HOUSE RULES HOUSE RULES HKU 2019 THESIS IVAN CHENG CONTROLLED INCREMENTAL HOUSING PROJECT HKU 2019 THESIS CHENG TAK HEI, IVAN 3035055078
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This thesis project acts both as a capstone for the architectural education I received in the University of Hong Kong in the past six years, as well as a springboard towards the professional goal I wish to pursue in the future. At this important juncture of my life, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to my family members and fellow classmates, who supported me through challenges I encountered in these six years. I would like to thank Mr Gao Yan, for being a supportive thesis advisor through the semester. He is a very experienced educator as well as practitioner in the field of mass customization and computational methods. He is very resourceful, as he invited structural engineers to provide solutions for thesis students in our group and provided a lot of relevant readings. The thesis will never come to fruition without his patience and timely assistance. I would like to thank Dr Cole Roskam, for leading the pre-thesis seminar, the list of coursework was really helpful for me to construct my thesis argument. I would to thank Mr Christian Lange for leading an elective on clay printing by robotic arms. It was in his course when I was inspired to address the issue of homogeneity by computational methods. I would also like to thank Professor Nasrine Seraji, for leading a summer elective in Paris, in which I was given a chance to sketch building elevations and meditate on the role of the building envelope as a provider of identity to the inhabitants within the building. Last but not least, I would like to thank the following friends who helped with models and construct the thesis project out of the drawing board: Bo Yee Lau, Fung Hiu Ying Melody, Chan Ka Chun Tom, Chan Jia Ao, Veronica Lam and Alaa Sleiteen. As a disclaimer, I am the sole author for all creative and design parts of this thesis. Cheng Tak Hei, Ivan --2--
FACES OF DENSITY, MICHAEL WOLF
HABRAKEN ON DWELLINGS AND DWELLERS
FACADE AND IDENTITY
LESSONS FROM MEGASTRUCTURE MOVEMENT
SHEK KIP MEI ESTATE AND THE EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC HOUSING
NAM CHEONG NEW DISTRICT
EXPANDABLE UNIT DESIGN & RESEARCH
MASSING, BLOCK DESIGN & RESEARCH
REESEARCH ON SHAPE GRAMMAR
THIRD QUARTILE REVIEW FIRST AUTOMATIC SIMULATION
SECOND AUTOMATIC AND MANUAL SIMULATION
POLICY : ABOLISMENT OF ALIENATION INTO PRIVATE
5. WHO FINAL (PUBLIC) REVIEW
NEWLY WED COUPLES
MULTIGENERATIONAL LIVING FOR ELDERLIES
HOUSE (Fig.1) Reconstructed Swiss chalet village on the Alpines
ABSTRACT The replacement of houses by housing under high density urbanization subverted the original relationship between dwellers and dwellings, according to John Habraken. (Habraken, 1972, 10)
In the age of ‘houses’, dwellers were able to optimize ‘dwellings’ for their own needs, yet in the ‘housing’ age, dwellings became static objects based on the repetition of plans prescribed by the architect, which dwellers have to adapt, or migrate to elsewhere.
In order to challenge the homogeneity of housing, and re-empower the dwellers in customizing the envelopes of their dwellings, the thesis envisions a new type of housing composed of ‘shell units’, each of which has an expansion zone, for future extensions by third parties under changing spatial needs.
The architect, was proposed with another role apart from designing the hardware infrastructure ( cores and structures and shell units), but also the designer of the software , which is a set of ‘house-rules’ which controls expansion patterns.
RULES (Fig 2) Reconstructed Park Tower, Tin hau, Hong Kong
The house-rules are essentially the buildingâ€™s genetic information. The architects have to simulate and test the effect of the rules when they are applied in mass number in an unsynchronized way. The â€˜house-rulesâ€™ will be revised and perfected after each iterations.
Both computational and manual simulations were proposed during the thesis exploration. First, the human instincts were employed to create spatially viable unit iterations based on the rule set. Parametric tools were then employed to procedurally populate manually generated units onto the main structure, before applying a wide variety of dynamic components, e.g. balconies, fenestrations and terraces, according to dimensional ranges set by the algorithm.
Public housings in Hong Kong (including rental units and subsidized sales units) were taken as the test subjects for the thesis in an endeavour to achieve a strategically planned automatic housing designed with neither top down nor bottom up design approaches, but with an optimal balance of the two.
( Fig. 3) #39, Architecture of Density, Wolf
(Fig.4) #91, Architecture of Density, Wolf
FACE OF DENSITY The collection of photographs in the series ‘Architecture of Density’ by Michael Wolf is one of the best representations of repetitive cityscape in Hong Kong. Wolf shot this series of claustrophobic building elevations of mass housing with a telephoto lens at a distance, creating a peculiar perspective compression that rendered the image flat like a front elevation drawn in orthographic projection. In most of his images, Wolf deliberately cropped the profile of the building, which turned these elevations into seamless texture that could be tiled limitlessly throughout the city. (Wolf, 2012)
Wolf’s image emphasized on the inevitable uniformity ensued from urban density in the mass housing era, where people live on top of another on the same footprint.
John Habraken, ( 1928-)
(Fig.5) Levels of decision making by Habraken
HABRAKEN: DWELLINGS AND DWELLERS For John Habraken, uniformity of mass housing is not merely an issue of aesthetics, but also a ‘symptom’ from the social point of view, uniformity severed the natural interdependence relationship between the dweller and dwelling. (Habraken, 1972, 9) Dwellers should be able to alter his living envelope to meet his demand, and the dwellings should be a representation of human activities within. The mass housing, on the other hand, is not a design by the dweller, but rather by the architect who designed these ‘perfected barracks’ (Habraken, 1972, 13) based on his intended way of living. In other words, the actual dwellers become the involuntary players, who are not able to make any changes to the static object prescribed by the architect. If inhabitants’ spatial demand grew out of the capacity of the unit, they can do nothing but to change to move to another dwelling, like a hermit crab hunting for another another shell.
(Fig. 6) Supervisory Alliance for the Welfare of public rental housings, publishing their findings
URBAN DIASPORA The diaspora endured by the inhabitants is not conducive to the development of neighbourhood, and may cause agitation when they struggle to adapt the new environment.
Under the current transfer system of pubic rental units, inhabitants are allowed to transfer units if there are a demographic change in the household size. He may apply for transferring to a larger unit if there is an increase in family members. If he has a decrease in family members, he will be required to turn in the larger flats in exchange for a smaller one. Nonetheless, due to the limited rental units for circulation, there is a significant chance where rental unit members might be transferred to an estate outside of the original district the inhabitant belonged. A survey by the Supervisory Alliance for the Welfare of public rental housings ( Ming Pao, 2019), revealed that most inhabitants who underwent cross-district transfer of unit presented anxiety and frustrations in adapting to the non-familiar neighbourhood, and re-building social network. Tenants who transferred to a unit within their district are 20% less frustrated.
If the envelopes of the units are not static, but could be extended flexibly within the structural capacity. Inhabitants will be provided with an alternative to reside in place under changing spatial needs, without the hassles of readapting in a new neighbourhood.
(Fig.7) 1:100 Facade Evolution
FACADE & IDENTITY The faรงade, as the outer skin of a dwelling, represents the identity of the dweller. In the premass housing era, inhabitants were able to determine the degree of transparency, open-ness and surface finishing to suit their interests. When studying on the evolution of building elevations in Hong Kong from 1950-2000, it was realized that the building faรงade became gradually impervious to the expression of internal activities.
Fig8. 4th Generation Tong Lau, Jordan, Hong Kong , 1950s
Fig9. Metropole Building, North Point, 1972
1940-1950 Tong Laus built in 1950s, were distinctive with
Terraces and veranda became luxuries in this
their expansive verandahs projecting from
period under the population pressure from
the main faรงade with a maximum distance of
mainland migrants who entered Hong Kong
3.5 meters, according to the 1935 building
from 1950-70 from Chinese Civil War. Under
ordinance. (Wong,2003, 298 ) Verandahs of
the Building Ordinance regulations in 1955,
Older generations of Tong Lau were designed
buildings were measured by volumes according
with Verandahs supported by columns spaced
to their site area, . (Xue, Charlie, 2016, 57),
by about 3.5-4.5 m. ( Chu, 2012 ). Yet these
therefore the building faรงade tended to flush the
columns were not required, when reinforced
allowable building envelope.
concrete, which was able to cantilever long
Inhabitants can customize the elevation of
distances, became the main construction material
their units, for example fixing zinc canopies,
for Tong Laus in 1935,(HKIA, 2012,7 )
customizing window frames, placing air
The owner of the units can enclose part of their
conditioners, laundry racks, or even signages
veradah, converting it into an indoor space.
for their kinship associations, dental clinic or
They can also employ commercially available
religious centres, created by altering their unit.
materials, for example window frames or grills to customize new enclosure.
Fig 10. Facade of Heng Fa Chuen, East Hong Kong Island, 1985
Fig 11. Imperial Kennedy, Kennedy Town, 2016
The Building (planning) Regulations in 1962
The GFA exemptions for bay window was
replaced the original volumetric control as a
abolished in 2012 by the building regulations
measurement parameter of building to plot
(Buildings Department, 2012), the exemption
ratio and site coverage. (Wong,2003, 324),
was granted to utility platforms and balconies
this marked the end of bulky building, and the
(Buildings Department, Lands Department, 2011
start of spatially efficient types, for example
), by the authority to promote green building
cruciform and trident.
features. In 2017, area occupied by the material
In 1980s, Bay windows were exempted from
thickness of curtain wall can be exempted from
gross floor area calculations . (Xue, Charlie,
GFA, curtain wall hence become the major
2016, 105), they therefore became the major
building material for new private housing
architectural features for developer to maximize
estates. (Buildings Department, 2017)
The reflective surface of the curtain wall became
The architect also defined locations of air
impervious to reflect the differences between
conditioner pods and laundry rack locations for
different units. Inhabitants are unable to express
the inhabitants, for example Heng Fa Cheun,
themselves, because the proprietary curtain
built in 1985
wall cannot be replaced by any third party components.
Fig 13. First Review presentation panel
Some reviewers were not convinced by the idea of introducing a flexible system, featured in Metabolism in the high density Hong Kong. They commented that the idea of flexbility had been raised repeatedly throughout the course of history. I should therefore take a unique perspective to the issue of flexibility.
