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CONTENTS MARK BEYER Les Coleman introduces Mark Beyer’s cathartic art.



ISRAELE Eva di Stefano looks at a sanctuary-work in progress in Sicily.



Editor John Maizels Directors Henry Boxer, Sam Farber, Robert Greenberg, Audrey Heckler, Rebecca Hoffberger, Phyllis Kind, Frank Maresca, Richard Rosenthal, Bob Roth Art Editor Maggie Jones Maizels Senior Editor Julia Elmore Features Editor Nuala Ernest Editorial Assistant Natasha Jaeger Managing Editor Carla Goldby Solomon Accounts Manager Judith Edwards Subscriptions Manager Suzy Daniels US Assistant Ari Huff French Editor Laurent Danchin Contributing Editors Michael Bonesteel, Jenifer P. Borum, Roger Cardinal, Ted Degener, Edward Madrid Gomez, Jo Farb Hernandez, Tom Patterson, Charles Russell Advertising Manager Charlie Payne tel 859 305 6117 cell 859 537 6937

Published by Raw Vision Ltd PO Box 44, Watford WD25 8LN, UK tel +44 (0)1923 853175 email website US Office 163 Amsterdam Ave, #203, New York, NY 10023–5001 (standard envelopes only)

FINSTER & ELVIS John Turner describes Howard Finster’s Elvis obsession, and their road trip together.

RONKKENEN Veli Granö considers Finnish sculptor Veijö Rönkkönen’s vast legacy, and its future.

LIPPSTREU Bruno Gérard explores Alexis Lippstreu’s work and influences.

XICO NICO Vitor Albuquerque Freire introduces Xico Nico’s sculptures.

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ISSN 0955-1182 cover image Mark Beyer, Untitled, 1986, silkscreen on paper (produced by L’atelier, Paris), 19.75 x 13.94 ins., 50.2 x 35.4 cm. Raw Vision (ISSN 0955-1182) April 2013 is published quarterly (March, July, September, December) by Raw Vision Ltd, PO Box 44, Watford WD25 8LN, UK and distributed in the USA by Mail Right Int., 1637 Stelton Road B4, Piscataway, NJ 08854. Periodical Postage Paid at Piscataway, NJ and additional mailing offices. Postmaster send address corrections to Raw Vision c/o Mail Right International Inc, 1637 Stelton Road B4, Piscataway, NJ 08854

SAND SCULPTURE Francine Kirsch explores the history of an ephemeral art form.

RAWREVIEWS Exhibitions and books.

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RAWNEWS Outsider events and exhibitions around the world.





until June 30, 2013 Wellcome Collection’s spring exhibition, Souzou: Outsider Art from Japan, brings together more than 300 works for the first major display of Japanese outsider art in the UK. The 46 artists represented in the show are residents and attendees of social welfare institutions across the main island of Honshu, and they present diverse bodies of work including ceramics, textiles, paintings, sculpture and drawings. WELLCOME COLLECTION, 183 Euston Road, London NW1 2BE, UK tel: +44 (0)20 7611 2222,

June 11 – August 26, 2013 The Alternative Guide to the Universe: Mavericks, Visionaries, Outsiders will bring together contributions from self-taught artists and architects, fringe physicists and visionary engineers, who re-imagine the rules of culture and science. Curated by Ralph Rugoff, artists include Morton Bartlett, Eugene von Bruenchenhein, Nek Chand, Rammellzee, A.G. Rizzoli and George Widener. HAYWARD GALLERY, Southbank Centre, Belvedere Road, London SE1 8XX, UK tel: +44 (0)20 7960 4200

nobuo onishi






Drawn from Experience (May 5 – 28, 2013, SW1 Gallery) includes prints, paintings, drawings and sculpture by Bethlem artists. Large-scale pencil drawings by Albert are shown in Visionary Buildings (May 18 – June 10, Bethlem Royal Hospital). SW1 GALLERY, 12 Cardinal Walk, Roof Garden Level, Cardinal Place, London SW1E 5JE, UK. BETHLEM ROYAL HOSPITAL, Monks Orchard Road, Beckenham, Kent BR3 3BX, UK,

Pallant House Gallery presents Outside In: On Tour and ten regional Outside In exhibitions across the UK in 2013, showcasing artists who face significant barriers to their inclusion in the art world due to health, disability or social circumstance. Outside In: On Tour is a selection of twenty works from Outside In: National, an exhibition held at Pallant House Gallery in 2012 that received 2,300 submissions. For more information and dates, please visit

