are not true, but they can still give you some information about the topic.
1 For Sam Taylor-Wood, the work of art springs from an idea. 2 She could have had another career or been a sculptor. 3 Her works are about subjects that are different from traditional art. 4 At ﬁrst glance, her videos look like paintings. 5 Videos of food decomposing suggest life moving towards death. 6 Her work is usually completed very quickly. 7 A series of photographs shows her hanging from the ceiling. 8 Some of her photographs show Bram Stoker’s vampires. 9 It’s very important to interpret her work in the right way.
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Part II Writing 7 Choose one of the writing options: A or B. A You ﬁnd this advertisement online. Write a letter of enquiry to the Director of the Slade Summer School. You want to ﬁnd out how to enrol, the fees and dates for the one or two-week courses, whether the school provides accommodation, and any examples of art work or previous experience they require of students. Consult the advice on writing and editing in the Workbook, pages 116-119. B Write an essay on one of these topics.
• ‘Art for art’s sake’ is a concept of the past. All art is commercial these days. • Art is alive and ﬂourishing in Slovenia. • Graphic novels are useful in teaching literature to young people. • Video and other moving pictures are the future of art. Consult the advice on writing and editing in the Workbook, pages 116-119. 8 When you have completed your letter or essay join a group and share your ideas about what you ﬁnd most difﬁcult in writing:
• • • • •
planning and researching the work structuring the whole piece to make it coherent and logical ﬁnding the right vocabulary making sure sentences are correct and varied proof-reading your own work
ol S u m m e FirneSArtc h o Slade School of l Summer Schoo mber 5 July – 10 Septe
opportunity hool provides an Sc er m m Su e ad The Sl in the special wish to work with for students who ol of fine ar t. All distinguished scho atmosphere of a the staff actively ht by ar tists and ug ta e ar s se ur co and enterprise. nse of community se g on str a e ot prom ek Summer es a unique ten-we lud inc e m m ra og The pr mer School Ar t and our Sum ne Fi in n tio da un School Fo ludes a range of ramme which inc Shor t Course Prog t. courses in Fine Ar one and two-week
Discuss ways of improving your writing performance. Write your tips for others on the board.
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e is to reproduc ance Group D lk Fo uš at its rve l of Drag ion and prese The main goa y of their reg ac g le l ra ltu the rich cu dances. ch s, songs and Group resear music, custom Folk Dance uš ift of at g g a ra D s of oms as The member cestors’ cust an r s, they ei ce th an e d rv rese and circle l ua rit archives to p es id ies, while the past. Bes earlier centur of al ic wisdom from p ty s erformance. other dance s variety in p re su also perform en ch ts en al songs, whi folk instrum rve tradition se their use of ted re p ar st ey th so have al d energy With love an dances. They r ei th ith w utifully interlace bea up. ce lk dance gro fo y performan s n’ a childre d high-qualit an ire nd to er ou p ar ive re ivals Their extens tations to fest em many invi th d ne ai g have abroad. Slovenia and
5 Song and dance • Past Perfect Continuous • Linking words of addition and contrast • Prioritising/highlighting
5A Looking back, looking forward 1 Work with a partner. Quickly try to match the seven deﬁnitions (a–g) with the right words/expressions (1–8). One deﬁnition is missing. Don’t use a dictionary. Guess.
1 2 3 4
multi-faceted venue indigenous legacy
5 6 7 8
interlace repertoire ﬂourish strike a chord
a b c d
thrive, do well consisting of many parts provoke a sympathetic response something precious handed down to future generations e all the pieces of music or dance that a performer is able to perform f native to a country g to make something ﬁt in well with other features 2 A Read the four websites. Use the context to conﬁrm the meanings of words/expressions from activity 1A, then complete your answers. With your partner, write the missing deﬁnition.
lk development of the leading fo e on is S ck to 1898. DS EF The history dating ba a th wi UK e th organisations in d, being It is multi-facete 00 members; p society with 40 hi rs , multi-media • a membe ncerts, lectures co g in st ho e nu • an arts ve nces; ray of social da events and an ar lo ve pment training and de • an education, rkshops g classes and wo agency providin s; ie ilit ages and ab lling for people of all blishing and se on-line shop, pu d an ic; er us m ish d bl an pu e a • s on folk danc CD d an s ok bo ts of England a range of digenous folk ar in e th e ac pl to EFDSS aims ltural life. at the heart of cu
C Scotland has recently been undergoing a music. The po revival in folk pularity of folk music had be over the prec en decreasing eding decade s with young other forms of Sc ots turning to music. But fro m the 1960s clubs started onwards, folk to ﬂourish. Alth ough music in long been prim Scotland had arily a solo af fair, the fashio began to emer n for Celtic ba ge. Recent m nds usicians have of folk and jazz featured fusion or rock, as wel s l as beats in ‘tech the inclusion no piping’. of hip hop Performance s demonstratin g traditional da been succes nce forms ha sful in recent ve years, but yo enthusiastical ung people m ly embrace th or e e ceilidh as an informal tradi evening of tional Scottish dancing.
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C Write the verbs in the right tense, and be prepared to justify your choice.
• D American folk music has alw ays given support in tim es of struggle and need. Th earliest spiritu e als, which aros e from slave ﬁ and loved toda elds, are still y. They are so sung ngs about ha of hope. rdship but also full Although folk music had be th en declining in po 20 century sa pularity, the w a revival in America, as w for justice. Fo orkers strugg lk songs supp led orted campa and opposed igns for civil rig the war in Viet hts, nam. Now, with wor kers facing so cial issues an Middle East, d the wars in younger audi the ences are join folk festivals. ing their pare Folk singers st nt s at rik e a chord with ages and wal people of all ks of life.
B Read the websites again. Work out what ‘EFDSS’ stands for. Then correct one mistake in each of these sentences.
The EFDSS 1 (support) folk music in England over the whole of the 20th century and up to the present, the early 21st century. Before she 2 (become) a professional dancer, Ami 3 (go) to EFDSS workshops every summer. I4 (try) to ﬁnd a folk music CD for my cousin for quite a while, but 5 (not find) any in our local shops. Then I 6 (notice) the online EFDSS shop and that 7 (solve) my problems. For my essay, I 8 (decide) to write about Vaughan Williams, a prominent English composer of the early 20th century. After I 9 (do) some preliminary research on the internet, I 10 (contact) the EFDSS who 11 (be) extremely helpful, and by now, I 12 (collect) enough material to write a book-length essay!
4 A Write on a piece of paper two actions you completed in the recent past. Sit in groups of three or four.
1 Since the 18th century, the EFDSS has been popularising folk music. 2 The Dragatuš Folk Dance Group try to preserve the past, so children don’t join. 3 Scotland has a long unbroken tradition of Celtic folk music groups. 4 American folk music opposed war and campaigns for the rights of people.
A: Tell B your ﬁrst action. Example: I joined the football club. B: Think of an event which interrupted your decision to do the same action. Be inventive! Use this kind of sentence: I had been thinking of joining the football club, when I was invited to be captain of the tennis club, so I did that instead. B: Tell C your ﬁrst action. Example: I went skiing in the Alps. C: Complete the sentence: I had been preparing to go skiing too, when ... Keep on going as long as you can!
C Compare your responses to the websites with others. Do you play a musical instrument? What kind of music do you enjoy playing or listening to? Do you know any English, Scottish or American folk songs? Would you like to join a folk song or dance group? Why or why not? Do you think going to a ceilidh would be fun?
B Complete the statement.
When an ongoing action in the past was interrupted by a second action, we use the tense for the ﬁrst, interrupted, action.
3 A Group these verbs from the websites.
a have started b have gained c has been undergoing d had been decreasing e had been f have been g has given h had been declining Present Perfect Simple: Present Perfect Continuous: Past Perfect Simple: Past Perfect Continuous:
G 13 Past Perfect Continuous
Folk music had been declining for many years before it was revived in Scotland.
15 Past Perfect Continuous vs. Present Perfect Simple/Continuous
I had been planning to learn the guitar, but the band needed a ﬁddle player, so I’ve now taken up ﬁddling lessons and I’ve been struggling with the instrument for months.
B Complete these statements with the appropriate tense(s) from activity 3A.
1 2 3
CMYK 14 Past Perfect Continuous vs. Past Perfect Simple Interest in ceilidhs had shot up even before we organised one at 10/100/90/0 school.
The two tenses for actions happening over a period of time are . The two tenses indicating actions that happened or lasted before other ones are . The tense formed using: had + been + present participle is .
Interest in ceilidhs had gradually been increasing, so we organised one at school.
Workbook, pages xx
5B Appreciating the past 1 Look at the photos on the page. Describe the costumes. What region of the country do they come from?
B With a partner, try to complete the summary sentences of Katarina’s answers from memory. You don’t have to remember the exact words. Then listen again to check.
2 A Listen to an interview with Katarina, who is a folk dancer. Read these questions, then number them (1–10) in the order you hear them.
a How often do you have performances? b How do you feel before a performance? c What do you like best about being a member? d What role would you say folk dancing has in Slovenia? e What kind of people come to your shows? f What can you tell me about your beginnings with the folk dance group? g How do you prepare for a performance? h What advice would you give to young people? i Would you say that the attitude towards folk dancing in Slovenia is different from other countries you’ve visited? j Have you got any future performances scheduled?
1 She had always be a folk dancer and joined her friends. That was ﬁfteen years ago, when she was years old. 2 Besides being with friends, she also enjoys travelling, the fact of being from everyday life, as this her batteries. 3 Despite all her efforts to attend every , sometimes she can’t get there and feels . 4 Whereas in theory the average annual number of performances is , the group performs as many as two or three times a month from May to . 5 There is a lot to do before each performance: costumes ready, song lyrics to get the words right, then singing in front of the to practise. 6 When she was younger, performances made her . Now, however, she feels before a show. Although her life is , the music is a therapy. 7 Unlike more countries where folk dancing is part of life, in countries there is no longer a strong with folk music. 8 In their own region, friends and come to see the performances, as well as older people who are nostalgic about their own , while in small towns, the audience is composed of all . 9 Folk dancing present and past in their country; it can people in their stressful modern life; in addition, it provides and community spirit for people from all walks of life. 10 Apart from performing at , the national folk dance competition, and for another group’s 40th anniversary, they are staging a end-of-year concert. 11 Young people are often lonely and , but joining a folk music group would provide them with and friendship and, moreover, many experiences.
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Work with it!
3 Read the eleven summary sentences in activity 2B again. Find ﬁve more linking words or expressions to add to each list.
Linking words of addition: and, besides, then, , , , , Linking words of contrast: but, despite, , , , ,
Prioritising, highlighting 6 A In the interviews you heard, the two group members used expressions to highlight the importance of certain views. Mark them K or M if you can remember who said these, and consult others to check.
a In the ﬁrst place c The big advantage e I must say
Before you listen to an interview with another folk dancer, Marko, read the sentence beginnings (1–8) and try to match them with the endings (a–h). Then listen and check your answers.
B Place these expressions (a–m) into the right category (1–3).
a Above all else, b The least signiﬁcant ... c Less importantly, d The leading ... e Most prominently, f Of secondary importance ... g The highest in value ... h Of lesser concern, i The most signiﬁcant ... j Of least interest ... k The prime ... l The last of ... m Of surpassing value ...
a friendship b enjoyment c his girlfriend d cross-cultural contacts e ages f keeping the rich national heritage g their heritage h concentration and hard work 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Marko joined the group because of . His ﬁrst reason for liking it is . His second reason for liking it is . Rehearsals before a performance demand a lot of . When performing, his nervousness soon gives way to . The group has three sections, according to their . Folk music is liked by young people aware of . The group provides the advantage of .
1 Most important: 2 Not so important: 3 Not very important at all:
C Think of two reasons for either:
A maintaining musical traditions from the past B focusing on new musical trends instead of looking back
5 With a partner, complete these pairs of sentences and then combine them into one, using at least one linking word of addition or contrast. You can listen to the interviews again to check or get ideas. Number 1 is an example.
Write two sentences prioritising your reasons as (i) most important, and (ii) less or least important.
vKatarina values friendship as the first benefit of the group, while Marko considers preserving the national heritage a priority. 1 Katarina values friendship as the ﬁrst beneﬁt of the group. Marko . 2 Katarina ﬁnds it difﬁcult to attend all rehearsals. Marko adds they can be . 3 Katarina feels folk music provides a calming inﬂuence; it overcomes isolation. Marko feels that the main advantage . 4 Katarina says audiences are often mostly older people. Marko .
b First and foremost d Secondly f Last but not least
D Join others who have chosen the same option in activity 6C as you and compare your views. Then debate them with the group who have chosen the other option.