I should conduct a thorough research on forefathers who worked on the similar idea, and try to understand the lessons and challenges they underwent. The flexibility preached by metabolism is very relevant in the contemporary urban landscape, yet one of the reasons for the failure of the movement might be the fact that fabrication technology could not keep up with the concept.
When we revisit idea with the application of present technology, we could easily simulate cities that are complex systems with shape grammar algorithms. These are already applied in modelling environments in video game, but lesser applied in the architectural field. Other gaming engines are able gamify the process of mass customization and allow future inhabitants to contribute at the early stage of design.
With my proficiency in parametric tools, I believe I could shed a new light onto the issue of flexibility with my thesis and contribute to the discourse.
On a separate note, a critic worried about the legal liabilities issue that might happen if third party contractors could be hired to create unit extensions. There will be no single party to be held responsible if accident happened.
I think it was too soon to consider the practicalities at this conceptual stage, and I believe that if open buildings became the dominant type of housing, there will be insurance plans and case-laws that helped resolve the issue.
Fig. 14 Aerial Footage of Marrakech houses by Bernard Rudolfsky
Fig. 15 1960 Tenement houses in Causeway Bay are local examples of ‘accidental megastructure, a term coined by Reyner Banham
MEGASTRUCTURE MOVEMENT The spontaneous and organic aggregate expressed in vernacular buildings , for example, abovementioned tong laus from 1940-50, triggered a debate after the world wars, on whether or not the architect should share creative right with the users.
After the World wars, designers began to lose faith in technology and modernity promised by modernist architecture, they began looking into regionalist architecture that resulted over time. Bernard Rudofsky’s ‘Architecture without architects, in 1964 is a retrospective on vernacular architecture that emerges organically over time expressing ingenuity of local solutions. (Fig 14) (Rudolfsky, 1987)
The concept of a vertical city in which that the architect design the permanent infrastructure that enables flexible increments by the inhabitants reverberated through different avant-garde ideas in the 1960s. These megastructure could be vastly divided into three types, the lattice, for example fun palace by Cedric Price in 1965, The linear slab, for example city in the air by Isozaki in 1962, and point block, e.g. Capsule Tower by Kurokawa in 1972.
MATERIAL REDUNDANCY VOLUMETRIC REDUNDANCY
Fig. 16 Fun Palace (1965) Cedric Price
MATERIAL REDUNDANCY VOLUMETRIC REDUNDANCY
Fig. 17 Joint core system (1962) Arata Isozaki
MATERIAL REDUNDANCY VOLUMETRIC REDUNDANCY PLOT RATIO
Fig 18. Nakagin Capsule Tower (1972) Kisho Kurokawa
Fig. 19. Reyner Banham, (1922-1988)
Fig. 20. Mario Carpo (1958-)
LOSS OF AUTHORSHIP AND CONTROL Utopian Ideas in Megastructure, on the other hand were criticized by architectural critics, for example Reyner Banham expressed concerns on the loss of control of the architect over the built form in a megastructure which poised to expand without limits. (Banham, 1976) The lost of architect’s control posed two major threat: From the functional point of view, the inhabitants will expand their dwellings in an ad-hoc way, the result would be a disorganized dystopian tumor like vertical slum like Kowloon walled city, or tower of David in Caracas.
From the disciplinary point of view, Mario Carpo believes mass participation enabled by the megastructure will eventually lead to the demise of architectural profession. Under his proposed ‘Alberti’s authorial Paradigm,’ the authorship of the architect forms the basis of profession. The drawings by the architect serve as the instrument to convey his idea to the builders. Hence, the architect will be lost if his power is divided among users. (Carpo, 2017)
Fig. 21. City of Anarchy, Kowloon Walled City under the ad-hoc additions by inhabitants.
SUMMARY OF MEGASTRUCTURE The flexibility expressed by megastructure movement is highly relevant under the mass housing era, where architect’s are unable to predict the vast variety of spatial needs within the building. In order harness the spatial flexibility to enable customization by users, a control mechanism under the architect’s command is of paramount importance but is lesser discussed by designers in the megastructure movement, who emphasized more on the image and design of the infrastructure. The rule-set is crucial in preserving the architect’s authorship, and maintaining the spatial order prescribed by the architect.
CONCLUSION FOR WHY Uniformity of mass housing in Hong Kong presents two major social issues. Firstly, the inhabitants are unable to customize the elevation, it creates an identity issue among inhabitants as well as a dull streetscape. Secondly, since the static building plan does not tolerate changing spatial needs, therefore the spatial inflexibility will also cause frequent migration, which causes agitations. The symptom of uniformity worsens in contemporary mass housing under current regulations. In order to grant agency for users to modify the unit, a ‘rule-set’ by the architect to govern increments is as important as the static infrastructure.
WHERE SHAM SHUI PO-SHEK KIP MEI ESTATE Sham Shui Po was the birthplace of public housing. Mei Ho House, was the remnant of the first batch of eight ‘Mark 1’ resettlement blocks made of reinforced concrete built in 1954 to house immigrants living in squatter areas by the hillside of shek kip mei, which was devastated by fire in 1953. (Housing Authority, 2009). The government constructed another 21 estates from 1954-1962. The cluster formed Shek Kip Mei Estate, one of the earliest public housing estate in Hong Kong Since then, Shek Kip Mei Estate oversaw the evolution of public housing, from standardized block to non-standard blocks specific to site.
Since then, Shek Kip Mei Estate oversaw the evolution of public housing, from standardized block to non-standard blocks specific to site from 1950s to 2010s. Between 1977-1983, the government replaced part of the ‘Mark I’ estates with the standardized ‘old slab type’, to extend and modernize the estate. All blocks were standardized, until 2007 when the government launched the first phase of renovation. Two unique housing blocks were constructed to fit the shape of the site at the slope. In 2008, the government created a library of modular flat design to normalize the construction of sitespecific public housing estates in an expedient way. The method was first tested in Lower Ngau Tau Kok Estate in 2012. (Transport and Housing Bureau, 2013) The modular library was employed to all the nine new non-standard blocks built in renovation phase 2, 5, 6,7and 3. Completed between 2012-2019. These towers are designed with different shapes and height, blocks built in phase 2 and 5 are respectively of Y-shape and cruciform shape. The two blocks built in phase 6 and 7 are with half the height. The government also created another library of modular flats for subsidized sales housing in 2011, soon after the home ownerships scheme was resumed that year since was halted in 2002. Hoi Lok Court, for example. Is one of the second batch of subsidized sales units that was constructed with the modular unit library. It is located in Nam Cheong, a new district reclaimed in 1990s at the (Transport and Housing Bureau, 2013)
MEI YIN COURT
Fig. 22. Aerial map of Shek Kip Mei Estate.
MEI YU COURT
MEI YING COURT
MEI HEI COURT
MEI LEUNG COURT
MEI WUI COURT
MEI PAK COURT
MEI SHING COURT
PHASE 5 2016
PHASE 6 2020
PHASE 2 2012
PHASE 1 2007
OLD DISTRICT WHERE
1954 SHEK KIP MEI RESETTLEMENT
1977-1979 SHEK KIP MEI ESTATE NEW DISTRICT NEW SLAB
2007 SHEK KIP MEI ESTATE RENOVATION PHASE 1
SITE SPECIFIC TYPE
2012 SHEK KIP MEI ESTATE RENOVATION PHASE 2
Implementation of modular unit system
2016 SHEK KIP MEI ESTATE RENOVATION PHASE 5
2018 SHEK KIP MEI ESTATE RENOVATION PHASE 3
2018 HOI YING ESTATE
2019 HOI LOK COURT
Fig. 23. Evolution of public housing in Hong Kong
Fig. 24. Breaking down the modular units to its constituent geometry.
ROAD TO CUSTOMIZATION The evolution of Shek Kip Mei Estate showed the authority’s effort in advancing beyond the standardized ‘cookie-cutters’ block, by implementation of modular unit library. The library is suitable for estates of various sizes, shapes and even values. In fact, the library could be updated with new modules devised from each consecutive housing project, for example, the government revised the library in 2013, with the addition of unit variants with noise barriers after the completion of Wing Cheong Estate, another new estate in Sham Shui Po. (Housing Authority , 2015)
WHERE PUBLIC RENTAL HOUSING (HOUSING AUTHORITY)
SUBSIDIZED HOUSING (HOUSING AUTHORITY)
Fig. 25. Mapping of Public Housing (Rental and HOS flats) in Sham Shui Po
HOUSING THE FUTURE Apart from its past history, Sham Shui Po will still be the district with most public housing in the near future. According to official data, the housing authority is planning to construct about 13 public housing estates with a total number of 17100 units between 2017- 2022. (LegCo, 2018) within the district. The number accounted for one-fourth of the total planned units to be built in Hong Kong within this period. The number of units planned to be built in Sham Shui Po is even more than that in other urban districts (Kun Tong, Wong Wai Sin and Eastern district) combined. Therefore, it is both meaningful and practical to enact a new typology of public housing in Sham Shui Po, as a next chapter to the journey of customization in public housing, which the authority already attained on the block level. This thesis project envisions a next generation of public housing to be customizable at the unit level, where all the units are unique and responsive to the needs of their specific inhabitants.
BUILDING SITE The building is located in Nam Cheong, a reclaimed land at the shoreline of Sham Shui Po, which was constructed in 1990s.
HOI LOK COURT
HOI YING COURT
YEAR of 2019flats under the Home YEAR 2018 On the North Eastern site, the site abutts Lai Tsui Court, one of the first batch UNITS: 2522 HEIGHT: 40-42
UNITS: 1399 HEIGHT: 40-42
Ownership Scheme. It abuts Sham Shui Po Park on the South Eastern side. It abuts West Kowloon Court building on the South Western side, and finally a wholesale market on North Western side.