This year’s open days for House of Dreams Museum are April 6, May 11, June 8, July 6, August 3 and September 7, from 11am to 4pm. Entry is £10. Appointments can also be arranged through or email A film about the museum by BBC filmmaker Vince Rogers will be shown on each open day. Stephen Wright, 45 Melbourne Grove, East Dulwich, London SE22 8RG, UK



July 26 – 28, 2013 Organised by Creative Future, Impact Art Fair profiles the work of 80 emerging artists from the UK, Europe and the USA, who all experience marginalisation due to mental health issues, disability, chronic ill health or social circumstance. Organisations taking part include Outside-In (Pallant House), Studio Upstairs, Other Side Gallery, Bethlem Gallery and Shape.

Redwing Gallery is a social enterprise in Cornwall, aiming to offer more outsider artists a gateway into the art world. The Gallery is looking for more artists to join its present exhibitors and is also seeking offers of sponsorship as well as volunteers to join the Redwing team. REDWING GALLERY, 36A Market Jew Street, Penzance, Cornwall TR18 2HT, UK, tel: +44 (0)1736 711458


336 Brixton Road, London SW9 7AA, UK

peter fox

tetsuo harada

stephen wright’s house of dreams

david alexander richardson


May 24 – 25, 2013 The Prinzhorn Collection is the venue for this year’s meeting of the European Association of Outsider Art. Its symposium Ethical Questions around Outsider Art aims to clarify what constitutes an ethically responsible approach to dealing with works and artists from the outsider art field, with presentations by academics and experts from all over Europe.

KUNSTHAUS KANNEN FORUM October 3 – 6, 2013 This year’s Forum at Kunsthaus Kannen, titled 2x2, opens on Thursday October 3, with the Symposium on Friday October 4. Currently on display at the Kunsthaus Kannen until May 26, 2013, are works by Robert Burda, Helmut Feder, Franz Huestedde, August Vibert and Karl Bergenthal, marking the 125th anniversary of the Alexianer Krankenhaus Hospital. KUNSTHAUS KANNEN, Alexianerweg 9, 48163 Münster, GERMANY tel: +49 (0)2501 966 20560,

GALERIE ART CRU STRANGE WORLDS until May 12, 2013 Strange Worlds: Naïve Art Outside Europe presents works from the Charlotte Zander Museum, with paintings and sculptures from Africa, Australia and the Caribbean. CITY MUSEUM OF ERLANGEN Martin-Luther-Platz 91054 Erlangen, GERMANY tel: +49 (0)9131 862408 / 862300

until June 16, 2013 The fourth part of the Secret Universe series at the National Gallery in Hamburger Bahnhof is a retrospective of large drawings and numerical compositions by George Widener. Portraying his prodigious memory and numeric ability, this is Widener’s first solo exhibition in Europe and includes new drawings. HAMBURGER BAHNHOF MUSEUM FÜR GEGENWART - BERLIN, Invalidensrasse 50-51 Berlin, GERMANY. tel: +49 (0)30 3978 3411

OVARTACI SHOWING AT PRINZHORN April 25 – August 4, 2013 Some of Ovartaci’s key works are displayed in the Prinzhorn Collection, including a reconstruction of his long-term living environment and his selfpainted bed. Ovartaci was the alter ego of Louis Marcussen, who was hospitalised in Denmark’s Risskov asylum for 55 years. MUSEUM SAMMLUNG PRINZHORN Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik Heidelberg, Voßstr. 2 69115 Heidelberg, GERMANY tel: +49 (0)6221 56 4492,

dwight mackintosh

until June 1, 2013 Galerie ART CRU Berlin, Creative Growth (Oakland, USA) and Creative Growth Europe (Paris, FR) present selected works by Creative Growth artists, including Dan Miller, Dwight Mackintosh and Donald Mitchell. GALERIE ART CRU, Oranienburger Str. 27, 10117 Berlin, GERMANY tel: +49 (0)30 24 35 73 14




Germany. Italy.