7 Write a paragraph with the title: Maintaining the musical traditions of the past is harder than it seems.
Say why you agree or disagree with the title. Describe and justify your own opinion of the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining the musical traditions of the past. Don’t forget to use appropriate linking expressions. Show your paragraph to others and discuss your views.
CMYKG 37a, b Linking words of addition and contrast Being in a folk music group provides fun as well as friendship. 10/100/90/0 Although rehearsals are very demanding, the performances are always enjoyable.
Workbook, pages xx
Module 1 Read this! ‘Love is in the air’ Part I
C Choose one of the writing options: A or B.
1 A Have you got a favourite love poem or love song? Tell others about it. Say why you like it. If you don’t like love songs, explain why you don’t. B What are the traditional subjects of love poems/songs? Tick the ones that are right for your favourites, and try to think of other themes.
My loved one is beautiful My love will last forever My loved one is ﬁckle and cruel Love never lasts Love is bliss Love hurts
• • • •
information about his life and works a poem you particularly like similarities between the Slovenian and the Scots poet your opinion: do you enjoy his works?
B Write a poem about someone you love. Start like this: My love is like ... That ... My heart is like ... That ...
2 A You are going to listen to a famous song by the national poet of Scotland, Robert Burns. The woman singer has changed the lover from Burns’ ‘bonnie lass’ to ‘bonnie lad’. Before you listen, try to complete the statements.
a b c d e f
A Your e-friend in Scotland, Alex, tells you s/he needs to write a short article on the national poet of another country, comparing that poet to Burns. Send an email to Alex, telling him/her about your national poet, France Prešeren. Include:
Part II 3 A Are you a cynic or a romantic? Read six statements about love. With a partner, write A if you agree with the views, and D if you disagree. Compare with others, giving reasons.
melt in the sun run dry freshly opened come back from far away played in tune is still living
Love is like a ﬁxed light shining steadily through dark storms. b Here’s my view: if you are truly in harmony, love overcomes all obstacles. c Love doesn’t change over time but lasts until the end of life. d Love’s like a star for lost sailors, who ﬁnd their way by its light even if they don’t know much about the star itself. e If you really love someone, you won’t change even if your loved one changes, or other people try to make you change. f Time passing can change a lover’s beauty, but it can’t change love.
1 The singer compares her love to (1) a red rose and (2) a melody . 2 She says she will love him until the seas , the rocks and while she . 3 She bids the lover farewell but promises to return, even if she has to . B Watch the video and check. Do you ﬁnd the song enjoyable or ‘cheesy’? Do you like it, hate it, or does it just leave you indifferent? Does the fact that the language is ‘Scots’, a variety of English, bother you?
B The six sentences in activity 2 are approximate modern paraphrases (rewordings) that suggest interpretations for some sentences of Shakespeare’s Sonnet 116. With a partner, match the modern versions (a–f) with the originals (1–6).
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Let me not to the marriage of true minds Admit impediments. (1) Love is not love Which alters when it alteration ﬁnds, Or bends with the remover to remove: (2) O no! it is an ever-ﬁxed mark That looks on tempests and is never shaken; (3) It is the star to every wandering bark, Whose worth’s unknown, although his height be taken. Love’s not Time’s fool, though rosy lips and cheeks (5) Within his bending sickle’s compass come: Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, But bears it out even to the edge of doom. (6) If this be and upon me proved, I never , nor no man ever .
Listen and complete the last two lines.
5 Prepare your own brief response to the video and the two poems. You can use some of the expressions in blue ... or not, it’s up to you! In groups, compare your responses. Report the ones you ﬁnd most interesting to the class.
• • • • • • • • • • •
don’t like either very lyrical background scenery in the video moving found the language difﬁcult the theme goes on through the ages beautiful very argumentative: ‘methinks he doth protest too much’! a bit rose-tinted to quote the author: much ado about nothing! extremely vivid images
6 A Compare your view on these questions.
• • •
Do you celebrate Valentine’s Day? Do you give surprise gifts and anonymous cards? What would you give a special friend: ﬂowers? Chocolates? A cake? A book of poems? A kissogram (you order a special gift to be delivered with a kiss)? Is celebrating Valentine’s Day great: a good excuse for a party and an exchange of gifts? Or: is it a purely commercial occasion to get consumers to spend more money?
B Read the poem on page 38 as you listen to it. Don’t worry if you don’t understand everything. Tick to indicate your ﬁrst reactions to the poem.
1 I ... like the poem don’t ﬁnd it interesting ﬁnd it quite moving 2 It’s ... unexpected funny dark bitter scary vivid 3 I’d show it to ... a close friend my secret crush a parent
C In groups, consider these questions and report to the class.
Valentine by Carol Ann Duffy
Not a red rose or a satin he hear heart. art. t. I give you an onion. It is a moon wrapped in brown brow br own n paper. pape pa perr. It promises light like the careful undressingg of love. Here. It will blind you with tears rs like a lover. It will make your reﬂection on f. a wobbling photo of grief. I am trying to be truthful.l. gram. Not a cute card or a kissogram. I give you an onion. Its ﬁerce kiss will stay on your lips, possessive and faithful as we are, for as long as we are. Take it. Its platinum loops shrinkk to a wedding-ring, if you like. Lethal. Its scent will cling to yourr ﬁngers, cling to your knife.
1 Are there any parts of the poem that you don’t quite understand or ﬁnd hard to interpret? Talk about them with others and get their ideas. 2 The poet rejects four conventional ways of showing love on Valentine’s Day. List them and say what each might imply. m 3 In what way can the moon be related to love? 4 W When you peel and cut an onion, some things often happen. Say why each one of these actions can be ha related to what happens in a love affair. re a your eyes water b you have a bitter taste on your lips c the onion layers separate into rings d it’s hard to get rid of the scent and taste of the onion 5 W What is your impression of the poem: is it optimistic about love, or pessimistic? Do you feel the vision ab of love is more ‘truthful’ than it is in the other two po poems? 7 A The three poems compare love or loved ones to physical objects. The Burns poem, and the modern paraphrase object sentences, have explicit comparisons that use like (similes). senten Sonnet Sonne 116 and ‘Valentine’ have implicit comparisons (metaphors). With others, jot down at least one reason why (meta poets use these types of comparisons, and discuss what the effect is on the reader. B Listen to Mel and Rohan reporting their discussion to the class. With a partner, write a summary of each one’s views. views Compare your summary with others, and say in what ways the discussion you’ve just heard was similar to your own in i activity 7A. 8 Choos Choose one of the options: A or B.
A W Work by yourself. Design a Valentine’s Day card for a sp special friend. Draw a picture that shows your feelings, or use a collage or a Photoshop image. Include a very sh short text from a song or poem, either one you’ve re read, heard, or your own.
Work with a partner or a small group. Make a poster B W showing a poem – either one of the three in this unit, sh or another one you like. Include illustrations of the images in the poem – draw them or use collage, or im visuals taken from the internet. vi
Module 2 1 Look at the photos. Circle the ﬁve topics you will be exploring in Module 2.
teenage dating • internet and the media • music • art • space travel • love • addictions • family life • learning outside class • new advances in science 2 Here are words or expressions which relate to the ﬁve topics. Work them out using the clues and say which topic each one relates to.
1 s An informal word for a person who can’t stop shopping. 2 r A useful mechanical helper. 3 s e These are very annoying to receive on your computer. 4 s m Visit this to learn more about how things work. 5 f d A small device that stores a lot of computer work. 6 s A craft that travels to outer space. 7 o s Useful abilities on a ﬁeld trip to a forest or marsh. 8 t Methods used in science, medicine, engineering, etc. 9 a Men and women who travel to outer space. 10 v They just can’t tear themselves away from the computer!
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6 The internet and the media
B In small groups, compare your views and compile a list of reasons for the views expressed in A or B.
• Passive revised: present/past/future • Passive with infinitives • Past Perfect passive • Passive with modal verbs: certainty/uncertainty, present/past • Writing essays 1: introducing the topic
Reasons for A
Reasons for B
6A Is society being improved by technology? 1 A Put an X on the line to show your view of the opposition between A and B.
A Society is being improved by new developments in technology. B The beneﬁts of technology are outweighed by its disastrous consequences. A
2 A The text is an online debate about the beneﬁts or otherwise of technology. Read through it quickly. Put the four headings (a–d) into the right place (1–4).
a b c d
1 A My son has just gone to university in another country. I miss him so much. What would I do without email! When my husband’s work as a geologist took him to northern Alberta for a year, the whole family was kept in touch through live webcam video communication. We felt connected across the miles. JKR B Contact between people in different parts of the world may have been facilitated by technology, but aren’t new walls being built between neighbours? People surround themselves by technology but while they are communicating with people across the world, there’s a real danger that the needs of the people closest to them may simply be ignored. And what about the phenomenal rise of internet fraud and spam emails? Won’t our whole internet system be brought down by those? SusieF
2 C So much more is now being done at home! Shopping, ﬁnding people to help with various problems, getting information about and booking travel, all these are operations that I have already performed very easily online. Isn’t it marvellous that I no longer take my car out on our overcongested roads to do those things? And web interaction is increasing all the time, so that booking online is starting to be done by personalised ‘web assistants’. Increasingly, the web will be scanned by entertainment services and tickets booked automatically before they are sold out. Good news! DD D Easy for you to say if you’ve got a computer and the knowhow to use it! But isn’t it clear that people who are able to adopt new technologies are given an advantage at the expense of non-adopters? Take cars for example: they offer increased speed and comfort of travel at the expense of non-drivers, because cities are being turned into congested, polluted places. Pesticides were considered a marvellous boost to companies growing crops, until inno-
Freedom and mobility Staying in touch Greater social solidarity Cutting down transport costs
cent people nearby started developing new cancers. Cigarettes seemed trendy until it was realised that so many people had actually been killed by other people smoking! And can anyone honestly say that their lives have been made safer by the development of nuclear weapons? GMcD
3 E My life as a student has been made easier every single day by my USB memory stick (ﬂash drive). All my research can be stored on this amazing little device. I can plug it in and work anywhere. I can work on my essays anytime, anywhere. As time goes on, I guess even my phone might be turned into a fully ﬂedged computer, so I could even use it to access my favourite TV programmes. How cool is that! GinnyB F Technology may have extended our range of inﬂuence over the world, but meanwhile the world’s resources are being used up at an increasingly rapid pace. And the technology that produces the miniature memory stick might also be used to produce tiny, easily transported and concealed bombs for terrorists. Katz
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G I love social networking sites. I know Facebook has attracted criticism, but I can’t help thinking the downsides are greatly outweighed by the beneﬁts. In my opinion, trust and co-operation between people can only be improved by greater communication between them. SW H On the contrary, social networking sites make people more selﬁsh and less interested in society. What we do and say, even how we think is being subtly changed by our machines. The logic of the all pervasive computer is inspiring a cold, mechanistic view of the world. Objective reality is being emphasised as we are led away from our emotional and spiritual sides. Our very uniqueness as human beings has been denied by mass production. Chrissy
B Which of the writers in the text (A–H) can be associated with these views?
4 A Change the passive sentences into active ones.
1 All the research for my essays is stored safely on my ﬂash drive. 2 Before these web developments, booking tickets had been done by individuals. 3 Searching for entertainment and booking tickets is soon going to be performed automatically by machines. 4 Our personalities are being subtly altered by computers. 5 Can you say your life has been made safer by technology?
Computers will soon take over roles now being played by people. 2 The world’s energy supplies are being depleted by advancing technology. 3 We like seeing distant family members as well as chatting with them. 4 Technology makes us more materialistic. 5 Dishonest online users are a threat to everybody. 6 TV and video will gradually be replaced by computers. 7 We are all being turned into faceless machines. 8 Technical advances always carry disadvantages for some. 9 People pay more attention to computers than to real people. 10 Meeting people online improves our relationships with them. 3 Find the words or expressions in the text in activity 2A that ﬁt these descriptions (1–6).
1 2 3 4 5 6
B Change the active sentences into passive ones.
1 Technology has made communicating with family easier. 2 Food companies considered pesticides as the answer to their problems. 3 Mass production is destroying our unique qualities as individuals. 4 The beneﬁts of technology outweigh its disadvantages. 5 Spam emails will bring down the whole of the web. 5 Read the statements and ﬁnd one example in the text for each.
made to ﬁt the individual complete, with full operations (a two word adjective) blocked by trafﬁc hidden made larger/higher moved to a different location
1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ed 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ed 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ed 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ed 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ed 6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ed
Passive structures with modal verbs can be used to describe: a events happening now – certain b events that will happen in the future – certain c events that may happen but are not certain When a second passive is added to a ﬁrst, the auxiliary verbs do not have to be repeated. Inﬁnitive verbs can also be used in passive structures.