CULLINAN WEST YEAR 2017 UNITS: 2256 HEIGHT: 14-50
FU CHEONG ESTATE
WING CHEONG ESTATE
YEAR 2001 UNITS: 6000 HEIGHT: 16/41
YEAR 2013 UNITS: 1500 HEIGHT: 40
1:2000 SITE MODEL HOI TAT ESTATE
HOI LAI ESTATE
YEAR 2022 UNITS:1000 HEIGHT: 39
YEAR 2022 UNITS:1000 HEIGHT: 39
YEAR 2005 UNITS: 2256 HEIGHT: 50
AQUA MARINE YEAR 2003 UNITS: 1616 HEIGHT: 47
SPARKLE YEAR 2008 UNITS: 400 HEIGHT: 49
WH CHEU OL NG ESA SH LE A WA MA RK N ET
LAI TSUI COURT
YEAR 2018 UNITS: 2545 HEIGHT: 41/36
SHAM SHIU PO PARK
WING CHEONG ESTATE YEAR 2013 UNITS: 1500 HEIGHT: 40
LAI TSUI COURT YEAR 2018 UNITS: 2545 HEIGHT: 41/36
YEAR 2008 UNITS: 400 HEIGHT: 49
YEAR 2003 UNITS: 1616 HEIGHT: 47
HOI LAI ESTATE
HOI TAT ESTATE
YEAR 2004 UNITS: 2538 HEIGHT: 41
YEAR 2022 UNITS:1000 HEIGHT: 39
1:2000 SITE MODEL
FU CHEONG ESTATE YEAR 2001 UNITS: 6000 HEIGHT: 16/41
NAM CHEONG STATION CULLINAN WEST YEAR 2017 UNITS: 2256 HEIGHT: 14-50
CHEUNG SHA WAN
HOI YING COURT
HOI LOK COURT
YEAR 2018 UNITS: 1399 HEIGHT: 40-42
YEAR 2019 UNITS: 2522 HEIGHT: 40-42
INTRODUCTION: HOW As mentioned in the conclusion of WHY, under the new system, the architect has to assume two roles, that is the designer of the hardware infrastructure and creator of the software, ‘house-rules’ which controls the growth pattern of inhabitants when the agency was provided to them for modifying the flat. Accordingly, the section of HOW is divided into two parts respectively for the design of infrastructure and the ‘house-rules’. Each part begins with a research on precedents, followed by a design solution. The genealogy of design was written as clearly as possible to reveal the design process.
1. The stripped-down joint cores system with circulation cores connected by corridors
2. Shell units are applied to the static structure
The hardware infrastructure can be further broken down into unit design and block design. Precedents of spatial extension were researched prior to the unit design, where as the research on open-buildings form the basis for the block design.
The design of the software, also the ‘house-rules’ forms the core of the thesis. The design of the rules-set was supported by the research on Christopher Alexander’s theory and shape grammar in the computer graphics industry.
SOFTWARE : HOUSE-RULES
3. Extended units aggregating onto the structure
4. Increments made by inhabitants as highlighted in orange
HOW HARDWARE: SHELL UNITS The design stage begins at the unit scale. A total of five unit types were extracted from the existing modular unit library to form ‘shell units’ which are constructed together with the building infrastructure. These units are only built with fundamental utilities, for example plumbing, gas and electricity lines, the exterior walls and interiors are not constructed with the shell units, but are addons by the inhabitants during the fitting-out stage. Each of these units are designed with an expansion zone with a depth between 2m and 2.5m offset from the main elevation that faces open air. Units which face open air on two orientations have greater ‘development potential’ than those with only one orientation. Inhabitants are able to create projections with the ‘drawer system’ into the expansion zone, after purchasing aerial footprint from the authority. The first iterations of shell units (Fig.26) were designed to be volumetrically prefabricated, yet this will increase the thickness of the floor slab and decreases the headroom within the unit. The volumetrically prefabricated units also require columns to support itself, The continuous expansion zone will therefore be discontinued by columns. In the second iterations, shell units were redesigned to be constructed together with the main structure with slabs casted in situ. The large continuous floor plate have a great capacity to cantilever the depth of the room, this eliminated the columns within the units, allowing expansions to be possible even at the corners.
(Fig.26) First iteration of Five Shell Units, designed to be volumetrically prefabricated, with columns and discontinuous expansion zone
HARDWARE SECOND ITERATIONS OF SHELL UNITS
MIDGET Default Area : 19sqm Expandable area : 8sqm Maximum area : 27 sqm Expansion Ratio: 1.4 No. of orientations: 1
SMALL Default Area : 22sqm Expandable area : 18sqm Maximum area : 40 sqm Expansion Ratio: 1.8 No. of orientations: 2
Default Area : 25sqm Expandable area : 13sqm Maximum area : 38 sqm Expansion Ratio: 1.4 No. of orientations: 1
Default Area : 32sqm Expandable area : 22sqm Maximum area : 54 sqm Expansion Ratio: 1.6 No. of orientations: 2
EXTRA LARGE Default Area : 49sqm Expandable area : 31sqm Maximum area : 80 sqm Expansion Ratio: 1.6 No. of orientations: 2
DRAWER SYSTEM OF EXTENSION The Nakagin Capsule Tower built in Tokyo, 1972 and Tower of David in Caracas, are two structures of flexibility which were studied when devising a system for extension. Studying the capsule tower in Tokyo, one of the greatest problems was that the design of living pods are proprietary, which prohibited any participation of the users, this became counter-intuitive to the architect’s original motives, because it is inflexible and uneconomical. In order to replace a worn out living pod, the inhabitants have to contact the supplier who, might already has closed down the production line some twenty years ago after the completion of the tower. Tower David in Caracas, Venezuela, on the other hand, is the exact of opposite of capsule tower. The tower was a left over concrete structure after the construction was halted under economic pressure. Squatters used found materials to create enclosures for their own dwellings. The organization of tower David is haphazard, yet it demonstrate an expedience quality, that could be learnt when designing the expansion mechanism for proposed incremental housing project. The ‘drawer-system’ was proposed as the means of extension. It employs the light gauge steel frame structure insulated with foam, and finished with cement fibre as the structural framework for the projection. Under the drawer system, prefabricated parts of the projection will be transported into the flat, it will be assembled within the unit before pushing out from the elevation. The level difference between the ‘drawer’ will be offset by false floorings and ceilings.
Contractors hired by inhabitants for spatial extension have to strictly follow the structural details and construction method prescribed by the architect, otherwise they are not allowed to commence the project.
Fig. 27 Nakagin Capsule Tower, 1972, Kurokawa
Fig. 28 Tower of David, 1990, Caracas
DRAWER SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION This is a quick demonstration on how to convert a 1 room for single occupant to a 2 room flat for a family of three. It is an example of a corner extension 2. DEMOLISH EXTERNAL WALL
1. SINGLE PERSON FLAT
Scaffoldings are required.
7. PUSH INTO PLACE Connect the two pieces together before pushing.
8. THREE PERSON FLAT
4. STEEL FRAME, INSULATION The frame will be welded, insulated and cladded within the unit
3. MOVE PIECES INTO FLAT Pieces have to be cut into dimensions that can pass through the door
5. PUSH INTO PLACE Ball bearings under the steel cage will ease the process. The guiding rail (red) will prevent the modules from being pushed off the slab
6. REPEAT 3-5 FOR MODULE 2
Fig. 29. 41 Sims Drive, an estate after MUP
Fig. 30. Sims Drive, plan
MAIN UPGRADE PROGRAM (1989) -SINGAPORE The Main upgrade programme was implemented in 1989 by the Singaporean government to upgrade HDB flats with age 20 years or above. More than 131,000 households underwent the upgrade programme. Within the programme, inhabitants within a block can decide, by polling, on whether or not to add as much as 6sqm of space-adding-items, which is usually a utility room. (Au-Yong, 2018)
Fig. 31. Law Maker Tony Tze suggesting the addition of units at both ends of the corridor in old slab.
Fig. 32.Old estate before cantilevered additions
Fig. 33. Old estate after additions ( concept rendering)
PARASITIC INTERIM HOUSING (FUTURE)-HONG KONG Tony Tse, law maker from the Architectural, Surveying, Planning and Landscape functional constituency, suggested to cantilever interim housing onto existing shear walls of old public housing. He claimed that according to the structural study he conducted earlier, there are about 70% of old public housing that are structurally sound for the cantilevered addition. Since the parasitic addition does not involve heavy construction work on foundation and structure, it is rather cheap and quick to construct. He calculated estimated that the extension program is applied to all old estates, the government would be able to produce 20 thousand more units within five years. (Chan, 2018 )
PRECEDENTS-OPEN BUILDINGS Open Buildings was a term coined by John Habraken in his book Supports: An Alternative to Mass Housing, published in 1961 in Dutch. It proposed as new workflow to empower inhabitant’s creative contribution to their dwellings. (Habraken, 1972) The idea was further expanded by Stephan Kendall, professor from Ball State University, who actively document different Open buildings in his website.
1972 La Mémé, Brussels
1980 Ökohaus, Berlin
Fig. 34. La Mémé, after completion
Fig. 36. Southeast facade, Ökohaus
Fig. 35. La Mémé, during construction
Fig. 37. Ökohaus, during construction
Université Catholique de Louvain
Lucien Kroll and University Students
Frei Otto and Inhabitants
HARDWARE The European equivalent of the open building project would be Spatial Agency, launched Jeremy Till and Tatjana Schneider, who expanded on ideas by Cedric Price documenting participatory architecture in Europe. Four open-buildings are chosen from the sites of Spatial Agency and Open Buildings, as precedents to study the design of the building infrastructure, the level of flexibility they provide and their mode of ownership. These examples provided crucial information for subsequent design stages.
2011 Tila Loft , Helsinki
1994 Next 21, Osaka
Fig. 38. NEXT 21
Fig. 40. Tila external terraces
Fig. 39. Ă–kohaus, during construction
Fig. 41. Loft unit, before fitting out
Condominium (for sale)
Osaka Gas Corporation
Yositika Utida, Shu Ko Sha and 11 other archtiects
La MéMé, Lucien Kroll(1972)
OKOHAUS, FREI OTTO (1980)
La MéMé was a student complex for medical
The German word ‘Okohaus’ means Eco-house,
faculty of Catholic University of Louvain. Under
it expresses Frei-Otto’s passion towards ecology
influence of Henri Lefebvre, who believes that
not only in terms of nature, but also from social
social space should be a product collectively
aspects, he wished that participants would be
achieved by different players.
able to create their own house in a multi-storey
Kroll was approached by student for an
alternative design to the monotonous building
He therefore posted an notice on newspaper to
by the university, after intense consultation
invite 18 families who were interested to form a
with the users, he came up with a building with
Co-op for funding the project. A lot of participants,
fragmented look that reflected the contributions
who were mostly designers, applied. (offbeats,
of many voices.