until June 16, 2013 Early naïve art and Art Brut masterpieces at Haus Cajeth feature Madge Gill and Enrico Benassi. MUSEUM HAUS CAJETH, Haspelgasse 12, 69117 Heidelberg, GERMANY tel: +49 (0)6221 24466

until May 3, 2013 The exhibition Number 051 is dedicated to the German schizophrenic artist Hildegard Wohlgemuth (1933 – 2003). KUNSTMUSEUM BAYREUTH 95444 Bayreuth, GERMANY

enrico benassi

hildegard wohlgemuth

jean dubuffet

préfète duffaut

until June 15, 2013 Curated by Claudio Spadoni, Borderline explores the boundaries between officially sanctioned art and alienated authentic figures. Artists include Goya, Brueghel, Dubuffet, Klee and Basquiat. MUSEO D'ARTE DELLA CITTÀ DI RAVENNA, via di Roma, 13 Ravenna, ITALY tel: +39 (0)544 482477 / 482356,





philadelphia museum of art

joseph e. yoakum

until June 9, 2013 Great and Mighty Things: Outsider Art from the Jill and Sheldon Bonovitz Collection features over 200 objects from a remarkable collection of works by American self-taught artists. Showing at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Great and Mighty includes drawings, paintings, sculptures and other objects by 27 artists. Spanning from the 1930s to 2010, artists include Martin Ramírez, Howard Finster, Purvis Young and Bill Traylor. Jill and Sheldon Bonovitz will donate the works in the exhibition to the Museum, which will display them in dedicated galleries. PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART, 2600 Benjamin Franklin Pkwy, Philadelphia, PA 19130 tel: 215 763 8100,

dr valerie rousseau


vollis simpson’s giant whirligig, photo: ann oppenhimer

October 3 – 7, 2013 The 26th Annual Conference of the Folk Art Society of America (FASA) will be held October 3 – 7, 2013, in Raleigh, North Carolina. Tours of private and museum collections, visits to artists' studios and a benefit auction will be featured. Speakers at the October 5 symposium at the North Carolina Museum of Art include Roger Manley, Jenny Moore, William Ferris and Bernard Herman. For more information and registration visit

AFAM NEWS June 11 – September 22, 2013 Bill Traylor: Drawings from the Collections of the High Museum of Art and the Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts is co-organised by the High Museum of Art, Atlanta, and the Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts. The exhibition features more than sixty drawings and paintings by the self-taught Alabama artist. AFAM has also announced the appointment of Dr Valerie Rousseau to the position of Curator of 20th Century and Contemporary Art, responsible for continuing and expanding the Museum’s initiatives in the field of art created by the self-taught, associated with folk art and Art Brut. AMERICAN FOLK ART MUSEUM 2 Lincoln Square, Columbus Avenue at 66th Street, New York, NY 10023 tel: 212 595 9533 bill traylor


Les Coleman introduces the cathartic art of Mark Beyer



iographical details about the reclusive artist and autodidact, Mark Beyer, are limited to a few lines of facts and dates. Looking online, nothing further is to be gleaned beyond that which is already published. Beyer does not have a personal website. It appears there is a single known photograph of him in the public domain. The only interview of any length appeared in issue two of Escape conducted by Paul Gravett in 1983, when Beyer was in London for the Graphic Rap exhibition at the ICA. For nigh on 30 years this remains the only commentary made by the artist about his work. Much to my surprise and pleasure, I have been in contact with Mark who has been most forthcoming in response to my numerous email questions as well as providing images from all periods of his creative life. Although Beyer’s reputation resides primarily within the comics genre, he has always painted, produced silkscreen prints and made soft dolls. His first exhibition, at the age of 27, was at Moravian College, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, followed by a second two years later at the Greg Weaver Gallery, Allentown, Pennsylvania. Since then he has had a steady stream of exhibitions, but his impact on the art world has remained marginal. It would be true to describe his art as having cult status. Born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, at the height of the baby-boom era, Beyer was an only child. At the time, his parents rented an apartment, but within a year the family moved to a house in nearby Allentown, a city 90 miles east of New York. Both of his parents were children of the Depression years. His father served in the American Air Force during World War II, then went on to own a small construction company. Beyer’s relationship with his parents was difficult, particularly with his father. ‘He wanted a son