G 23a Passive structures: past/present/future
The whole family was kept in touch through the webcam. So much more is being done at home. The web will be scanned by entertainment services. 23b Passive structures with inﬁnitives
Booking online is starting to be done by personalised computers. 23c Modal passives: certainty and uncertainty
All my research can be stored on ﬂash drives. My phone might be turned into a computer.
Workbook, pages xx
6B Can the media be trusted?
2 A Look again at the sentences in activity 1A. Which ones refer to the past? B Complete the statements about forming modal verbs to refer to the present and the past.
Reference to the present: modal verb + Reference to the past: modal verb + have + + past
3 Change the sentences in the present to sentences in the past.
1 The news shouldn’t be trusted nowadays. 2 The news media ought not to be biased. 3 The information may be altered by large news companies. 4 The internet might be just as trustworthy. 5 The media could be reliable for sports information. 1 A Work in groups of four. Read the four sentences.
1 The press and TV must be more carefully regulated to make them reliable. 2 Information we hear shouldn’t have been ﬁltered through large corporations with their own agendas. 3 The internet should be just as reliable as other media. 4 Information on the internet ought to have been reviewed, but often it hasn’t. Step 1: Each of you rewrite one of the sentences with which you don’t fully agree on your own piece of paper: express your own opinion. Step 2: Pass your piece of paper to the person on your right. Step 3: Now on the paper you have just received, add another sentence to give a reason for agreeing with one of the sentences you now have – the ones on this page and the one on your piece of paper.
4 What is your preferred source of information? Write a number to show your opinion and compare with others.
What sources do you consult?
How reliable are they?
1 = very often, 2 = sometimes, 3 = never
1 = very, 2 = fairly, 3 = not really reliable at all
Newspapers, magazines Radio or TV
knjigarna.com swis721 Word of mouth (being told by someone)
Social network sites like Facebook, Twitter
CMYK Internet information sites, like Wikipedia 10/100/90/0 B Compare the sentences on your paper and discuss them,
Repeat Steps 1–3.
giving reasons. Report an interesting sentence and/or your views to the class.
Reference works, like encyclopaedias
5 A Read the ﬁve sentences. Then watch a survey of people’s opinions of Wikipedia, and label the sentences T (True) or F (False). Correct the false ones.
1 2 3 4 5
B Let’s say I want to ﬁnd out what’s happening to the victims of the tsunami in Chile. How can I ﬁnd out? The news is a mega turn-off, I can’t bear to watch it. Facebook is just dead useless when it comes to facts. So hey! I’ve asked my classmates for their opinions, and I’m just going to tell you what they think.
Several people trust Wikipedia because it’s self-edited. One student found that information had been changed twice. An engineering student found that formulas had been given correctly. A survey had been done to compare Wikipedia to the newspapers. One student was told that information had not been reviewed, and she then changed her opinion.
C It is important to ﬁnd out about important issues facing the world today, but who can we turn to for reliable information? Are the news media to be trusted? Are they simply relaying facts selectively and are they in the pay of the large corporations that control them? Are we likely to ﬁnd more reliable information on the internet?
B Label the verb tenses in sentences 2–5 from activity 5A.
2 3 4 5
found found had been done was told changed
D Last week, there was an earthquake in a remote part of China. Very little was said about it on our national news, and even less on the internet social networking sites. Many people had lost their lives, and meanwhile the main TV channels were totally focused on trivial matters at home. Is the sole purpose of the media ﬁnancial gain? Are humanitarian events of so little importance?
had been changed had been given had not been reviewed
Which verb indicates the action that occurred ﬁrst in sentences 2, 3 and 5?
E The media can’t be trusted. Advertising is their only purpose. The cult of celebrity is the main thing that drives the media. The main TV channels are manipulating the viewers. People ﬁnd that they can’t get the news they want. Recently there have been stories about news reports that were just false.
Write a clause to indicate what could have happened before the verb in sentence 4. C One of the girls interviewed in the video actually says:
‘I heard someone went and changed something and then they went back later and it was re-changed back to what it said before.’
B With the class, add to these ‘Dos and Don’ts’ for starting an essay.
1 Change this informal spoken sentence into a more formal written form, using the Past Perfect. 2 After you’d rewritten the sentence, what conclusion could you reach about the Past Perfect and the Past Perfect passive?
Do Try to be interesting
Work with it!
Don’t Start by concluding
C With your partner, write three or four opening sentences for an essay on one of these topics. Then compare with others.
Writing essays 1: introducing the topic
6 A A class was set the essay topic: ‘Can we trust the media?’ With a partner, read these opening sentences and rate each one with a number or your own opinion. Then, report to the class and give reasons for your preferences.
TV will soon be replaced by the Web. Our education is not giving us the right tools to assess the media’s reliability. The internet is a valuable and reliable source of information.
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1 – Interesting, the reader wants to keep on reading 2 – Not very forceful 3 – OK, a bit boring 4 – Too familiar for a formal essay 5 – Largely irrelevant
G 23c Modal passives referring to the past CMYK Information should have been accurately presented. A In class, we’ve often discussed the media. Students have Viewers might have been given the wrong impression. had many varying opinions about the subject. There doesn’t 10/100/90/0 seem to be much agreement about this topic. There are Past Perfect passive
things that can be said both for and against this topic. To start with, let’s look at reasons for trusting the media.
The men said that an investigation had been done into the reliability of the media.
Workbook, pages xx
7 The ﬁnal frontier
2 Read the statements. Add the numbers of sentences in activity 1C.
• before and after + noun/clause/participial phrase • having done this (participial clause) • until + Present tenses/Present Perfect (time clauses for the future) • Writing essays 2: organising material
1 A Starting with the earliest, put these in the right historical order, and match each one with a century from the 15th to the 20th.
3 4 5 6
7A Before mankind took that giant leap ...
The ﬁrst hot-air balloon launched over Paris The ﬁrst ﬂight of a heavier-than-air ﬂying machine Leonardo da Vinci’s designs for ﬂying machines The ﬁrst unmanned space ship goes into orbit The ﬁrst non-stop ﬂight across the Atlantic The ﬁrst manned balloon ﬂight
Before and after can be followed by nouns. Examples: 4, Before and after can be followed by a clause. Examples: , Before and after can be followed by participial phrases. Examples: , , Sometimes after is understood, not stated, in the participial phrase. Example:
3 Rewrite the sentences, changing the structure to:
a before or after + noun b before or after + participial phrase 1 Before Leonardo attempted to design a ﬂying machine, he studied birds’ wings. 2 After their balloon ﬂew over Paris, the Montgolﬁer brothers got one to ﬂy carrying animals. 3 Before the Wright brothers succeeded in getting a plane to ﬂy, they had two failures. 4 After Alcock and Brown completed their difﬁcult journey, they arrived in Ireland.
B Listen and with a partner, write a precise date for numbers 2–6. C Listen again and complete the sentences.
1 Before trying to design a helicopter, Leonardo da Vinci ... 2 After he’d built one of his contraptions, ... 3 Before the Montgolﬁer brothers managed to get a balloon over Paris, ... 4 After their ﬁrst success, ... 5 After having experienced two disappointing failures, the Wright brothers ... 6 After working out why previous gliders had always crashed like theirs, ... 7 After a few unsuccessful attempts, Alcock and Brown ... 8 Having almost run out of fuel, their plane ...
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Work with it!
Writing essays 2: organising material 4 A In essays of argument, it’s crucial to organise your material into logical paragraphs. Here are possible ways of doing that. Work with a partner. Add key expressions to each category.
C Here are some sentences that provide key ideas for an essay on topic B. Put the sentences in the right order. Which organising principle has been chosen?
1 Chronological sequence: First, ... Second, ... To start with ... After this ... 2 Cause and effect: For this reason, ... Therefore, ... The result was ... 3 Problem and solution: The ﬁrst problem was ... When that had been solved, ... 4 Compare and contrast: In addition ... On the other hand, ... B Look at these topics. Which kind of organisation do you think could be appropriate for them?
A In science, or indeed life, is failure just as important as success? B Is our control over nature greater than our understanding of it? C Art is interesting, but technology is essential. Discuss. D Had planes never been invented, our world would be a better place.
A It is true that art is interesting but does that mean it is not essential as well? B On the contrary, if by art we mean all the arts that surround us (plastic arts, photography, ﬁlm, architecture ...), we see that it must contribute enormously to our enjoyment of life. C However, our ancestors lived for centuries with only the most elementary forms of technology. D For example, early cave paintings in Lascaux show that art has been crucial for human beings throughout history. E Nevertheless, while technology promises a better life, it often simply produces more stress. F On the other hand, technology does seem at ﬁrst to be necessary for our way of life. G Both art and technology could be said to enhance the quality of life. H Enjoyment after all, may be as essential as any other part of our life.
D With a partner, write at least four sentences giving ideas for one of the other topics. Put them in random order. Join another pair and order each other’s sentences.
G 22 before/after + noun/clause/participial phrase
After their success, the race was on to design a ﬂying machine. Before they succeeded, they had many failures. Before succeeding, they had many failures. 22 Participial clauses
Having managed to clear the ice from the engines, they ﬂew on to Ireland.
Workbook, pages xx
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7B Wait until space travel is cheaper? 1 Would you like to try a space ﬂight? If you had the money, what would make you want to go? Can you think of reasons: for not wanting to go? for governments not investing money in the space race?
3 Read the news article again.
Underline the clauses starting with until. Underline the tenses that can be used after until. Future Simple Present Simple Past Perfect Present Perfect Present Continuous In the main clauses, underline when the action takes place: in the past in the present in the future
2 Read the news article and list the reasons Americans gave for and against becoming space tourists.
An aerospace consulting group researching commercial space travel and tourism commissioned a survey to ask Americans worth more than $1 million whether they would like to be space tourists. Here are some of the replies: --------------------------------------------------------------------------My son’s always pestering me to go ... so exciting for kids. But for a two-week orbital ﬂight, it’s $20 million. No way. He’s staying here on earth until he’s earning his own money! ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Yeah, I’m interested in investing in space tourism. It’s the coming thing, bound to be. Invest now, make a bundle ... but not until the economy gets stronger, I guess.
I think this whole business of going into space is a con. You pay millions of dollars, you get 15 minutes or so strapped into a seat. You might as well be on a roller coaster. What do you get to see that you can’t see on TV? It’s not for me. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
I’d love to see our planet from space. Even one of those suborbital flights, you know like up to 50 miles above the earth, yeah, they’re only about $200,000 ... but maybe they’ll come down ... so I think I’ll wait until it’s like ... $50,000, then I can take the family ... --------------------------------------------------------------------------Absolutely not! Those things aren’t safe! Until they’ve made shuttles that don’t explode in space, I won’t even think of it. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
I don’t think so. But at least the government has stopped p i allll this pouring thi money into i t the th space p programme p ... whaat wh at a waasste te.. Leet bi billlio bill iona nair na ires ir es pay for it is is what hat I sa sayy .... silly si sill lly to tour urist uris ur isst ggaame mes. s.
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4 A Read the two summaries of a video before you watch it. Then, with a partner, discuss each summary. Give reasons for preferring one to the other.
Russia is hoping to launch a new space shuttle for commercial tourism. Russian scientists are working on a new space shuttle that would be carried on a highﬂying aircraft in the lower part of the atmosphere, and bring down the prices of space tourism. The plan is to take people into space where they can see the earth. The Russians have launched a space ship to take supplies to the International Space Station. At the moment there are Russian, American and Japanese scientists at the ISS. The high-altitude aircraft will carry the space shuttle, then rockets will propel the shuttle, while the plane returns to earth. The shuttle will have a pilot and two crew or passengers. The question is: will space travel ever be possible? The cosmonauts will carry out experiments to learn how to grow plants. The Russian shuttle is quite similar to Richard Branson’s plans, but the Russians have already won the space race.
7 8 9 10
12 13 14
A Russian spaceship taking supplies to the International Space Station has highlighted the question of whether space tourism will soon be possible. Russian scientists are designing an aircraft, Geophysica, to carry a space shuttle to high altitudes, where the space shuttle would be propelled by rockets into orbit while Geophysica returned to earth. This would substantially reduce the cost of space travel, allowing people to see the earth from space and experience zero gravity. The Russian shuttle rivals Richard Branson’s plans to take tourists into orbit, with many similar features between the two shuttles.