He employed a structural system which he
Frei Otto, who once called himself ‘anti-architect’
called, ‘wandering columns’, ( Kroll, 1987
expressed minimal control over the inhabitants
). Which are essentially a flat slab structure
decision, all parts of the double height unit,
supported by columns which arrangements did
including the envelope, was customizable.
not follow a defined pattern. His idea was to
However, occupants had to share the financial
dissipate any sense of order nor control exerted
burden of each other under Co-op ownership
by the architect.
model, and they did not anticipate the overrun in
Inhabitants were also allowed to change the
cost and time by the project.
windows to whatever sizes that suits their needs. --42--
NEXT 21 , Yoshitika Utida (1994)
Tila loft, Talli Architect , (2011)
Next 21 is a staff residence of Osaka Gas
Tila apartment is a commercial version of open
Company. It is a 2-step housing with infrastructure buildings, each of the 39 loft are essentially designed by a chief architect, and infills designed
double height shell spaces with outlet for kitchen
by 13 different architects. Compared to Okohaus
equipment and two bathrooms, the rest was left to
and La meme, Next 21 follows a stricter set of
the inhabitants to subdivide the volume into two
rules for customization. For example the façade
connecting units, or add a mezzanine level.
could only be optimized from a library of panels.
The architect designed a do-it-yourself kit, which
is comprised of gallery floor and partition walls,
Since it is under ownership of a single corporation, for the inhabitants to readapt their living space subsequent alterations can be executed more
during the fitting out period. The DIY kit also had
to pass through the government’s vetting process.
On a separate note, the infrastructure of the
building is packed with technology to maximize
Inhabitants are only allowed to optimize the
the level of flexibility. For example, it is designed
interior but not the façade nor the envelope.
with a flexible pipe system underneath the floor that allows water closets, to be freely arranged. The project also emphasizes on sustainability and conservation of energy.
1972 La Mémé, Brussels
1980 Ökohaus, Berlin
BEDROOMS (WITHOUT TOILETS) SUITES DUPLEXES
CUSTOMIZABLE ENVELOPE INTERNAL PARTITION
REGULATED BY CODE SET BY ARCHITECT
FREELY CHOSEN BY THE INHABITANT, UNDER LAISSEZ FAIRE CONTROL OF THE ARCHITECT
2011 Tila Loft , Helsinki
1994 Next 21, Osaka
FLEXBILE MEZZANINE LEVELS
INHABITANTS CHOSE FACADE UNITS FROM PRE-DESIGNED MODULE CATALOGUE
UNIFORM FACADE MODULES
QUICK FINANCING IN-HOUSE DESIGNER & MAINTENAINCE TEAM MIGHT BE PRESENT SINGLE ORGANIZATION ARE EASIER TO CONDUCT AND MANAGE ALTERATIONS.
ASSOCIATION / ORGANIZATION BUILDING ARCHITECT INFILL DESIGNER
NOT DE FACTO USER PARTICIPATION NO OWNERSHIP
AUTHORITY YEAR 1
FULL USER PARTICIPATION USER OVERSEE PROJECT FROM START TO COMPLETION
LENGTHY FUNDING PROCEDURES REQUIRES COMMITMENT MUTUAL FINANCIAL LIABILITIES NO FIXED BUDGET AND DURATIONS
CONDOMINIUM QUICK FINANCING IN DESIGN STAGE USERS ARE FREE TO CREATE UNITS INDEPENDENTLY
ASSOCIATION / ORGANIZATION BUILDING ARCHITECT
USERS CAN PURCHASE FLAT WITHIN FIXED BUDGET ‘SUPPORT CONTRACTOR’
SMALL POOL OF CAPITAL AUTHORITY
USER PARTICIPATION ONLY STARTS AFTER COMPLETION OF STRUCTURE
CONTRACTOR ‘SUPPORT CONTRACTOR’
INFILL CONTRACTOR ‘SUPPORT CONTRACTOR’
INFILL DESIGNER INFILL CONTRACTOR
MID TERM REVIEW
MIDTERM REVIEW After presenting my thesis argument, some reviewer were concerned about the authorship of architect. I therefore should justify the thesis method by futher developing the rule-set into a greater resolution in the later design stages.
Best of the time from first review to mid term review was spent on researching on precedents, for example Open buildings and megastructure in order to understand the genealogy of idea. Some juries suggested me to look at local examples, which I already researched on before first review, to draw closer reference to the situation of Hong Kong.
Apart from the architectural aspect, I also looked into the ownership model of the megastructure. Nonetheless, some reviewers believed that me, with my background in architecture, was not equipped with the faculty and knowledge to comment or draw conclusion from perspectives of other expertise. They suggested that I should focus on the architectural aspect instead.
I agree to their comment to a small extent. There are many factors which can determine the success or failure of a project, cannot be controlled or expected by the architect with his own knowledge. For example, Kurokawaâ€™s capsule tower fell into disrepair, since the proprietory objects he designed were not easily replaceable; Frei Ottoâ€™s Eco house became another typical static housing project, since the second batch of owners simply will not spend a fortune to demolish the dwellings designed and built by the first generation.
MID TERM REVIEW
Therefore, the thesis should also include research on issues outside the discipline, e.g. regulations and ownership system ,to form a solid basis for subsequent design stage.
One of the reviewers commented that the system cannot be supported by the current mortgage system. An inhabitant cannot alleviate his financial pressure from mortgage by simply demolishing part of his house. I believe there will be such a mortgage system if the flexible housing becomes a dominant type in the market.
Some were not convinced that the building would be able to shrink through time, since demolition of an extended part is costly, they would rather move to another place to suit their changing needs.
I think whether or not the flexible housing can shrink depends largely on the ownership model. NEXT 21, which is a staff quarter of Osaka Gas Company, which owns the building, was able to undergo several changes. This is probably because the sole corporate ownership made it easy to mobilize capital and make decisions than a cluster of owners.
Apart from that, technology could played an important role in the system. If technology enables rapid installment and dettachments of the the extended part without much cost, it will be more likely to realize the flexible housing designers of the megastructure movement and metabolism had been wishing for.
LINEAR SLAB TOWER
The slab tower was planned from to outset to follow a zig zag shape to fit a longer corridor within the length of the site.
Hoi Ying Estate,2018
Cuts were made at the upper middle part of the wings to separate the continuous tower slabs into individual towers. Wings were extended out on the high zone, creating cruciform towers.
Hoi Lok Court, 2019
MASSING PROBAGATION Apart from the shell units, the design of the building block also stems from the existing system. It was based on the generic continuous slab tower type
Transitional zone are designed with a formal gradation.
which is a dominant type in the new generation of public housing. The slab tower was comprised of four wings connected by five cores. The angular distance between the wings were optimized in order to maximize the average unobstructed viewing field
Sky gardens lined up in the middle of the wing for cross ventilation, and demarcation of towers.
of the units. The optimization process was carried out with the assistance of parametric tools, which selected the angular iteration that maximize the overall distance of units to neighbouring building blocks, the illumination by reflected light for each
Sky gardens shifted along the length of the wings to blur the demarcation of towers.
unit can therefore be maximized.
ANGULAR OPTIMIZATION OF WINGS TO MAXIMIZE VIEW FACTOR #1
SCENIC COEFFICIENT: 38.8
SCENIC COEFFICIENT: 38.0
SCENIC COEFFICIENT: 44.1
SCENIC COEFFICIENT: 46.0
VERTICAL ZONING The building was divided into two zones, the lower zone was designed to be smaller public rental units with lower value. They were connected by a continuous long corridor in a highly efficient way. Most of the units can be extended in one orientation, only a minority could be extended in two orientations. They followed the â€˜catalogue mode of extensionâ€™ which will be discussed in details in the later chapter.
Ascending from low zone to high zone, the continuous slab bifurcated into three individual towers with cruciform plans, these units werer designed to be high-valued subsidized units for ownership. Without a continuous corridor, these units had greater privacy, and most have two orientations for expansions.
DEMARCATION LINE The demarcation line between low zone and high zone was marked by a double height transfer / refuge floor, which also act as a communal sky garden. The height of the demarcation zone depended on the context. On the south eastern elevation, which faces Sham Shui Po Park, provided desirable scenery, the demarcation line was hence significantly lower, meaning there were fewer rental units and more subsidized sales flats on the upper zone.
SOUTH EAST ELEVATION
Low zone ( rental units)
LAI TSUI COURT YEAR 2018 UNITS: 2545 HEIGHT: 41/36
WEST KOWLOON COURT BUILDING
SHAM SHUI PO PARK
HARDWARE On the North western elevation, the demarcation line was higher, since it faced the Cheung Sha Wan Wholesale market which was scheduled to be demolished for another public housing estate. A majority of units on this elevation was therefore rental units.
The demarcation line on both elevation slanted diagonally from North East direction to South West direction. Since the block abuts a tall public housing estate on North East, (Lai Tsui Court), and the West Kowloon Law Court Building, which is a mid height building, on South West direction.
SOUTH EAST ELEVATION
Low zone ( rental units)
LAI TSUI COURT
WEST KOWLOON COURT BUILDING
YEAR 2018 UNITS: 2545 HEIGHT: 41/36
CHEONG SHA WAN WHOLESALE MAREKT
MASSING ITERATIONS Three massing iterations that stemmed from the generic slab block type were investigated before arriving at final one, each with a different formal gesture and hence different implications to the context.
HARDWARE The four iterations could be divided into two groups. The first two iterations were designed with circulation core located in the middle of the wing. The corners where two wings joined were therefore freed from the solid core, creating interesting spatial moment for the sky gardens. Yet this formal strategy reduced the separation between the towers.
HOW The last two iterations were designed with circulation core located at the junction or the end points of the wings. It gave a clearer tectonic relationship of a joint core system, which was similar to Isozakiâ€™s joint core system (Fig.17) It also maximized the distance between towers on the high zone, they were therefore deemed to be more suitable options.
HARDWARE Before the zig-zag plan came into picture, arched shape plan was considered, as seen in #1 iteration. The massing however created a large open area on the side facing Sham Shui Po park, which was too vast to be intimate enclosure for inhabitants to gather and mingle. Zigzag form was finally adopted to create two small pockets gardens on the south east side, and one on the north west side.
TRANSFER ZONES The transfer zones on each wings were connected to form a continuous void that acted as a demarcation through the whole length of the block. Two types of transfers were designed, the typical one was an array of double height frames and the other is a variant which shifts level in the middle of its length. The frames are specially designed to allow transfer of plumbing pipes from the large units above to smaller rental units below.