who was an all-American kind of boy. A kid who enjoyed playing baseball and had an interest in eventually taking over the family business. I was just not that kind of person.’ As Beyer became older, their understanding and tolerance of each other deteriorated. By the age of 13, the frustration that existed between father and son erupted into violence. ‘We would get into an argument and I would start throwing things around the house. One night when I was 15, I really went berserk and started smashing furniture and breaking everything in the house. My father called the police who came out and wanted to arrest me, but eventually they left.’ The consequence of this outburst resulted in Beyer being sent to a special school about 80 miles from Allentown. The institution had the dual function of being a reform school and mental hospital, an environment where young criminal offenders and ‘juvenile delinquents’ would co-habit with others suffering from serious mental health problems. Punishment for any perceived failure to conform was dealt with by ECT (electroconvulsive therapy). ‘I knew a guy there who received shock treatment six times. I came very close to getting sent off to get shock treatment myself, but I always managed to avoid it.’ Beyer was introduced to a regime based on fear and repression, society’s most fundamental and primitive psychological strategy for controlling people, barring direct physical torture. Finding himself in unstimulating surroundings, Beyer reverted to books as a way to occupy himself. ‘I would also draw little doodles in notebooks. It was mostly figurative work. Drawings of strange-looking people. I really didn’t think of what I was doing as art. It was just a way to kill time.’

above Untitled, 2004, silkscreen size unknown. opposite Untitled, 1994, silkscreen on paper, 15.75 x 23 ins., 40 x 58.4 cm.

Les Coleman died in January 2013 and was a London-based sculptor, installation artist, cartoonist, collector and writer. He had published several humorous volumes of drawings and thoughts, including his most famous Meet the Art Students. Coleman was an enthusiastic collector of comic art and imagery and this article was his own concept and his last text before he died so unexpectedly.


ISRAELE, A CONTEMPORARY HERMIT Eva di Stefano looks at a sanctuary-work in progress

Translated by Denis Gailor. above View inside the decorated ceiling of the tower, looking up, photo Antonio Ferrante. opposite, above, left to right Ex-military lookout, Cape Gallo near Palermo, photo Antonio Ferrante; the tower and the angel, photo Antonio Ferrante opposite, below, left to right Israele, Summer 2011, photo Giusi Affronti; details from the interior, photo Lucia Palumbo; altar at the base of the tower, photo Antonio Ferrante.



n a naked mountain top near Palermo, Sicily, an amazing work is growing every day in which the echo of the Arab-Norman cathedrals and Sicilian popular culture blend in a system of extraordinary devotional geometries. It is a story of abuse – though it is not a racket or desperation, but an abuse of imagination and a need for redemption. Up there is someone who, continuing, as the famous verse by Hölderlin suggests, to ‘live poetically in the world’, works in solitude for the salvation of the soul of the city. Occupying a disused building, this person has created an abode/sanctuary, a tribute to the beauty denied in the desolate north outskirts of Palermo where he previously lived and worked. Fifteen years ago, in 1997, Israele went up the mountain, taking with him this new name from the Bible and leaving behind society and his family, a wife and daughter. The only other things he took in his ascent

were his strong mason’s hands, an agile body and the Book of Books. He was about 40 years old when a shadow came into his life that interrupted the normal flow of things. At the time of that dark guilt, he had a strange dream in which God presented a pair of twins to him: a double Jesus Christ. One of the two had his face; in short, it was him. Then he realised that he was destined for a task to appease God, who had been disappointed and wounded by man, and to make God’s son return to the earth and reawaken a dead world. In the beginning, Israele found shelter in a cave that he chose because of its inaccessibility, stretching out over the sea from a precipice. To reach it, it was necessary to lower oneself from above with a rope or place a ladder against the rock face. Inside the cave he made some inscriptions and mosaic tiles with small pebbles, as well as a small altar where he wrote the word ‘End’, in which he felt there was the

key to everything and that he felt would subsequently become the extreme synthesis of his spiritual annunciation. Israele spent his days going down to look for pebbles on the beaches and his nights looking up at the constellations, particularly focussing on the three stars of Orion’s belt and the novas that form the body of the mythical hero, who fights the bull of materialism in astral maps. Three (and its products) are Israele’s guiding number, and in the profile of Orion he recognises the outline of an archangel. Meanwhile, Israele’s dreams continued to indicate the pathway to him: thus, when his spirit was ready, reborn in the womb of the mountain, he climbed to the top and settled in the only building, a military construction once used for sightings and now ruined, which he decided to save from abandonment.