5 Prepare to write an essay on the topic. Space tourism is a waste of time and money.
Step 1: With a friend, research the topic in the library or the internet. Try to ﬁnd as much material as you can. Step 2: This is obviously going to be an essay of argument, so prepare reasons both for and against the topic. Step 3: Organise your material logically in three or four paragraphs. Decide which method of organisation you are going to use. Step 4: Make a plan of your essay.
B Complete the crossword puzzle with words from the video.
Across 1 the underside of the plane, where the shuttle is carried (also = tummy, stomach) 3 essential 8 the way that things, e.g. the space shuttles, are set up 10 the shuttle arrives and joins another spacecraft 11 inexpensive: down to , (or what tourists see from space) 16 the whole universe 17 things being carried by a plane 18 path taken by a spaceship around a planet
G 21 until + Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect
Down 2 someone who uses money to set up business deals 4 very cheap (hyphenated word) 5 because of this, space travellers feel no weight (two words) 6 below the altitude required to orbit the earth 7 Then an extra rocket will propel it into orbit. 9 the developer’s aim is to take large groups into space 12 The shuttle will have a ride on Geophysica. 13 The developers of Geophysica have a new, important aim. 14 to send a plane or spaceship into the air 15 phrasal verb: pay money to be a space tourist (two words)
We’ll wait until space travel is safe. He won’t go until he’s earning enough money. Until they’ve brought the price down, space travel is not for me.
Workbook, pages xx
7C A taste of space for Europeans 1 Before you read the text, work with some expressions from it. Match the underlined parts of the sentences (1–9) with the right expressions (a–i)
a mass b inertia c psychomotoric d microgravity e weight f unusual body orientations g parabolic h initiating i tethers 1 A modiﬁed Airbus can provide conditions of reduced gravity for science experiments. (1 ) 2 The Airbus does this by following a curve that is similar to the one taken by an object thrown up into the air and falling down again. (2 ) 3 The experiments performed by trainee astronauts show them that the amount of matter that something contains (3 ) is not the same as how heavy it is. (4 ) 4 The trainees use chains to tie them down and make walking more difﬁcult. (5 ) 5 Starting a movement (6 ) is easier than stopping for them, because once your body is in motion, it has a force that makes it keep the same movement unless another force makes it slow down. (7 ) 6 They also rotate their bodies to get used to being in positions that are different from being right side up. (8 ) 7 They perform experiences linked to both their mind and their muscles. (9 ) 2 Read the text and place the linking expressions (a–h) in the right places.
a in addition to b but e as well f not only
c until g and then
d but also to h also
ESA’s new astronaut candidates enjoyed a taste of space last Friday during a special aircraft ﬂight in Bordeaux, France. A modiﬁed Airbus A300 offered a glimpse of their future working conditions, 1 as providing microgravity for science experiments. Planes ﬂying a special parabolic path can simulate weightlessness for research and astronaut training. Up to 22 seconds of microgravity can be created at a time and, by repeating the manoeuvre, total weightlessness during one ﬂight can be as much as 12 minutes. The ‘Zero-G’ Airbus A300 is the biggest and most advanced plane in the world for these ﬂights. This faithful workhorse has ﬂown ESA’s 52nd parabolic ﬂight campaign during recent weeks, offering weightlessness not only to scientists 2 Europe’s new astronaut candidates. They ﬂew free in the cabin for six parabolas 3 took turns on seven training worksites and three science experiments. The ﬁrst lesson was to see Newton’s laws in action. They moved heavy containers around and threw them to each other to feel how mass and weight are not the same. They saw how an object continues on its path 4 an external force is applied. And just a small push can propel a box to the other side of the cabin. Then they had to move along the side of the cabin using tethers and spacesuit gloves – far from easy even in ‘normal’ gravity with the bulky and stiff gloves. Finally, the new recruits performed typical spacewalk jobs: attaching their feet in special boots to a platform and rotating their bodies through quarter and half turns using handrails like those outside the International Space Station. In weightlessness, this is all more difﬁcult than it sounds. “Initiating a movement does not need any effort, 5 stopping it requires quite a ﬁght against your body inertia,” explained Hervé Stevenin, EVA Training Lead at the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany. “We wanted them to feel the differences between the conditions in real weightlessness and inside the Neutral Buoyancy Facility of EAC. It was also important to get accustomed to the feeling of unusual body orientation.” Since space research is an important job for astronauts, the candidates took part in some of the investigations on the aircraft. One called for lying down during the microgravity and hypergravity periods to look at the human body’s ability to adapt to gravity changes. They 6 participated in ‘psychomotoric’ experiments, dealing with manipulation and movements in zero gravity. The astronauts proved to be made of the right stuff in coping with weightlessness. “The candidates 7 felt ﬁne all the time, but also quickly learned to move and control themselves in the new situation,” conﬁrmed EAC trainer Stephane Ghiste. “8 the training programme, they also had fun and enjoyed every second of the zero gravity!”
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4 A Compare your ideas with others.
What would you like best about training to be an astronaut? Are there things you wouldn’t like? Imagine what it would feel like to get up to the International Space Station and look at the earth. Describe what the earth would look like, and your feelings as you looked at it. Would you feel frightened or happy to be there? Proud? Humbled? Overcome with emotion?
B Watch astronaut Frank De Winne answering a question from a Spanish student. Complete the sentences.
1 As he looks at the earth, De Winne marvels that it is . 2 He feels very . 3 All the astronauts are very aware of . 4 They want people on earth . 5 They don’t have . 6 The new window . 7 De Winne ends by . 3 Put these summary sentences about the text in the right order.
They also tested how the body can change to cope with changes in gravity. b Next, restraints and gloves were used to make trainees feel the difﬁculty of doing things that are much easier in normal gravity. c An airbus can provide new astronaut candidates with conditions that simulate the conditions in space. d In short, the programme provided enjoyment as well as a lot of learning. e Then, their feet were ﬁxed to a platform, so that they could rotate and see what being in different body positions feels like. f The trainees started by testing Newton’s ﬁrst law, which states that objects in repose or in uniform motion continue until an opposing force is applied.
5 With a partner, choose the three qualities which you think would be most important for an astronaut. Add other qualities you think would be useful. Compare with others.
coolness under pressure good problem-solving skills ability to get on with a team initiative ﬂexibility good communication skills strong scientiﬁc mind strong mathematical skills very precise creativity lateral thinker (original thinker, thinks ‘outside the box’) good eye-hand co-ordination 6 Write an email to an English e-pal. Choose one of the writing options: A or B.
A Your English e-pal has expressed his intention to train as an astronaut. Describe your own reaction to seeing the earth in the space video. Explain why you would or would not like to train as an astronaut. Ask for your friend’s reasons and his plans for training.
B Write about Sunita Williams, a member of the International Space Station, who is of Slovenian descent on her mother’s side. Go online to research the astronaut’s life and ﬂights. Say what you ﬁnd particularly interesting about this astronaut.
7D Skills enhancement Part I Speaking 1 With a partner, read the advertisement. Imagine that you are going for interview. Help each other to make notes about what you might wish to focus on in the interview.
enthusiasm: why are you interested in going to the summer school? Look back at the text you worked with in Unit 4C, activity 2 and list the beneﬁts that a student could gain from such a training session. contribution: what are the special qualities that you could contribute to the team? Look back at the list of qualities needed for an astronaut (Unit 4C, activity 5).
First interview s
are being orga nised for two vacant posts on the Sloveni an Space Trai ning Summer Sch ool for Young Astronauts held in conjun ction with the European Space Agenc y Programme. Candidates sh ould prepare by visiting the ESA website. They will be se le cted for their enthusiasm, an d the contribut ion they can make to team work during tr aining.
Step 1: Take turns to be: (A) a member of the interviewing panel and (B) yourself as a candidate wishing to be selected for the Summer School. Role-play the interview. Step 2: When you’ve both worked through the interview, taking turns, compare your impressions with your partner. • What did you ﬁnd most difﬁcult? • Did you have a good supply of vocabulary to carry you through without stopping or too much hesitation? • Were you as a candidate able to use a variety of tenses in your answers? • What could you do to improve your performance? Ask others for advice. Option 2: Work in groups of ﬁve.
Step 1: First, prepare for the interview together. Make sure you have a good supply of questions (see activity 2) to ask the candidate. Step 2: Choose roles. One of you is the candidate. Three are members of the interviewing panel. One is the recorder, whose task it is to take notes, and record the decision. Role-play the interview. At the end of the interview, the candidate withdraws while the panel makes a decision: will that candidate be accepted for the Summer School? Step 3: Panel: discuss the interview, and make a decision. Give reasons. Recorder: take down notes of the discussion and the reasons given. Report to the candidate. Step 4: General discussion, amongst the group, or to the class if you’ve presented your role-play to the class. Discuss the strong points of the interview – was the panel kind but effective in asking questions? Did the candidate answer well, to the point, with sufﬁcient variety of vocabulary and verb tenses? Was s/he convincing? What advice could you give to improve the performance of the candidate – or members of the panel?
2 Prepare for the interview. Think of one or two more questions that the interviewer might ask a candidate.
• • •
3 Option 1: Work in pairs.
Why do you want to go to the Summer School? How long have you been interested in space? What will you do later with the skills you gain at the Summer School? If you were selected, what skills would you like to develop?
Part II Reading In the previous enhancement exercises for reading skills (Unit 2D) you worked with ﬁnding the meaning of words or expressions from the context. This time the exercise will be expanded: you will try to ﬁnd the meaning of whole chunks of text by picking up clues from the context. 4 A First, read the text quickly. Don’t stop if you come across particular words or expressions you don’t understand. Answer this question, using a short answer.
What is this text about? B Compare and discuss your answer with a partner. 5 A Together, read the beginnings of sentences that you are asked to complete. The purpose is to complete them in a way that shows you understand the text. Before you begin to write the completions, discuss with your partner the clues in the text which help you to ﬁnd the answers. Underline at least one clue for each number. Number 1 is an example.
1 The new spaceships have acquired their name because they are newer versions of . Clues to be underlined: 19th century, fast sailing ships 2 Their mission would be to explore . 3 The main problem with gathering information from . space is not storing it but 4 The new spacecraft being developed in Japan is fuelled by . 5 The sail material can move easily because it is . 6 The small mirrors on the sail reﬂect . 7 The spacecraft gains its speed from . 8 Scientists will be able to use the new technology to analyse . B With your partner, use your clues to complete the sentences.
In the 19th century, fast sailing ships called clippers criss-crossed the globe, promoting trade and exploration. A new era of sailing may be about to dawn for future missions exploring the outer reaches of space. Scientists are developing a revolutionary ‘clipper’ spacecraft easy to manoeuvre and equipped with solar sails that can capture vast quantities of scientiﬁc data and ship it back to Earth. The technology for these new-style clippers could be ready in time to support missions to the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Flash memories will soon be able to store the huge quantities of data that are required in order to map a planetary body in high resolution. But a full high-res map of Jupiter’s moon Europa, or Titan, the largest of Saturn’s moons, would take several decades to download from a traditional orbiter, even using immense antennas in the receiving ground station on Earth. For interplanetary missions, the possibility of downloading data is obviously a major design driver. Scientists in several countries have been working on this challenge and have developed preliminary concepts for a clipper which could ﬂy close to a planetary orbiter, upload its data and then return to Earth, where terabytes of data would be downloaded more rapidly. A ﬂeet of data clippers cruising around the Solar System could then provide support for an entire series of exploratory missions to the outer planets. Recent advances in technology mean that spacecraft propelled by solar sails no longer belong to the realms of science ﬁction, but are being incorporated into the roadmaps for future space missions. The Japanese Space Agency, for example, is currently testing a solar-powered mission, and Japanese scientists recently celebrated the successful deployment of their solar sail. This will be the world’s ﬁrst solar-powered sail craft employing both photon propulsion and thinﬁlm solar power generation during its interplanetary cruise. The new spacecraft has a ﬂexible membrane sail, 32.5 micrometres thick, about half the thickness of a human hair, which is covered with thin-ﬁlm solar panels that will create a hybrid of electricity and pressure. Solar photons, or particles of light, will bounce off thousands of tiny reﬂective surfaces to give a spacecraft the thrust it needs to complete manoeuvres such as rotating and hovering. The force is tiny but continuous, and over time can produce a considerable velocity. Solar sails thus have the potential to play a crucial role in the exploration of outer space, allowing scientists to access massive data transfers and extend their knowledge of conditions in our solar system.