REFERENCE: PATTERN LANGUAGE Christopher Alexander was one of the forefathers in rule-based design to control the creative autonomy of inhabitants who participated in designing an urban fabric. His idea was to create an overall coherence with individually unique parts piecemealed together. He coined the term â€˜pattern languageâ€™ , which are essentially spatial rules to that guides the aggregation of individual cells. He believes that a city should not be designed, but grown with a designed logic , (Alexander, Neis, Anninou & King, 1987,19). He suggested that the pattern language will accumulate and evolve through time according to contextual contingencies. With his idea, he designed the master plan of the Oregon University campus in 1975 in a bottom up manner with the participation of users groups instead of professionals.
Fig. 42 Christopher Alexander (1936- present )
Fig. 43 A Pattern Language (1977)
Fig. 44 University of Oregon, venue for Oregon Experiment
Fig. 45 Oregon Experiment (1972)
SHAPE GRAMMAR FAVELA Matthias Buehler mapped a favela in a different way. He first teased out important essence from a favela, for example massing strategies, types of fenestrations, types of add-ons. The then encode the pattern of existence of these objects to a computer before growing a virtual Favela in a reconstructed topography. (Buehler, 2014)
1. Obtain genetic information
3. Grow and propagate
Massing of Favela
Fig. 48 Indicator for populating balconies and other facade features
Fig. 46 Final ‘spawned’ image of Favela
Fig. 49 Library of objects for population
Fig. 50 Library of fenestrations
Fig.47 Final ‘spawned’ image of Favela
SHAPE GRAMMAR KAI PING VILLAGE A generative doodling exercise on the Kai Ping Village, inspired by Matthias favela project, completed during the prethesis course.
Fig 51. Chi kan Old village in Kai Ping
SIMULATION AS THE NEW DRAWING The traditional architect used drawings to convey his finalized idea to clients. Yet the role of drawings will soon become obsolete if the architect is designing a rule-based complex system with spatial logic defined. Simulation would be more appropriate as it involves a random population process, which constitute the crucial, indeterminant part of the system. A rendering or drawing by the architectâ€™s hand would be less appropriate as they are fully under the control of the architect. The simulated image could represent the building state at a certain time frame. It could also be animated to represent the evolution of unit massing over a period of time under various factors the architect might predict.
ANIMATED SIMULATION Since the flexible housing solution is dynamic, a simple animation was created to visualize how the envelope of the building will morph according to changes in unit sizes Instead of following a purely random trend, the housing prices and average household sizes are identified to be two major trends that affects the size of the units. The animated simulation was based on four hypothetical assumptions. Firstly, the units were able to expand and shrink according to market changes, Secondly, the unit sizes have a proportional relationship with household size, if large households forms the majority of the demographics, demand for large units will be greater accordingly.
UNIT SIZE ` XS S
AVERAGE HOUSEHOLD SIZE
Thirdly. unit sizes are inversely proportional to the property prices, since people cannot afford large flats if the property prices are high, regardless of their household composition. Lastly, the changing rate of units is based on the fluctuations on property prices. The unit will change more rapidly if there were steep changes in property prices. By summing up the probabilities induced by both trends, the most probable size of the unit would be deduced at each instance on the timeline. The orange curve and blue curve represents invented two trends respectively for housing prices and average household size, for quick demonstrations. Normal distribution diagrams represents the probabilities of units sizes induced by the respective trends.
Fig. 52. Elevation of Pinnacle @ Duxton, Singapore
MODES OF EXTENSIONS Apart from the aforementioned differences in default unit area and their locations, subsidized sales units enjoy a greater autonomy than the rental housing units. The degree of autonomy is provided by the different modes of extensions they are subjected to.
Rental Units are subjected to the ‘Catalogue’ mode of extensions, which is very similar to the Pinnacle at Duxton, where potential buyers are allowed to choose one from a handful of designed options. This mode could be likened to a fast food shop, where a customer will choose a set meal out of the six available ones on the menu.
Subsidized Units on the other hand are subjected to ‘House-rules’, this could be likened to a buffet where inhabitants could mix and match the handful of dynamic components designed by the designer, customizing the dimensions and quantities to suit their demands.
SIMULATIONS Two sets of simulations were executed throughout the design stage, the first set was fully automatic, it was responsible for creating a coarse image of the complex system provided by the rule-set. The second one was a hybrid simulation with the participation of human intuition and reasoning. Throughout the two simulations, two catalogues of extension modules are devised for the public rental units, and two sets of ‘house-rules’ were created for the subsidized sales units. A large portion of effort was spent in encoding and simulating the ‘house-rules’ since it requires more sophisticating machine learning.
RENTAL UNITS: CATALOGUE METHOD
CATALOGUE : FIRST SIMULATION
CATALOGUE : SECOND SIMULATION
SIZE OF EXTENSION --73--
FIRST SIMULATION (FULLY AUTOMATIC) FIRST ITERATION
In the first iterations, units was only allowed to extend in their intercolumniations, with varying depths and width. The height of the projection is fixed at 2.7 m. Various dimensional and structural restrictions were included into the rule-set. The width to depth ratio of the projected boxes should not be smaller than 1. The minimal width for each projection boxes is 1m. Boxes had to adhere to either ends of the structural bay in order to gain structural strength. One fourth of the projection has to be within the shell units to provide counterbalance.
In the second iterations, more modes of extensions were allowed, instead of extending away from the elevations, users were able to employ inter-unit modules that could to span between two adjoining units on the same level or different levels, forming duplex or horizontally connected units, without the need of creating punctures on the prefabricated slabs or walls of the shell units. The extension modules had to comply to the minimal dimension of 1.5m in height, width or length in order to accommodate spiral staircase, or a horizontal passageway. In addition to the first iterations, the extension modules are allowed to vary in height, forming elevations features like bay windows and niches. Nonetheless, the variation in height for extension module was aborted in later design stage for tectonic simplicity.
FIRST SIMULATION (FULLY AUTOMATIC) cont’d The third advanced from massing to the articulations of fenestrations. Projection boxes were either finished as balconies, full height curtain walls or window walls depending on the degree of transparency the user would like to attain with the projection. It is expected that the South East elevation will be finished with more transparent curtain walls and balconies since the solar orientation is significantly better, and also due to the scenic values, i.e. It faces Sham Shui Po Park, the North Western elevation is likely to have a less transparent façade finished mostly with window walls.
THIRD ITERATION SE ELEVATION
THIRD QUARTILE REVIEW
By the third quartile review, the design of the building infrastructure was near completion, images of the first fully automatic simulation marked the beginning of second stage, that is the rule-set for unit growth.
The building infrastructure and massing strategy was presented at greater length and depth than the information regarding the unit growth, since the design of the infrastructure has reached greater maturity than the unit aggregates.
Therefore, one critic expressed confusion by the priorities of the two parts. He believed that the infrastructure design and unit aggregates are two separate thesis topics by themselves. He suggested that I should focus on either part for investigations.
After revising the thesis abstract, it is reiterated that the premise of the thesis is to suggest architects not only as designer of static infrastructure, but also rule-sets that governs incremental growth when inhabitants are empowered to do so. This new role of architect has been less explored in professional discourse compared to that â€˜architects as designers of
THIRD QUARTILE REVIEW
infrastructure’, which is a statement that was explored in depth by a number of scholars in the past, for example, the ‘support system’ by John Habraken.
Nonetheless, the units have inseparable relationship with the infrastructure, which formed the crucial base for testing the unit aggregation. Therefore, a sound and reasonable infrastructure has to be designed, yet should not be presented so lengthy that diverted the discussion from the unit aggregates to the infrastructure.
On a separate note, some of my fellow classmates found the design of the infrastructure and rendered facade image from the first iterations to be ‘mechanically looking’ and lack of personal subjectivity, since the outcome is a result of logical reasoning. Planar iterations generated by the computer was not a result of human sensibilities and intuition, it merely generatd a multitude of massing iterations that fulfills the requirements of the algorithm. It is fair to conclude that the elevation from the first simulation is a generative image of the façade under a complex system, with yet the considerations of internal spatial organizations.
PLANAR ITERATIONS GENERATED BY COMPUTER --85--
SECOND SIMULATION (AUTOMATIC+ MANUAL) Responding to the critics from the third quartile review, the second set of simulation was a result of both computational and manual process. The issue was taken from the userâ€™s perspective, contemplating how they would expand the unit under the prescribed rule-set by the architect.
MASSING ( MANUAL) The envelopes of the units are first designed with human intuition, before using parametric tools to aggregate them onto the main structure and assigning suitable fenestrations.
The expansions were made purely out of practical reasons that is to add the more of rooms to the existing unit to accommodate the growth of family size. The per capita inhabitable space,
PNAP-APP 130 Lighting and Ventilation Requirements
PRESCRIBED WINDOWS (ILLUMINATION) Total Aggregated Glazing Area > 1/10 of room area (VENTILATION) Total openable window Area > 1/16 of room area
DEPTH OF ROOM Depth of room < 12m **Remarks ** In the case of public housing, kitchen and toilets are considered as continuous space with living room to fulfill cross ventilation purposes
Building (Planning) Regulation 31(1) (c)
**Remarks ** Prescribed windows which does not face street of 4.5m width, should have a 21 sqm unobstructed horizontal plane area in front of window sill.
(square meters/ person) cannot be lower than 7sqm, which is the minimal inhabitable area in public rental housing. Inhabitants may apply to transfer in the living space improvement transfer scheme (Ho, 2015) to another larger units if per capita are falls below this minimal cap. During the extensions, a handful of existing building codes were taken into considerations, for example each room should be provided with windows that faces open air for illuminations and ventilations. The total aggregated glazing and openable window area should not be respectively less than 1/10 and 1/16 of the floor area of the room. (PNAP 130, Buildings Department, 2015 ) The extensions are also executed in a spatially efficient way, Rooms aggregates at the periphery of communal living area, e.g. dinning room and living room, which connects all the other rooms without the need of a corridor.