First Israele consolidated the falling roof and reworked the floor; to make the cisterns work again, he created a system for collecting and distributing rainwater using gravity; he made the space habitable, although deprived of modern comforts with no panes or fixtures at the windows, and cooking with firewood and by candlelight. A radio was the only concession to modernity. For necessary provisions, Israele goes down to Palermo and makes purchases with his small pension, which he receives due to previous interest in him from the social services. He furnishes his cell as in old convents – with a bed, a table and a chair – and begins the work of transformation to which he has been called. That disused building, from where he can see the sea and the horizon for 360 degrees, will have to become the abode of the Lord, the place in which His just anger will be appeased on the


ON THE ROAD TO THE PRESLEY MANSION John Turner describes Howard Finster’s Elvis obsession



had a deep feeling about Elvis Presley, a real deep feeling about Elvis. I felt in the last years of his life, he was meant to be a minister of the gospel. That was a feeling that come to me. Because of his publicity, he could have won more souls than anybody in the world. I said to myself that if I ever had the publicity of Elvis Presley, I would use it for the Lord’. (1) Howard Finster was a big fan of Elvis Presley and included him in the pantheon of American heroes he frequently painted, from George Washington to Henry Ford to Eli Whitney. Presley represented a Southern boy who had escaped his humble beginnings, moving from poverty to great wealth and from obscurity to worldwide fame. It was a journey that Finster began identifying with after gaining a modicum of notoriety for his own artwork in the 1970s. ‘God showed me when to become an artist just like he showed Elvis when to make his best strikin’ songs. He was a folk artist of music. He was a folk artist of what he was called for to do in this world. God says many are called but few are chosen.’ (2) While comparisons between Elvis Presley and Howard Finster might be considered a stretch for many readers, it should be noted that while Elvis, ‘back in the day’, had been featured in countless newspaper articles and in Life magazine, so had Howard. What’s more, one of Elvis’s biggest breakthroughs came when he sang and shook on The Ed Sullivan Show. Sullivan insisted the rocker’s signature gyrations remain out of view, so the TV audience only saw the notoriously sexy star from above his waist. In 1983, Howard picked a banjo, sang two of his own compositions and captured a supportive and enthusiastic audience on Johnny Carson’s Tonight Show , itself a major pop culture phenomenon. Further, Elvis was known as one the most prolific recording artist’s of all time, while Howard produced more art than Picasso, creating some 46,991

pieces in widely diverse media before his death in 2001 at the age of 84. And, finally, Howard was known for his ‘sacred art’, and Elvis is remembered for singing ‘sacred music’ (Elvis won his only Grammy award for a gospel album). It was in this vein that Howard frequently pointed out that Elvis was raised in gospel music and often included a spiritual number in his performances, even when he played in the ‘World’s Capital of Sin’, Las Vegas. What impressed Finster, who sang and played church music most of his life, was the fact that Presley, despite his fame, never denied nor abandoned the music that brought comfort to him in his troubled times. ‘We’ve got a lot of rock and rollers who make millions of dollars and they will sing their songs and never will they mention a song about God. They will never mention nothing about religion. I’ve always loved Elvis. He has enough guts to sing a religious song once in a while.’ (3) In July of 1982, on my way to the World’s Fair in Knoxville, Tennessee, (with a side trip to the Pentecostal snake-handlers in the West Virginia Hills), I paid a four-day visit to Howard in Pennville, Georgia. On the third day, at about two in the morning, when Howard was painting in his studio and we were shooting the breeze, I asked him if he had ever visited Elvis’s mansion, Graceland. He said he hadn’t, and then started talking rapidly about Elvis and God and what a great guy Elvis was. Without thinking it through, I asked him if he would like to see where Elvis had lived. Howard said ‘Sure, when would we leave?’ Thinking, somewhat confusingly, Memphis couldn’t be that far from Pennville, I said, ‘Right now. We can go in my rental car.’. He yelped, ‘O Boy!’, and added that he could pack some lunches with peanut butter sandwiches, Pringles potato chips and candy bars. We also needed to leave a note for his wife, Pauline, about our whereabouts, so she would not

above Howard Finster in front of Graceland, Memphis, Tennessee, 1982, photo: John Turner. opposite Elvis, #442, 1977, enamel on wood, 20 x 16 ins., 50.8 x 40.6 cm, courtesy the Thomas E. Scanlin Collection, copyright Thomas E. Scanlin. overleaf, left Elvis at Three, #2597, 1982, tractor enamel on cut-out wood, courtesy The Arient Family Collection. overleaf, right above Elvis Seen in Paradise Garden, 1997, mixed media, enamel on mirror frame and backing, 42 x 42 ins., 106 x 106 cm, courtesy Larry T. Clemons, Gallery overleaf, right below Elvis Presley album covers customised by Howard Finster, 1995, 1996, magic marker on cardboard, 12.25 x 12.25 ins., 31.1 x 31.1 cm, courtesy Larry T. Clemons, Gallery