6 With others, compare and discuss your answers, and your experience of doing the task.
• • • •
Did you ﬁnd it easy or difﬁcult? Which questions did you ﬁnd most difﬁcult? Did you ﬁnd it helpful to answer the ﬁrst (gist) question about the text? Did you ﬁnd underlining the clues useful?
8 Addictions • Probable/uncertain hypotheses: present/past, modal verbs • Speculating about possible events that did not happen • Speculating about possible causes of events that happened • Writing essays 3: making points, supporting/illustrating B
8A It’s not just drugs or alcohol 1 Read the three emails and with a partner:
1 identify the relationship of the writers and recipients. 2 discuss your ideas: what has caused each situation? 3 could anything be done to improve the situations?
A Hi Sis, Thanks for your email. Glad things are going well at uni. I’ve just had a frustrating afternoon with Lily. She used to be such a cheerful girl, always up for outdoor sports, the life and soul of any party ... Now she’s edgy, snappy, really moody, the only thing she wants to do is go down to the shopping centre and on a buying spree. Boring! Shopping’s not my thing anyway, but she’s carrying it to an extreme. Her cupboard’s crammed full of stuff she’s bought and never even opened! I’m getting worried ... what if this is some kind of obsession, like what if she’s really addicted! That kind of thing does happen, doesn’t it? She’s been going through hard times recently with her parents separating and all ... Do you suppose this could be some kind of reaction? What should I do? I’m scared to talk to her in case she should get upset ... I need some sisterly advice here ... Cheers Tim
Dear Mrs Prothero, Thank you for your message about Lucinda. I think your suggestion of meeting to discuss the situation is a good one, and I wonder whether you or Mr Prothero could come to the school around 5 pm on Thursday? I too have noticed Lucinda’s tiredness in class: she’s been droopy, and has dark rings round her eyes. I find this disappointing because after her inner-ear problem was resolved, her reading improved and I thought she’d get excellent results. Now her work has taken a nosedive. I see you’re worried about drugs, but it’s not always drugs in these cases. Supposing we confronted her about drugs and that was not the problem at all: she might resent that. We need to investigate further, in case there’s something else troubling her. Let’s talk about that. Please let me know if Thursday suits. Best wishes, Sam Kushner
2 Read the sentences from the emails, then complete the statements.
A B C D
What if this is some kind of obsession? Do you suppose this could be some kind of reaction? I’m scared to talk to her in case she should get upset. Supposing we confronted her about drugs and that was not the problem at all. E Do you suppose I should talk to her about it? F We need to investigate further, in case there’s something else troubling her.
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We use the tenses after what if, suppose, supposing or in case to talk about an imagined present/ future event if we think it is probable or quite certain. Examples: sentences A, We use the tenses after what if, suppose, supposing or in case to talk about an imagined present/ future event if we think it uncertain or unlikely to happen. Examples: sentence We can use like could or should after what if, suppose, supposing or in case to make the sentence more hypothetical, less certain. Examples: sentences B, ,
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C Hello Janice Great to hear from you – I’m glad all your brood are doing so well. Good luck to the twins at university. Things are gloomy in this household right now. Jason is truly driving his Dad and me right round the bend. I was prepared for the teenage sulks and all that, but every single moment he’s in the house, he does nothing but listen to his iPod. He never wants to come down to meals with us – he just takes a sandwich up to his room and listens to the **!!!00!** music all day long. I’m worried: perhaps something happened at school to upset him. How would we ever get to know about it? Did you ever have that with Bella or Tim? There’s a new education psychologist for all the high schools now ... do you suppose I should talk to her about it? What do you think? Tks, Bea
Work with it!
Writing essays 3: making points, illustrating 4 A In an essay of argument, it is important to make points, not just give a series of anecdotes. However, it is also useful to develop points, not just state them, by adding interesting examples to illustrate or support them. Label the sentences P for points made, or E for examples or illustrations.
She was using shopping to escape from her distress at her parents’ divorce. b There are various ways of treating addictions. c Lily used to be cheerful, but now she’s edgy and moody. d Behavioural changes can reveal psychological problems. e Consulting a specialist is the ﬁrst step towards getting help. f Lily was helped by a combination of therapy and medication. g Her boyfriend decided to see a psychologist. h Addictions can be symptomatic of emotional upsets.
3 A Work in groups of three. Student A: read the text on page 137. Student B: read the text on page 138. Student C: read the text on page 140. Without showing your text to your partners, tell them about it. Answer the following questions:
• • • • •
Which email is your text related to? What were the symptoms of the addiction in your text? What were the causes of the problem behaviour in your text? In general, when can behaviour be labelled an addiction? What sorts of treatment can be used for addictions?
B With a partner, choose a possible order for the eight sentences: four statements, followed by four examples.
B Continue working together, not showing your text. C Create a set of four points and four examples for any other addiction. Mix up your sentences. Join another pair, sort out each other’s sentences and ﬁnd a coherent order.
A How many more mental or behavioural problems can you list? anxiety ... B Find a word or expression in one of the texts which has a meaning similar to these.
1 to solve an addiction, ﬁrst ﬁnd what the patient gains from it 2 medication that prevents people from feeling sad or lonely 3 mixed-up messages sent to the brain 4 an overwhelming desire you just cannot resist 5 interfere with something 6 make people behave differently 7 feeling nauseous when in a moving object like a plane or ship 8 something that surrounds you all the time, so you don’t notice it any more 9 great sorrow or pain, often after a loss or death
G 20a Probable hypothesis with present tenses
What if one of your friends has an addiction? Suppose he’s having problems communicating with people.
Uncertain hypothesis with past tenses CMYK 20b What if your friend had an addiction? Suppose she had just lost a parent. 10/100/90/0 20b Uncertain hypothesis with modal verbs
I’m afraid to say anything in case she should get angry. Do you suppose he could be taking drugs?
Workbook, pages xx
8B Are video gamers addicts?
B Read the example and complete the statements.
1 With a partner, read the statements. Each of the sentences (a–l) relates to one of the three statements. Put the sentences into the right category and discuss whether you agree with them or not.
1 Video games should have been banned long ago. , , , 2 Classifying video game addiction as a psychiatric disorder is a good idea. , , , 3 Classifying video game addiction as a psychiatric disorder is a bad idea. , , , a b c d e f g h i j k l
It might make people more aware of their bad habits. Treating addicts would be expensive. Young people would not have got so hooked on it. It would allow sufferers to claim insurance money for treatment. Medication wouldn’t cure video gaming addiction. It could just be a way of making more money for drug companies. Students might have obtained better results instead of failing. Children could have learned to be more interactive in society. It could push addicts to get treatment. It would certainly raise health insurance costs for everyone. So many children wouldn’t have become ‘electronic hermits’. It might stimulate scientiﬁc research into the biological basis of addictions.
Ginny has spent two days in a row playing video games. A She could get seriously ill. B She could have developed emotional problems. Sentence A speculates about possible results in . Sentence B speculates about possible causes in . C Read the statements. Write two sentences for each one, using modal verbs. Sentence A: speculate about possible future results/events. Sentence B: speculate about possible causes in the past. Number 1 is an example.
1 Julian has started to drink too much. A Possible future results: This could just be a phase, he might stop. B Possible causes: He could have split up with his girlfriend. 2 He took tranquillisers but they didn’t work. A Possible future results: B Possible causes: 3 Sarah has suddenly stopped doing her homework. A Possible future results: B Possible causes: 4 She decided to change to another subject. A Possible future results: B Possible causes:
2 A Read sentences a–l again. Complete the statements. Add example sentences.
To speculate about events/results in the present or future, which are not certain, we use modal verbs might, could, would + . Example sentences a, b, To speculate about possible past events/results that did not happen, we use might, could, would + have + . Examples sentences c,
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Read the notes with a partner. Then watch a video about a training camp with the aim of ‘deprogramming’ young video gaming addicts. Complete the notes and say what you think about the methods used.
Reasons children are sent Patient 1 (aged 15) thinks
3 A Watch a video in which Sandy shares her ideas about the American Medical Association’s decision to classify excessive video gaming as a psychological disorder. Which of these questions most closely gives the overall subject of the video?
1 Should scientists look for a biological cause for addictions? 2 Should insurance pay for diseases caused by addiction? 3 Should playing too many video games be classiﬁed as a mental illness?
two days playing, without
Patient 2 (aged 12) thinks
No problem. Maybe
Doctor thinks the causes are
playing outdoor and electroshocks
Patient 3 (young man) wants
to cure his addiction and
6 A With a partner, choose one of these topics and compile reasons for or against the topic.
• • •
B With a partner, discuss these statements. In your view, are they true, false, or true to a certain extent but not completely? Support your opinion by examples from the video. Watch again if you wish.
1 Sandy’s decided not to be a video addict any more. 2 She’s concerned about the psychological effects of excessive video gaming. 3 Her main concern is about the ﬁnancial consequences of the AMA’s decision. 4 She’s supportive of video gamers who are addicts. 5 She feels that there should be more scientiﬁc research in addiction. 6 In her view, medication might be a possible cure for addiction.
play too much, fail at school,
Video gamers are fanatics, not addicts. Addiction is a disease, not a question of morality. Discipline is a better cure for addiction than medication.
B You are going to create a short video, like Sandy’s, to give your views on your chosen topic (about 3 minutes). First, make a plan of your talk. Structure the points you wish to make, and choose the illustrations or examples you wish to use, to make your talk interesting.
C Present your talk to a group or the class. Take note of comments, then ﬁlm it if you can.
G 26c Speculating about the present or future: modal verb + inﬁnitive
He spends too much time gaming. He could get seriously ill.
CMYK 26d Speculating about events that did not happen: modal verb + perfect inﬁnitive 4 Give your own opinion. Compare your ideas in groups and Luckily, she stopped gaming. She would have failed her exams. 10/100/90/0 list some interesting views on the board. 1 Is it important to be concerned about video gaming? List your reasons. 2 What would be the best cure(s) for excessive video gaming? List them.
26d Speculating about possible reasons or causes
He started drinking. He might have had personal problems.
Workbook, pages xx
9 Learning outside the classroom
2 Look carefully at the sentences (A–F). Answer questions 1–11.
• Adjectives, revised + infinitive structures • Adverbs: manner, frequency, degree, word order • Countability: many/few, much/little, more/fewer/less, so/such • Writing essays 4: register
9A Really hands-on work 1 A Before you watch a video, put the expressions (a–k) under the right heading(s) 1–4.
1 Where Student Conservation Association crew and interns come from: 2 The kind of scientiﬁc work they do: 3 What they gain from the work: 4 What communities gain from it: a b c d e f g h i j k
learn how to make biodiesel fuel all over the USA work to restore native species become conservationists of the future spend the summer with others in a park a beautiful spot is added to a city realise the value of service do their bit for others know their work will last collect data and map geothermal features have a break from their schools
A Conservationists care passionately about environmental issues. B They treat the natural environment with respect. C The young students always work very energetically and with enthusiasm. D I’ve never been able to work in such an absolutely gorgeous spot. E We’re basically doing really hands-on work. F It’s pretty interesting to learn science this way. 1 2
Find six adjectives: circle them. What word do the adjectives modify? List and identify the part of speech. 3 Find eleven adverbs or adverbial phrases: underline them. 4 Three adverbs modify adjectives: list them. 5 One adverb modiﬁes an adverb. List it. 6 Where are the adverbs in relation to adjectives or adverbs? 7 Four adverbs/adverbial phrases are adverbs of manner. List them. 8 Where do adverbs/adverbial phrases of manner come in the sentences? 9 Two adverbs of frequency modify verbs. List them. 10 Where do adverbs of frequency go in the sentence? 11 One adverb of degree modiﬁes a verb. Identify it and its position.
3 A These sentences are incorrect. Correct them, and say why.
B Watch the video. Write a short description of it. Include information about the four headings in activity 1A. Conclude by saying what you think of the SCA and the video.
v The park rangers supervise carefully all the students. The park rangers supervise all the students carefully. (An adverb of manner comes after the object. Adverbs never come between a verb and its object.) 1 Students were hard working to pull a tree up a slope. 2 They admire the enthusiasm greatly of the students. 3 The students spend often their evenings enjoying music. 4 The students love passionately the environment. 5 The summer was an absolute happy time for them. 6 The students had ﬁnished almost their project. 7 I had been never able to do something for the community.
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B Answer for yourself, using an adjective + inﬁnitive structure. Use the prompts in brackets if you wish.