COMMUNAL AREAS CONNECTS TO ROOMS
Rooms : WC:
Rooms : WC:
65.6 sqm 6
40.5 sqm 5
HOW The result of the manually simulated plans are arranged in a table (Fig. 52) that presents extended units in relations to their respective capacity. Under the system of flexbile extension, units are no longer prescribed for a single demographic configuration, but with a bandwidth to household sizes that can fit into the expansion area. The bandwidth of units is determined not only by the default area, but also the number of orientations for expansion. The medium unit types for example, are able to accommodate family with 2-4 members, while the small unit types, though with a smaller default area, are able to accommodate up to 6 members, since it is able to be extended in two sides. Unit types with three expansion orientations was explored in the initial stage, (Fig. 53), yet it was considered to be too lavish for public operated subsidized housing, and therefore aborted in the subsequent design stage. The maximum household size that can be accommodated by the extra large unit is 7, yet units could be connected vertically or horizontally to accommodate a 14-member household, which
might be comprised of three affiliated family.
Fig. 52. Planar iterations generated manually according to rule set
Fig. 53. Early studies with units of three orientations
HOW LIVING ROOM FENESTRATIONS
SOFTWARE FENESTRATIONS The human intuition was also employed to define a catalogue of fenestrations and their specific locations responding to specific programs of the envelope. For bedrooms, which demanded higher degree of privacy, are finished with bay windows, extruded window pods or large extruded pods with planters. More transparent fenestrations were designed for living rooms, for example full height glazing/ balconies accessbile through glazed sliding doors. If the units are to be connected vertically with another unit to form duplex, the double height box must have to connect to the living rooms of both units. Inhabitants are allowed to choose fenestrations of different depths or transparency depending on their needs and availability of spaces. The catalogue of components and the menu to employ them is crucial to the stylistic coherence of the final building, therefore inhabitants are not allowed to use fenestrations that are outside this catalogue, or within the catalogue but in a way that deviated from the prescribed mode.
SECOND SIMULATIONS: AUTOMATIC POPULATION OF UNITS AND FENESTRATION ASSIGNMENT After contemplating the catalogue of dynamic components possible configurations of unit massing, parametric tools were employed to randomly populate these units onto the structure, and assigning fenestrations. A set of three iterations was generated to simulate scenarios of little expansions, medium expansion and maximum extension
POPULATION OF UNITS Unit variants are assigned to their corresponding ‘shell unit’ they belong. Under the scenario of little expansion, variants with small areas are given a greater chance to be selected for population, the otherwise happens under the ‘maximum extensions scenario’. Under the medium expansion, small and large variants stood equal chances of being populated onto the structure.
ASSIGNMENT OF FENESTRATIONS Fenestrations with dimensions that fit in the allowable range defined by the algorithm will be assigned randomly according to the prescribed logic. Dimensions and the articulations of fenestration varied according to various scenarios.
A. LITTLE EXTENSION
B. MEDIUM EXTENSION
C. MAXIMUM EXTENSION --93--
A. LITTLE EXPANSION CAUSE This stage is likely to occur at the early stages of settlement, where inhabitants just purchased the flat as a starter home, and their spatial demand is not great enough for a spatial extension. The situation could also happen if the economic factors, e.g. low earning power and high housing prices, made spatial extension hard.
FENESTRATIONS It is likely that fenestrations, including living rooms and bedrooms, will be designed of smaller depth and area under the austerity of space. Living rooms are likely to have full height windows, instead of balconies. It is also rare for these small units to have staircase modules to form duplex units.
AREA RANGE FOR BEDROOM OPENINGS
LIVING ROOM OPENING Full height glazing
The red and orange surface will be identified by computer as ‘living room’ and ‘bedrooms’ for assigning Minimum area
suitable fenestrations. BEDROOM OPENING Bay windows with little depth
B. MEDIUM EXPANSION CAUSE This stage is likely to occur at the mid stages of settlement, where inhabitantsâ€™ household sizes gradually increases, or they gathered enough capital for spatial extension. FENESTRATIONS Fenestrations will be designed with greater depth and sizes area under the provision of spaces of space. Living rooms are likely to have balconies or occasional staircase modules for the formation of duplex units. TERRACES The uneven extensions of the envelope creates large number of open or shaded terraces accessible from the unit above the extended flat.
AREA RANGE FOR BEDROOM OPENINGS
LIVING ROOM OPENING Balcony with medium depth
EXPANDED AREA CORE SHELL HOUSE
Minimum area BEDROOM OPENING Extruded box window with medium depth
C. MAXIMUM EXPANSION CAUSE This stage is likely to occur at the when the estate reached a state of saturation, where the unit extensions are maxed out, and full capacity of the structure is being utilized. It is likely to happen under market speculations, or population pressure. FENESTRATIONS Fenestrations will likely be of great depth and area with the generous extended space. Interunit modules frequently employed to form duplex in order to maximize the unit area. TERRACES When most units are extended to the max, there are little undulations on the surface of the envelope, and hence less occurence for terraces.
AREA RANGE FOR BEDROOM OPENINGS
LIVING ROOM OPENING Balcony with great depth
EXPANDED AREA CORE SHELL HOUSE
Minimum area BEDROOM OPENING Extruded box window with planter areas .
SOUTH EAST ELEVATION --100--
SIMUATED MANUALLY AND AUTOMATICALLY --101--
AUTOMATIC+ MANUALLY SIMULATED FACADE ( SECOND SIMULATIONS)
FULLY AUTOMATICALLY SIMULATED FACADE ( FIRST SIMULATIONS)
AUTOMATIC+ MANUALLY SIMULATED FACADE ( SECOND SIMULATIONS)
FULLY AUTOMATICALLY SIMULATED FACADE ( FIRST SIMULATIONS)
GOVERNMENT POLICY As previous critics doubted the reversibility of the growth process as shown in the animation during the mid term review. The current alienation policy was being researched, to find any possible scenario that could allow restoration the expanded unit into a default starter unit for people at the bottom of the housing ladder.
5 -YEAR ALIENATION POLICY According to the alienation policy by Housing Authority announced in 2018, Subsidized sales flats, ( including Home Ownership Scheme Flats) are subjected to 5-year alienation period, within which the owner is not allowed to resale or let the unit in open market, unless a premium approval was granted by the authority. During this period, the government will nominate a potential buyer from the subsidized housing queue, the owner is allowed to sell the unit within the upper price limit set by the authority. without having to pay premium to the government. After five-year Alienation Period, the owner is allowed to resell the subsidized flat into the open market after paying premium to the government. (Transport and housing Bureau, 2008). If units were allowed to be extended in a way this thesis suggested, it is likely that the units extension will be maxed out by speculators in the private market under the current alienation system. There will also be a loss of public housing flats into the private market, reducing the number of flats the government could circulate for people pending at the housing queue.
RETENTION OF SUBSIDIZED FLATS In order to limit the market factor, this thesis project suggested not to allow alienation of units to the private market at all. If the owner of a subsidized flat wish to sell the flat, he could only sell it to the nominated buyer within the price limit. The government, should also buy-back fully expanded units that are too large to be affordable for people in the housing queue, and restoring the units to its default size, as a starter flat for people in the housing queue. It is assumed that the cost of restoration and buy back can be recovered as subsequent user purchase the flat and aerial footprint for expansion in the future. --106--
CURRENT ALIENATION POLICY RESELL IN PRIVATE MARKET 5-YEAR ALIENATION PERIOD COUPLE
Within this period, owners are only allowed to sell to nominated buyers by the government in the HOS second hand market
QUEUE FOR SUBSIDIZED HOUSING PREMIUM
GOVERNMENT Under market forces, units can be easily abused and maxed out.
RETENTION OF SUBSIDIZED FLATS Extensions of flat to meet increasing spatial demand.
QUEUE FOR SUBSIDIZED HOUSING
If the expanded flat is to big to be affordable, government will buy-back and restore the unit to default.
If the expanded flat is suitable for the demographics within the queue. The government will nominate buyers to the owner
OPERATION LEGO Prior to the final presentation, when the model was still being constructed, a handful of fellow classmates and instructor expressed their curiosity and criticism on the choice of color of the model. Some believe that it is â€˜too colorful and cheerfulâ€™ to be an architectural model. The color of the units represents the shell unit type they belong: RED for small rental units, PURPLE for medium rental units, ORANGE for small subsidized units (one sided expansion) BROWN for medium subsidized units (two sided expansions)
YELLOW for large subsidized units (two sided expansions)
BLUE for extra large subsidized units (two sided expansions)
Therefore, model is a diagram that reflects the distribution of units in relation to their height, instead of a representational model of how the facade is rendered in reality.
On a separate note, the bright color was a reminiscence of lego, a toy that unleashes creative participation for everyone, with or without the knowledge of the architectural profession. A total of seven units were built with great details for visitors to pull out from the structure like drawers. The participation anticipated in this model reverberates with the central theme of the thesis, that is to give agency to the users in customization.
The flexible system proposed by this thesis could benefit people within the queue for public housing, including rental housing and subsidized sales housing, who are also looking for a starter home for the housing ladder. Yet newly-wed couples and elderlies are likely to be benefit most from this system if realized.
NEWLY WED COUPLES More than half of the couples agreed that their marriage plans are affected by high property prices, some of them delayed their marriage until they can earn enough to afford the unit (Knott, 2018). About 32% of newly wed couples decided to stay with their parents after marriage. In some cases, the couple even live separately with their respective parents. ( Leung, 2018) The property price affects the demographics, as the upset pattern of cohabitation is likely to be ensued a drop in birth rate, according to a study by Central Agency in 2018, current birth rate has reached a level below which the population could replenish itself. ( Cheung, 2018) The flexible housing system by itself could not make starter units affordable to newly-wed couples. It is believed to ease the home mortgage payment for couples when applied to subsidized sales flat, which are the easiest starter units planning to be sold at half the market price (Wong, 2018 ). When couples first move into a small starter flat, they will have to pay a down-payment. After they gave birth to kids, they could incrementally purchase aerial footprint for extension, according to the current property price.
Eventually the couple would end up with a medium sized flat that could fit the couple with their offspring. Yet if the couple decided to purchase the medium sized flat from the outset, they will face a more expensive down-payment than the one offered by the flexible housing scheme. Alternatively, the couple could begin with a small flat and decided to move to a medium sized unit after giving birth. Yet the monetary and psychological cost for migrating to another flat is likely to be more expensive than in place re-configuration method (Steel, 2018) proposed by the flexible housing scheme, assuming that property prices keeps on rising.