JOYS AND TRIBULATIONS IMMORTALISED IN CONCRETE Veli Granö considers Finnish sculptor Veijö Rönkkönen’s vast legacy, and its future


t was Easter 2010 when artist Veijo Rönkkönen did not wake up from his afternoon nap. He had started his day practising yoga, lit the fire in the oven, greeted the sculptures in his garden, had a swim in the public swimming pool nearby and felt tired again after returning home. It was an ordinary day. He was 66. Rönkkönen left a remarkable collection of art works behind in Koitsanlahti, Parikkala. He had worked on his site, which was a little over an acre, for almost 50 years, and his hard work resulted in more than 500 concrete sculptures and a magnificent garden. The struggle to find a meaning for his life gave Rönkkönen’s art its agonised and personal character. His sculpture park does not pale in comparison to any other fantasy garden in the world.


Veijo Rönkkönen’s childhood home was poor, like the rest of Finland after the war had been lost. Everyone worked as hard as they could to contribute to their livelihood. The atmosphere in the Rönkkönen house was characterised not only by hard work but also by his mother’s harshness and discontent. The children did not seem to have any other value than being an unpaid workforce. His mother’s constant disparagement broke the boy’s self-esteem, and he turned into an almost pathologically shy and withdrawn youth. Rönkkönen was 16 when he got a job at a nearby paper mill, where he was to work until his retirement. By the time he received his first payment, he had made the biggest decision of his life. He



above A camel rider. Self-portrait, 1989. previous pages View of some of the 255 yoga sculptures, in various states of decay.


bought ten apple tree seedlings and set up an orchard in his garden. He would never leave this place. In his adolescent anxiety, Rönkkönen found his way back to the lake where he used to go swimming as a child. He dug up some clay from the shore where he had spent his happiest times as a child, and moulded the clay into a small figure of a man. It was a sort of dreamlike self-portrait and the first step along the path to becoming an artist. His entire oeuvre can be seen as a continuation of this little figure. The sculpture park itself is an extended self-portrait and a story of how a soul in search of balance and joy developed. Its various sections and sculptures depict the artist’s life: dreams and fears

when growing up and, eventually, the signs of growing old and giving up. Rönkkönen made his first life-size figure as a conversational piece and placed it in the most prominent place in his garden. The hand of The Caricature of Man (1961) still waves to greet passers-by. Rönkkönen told me that the figure’s cross-eyed stare was meant to have a ‘hypnotic’ effect on people. Even the first sculptures managed to do their job. The remote garden, situated by the border with the Soviet Union, attracted great numbers of curious visitors. The artist-to-be was able to witness the magical power his art had over the audience. This


sense of success and approval must have been incredibly overwhelming. At first, Rönkkönen’s mother adopted a hostile attitude his work, while his father never communicated his opinion about the issue. Despite his withdrawn character and unwillingness to interact with them, the visitors were, in Rönkkönen’s opinion, very important. From indoors, he would observe those walking in the garden and draw conclusions from their behaviour. The artist left an archive of hundreds of photographs of visitors to the garden, all taken in secret through a crack in the window. There were also dozens of carefully read visitors’ books. Perhaps the tens of thousands of signatures and messages, like his photographs, were

a proof that he was accepted, and even possibly had potential friends. The audience influenced the content of the sculpture park. Rönkkönen used to make caricature-like sculptures of some of the most extraordinary visitors. The row of grotesque figures standing by the entrance path acts like a distorted mirror image of the audience. Right at the entrance, the garden turns into a carnival scene, where any strange or surprising statue is a natural part of the collection. Due to Rönkkönen’s problematic relationship with his mother, it is quite understandable that some female figures look rather frightening or self-righteous.

above Rönkkönen did not have any friends or anyone to play with when he was a child, yet his final sculptures depict children playing together and having fun. Perhaps these works helped him imagine having had a happy childhood.