1 What would you ﬁnd most interesting in an SCA programme? (would be interesting to ...) 2 Which of the sciences is the most difﬁcult for you to understand? (easier to ...) 3 Would you like to work with a conservation project? (stimulating/exciting/boring to ...) 4 Why would working in a desert environment be hard? (too hot to ... /important/useful to ...) 5 Do you think going out of your classroom to learn is a good idea? (not quiet enough to .../too distracting to .../useful to ...
Work with it!
Writing essays 4: register B Here are some comments left on the website by people who viewed the video in activity 1B. ‘Translate’ them into sentences appropriate for essays.
4 A Essays are formal pieces of writing. It is important to use formal language for them. Complete the table.
Formal writing: essays
Informal writing: emails, blogs, etc.
1 Capital letters, correct punctuation, and correct spelling are not always used.
2 Don’t use slang/informal expressions
3 You can use abbreviations, e.g. asap, or internet short cuts, e.g. LOL, etc.
4 People often use exclamations as they would in speech, e.g. Wow!, Hey! ...
5 Use formal link words, e.g. 5 Link words Nevertheless, Moreover, Furthermore ...
1 HEY! THIS PROG LOOKS LIKE SO MUCH FUN!! LOL. I wanna go real bad, I’m gonna ask my mom about it, hopefully she’ll say yeah. 2 gosh I like to join but it’s maybe competitive. How do I get in? 3 ok the sca came to my school this is how you join: there is like a wooded area where you go and see sca memebers in blue t-shirts. you can go ask them and they will let you apply probably. and you have to be able to presantate and you havce to know soo much bout the environment! 4 Aha! Great someone’s making videos about the SCA! those featured were in some pretty awesome places. Hopefully, people will take a peek & get hooked! 5 Yeah, right on. I agree: glad my work will be like there for like years!
G 42b Adjectives + inﬁnitive structures
Science is easy to understand if you do really hands-on work. It’s wonderful to see native species being restored to the rivers.
33 Adverbs: manner, frequency, degree; word order
They removed the sunﬂower seeds very carefully. Students often worked hard enough to make a real difference.
Workbook, pages xx
9B Hands-on ﬁeld work 1 A Match these very general deﬁnitions with the names of the sciences described. What are the scientists who specialise in these sciences called?
1 physics 4 chemistry
2 geology 5 biology
B In groups or the class, talk about your experience of studying science. Compare the way you studied it in primary school and in secondary. What did you ﬁnd most enjoyable about it? How important is it to have a scientiﬁc understanding of the world we live in? What are your reasons for wishing or not wishing to continue studying sciences?
3 natural history 2 Read the text quickly. Complete the sentences about it.
a The scientiﬁc study of plants and animals, based upon observation rather than experiment. b A natural science that studies living organisms, their structures and classiﬁcations, how they function, grow, evolve, and where they are found. c The study of matter, its composition, structure, and properties, and the way it behaves as well as the change it undergoes. d A natural science studying matter, its motion through space-time and related concepts like energy and force. e The science and study of the matter that constitutes the earth.
1 The author argues for . 2 The beneﬁts of natural history for students are . 3 It’s important when observing wildlife 4 British students are not well prepared to 5 This could be remedied by . 6 American students, on the other hand,
. . .
Teaching natural history Angus Westgarth-Smith
Natural history teaching encourages a balanced understanding of the world and teaches us how to enjoy exploring it. There is a need to reintroduce natural history into biology teaching, because natural history brings together such a wide range of skills and knowledge in animals, plants, geology, land use and meteorology. It requires many skills to be developed for working in the environment in a manner that is enjoyable, safe and has respect for the organisms being observed. An understanding of natural history would help support studies in other areas of biology. Each year I lead ﬁeld visits to a wetland site in London. I ﬁnd that so many students gain considerable pleasure from the opportunity to observe wintering waterfowl, particularly as this may be the ﬁrst time they see birds through telescopes and binoculars. It’s so important for a naturalist to approach, observe and then move away from an animal without disturbing it – that is, operating with due consideration to the environment. I teach on the edge of London and use the public transport system to ferry students to and from ﬁeld sites. This allows me to arrange for students to attend in much smaller groups, at different times during the day: fewer observers cause less disturbance to local wildlife. A naturalist needs to be able to enjoy being out in the open and to travel safely. Many students are inadequately prepared for outdoor activities because they come from an urbanised indoor background. This can both contribute to their pleasure at entering a new environment and to an increased risk during a ﬁeld course. Few students have the basic skills required for a ﬁeld course. More courses on outdoor skills could be introduced into core skills modules. Students would enjoy learning these skills, and would ﬁnd that they form the basis for independent exploration of the countryside.
Proper planning for a ﬁeld trip, including carrying a mobile phone or whistle, and an understanding of ﬁrst aid, will enable the naturalist to deal with most situations. Teaching outdoor skills would give more students the self reliance needed to work alone, including the common sense needed to reduce risks. Most of these skills involve very little research, are quite basic and quick to teach. They include an understanding of the importance of adequate food and clothing to stay warm. In my experience, many students turn up on a marsh in winter with inadequate clothing and not having had much breakfast! I would like to contrast the lack of outdoor skills of many British students with those of a group of American students I taught in the Adirondack Mountains, New York State. The American students had more experience in boat handling, camping, ﬁre-lighting and cooking over a ﬁre. They were completely conﬁdent camping in forests where a visit by a black bear was a considerable possibility – we had already seen bears, and bear droppings had been found in our survey areas! The students were expected to draw and paint animals they saw. They had no qualms about using a set of furs of every Adirondack mammal species from jumping mice to porcupines. In Britain we have sanitised wildlife, taken away the identity of individual species by using words such as ‘biodiversity’ or ‘environment’, and we get so upset just seeing the fur of a dead animal. In summary, teaching natural history can be fun for students. It allows them to develop a more rounded range of skills and might become a hobby, regardless of whether that student subsequently studies biology at university.
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3 With a partner, scan the text again.
5 A Solve the puzzle. Find two words in the text that start with the same letters and could replace the underlined phrases.
Find phrases that have a many + noun b few + noun c much + noun d little + noun
Find phrases that have the comparatives e more + noun f less + noun g fewer + noun
Complete the rules for many/few, much/little and more/ less/fewer h many and few modify i much and little modify j more can modify or k less modiﬁes l fewer modiﬁes
4 A Give your reaction to the text and your opinion of ﬁeld work in learning. Grade the statements: 1 – I agree, 2 – I haven’t got a strong opinion, 3 – I disagree.
1 2 3 4 5 6
The text was so interesting. I read it so quickly, I didn’t mind re-reading it. It was so easy to understand that the questions were easy too. This is such a good example of good teaching and learning. Field work beneﬁts so many students and produces so much knowledge. The students had such fun: I too would ﬁnd it so enjoyable!
1 The London students enjoyed observing the ducks or geese that didn’t ﬂy away in autumn. 2 The main thing needed for a successful ﬁeld trip is adequate preparation. 3 The US students were absolutely self-reliant on the ﬁeld trip. 4 They knew that a large animal was near because it had left droppings behind. 5 Field trips encourage a more comprehensive set of abilities. 6 They are useful whether a student continues working in science, or not. B Use the clues (1–8) to ﬁnd words in the text. Then, unscramble the eleven letters in the coloured boxes to ﬁnd the name of the science that deals with the atmosphere and weather conditions.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 another word for a wetland site 2 an instrument used to observe distant objects; it can use lenses or curved mirrors to form images, or in larger versions, it collects electromagnetic radiation 3 the kind of study or exploration directed by students, not by teachers 4 transport people or things to and from a place 5 a pair of small telescopes mounted side-by-side to let viewers use both eyes to see distant objects 6 located in and limited to cities 7 the skill of managing small sailing crafts (2 words) 8 make something more acceptable, less offensive
B In groups, compare your reactions and give reasons for them. Then make a grid showing reasons for ‘hands-on’ learning, and difﬁculties associated with it.
6 Revise the advice on writing essays in this module and write an essay on the topic: Taking a class on a field trip is more trouble than it’s worth.
G 34 Countability: many/few: Field trips provide many advantages, with few real
much/little: Basic outdoor skills involve little research but
much useful experience. more/fewer: More students enjoy biology, and fewer fail, after
doing ﬁeld work. CMYK more/less: We need more care about safety and less disturbance of wildlife. 10/100/90/0 35 so/such
This park is so beautiful. It’s such a beautiful part of the country. So many students have put in such an effort to improve it.
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9C Where learning is fun B 1 A With a partner, quickly read through the four texts about science museums and discuss your answer to these questions. Which texts particularly mention:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
hands-on activities cultural assets for the country outdoor amenities amusing visuals to promote scientiﬁc understanding a room or building with a curved ceiling where moving images of the skies are projected different museums working together helping visitors from other countries advising young people on what they want to do in life activities in different locations public and private enterprise working together
Heureka, the Finnish Science Centre, is a unique cultural and educational institution that is among Finland’s most popular leisure time destinations. Heureka’s core ideology is to bring the joy of discovery to everyone and to produce inspiring learning experiences. Heureka values science, innovation and quality. Heureka is operated by a non-proﬁt organization, The Finnish Science Centre Foundation, established in 1984 by the representatives of the scientiﬁc community, the business world, trade unions, educational authorities and the City of Vantaa. The premises are the property of Vantaa City. Heureka was opened in 1989 in a new building dedicated to science and technology. Heureka hosts interactive exhibitions both indoors and outdoors, planetarium shows, school programmes and public events. During the ﬁrst twenty years, over 5 million people have visited Heureka and more than 11 million people have seen its travelling exhibitions abroad. About a quarter of the visitors to Heureka come in school groups.
The House of Experiments is the ﬁrst science centre in Slovenia to work according to the ‘hands-on’ principle. Visitors test and investigate the laws of science and other topics using experiments, research and games. You can experience ﬁrst-hand the creation of a rainbow, hear your own echo, whisper across great distances or even lie calmly on a bed of nails. All the experiments are illustrated and explained in detail with the help of humorous drawings by the most famous Slovenian cartoonist, Božo Kos, the father of the current museum director. Making learning accessible and fun for everyone and arousing people’s curiosity are the most important tasks which the museum director, Miha Kos, set himself. However, not only Slovenians, but also groups from abroad, above all from Croatia, Italy and Austria, come to test the laws of nature. The museum employees have developed a very special audio guide together with the leading Slovenian mobile network providers. The visitors use their own mobile phones as audio guides. You simply call a certain number and are then led from experiment to experiment in English, Croatian, German, Slovenian or Italian. The seamless transition from art to science is shown not only by the humorous illustrated instructions for the experiments, but also by various special exhibitions based on the topic of science. The House of Experiments goes on tour through Slovenia several times a year. In this way, schoolchildren, teachers and the general population outside Ljubljana can also get involved with the laws of nature.
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If you want to visit one of the world’s largest science museums, try the architecturally exciting Cité des Sciences et de l’Industrie, situated in a beautiful canal-side park on the outskirts of Paris, the Parc de la Villette. In addition to a huge central hall which houses the national conservatory for music and dance and hosts exhibitions and performances of all kinds, there are other interactive and fascinating activities for you to try. Do you fancy underwater exploits? Visit an attack submarine. Are you more interested in air travel? Try your hand at simulators used to train airline pilots and engineers, or explore aboard the Ariane rocket. If you’re a budding scientist or doctor, you can step inside a camera to experience ﬁrst-hand how it works, or move through a human body as though you were a tiny virus. And, of course, nobody will want to miss the planetarium, the Géode, one of the world’s largest geodesic domes, or France’s ﬁrst Omnimax movie theatre featuring a truly gigantic 1000 square metre screen. There’s something for everyone at this wonderfully exciting science park.
The Science Centre Network is an association of Austrian organisations and persons furthering the understanding of science and technology by means of interactive science centre activities. By science centre activities we mean interactive programmes for self-determined learning about science and technology. These activities should invite people to play, experiment and think ahead irrespective of their previous knowledge. We thus further a new educational concept based on individual, self-directed learning processes. We organise many science centre activities throughout Austria. The trademark “Science Centre Network Activity” stands for high quality programmes everywhere. Together we develop fascinating new projects, reﬂecting the diversity of our approaches. We support a future-oriented approach towards science and technology as an important element of both our society and economy. We aim to make people less inhibited about scientiﬁc experiment, spark their curiosity and let them delight in innovation. We wish to inspire dialogue on these matters and encourage young people in their choice of career. With our network we have created a new cooperative structure, in which partners contribute their respective strengths while at the same time gaining new incentives for their own activities.