INTERGENERATIONAL LIVING Multigenerational living with elderlies is a rarity in the current household composition. According 2016 census data (Census and Statistics Department, 2016). Only 25% of married couple lives together with one of the spouseâ€™s parents. Only 17% of the married couple live with their parents after giving birth, living in a flat with three generation. Multi-generational co-living has been proposed in various places as a measure to ease pressure on housing and also welfare, as senior inhabitants can be offered support by younger generation. Similar policy was proposed in 2017 by president Carrie Lam, to allow elderly residents to rent out their surplus rooms to non-affiliated youngsters at a low price. The idea was to ease settlement issue among youngsters, and offer assistance to seniors. The idea was, however met with great social backlash. (Su, 2017) While the flexible housing scheme does not have the capacity to assist elderlies who lived on their own, it can help seniors with offspring, but unable to live together due to a lack of space in their flat. The flexible unit could be expanded to its full capacity, or even connected with adjacent units on the same level or level above to accommodate up to three affiliated families. In this case, the elderly would be able to age in place, with the care of younger generation in close proximities. Minors could also be taken care by the elderly during daytime when the couples are working during day time.
CONCLUSION FOR WHO To conclude, the flexible housing scheme proposed by this thesis can potentially be applied to address needs to particularly two groups of people: Newly-wed couples who are looking for a permanent place for settlement and expecting child; Seniors who had off spring but forced to live by themselves under the lack of space. The system provides in-place spatial expansion as an expedient alternative to moving out, which could pose as a financial and emotional burden to many.
WHO MARRIED COUPLE HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION OVER 50 YEARS (Assume they moved in right after marriage) Couple
Couple with one child
Couple with two children
Couple living with elderly parents
MULTI-GENERATIONAL LIVING (<25%)
Couple with one child living with elderly parents
11% Couple with two children living with elderly parents
FINAL ( PUBLIC ) REVIEW
FINAL (PUBLIC) REVIEW During the final review, one of critic Ana Miljacki agree with the thesisâ€™s intent to give agency to the people to challenge homogeneity of the elevation, and make the facade identifiable for each household.
Yet she believes that it is wishful thinking to believe that lay person inhabitants are willing to customize their units as architects do. And she does not believe that anyone would like to demolish the flat to its default state, after watching the animated simulation.
I would argue that, if the unit is treated as an instrument of public welfare, instead of property in the private market, the units would be circulated back to the housing queue as a starter home. With the advancement of construction technology, which could potentially allow projection to be erected/ demolished rapidly and without inducing great cost, it is reasonable for the government to remove additions to restore the units to its default starter home state.
Yarinda Bunnag believes that it is better to compare GFA of the units before and after the extensions. She believes by comparing with the original state is a better way to pitch the idea as a more suitable one. She also thinks that by twitching the mere 2 meters on a unit scale
FINAL ( PUBLIC ) REVIEW
does not do much to mass customization, and she suggested that I should choose another site with lower density for intervention.
Nonetheless, I am committed to work on public housing, the most stigmatized type of housing for homogeneity, and it would not be much of a challenge to attain mass customization in low density area.The mere 2 meters allowance in extension is already a breakthrough from the original static state where the elevation cannot be changed at all.
Critics, for example Paolo Tombesi, are not convinced by the â€˜drawer systemâ€™, as they believe that it is too lengthy for contractor to assemble the extension in the flat, wielding etc, and poses some practical issues, for example safety. I admit that the drawer system, with the currently expedient light gauge structure, would be too clumsy for assembly within a unit. I believe it is only a matter of time before the suitable technology emerges that can allow projections to be prefabricated in place, allowing lateral expansion. For example the introduction of reinforced concrete in tong lau in 1935 which allows a column-less cantilever distance of three meters, was a material unimaginable by early builders who used masonry and bricks as a primary construction material for Tong Lau.
Lastly, a critic suggested me to take reference to Tong Laus, which are designed with large terraces for further expansion. The idea he suggested had been thought of in the initial stage, yet that would induce a great downpayment, since the inhabitants are essentially buying the extra space from the outset, which make no difference from buying an existing typical flat.
BOOKS / PAPERS Alexander, C., & Center for Environmental Structure. (1977). A pattern language : Towns, buildings, construction (Series (Center for Environmental Structure) ; v. 2). New York: Oxford University Press. Alexander, C. Neis, Anninou & King. (1987). A new Theory of Urban Design. New York : Oxford University Press. page 19 Banham, R. (1976). Megastructure : Urban futures of the recent past. London: Thames and Hudson. CARPO, M. (2017). The Participatory Turn That Never Was. In The Second Digital Turn: Design Beyond Intelligence (pp. 131-144). CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS; LONDON, ENGLAND: Mit Press. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.eproxy.lib.hku.hk/stable/j.ctt1w0db6f.7
Chu, Cecilia. “Between Typologies and Representation: The Tong Lau and the Discourse of the ‘Chinese House.’” In Mrinalini Rajagopalan and Madhuri Desai, eds., Colonial Frames, Nationalist Histories: Imperial Legacies, Architecture, and Modernity, 253-283. Ashgate, 2012. Habraken, N. (1972). Supports : An alternative to mass housing. London: Architectural Press. Lucien Kroll, An architecture of Complexity ( Cambridge: MIT ,1987),42 Rudofsky, B., & Museum of Modern Art. (1987). Architecture without architects : A short introduction to non-pedigreed architecture. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Wolf, M., & Egan, N. (2012). Michael Wolf, architecture of density (2nd ed.). Hong Kong: Asia One Books. Wong Wah Seng, & University of Hong Kong. (2003). The effects of building regulations control on the design of private residential buildings. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong. page 301
Xue, C. (2016). Hong Kong Architecture 1945-2015: From Colonial to Global. Singapore: Springer Singapore.
NEWS PAPER CLIPPINGS Au-Yong, Rachel, (2018), Upgrading even the upgrading plan. Straits Times, 23 Sept, Available at https://www.straitstimes.com/sites/default/files/attachments/2018/09/23/st_20180923_ hdb23b_4298005_1.pdf Chan, Wei Yan (2018), Cantilevered interim housing to existing shear walls of old public housing, HK01 press, 05-01-2018, https://www.hk01.com/%E6%94%BF%E6%83%85/183896/%E5%9C%9F %E5%9C%B0%E5%A4%A7%E8%BE%AF%E8%AB%96-%E8%AC%9D%E5%81%89%E9%8A %93%E5%80%A1%E8%88%8A%E5%85%AC%E5%B1%8Blego%E5%BC%8F%E5%B5%8C%E 7%B5%84%E5%90%88%E5%B1%8B-5%E5%B9%B4%E4%BE%9B%E5%85%A9%E8%90%AC Cheung, Elizabeth, (2018). Here’s why Hong Kong’s low fertility rate poses a threat to its very future. South China Morning Post, Aug 16, 2018 Ho, Alfred. ( 2015). The unlivable dwellings in Hong Kong and the minimum living space. Hong Kong Free Press, July 27, 2015. Available from: https://www.hongkongfp.com/2015/07/27/theunlivable-dwellings-in-hong-kong-and-the-minimum-living-space/ Knott, Kylie. (2018). Unmarried or living in a micro flat: Hong Kong’s high property prices driving rise of tiny homes and delayed marriages-survey. South China Morning Post, march 21, 2018
Leung, Rachel. (2018). How Hong Kong is making it hard for young couples to make wedding plans and forces them to live apart after marriage. South China Morning Post, May 19, 2018. Ming Pao. (2019.3.10 ).Supervisory Alliance for the Welfare of public rental housings, publishing their findings. Ming Pao. Retrieved from https://news.mingpao.com/ins/%E6%B8%AF%E8%81%9E/ article/20190310/s00001/1552200915195/%E5%85%AC%E5%B1%8B%E6%88%B6%E8%B7%A8 %E5%8D%80%E6%90%AC%E9%81%B7%E5%BE%8C%E5%A3%93%E5%8A%9B%E5%A4% A7%E5%A2%9E-%E5%9C%98%E9%AB%94%E7%B1%B2%E5%B1%8B%E9%82%A8%E5%B0 %88%E8%B2%AC%E7%A4%BE%E5%B7%A5%E9%9A%8A%E6%81%86%E5%B8%B8%E5% 8C%96 Su, Xinqi, (2017). Idea of cross-generational Hong Kong flats with elderly resident and younger tenant not welcomed by both sides. South China Morning Post, Dec, 19, 2017 Wong, Olga, (2018). Flats nearly 50 percent cheaper for young couples and families among basket of measures to tackle Hong Kong housing crisis. South China Morning Post, Jun 29, 2018
GOVERNMENT PRESS RELEASE/ REGULATIONS
Buildings Department, Lands Department, Planning Department (2011). Joint Practice Note No.1 : Green and Innovative Building . HKSAR, Retrieved from https://www.bd.gov.hk/doc/en/resources/ codes-and-references/practice-notes-and-circular-letters/joint/JPN01.pdf Buildings Department. (2012). PNAP-APP-19: Projections in relation to Site Coverage and Plot Ratio Building (Planning) Regulations 20&21. HKSAR Buildings Department. (2015). PNAP-APP-130: Lighting and Ventilation Requirements-Performancebased Approach, Building (Planning) Regulations 30,31, 32. HKSAR Buildings Department. (2017). PNAP-APP-2: Calculations of Gross Floor Area and Non-accountable Gross Floor Area Building (Planning) Regulations 23 (3) (a) and (b). HKSAR Housing Authority , (2009). Historical Background of Shek Kip Mei Estate. Retrieved from https:// www.housingauthority.gov.hk/hdw/en/aboutus/events/community/heritage/about.html Housing Authority, (2015). Legislative Council panel on Housing: Design of New Public Housing Flats by the Hong Kong Housing Authority, June 15, available at https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr14-15/english/ panels/hg/papers/hg20150706cb1-1037-1-e.pdf Legislative Council Panel on Housing, (2009). Relaunching of Home Ownership Scheme and Revitalisation of HOS Secondary Market. Retrieved from https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr09-10/english/ panels/hg/papers/hg0503cb1-1751-10-e.pdf Legislative Council Panel on Housing, (2018). 2018/19-2022/23 Public housing construction schedule. Retrieved from https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr18-19/chinese/panels/hg/papers/hg20181203cb1-219-3-c. pdf
Transport and Housing Bureau ( 2008). Hong Kong: The Facts ( Housing). Available from: https:// www.thb.gov.hk/eng/psp/publications/housing/hongkongthefacts/index.htm Transport and Housing Bureau, HKSAR, (2013), modular flat design for public housing development of the hong kong housing authority.