B Scan the texts again and give examples of particular sentences or phrases which might attract the attention of a student who is thinking about:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
becoming a sound technician for television playing in an orchestra studying astronomy becoming a graphic designer writing an essay about new directions in science joining the navy how knowledge of English could be useful in life getting a job in a pharmaceutical company
2 Choose one of the options: A or B.
A Write an email to an English friend about a real or imagined visit you have made to an interesting museum. Mention the activities you did while there, the things you learnt, the motivation it gave you to learn more about science or technology. B In small groups, create an advertisement for a museum, one you’ve read about or another one if you prefer.
Step 1: Choose an option. Create a poster or ﬂip-chart advertisement. Create a web page advertisement. Step 2: Gather as much information as you can. Visit the museum, work in a library, or go online. Try to ﬁnd reactions from people who have visited the museum. Step 3: Write a short text about your chosen museum. Make it punchy and persuasive! If you can, include quotes from people who have enjoyed the museum. At the same time, collect visuals to illustrate the text. Step 4: Design your advertisement, produce it, and show it to your class.
9D Skills enhancement Part I Use of Language 1 You are going to work with a grammatical cloze task, which is designed to promote awareness of how the different parts of speech work within a sentence. First, work with a partner. Read the text quickly. Don’t worry about parts you don’t understand completely. Your teacher will set a time limit for this ﬁrst reading. Together, choose one sentence that describes what the text is about.
A Useful websites for teaching B The advantages of teaching environmental science without a textbook C Students nowadays don’t read very much
My year of teaching without a textbook In the ﬁrst class of the school year, I told our students they were participating in 1 experiment. An experiment that, as far as we knew, no one else had undertaken. They were taking an Introduction 2 an Environmental Science course with no textbook. For the 19 years I’ve been teaching the class, they’ve been required to select one of the myriad textbooks that ﬂood what must 3 a very lucrative market. But this year, in place of a heavy textbook, the class readings consisted entirely of websites. Many students born in the late 1980s are more comfortable doing their homework reading from a screen, 4 their iPods blaring, IM screens blinking, and Facebook accounts open in another window. That’s a change us old guys, accustomed to the feel of paper and the sound of, well, nothing, had to come to terms with. But once we did, we discovered a gold mine. 5 environmental science is more current, than, say calculus, it naturally lends itself to online readings. When we were teaching population growth, for example, and wanted students to understand the impact of demographic momentum, we sent them 6 the U.S. Census Bureau. There, students could select from scores of countries and observe dynamic changes in population pyramids over the next 50 years, as many times 7 they were willing to click on a new country. So did 8 work? Well, 41 of 46 students in our ﬁrst-semester class self-reported doing the same or more reading than they would 9 in a textbook. This wasn’t necessarily due to a sudden interest in the topic; Andrew Mihalcin, a ﬁrst-semester freshman, said, “I read more because I would be messing around on my computer and get bored, so I 10 look at the class website and do some of the readings.” That’s better 11 nothing. At times it felt like a hollow victory to think one group of students saw online readings 12 the lesser of two evils, and another clicked on our carefully selected websites only after Facebook turned out to be even 13 boring. But from my perspective, it was still a successful experiment. According 14 a report published this spring, the U.S. paper industry uses a million tons of paper a year. Textbooks represent approximately 20 percent of that, consuming 15 equivalent of 4 million trees annually. The Green Textbook Initiative 16 organizing consumers to demand textbooks printed on recycled paper. But like most of the environmental problems we talk about in class, there’s often a better alternative. In our case, we dispensed 17 the textbook altogether. That might just be the answer.
1 2 3
6 7 8 9
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Part II Listening 2 Now work through the text more slowly with your partner, discussing what words could possibly go in the gaps, and why. Discuss the clues you use to help you. 3 In groups, compare your answers and your experience of doing the task. Tell the others about:
• • • •
the gaps which were relatively easy the gaps you found particularly difﬁcult the clues you found helpful, and the strategies you used possible ways that you could improve your understanding of how texts work grammatically
5 Look back at your notes from Unit 4D, when you discussed the experience of listening to audio and video. Decide on one strategy that you are going to use this time to help you understand the text you are going to hear. 6 A You are going to listen to students and teachers talking about a project they did together. First, read the nine questions and underline the words you think are important.
1 When deciding to build an outdoor classroom, how did the students ﬁnd out if this was a good idea? 2 How long did it take to build the outdoor classroom? 3 What do students observe when they are in the outdoor classroom? 4 In what three ways is Illinois different from what it used to be? 5 What two things are teachers encouraged to do when they come to the summer programme? 6 What do the students do after school that stops them from being outside? 7 What different kinds of student activities are possible in the open classroom? 8 Do classes studying mathematics use the outdoor class time to relax? 9 What positive message can students take away from the experience?
4 Read through the text once more by yourself. Underline words you found difﬁcult to understand, and write one or two on the board. Discuss with the class the clues in the context which could help you to understand the overall meaning.
B With a partner, compare your ideas.
1 From your reading of the questions, say: • what is the project that students and teachers have been doing? • in which state of the USA is this happening? 2 Discuss your guesses about all the answers. 7
Listen to the recording. You will hear it twice, so don’t panic if you don’t understand everything when you ﬁrst listen. Answer the questions.
8 In groups, compare your answers and your experience of doing the task. Tell the others about your particular strategy and what success you had with it.
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Watch the video and talk with others about your reactions to it. Did you enjoy seeing the classroom you had heard about? What do you think of the students’ project? Would there be any drawbacks in having such a classroom in your own school situation?
B With your partner, match these meanings (a–f) with the words or expressions (1–6).
• Relative clauses, revised • Adverbial clauses • Linking words and expressions • Writing essays 5: concluding
a b c d e f
10A Replacing and repairing with ience that deals Bionics is the sc body, ng parts of the replacing missi ing ntists are mak ie sc t n ia ll ri b and still it, though they in es d ri st t ea ral gr match the natu to le b a n ee b haven’t umans. body parts of h
1 A These sentences are about two stories: one about a ‘bionic hand’ (H), the other about a ‘bionic eye’ (E). With a partner, label the sentences H or E. Help each other with unfamiliar words. Look them up in a dictionary if you need to.
1 We take opening a bag for granted, but it’s a challenge for an amputee. 2 A ﬁreﬁghter needs a bionic prosthesis, because he wants to get back to work. 3 Surgeons are ﬁtting bionic aids to people who were blind. 4 The bionic prosthesis responds to tiny signals sent from the brain to the muscles. 5 These people had inherited a disease that destroys light-sensitive cells. 6 A tiny metal plate of electrodes was implanted into the retina. 7 It may allow a patient to tighten his grip simply by thinking about it. 8 A small video camera beams images to the electrodes, where the images are picked up and sent via the optic nerve to the brain. 9 It also allows patients to use more digits than they could with other prostheses. 10 Patients wear a small unit at their waist so that power is provided to process the images. 11 While it doesn’t reproduce natural vision, the system enables the viewing of basic images and research is ongoing to improve it. 12 Let’s face it: there’s a long way to go!
take for granted an amputation the retina digits a prosthesis the optic nerve
1 the removal of a part of the body 2 the part at the back of the eye that sends light signals to the brain, which interprets them to allow sight 3 to be so familiar with an action or thing that you don’t think about it 4 the large nerve that transports light signals from the retina to the brain 5 an artiﬁcial body part 6 ﬁngers 2
Listen to a radio programme, and answer the questions.
1 What can the bionic hand do better than older prostheses? 2 Tick the everyday tasks the programme says an amputee can do with the help of a bionic hand. cleaning doing up shoe laces driving a car writing working in the kitchen getting dressed buttoning up a jacket playing the piano 3 What are the drawbacks of the new technology?
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B Read the descriptions of adverbial clauses, and say which sentences in activity 5A (including the example sentence) illustrate them.
Adverbial clauses are of many kinds, like adverbs, and give more information about: • purpose (after so that, in order that ...) as in sentences . • reason (after because, as, since, so ...) as in sentences . • degree (after more/less/fewer ... than) as in sentence . • place (after where, wherever ...) as in sentence . • concession (after although/though, while, as long as, even if/though, in spite of ...) as in sentence .
Now listen to a description of the bionic eye. List the things that previously blind people may now be able to do.
4 A Read the sentences and complete the gaps.
A Surgeons are ﬁtting bionic aids to people who were blind. B The prosthesis, which responds to tiny signals, may give him a good grip. 1
6 Combine the sentences into one. Use relative clauses and/or adverbial clauses.
1 Some people have had a leg amputated above the knee. There is now a bionic prosthesis for them. 2 The bionic knee offers new levels of performance. A person may need to bend and straighten their knee. The knee allows them to do this. 3 The bionic knee uses tiny artiﬁcial sensors. The sensors analyse the knee a thousand times per second. The patient can then adjust the movement of the prosthetic limb. 4 The knee learns how to move. When that happens, the movement of one leg can be synchronised with the other. The purpose is a smoother style of walking. 5 Scientists are still working on the design. Many amputees have already been helped to a more active life by current models.
Sentence A has a relative clause: , that adds necessary information about the noun . This kind of clause is called a clause. Sentence B has a relative clause: , that adds extra information about the noun . This kind of clause is called a clause.
B Link the two sentences using a deﬁning or non-deﬁning relative clause. Label your sentences D or ND.
1 A former ﬁreﬁghter has a bionic hand. It helps him to open bags. 2 He hopes that the new hand will let him grip a hose. The new hand is better than his ﬁrst prosthesis. 3 With only one hand, it is difﬁcult to achieve the tasks. Often people take these tasks for granted. 4 The cost is still high. The cost includes ﬁtting and physiotherapy. 5 The company hopes to achieve success on the market. The company produces the bionic hand.
G 31 Deﬁning and non-deﬁning relative clauses
Bionics, which is the science of replacing body parts, has already helped many people who have had their limbs amputated. 32 Adverbial clauses of: concession: Although scientists are still working on the design,
many amputees have already been helped to a more active life by current models. degree: The bionic hand gives amputees a much ﬁrmer grip than they had with previous prostheses. purpose: A camera is worn at the waist so that power is provided to process the images. place: Signals are sent to the brain, where they are recognised as images. reason: Because so many people need these bionic aids, there is a growing market for them.
5 A Read the following sentences. In each one, there is an adverbial clause that provides more information about the main clause. Underline the adverbial clauses.
vThe prosthesis gives him a good grip so that he can lift the hose.
1 A ﬁreﬁghter needs a bionic prosthesis, because he wants to get back to work. 2 The bionic hand allows patients to grip more tightly than they could with other prostheses. 3 A camera beams images to the electrodes, where the images are picked up. 4 As this is such new technology, there is still a long way to go. 5 Patients wear a small unit at their waist so that power is provided to process the images. 6 While it doesn’t reproduce natural vision, the system enables the viewing of basic images.
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10B What does it mean to be human? 1 Discuss the qualities that make us human. Consider these. Add your own ideas. Choose three, and rank them 1, 2, 3, with 1 being the most important.
a b c d e f g h
our ability to stand upright our emotions/feelings our relationships with others our ability to communicate in speech our ability to make tools our problem-solving abilities our love for others our understanding of abstract concepts
2 Read texts A and B, and with a partner, make a list of ideas in them, under these two headings. Add your own ideas to the two headings.
Positive sides of new developments: Negative sides of new developments:
Robots, androids, and bionic people pervade popular culture, from classics like Frankenstein to modern tales such as The Six Million Dollar Man, or The Terminator. Our fascination is obvious and the technology is quickly moving from books and ﬁlms to real life.
ILU IIL LU LU
An exoskeleton suit, so called because it is worn outside the body, and designed to give average humans superhuman strength and abilities, is now going into mass production. News of this system hit the headlines several years back, but only now have various manufacturers really started to produce it in commercial numbers. It’s easy to see the reason for this delay: while the design is quite exciting, what’s the actual market demand for a suit like this, anyway?
There are of course a lot of people with mobility problems, and neither the cost, nor the technical problems will halt developments that could provide immense improvements to their lives. Furthermore, many elderly people, or those engaged in heavy industry, would welcome the extra movement and strength offered by the bodysuit.
In a lab at MIT, scientists and technicians have created an artiﬁcial being named COG. On the one hand, it is just amazing to watch COG interact with the environment: we have to recognise that this machine has actual body language. On the other, the experience is a hair-raising, gutlevel reaction. Not only do we connect almost automatically to artiﬁcial people in ﬁction, but the merest hint of human-like action or appearance invariably engages us. At the same time, however, it sends shivers down our spine. Technology is inexorably driving us to a new and different level of humanity. Some scientists are drawing on nanotechnology, molecular biology, and artiﬁcial intelligence as they learn how to create beings that move, think, and look like people. Others are using sophisticated techniques to implant computer chips into our bodies. They are also designing man-made body parts that really work, and linking human brains with computers to make people healthier, smarter, and stronger.