OTHERS Buehler, Matthias, (2014.8.14), The Making of Favela, Article posted in the ronenbekerman Architectural Visualization Blog, Available at https://www.ronenbekerman.com/making-favela/ HKIA, Create Hong Kong & HKU . (2012). Liberal Studies Teaching Kit for Senior Secondary Curriculum, Hong Kong Today: Culture in Vernacular Architecture. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Architects, page 7
Kendall, Stephan ( 2004), Case Studies: Next 21, Osaka, Japan, 1994. Available at http://openbuilding.org/ob/next21.html Kendall, Stephan ( 2014), Report on the Tila Open Building Project in Helsinki. Available at http:// www.open-building.org/archives/TILA_OPEN_BUILDING_PROJECT_IN_HELSINKI.pdf
Steel, Jeffrey, (2018. 7) Ways to know whether to remodel your home or move. Bankrate. Available at https://www.bankrate.com/finance/real-estate/remodel-home-or-move-1.aspx, accessed on 12-6-2019
The offbeats, (unknown year), Building together the Okohaus, Frei Otto and Collective improvisation
DISCLAIMER All images without tag or not shown on this list are created by myself
Fig.3 Wolf, M., & Egan, N. (2012). #39 in Michael Wolf, architecture of density (2nd ed.). Hong Kong: Asia One Books. Fig.4 Wolf, M., & Egan, N. (2012). #91 in Michael Wolf, architecture of density (2nd ed.). Hong Kong: Asia One Books. Fig.5 Habraken, N. (1972). Levels of decision Making, in Supports : An alternative to mass housing. London: Architectural Press. Fig.6 Tong, H.J. (2019.3.10 ).Supervisory Alliance for the Welfare of public rental housings, publishing their findings. Ming Pao. Retrieved from https://news.mingpao.com/ ins/%E6%B8%AF%E8%81%9E/article/20190310/s00001/1552200915195/%E5%8 5%AC%E5%B1%8B%E6%88%B6%E8%B7%A8%E5%8D%80%E6%90%AC%E9 %81%B7%E5%BE%8C%E5%A3%93%E5%8A%9B%E5%A4%A7%E5%A2%9E%E5%9C%98%E9%AB%94%E7%B1%B2%E5%B1%8B%E9%82%A8%E5%B0%88 %E8%B2%AC%E7%A4%BE%E5%B7%A5%E9%9A%8A%E6%81%86%E5%B8%B 8%E5%8C%96 Fig.8 Fig. 8 Unkown photographer, (2016), Tong Lau in Jordan, retrieved from https://starpnews.com/blog/50%E5%B9%B4%E6%A8%93%E5%94%90%E6%A8%93-%E5%8A%8F%E6%88%BF%E6%8C%89%E6%8F% AD/ Fig.10 Fig. 10 Unkown photographer, (2017), Heng Fa Chuen clubhouse swimming pool , retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:HK_%E6%9D%8F%E8%8A%B1%E9%82%A8_Heng_Fa_Chuen_view_ clubhouse_Swimming_Pool_May_2017_Lnv2_06.jpg
Fig.14 Rudofsky, B., & Museum of Modern Art. (1987). Architecture without architects : A short introduction to non-pedigreed architecture. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Fig.16 Price, C. ( 1964). Fun Palace: interior perspective. Cedric Price fonds. Canadian Centre for Architecture, MontrĂŠal. Retrieved from: https://www.cca.qc.ca/en/search/details/ collection/object/310191 Fig.17
Isozaki, Arata . (1962). Joint Core System, Shinjuku, Tokyo . Howard Gilman Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.moma.org/collection/works/815
Schlatter, Lukas . (2017). Image of Nakagin Capsule Tower, Kisho Kurokawa, 1970. Flickr. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/157598112@N02/26996123749/
Banham, R. (1976). Cover of Megastructure : Urban futures of the recent past. London: Thames and Hudson.
CARPO, M. (2017). Cover of the Second Digital Turn: Design Beyond Intelligence (pp. 131-144). CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS; LONDON, ENGLAND: Mit Press. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.eproxy.lib.hku.hk/stable/j.ctt1w0db6f.7
Girard, Greg, Ian Lambot (1993). City of Darkness Revisited. The Life and Death of an impossible City. Retrieved from https://www.kickstarter.com/stories/kowloon
Minami, Noritaka , 2015. Image of Nakagin Capsule Tower. National Geographic. Available at: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/photography/proof/2017/10/nakagincapsule-tower/
Baan, Iwan. 2012. Image of Torre David. Available from https://www.dezeen. com/2012/09/01/why-should-the-poor-live-in-the-slums-if-there-are-empty-officetowers-in-the-city-asks-justin-mcguirk/
Property Guru, Unknown Year, 41 Sims Drive, completed in 1974. Available at https://www.propertyguru.com.sg/singapore-property-listing/hdb/geylang/simsdrive_109478/41
Fig.30 SRX properties, Image of Sims Drive Flat. Available at https://www.srx.com.sg/hdb/ geylang/sims-drive-hssim0019
IMAGE Fig.31 Chan, Wei Yan (2018), Cantilevered interim housing to existing shear walls of old public housing, HK01 press, 05-01-2018, https://www.hk01.com/%E6%94%BF%E6%83%85/ 183896/%E5%9C%9F%E5%9C%B0%E5%A4%A7%E8%BE%AF%E8%AB%96-%E8 %AC%9D%E5%81%89%E9%8A%93%E5%80%A1%E8%88%8A%E5%85%AC%E 5%B1%8Blego%E5%BC%8F%E5%B5%8C%E7%B5%84%E5%90%88%E5%B1% 8B-5%E5%B9%B4%E4%BE%9B%E5%85%A9%E8%90%AC%E5%96%AE%E4%B D%8D
Fig.32-33 Tong Tze. ( 2018). Rendering with plugged- in units. Available from https://www.hk01. com/%E6%94%BF%E6%83%85/183896/%E5%9C%9F%E5%9C%B0%E5%A4%A7 %E8%BE%AF%E8%AB%96-%E8%AC%9D%E5%81%89%E9%8A%93%E5%80%A 1%E8%88%8A%E5%85%AC%E5%B1%8Blego%E5%BC%8F%E5%B5%8C%E7%B 5%84%E5%90%88%E5%B1%8B-5%E5%B9%B4%E4%BE%9B%E5%85%A9%E8% 90%AC%E5%96%AE%E4%BD%8D
Fig.34 Bekaert, Geert. (2012), Image of La Maison Médicale (Mémé). Available at: https:// www.archined.nl/2016/09/wonen-in-vrijheid-na-1968-charles-vandenhove-versuslucien-kroll/ Fig.35 Dionne Caroline (2006), Image of La Mémé under Construction. Usage and Citizen Participation: Changin Archtiectural Practices. Available in: https://www.epfl.ch/labs/ alice/index-fr-html/page-137178-fr-html/page-137184-fr-html/ Fig.36 Unknown photographer (2014), southeast Facade of Ökohaus, in “Do You Read Me”, Harvard Design Magazine No. 38. Available in http://www.harvarddesignmagazine.org/ issues/38/let-s-see-what-happens
Fig.37 Engelhardt-kueenzlen (unknown year), Ökohaus during construction. Available in https://engelhardt-kueenzlen.de/Corneliusstrasse
Fig.38 Popular Architecture, (unknown year), Osaka Gas NEXT 21. featured in ‘Digested Metabolism: The Evolution of the Artificual Land Typology in Japan. Available in http:// www.grahamfoundation.org/grantees/234-digested-metabolism-the-evolution-of-theartificial-land-typology-in-japan
REFERENCE Fig.39 Zuidema Remko, (2019), Image of the corridor of NEXT 21. https://www. briqs.org/next21-japan-adaptation-key-example-to-sustainable-energyimplementation/#lightbox/4/
Fig.40 Kuvio Architectural Photography (unknown year), Facade with terrace balconies, Tila Loft Housing. Available in : http://navi.finnisharchitecture.fi/en/tila-loft-housing/
Fig.41 Bremer, Stefan. (unknown year), 100 sqm unit before interior works. Tila Loft Housing. Available in : http://navi.finnisharchitecture.fi/en/tila-loft-housing/ Fig.42 Unknown Photographer. Portrait of Christopher Alexander, Available in https:// gretchenrubin.com/2014/03/there-is-a-myth-sometimes-widespread-that-a-person-needonly-do-inner-work Fig.43 Alexander, C., & Center for Environmental Structure. (1977). Cover of A pattern language : Towns, buildings, construction (Series (Center for Environmental Structure) ; v. 2). New York: Oxford University Press. Fig.44 Bryant, Greg, (Winter/ Spring 1991,Vol. XIV, Number 1) The Oreggon Experiment after Twenty Years, The Rain Magazine. Available from http://www.rainmagazine.com/ archive/1991-1/the-oregon-experiment-revisited Fig.45 Alexander, C ( 1975 ), Book Cover for the Oregon Experiment, Amazon, https://www. amazon.com/Oregon-Experiment-Center-Environmental-Structure/dp/0195018249 Fig.46-50 Tong Tze. ( 2018). Rendering with plugged- in units. Available from https://www.hk01. com/%E6%94%BF%E6%83%85/183896/%E5%9C%9F%E5%9C%B0%E5%A4%A7 %E8%BE%AF%E8%AB%96-%E8%AC%9D%E5%81%89%E9%8A%93%E5%80%A 1%E8%88%8A%E5%85%AC%E5%B1%8Blego%E5%BC%8F%E5%B5%8C%E7%B 5%84%E5%90%88%E5%B1%8B-5%E5%B9%B4%E4%BE%9B%E5%85%A9%E8% 90%AC%E5%96%AE%E4%BD%8D Fig.51 Lisa ( Unkown Year), Chi kan Old village in Kai Ping , available at https://www.fliggy. com/content/d-2017062023575704650?ttid=seo.000000576&seoType=origin Fig.52 Lung, Eric. ( 2019). Pinnacle at Duxton , available at https://pikdo.net/p/sgpoon ie/1998608501617847537_254263100
This is my thesis project conducted in 2019 spring semester of my Master's degree of Architecture in the University of Hong Kong. A speculat...
Published on Aug 29, 2019
This is my thesis project conducted in 2019 spring semester of my Master's degree of Architecture in the University of Hong Kong. A speculat...