In fact, the cybernetic bodysuit not only allows greater freedom of movement, it also increases the user’s strength by up to ten times, so that people are able to lift extremely heavy objects. The way it works is this: specially designed pads on parts of the body pick up tiny bioelectrical signals, and those are able to move the suit and provide strength. Of course, costs are still high, but think of the beneﬁts. Not only does the suit not harm the user in any way, but, more importantly, it provides the pleasure of amazing other people by showing off this new, superhuman strength.
In short, we are going beyond what was once only science ﬁction to create bionic people with fully integrated artiﬁcial components and it will not be long before we reach the ultimate goal of constructing a completely synthetic human-like being. It seems quintessentially human to look beyond our natural limitations. Science has long been the lens through which we squint to discern our future. Although we are rightfully fearful about manipulating the boundaries between animate and inanimate, the beneﬁts are too great to ignore. Looking at where technology is taking us, in directions both wonderful and terrible, we cannot help but ponder what it means to be human.
3 A Look through the texts again and list:
5 You are going to write an essay.
Step 1: Choose topic A or B. A Bionics is the most exciting of all sciences right now. B Advances in bionics undermine the concept of being human. Step 2: Prepare and write down your ideas. Discuss your topic with a friend, revise the unit, do further research on the topic. Re-read the advice on writing in the Work with it! sections of this module. Step 3: Make a plan of the essay. Write a brief note on your introduction, the content of 2–3 paragraphs, and your conclusion. Don’t forget that an essay is always more convincing if you consider opinions contrary to the main ones you are intending to argue. Step 4: Write the essay.
eight other linking words or expressions of balance, like not only, but ...: , , , , , , , b two expressions used to add information: , c one expression used to summarise ideas: B Notice the sentence structures in which these linking words or expressions occur. Write four sentences, using the notes you made in activity 2, and linking them with an expression you’ve listed in activity 3A. Compare with others.
Work with it!
Writing essays 5: concluding 4 A Look at these expressions for the end of an essay. Which can be used to summarise points made? Which to offer a concluding thought?
In conclusion On the whole, then ... It can thus be shown/seen that ... Taking all these points into consideration, it could be concluded that ... e Finally, f In short, g All in all, h To conclude, i In brief, j To sum up,
G 37a, c, d Words/expressions of: balance: On the one hand, bionics is helping amputees. On the
other, it is bringing the frightening dream of artiﬁcial human beings one step closer to reality. addition: There is always the fear of creating monsters, and, in addition, wasting precious research funds on unnecessary robots. conclusion: Having reviewed all the arguments, we can safely conclude that we must be cautious when we interfere with nature.
a b c d
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B Look at these recommendations for writing conclusions. Complete each with one or two of the expressions (a–g).
1 Stick to the topic and ... 2 Go back to your introduction: if it asked questions, answer them. In short, mirror the ideas in your introduction but ... 3 Summarise points made very briefly, but avoid ... 4 It’s a good idea to add recommendations if you have any and ... 5 Finally remember to make your conclusion ... a b c d e f g
point to future developments bring in new ideas. restating any of the ideas discussed or don’t simply repeat the actual words. striking and interesting don’t go off track or repeating words or expressions you’ve already used in the essay
Module 2 Read this! Dizzying moments Part I
1 Think of a moment of time which was truly memorable for you, and which you don’t mind talking about. Work with two or three other students. They have to guess the moment you’ve chosen by asking you yes/no questions. You can give them three clues. They can ask no more than three questions after each clue. When you’ve all had a go, talk about your memories, how you felt at the time and how you feel now.
vClue 1: It was after I’d been trying for a long time. Clue 2: I kept falling off. Clue 3: I felt extraordinarily proud of myself. 2 Read a short story about a dizzying moment. The author is the Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges and the story is set in South America. With a partner, number the six sentence beginnings (a–f) to show their place in the narrative.
a b c d e f
There he stopped His eyes shone with joy Then, long years later Without hesitating I wonder what he felt A boy disappeared
The Captive, by Jorge Luis Borges The story is told in Junin or in Tapalqué. 1 after an Indian attack. People said the Indians had kidnapped him. His parents searched for him in vain. 2 , a soldier who came from the interior told them about an Indian with blue eyes who might well be their son. At length they found him (the chronicle has lost the circumstances and I will not invent what I do not know) and thought they recognized him. The man, buffeted by the wilderness and the barbaric life, no longer knew how to understand the words of his mother tongue, but indifferent and docile, he let himself be led home. 3 , perhaps because the others stopped. He looked at the door as if he did not know what it was for. Then suddenly he lowered his head, let out a shout, ran across the entrance way and the two long patios, and plunged into the kitchen. 4 , he sank his arm into the blackened chimney and pulled out the little horn-handled knife he had hidden there as a boy. 5 and his parents wept because they had found their son. Perhaps this recollection was followed by others, but the Indian could not live within walls, and one day he went in search of his wilderness. 6 in that dizzying moment when past and present became one. I wonder whether the lost son was reborn and died in that instant of ecstasy; and whether he ever managed to recognize, if only as an infant or a dog does, his parents and his home.
Listen and check your answers.
4 Tick A or B to show the meaning of the sentences.
1 They searched for him in vain. A They found him. B They didn’t ﬁnd him. 2 At length they found him. A They found him quickly. B It took them a long time to ﬁnd him. 3 The man was buffeted by the wilderness and the barbaric life. A He had lived a comfortable life. B He had led a hard life. 4 Indifferent and docile, he let himself be led home. A He didn’t really care whether he went or not. B He wanted to go home. 5 He plunged into the kitchen. A He ran straight into the kitchen. B He walked slowly into the kitchen. 6 He sank his arm into the blackened chimney. A He felt carefully around in the chimney. B He quickly put his arm far down the chimney. 7 He pulled out a little knife he had hidden there as a boy. A He found a new toy. B He found a precious possession from his childhood. 8 Perhaps this recollection was followed by others. A He may have remembered some things from his boyhood. B He remembered his boyhood quite well.
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5 A Discuss these questions with others.
1 What do you think the lost boy felt in that ‘dizzying moment when past and present became one’? Imagine that you are the lost boy: help each other to describe your feelings. List some words or expressions on the board. 2 What were the parents’ feelings when the Indian could no longer live within walls? Imagine that you are the mother or father: help each other to describe your feelings. List some words or expressions on the board. 3 What would you do if you were the Indian: would you leave again? What would you do if you were the parents: would you go in search of the boy again? 4 How important is family to you? Are family bonds more or less important than freedom for children to develop in a way that is appropriate for them? B Short stories often end with a ‘twist in the tail’: a surprise ending. With a partner, discuss your answers to these questions.
1 What in the last paragraph could be a ‘twist in the tail’? 2 Do you like the last part? Give reasons. 6 Choose one of the writing options: A or B.
A Write the diary entry made by the mother or father of the Indian the day after he leaves them in search of his wilderness. Are you mostly sad or angry with him? Can you forgive him for leaving? Do you hope he will come back? Are you glad that you found him or doubly sad that you lost him a second time? B Write a letter to the parents from a government interpreter who visits the Indian’s tribe. He meets the lost boy, who tells the ofﬁcial his story and asks him to write for him, since he can’t speak the parents’ language or write. He wants to tell the parents why he had to leave, and to say what he feels about them and about his life. Part II
7 A Quickly read the extract taken from the beginning of a novel. With a partner, write as many details as you can.
• • • •
Dust drifted with each footstep. He limped across the desert, following the suited ﬁgure in front. The gun was quiet in his hands. They must be nearly there; the noise of distant surf boomed through the helmet soundﬁeld. They were approaching a tall dune from which they ought to be able to see the coast. Somehow he had survived; he had not expected to. It was bright and hot and dry outside, but inside the suit he was shielded from the sun and the baking air: cosseted and cool. One edge of the helmet visor was dark, where it had taken a hit, and the right leg ﬂexed awkwardly, also damaged, making him limp, but otherwise he’d been lucky. The last time they’d been attacked had been a kilometre back, and now they were nearly out of range. The ﬂight of missiles cleared the nearest ridge in a glittering arc. He saw them late because of the damaged visor. He thought the missiles had already started ﬁring, but it was only the sunlight reﬂecting on their sleek bodies. The ﬂight dipped and swung together, like a ﬂock of birds. When they did start ﬁring it was signalled by strobing red pulses of light. He raised his gun to ﬁre back; the other suited ﬁgures in the group had already started ﬁring. Some dived to the dusty desert ﬂoor, others dropped to one knee. He was the only one standing. The missiles swerved again, turning all at once and then splitting up to take different directions. Dust puffed around his feet as shots fell close. He tried to aim at one of the small machines, but they moved startlingly quickly, and the gun felt large and awkward in his hands. His suit chimed over the distant noise of ﬁring and the shouts of the other people; lights winked inside his helmet, detailing the damage. The suit shook and his right leg went suddenly numb. “Wake up, Gurgeh” Yay laughed, alongside him. She swivelled on one knee as two of the small missiles swung suddenly at their section of the group, sensing that was where it was weakest. Gurgeh saw the machines coming, but the gun sang wildly in his hands, and seemed always to be aiming at where the missiles had just been. The two machines darted for the space between him and Yay. One of the missiles ﬂashed once and disintegrated; Yay shouted, exulting. The other missile swung between them; she lashed out with her foot, trying to kick it. Gurgeh turned awkwardly to ﬁre at it, accidentally scattering ﬁre over Yay’s suit as he did so. He heard her cry out and then curse. She staggered, but brought the gun round; fountains of dust burst around the second missile as it turned to face them again, its red pulses lighting up his suit and ﬁlling his visor with darkness. He felt numb from the neck down and crumpled to the ground. It went black and very quiet.
Where is the action happening? (the setting) Who are the people? (the characters) What are the characters wearing and carrying? What are they doing? (the action, the plot)
B Read the extract again. Put these events in the right order.
a Yay laughs and implies he’s been asleep. b Suddenly, a lot of missiles appear over the sand hills. c Gurgeh ﬁres at the machine but hits Yay by mistake. d Gurgeh is the only one standing. e The machine comes towards them again. f Gurgeh is limping across the desert, towards the coast. g Gurgeh’s suit lights up, he feels numb and falls to the ground. h Two machines head for Gurgeh and Yay. i The group of people ﬁre at the missiles, and some fall. j Yay calls out and swears. k Yay destroys one of them. l Gurgeh’s right leg is hit. 8 A You are going to dramatise the scene you’ve read, as a twominute video preview of the television series to be made of the book.
Step 1: You will need two persons to play Gurgeh and Yay, and one to be the director. Half the rest of the class will play the other suited ﬁgures struggling across the desert sands, and half will be the missiles. If you can, ﬁnd a large free space in which to enact the battle. Step 2: Have a ﬁrst rehearsal of the action. Follow the sequence of events you re-ordered in activity 7B. The director: discuss with Gurgeh and Yay how they should play their parts. The two groups: discuss amongst yourselves and with the director how best to perform the battle. Two of the missiles have special parts to play towards the end of the scene. Ask your teacher to time you so that you perform the action in or under two minutes. Step 3: Play the scene. Record it as a video, if possible.
9 A You are going to hear the beginning of the novel, which comes just before the extract you’ve been working with. Read the sentences, then listen and complete them.
This is the story of a man who went far away for a long time, just to . The man is a game-player called ‘Gurgeh’. The story starts with a battle that is and ends with a game that is . Me? I’ll tell you about me later. This is how the story begins.
In the novel, what kind of a battle is the one you’ve just B dramatised? Compare your ideas with others. Then listen to the extract you’ve read. Can you pick up any clues as to the kind of battle Gurgeh is engaged in? Make notes as you listen and read. There is an extra sentence at the end of the extract that is a ‘twist in the tail’ and provides a major clue.
B Add to this list of possible adjectives and expressions to make viewers of the preview want to see the series. Then write a short ‘voice-over’ commentary.
Don’t miss ... If you see just one movie this year, it’s got to be ... The ﬁlm everybody’s been talking about ... exciting adventure ... action and suspense ...
10 Choose one of the writing options: A or B.
A Write an email to your e-friend in Australia, describing the part you played in the dramatisation of The Player of Games. Explain what the story is about so far, and say why you would or would not like to read the book.
CMYK B What do you think happens next in the book? A interviews Gurgeh and Yay to ﬁnd out what 10/100/90/0reporter happened, what they feel, and what they intend to do
now. Write the dialogue between the reporter, Gurgeh and Yay.
Published on Feb 17, 2011