ALEXIS LIPPSTREU Bruno Gérard explains the influence of Gauguin, Degas, Leonardo da Vinci and others on this unusual artist


Alexis Lippstreu, 2012, photo: Gaël Turine.


all, slender, elegant… Alexis Lippstreu is of French origin. Born on 2 October, 1972, in Suresnes, he grew up in a loving and caring family which, to this day, remains his anchorage. Lippstreu joined La Pommeraie, a centre located near Beloeil in Belgium, in 1992. This is when our joint story began. In those days, the centre was a small organisation offering only a few day activities, and every person arriving there could try every workshop before focussing on a single technique (such as woodwork, wrought ironwork, horticulture, and so on). The drawing studio had been open for two years and Lippstreu came for a few hours a week at first, then more and more regularly, in the same way


as the other participants. He first showed an interest in the library where shelves were filled with books on art and animals, as well as magazines and catalogues. As the studio subscribes to several art magazines, every week there are new arrivals of books and journals. I was very surprised when, having spent a long time thinking in front of the shelves, Lippstreu chose a book and, from this book, a work of art which he started to copy. What attitude was I to adopt? It seemed to me that creation had to come from somewhere deep inside a person. Consequently, I considered the act of copying a work of art as something negative. Luckily I did not say or do anything, and little by little an extremely interesting body of work came into being. Lippstreu’s style seemed to be established

from the very first drawing. Now and again he will switch to a different format or technique, yet that does not seem to correspond to some stylistic evolution but rather to his fancy. The materials he uses are plain, mostly a 2B black pencil and sometimes a few coloured pencils that he sharpens with a Stanley knife. Now and then, oil pastels would appear for a few weeks. Yet Lippstreu is freer, less tied to the work that serves as a basis, when he simply works with a black pencil. That is when he creates extremely dynamic drawings with strong variations in shades, where light areas appear next to dark ones, while at the same time conveying a great sense of depth. Often he is so caught up in his work, in the dynamics of his pencil strokes, that he does not notice that the lead of his pencil is completely worn out and that, without

above Untitled (from Luncheon in the Studio by Edouard Manet), 2011, graphite pencil on paper, 28.7 x 24.6 ins., 73 x 55 cm, © La Pommeraie.


MASTER OF IMAGINATION Vítor Albuquerque Freire introduces Xico Nico


left Minotaur, 2012, iron and limestone, 35.4 x 11 x 9 ins., 90 x 28 x 23 cm. opposite Old Man, 2010, limestone with fossil, 13 x 6 x 4 ins., 33 x 15 x 10 cm.


ico Nico’s remarkable and unusual sculptures present a very personal and disturbing figurative world, where the actors are humans and also a wide range of animals, displaying powerful feelings, sometimes multiple and contrasting, including some with an expressionist approach or coming from the unconscious, and, in the case of animals, stressed by humour and pure inventiveness. I discovered his work a year ago after buying one of his sculptures – a small, iron, articulated dog – in a traditional folk art and handicraft shop. I then went to his studio, where I entered an astonishing world. There were hundreds of unusual sculptures of different sizes and materials, most of them never exhibited, some deeply hidden. And there, for the first time, was where Xico Nico heard about outsider art, Art Brut or even contemporary folk art. In September 2011, I, with almost 40 outsider and patient self-taught art lovers, including art historians, psychiatrists, art therapists, and top mainstream Portuguese artists such as Eduardo Nery and Joana Vasconcelos, founded the Portuguese Association of Outsider Art. Its main goals are to discover, study and promote outsider art, protecting and promoting artists, preserving collections and linking art therapy studios across the country, and to try to create a medium-sized outsider art museum via an enlargement of the Bombarda Hospital Museum. Xico Nico, amongst several other outsider artists, was selected for the first large exhibition in April/May 2012 (with more than 80 works) in Galveias Palace, central Lisbon. It proved to be a great success, receiving a large number of visitors and press and internet reviews, as well as spreading the concept of ‘Arte Outsider’ (in Portuguese) and, of course, introducing Xico Nico. Xico Nico (full name Francisco Manuel de Jesus Nico) was born in 1951, the son of a fisherman, in Peniche, where he still lives and has a studio in the old Fortress. From secondary school, he graduated in metal mechanics and then worked in that field for 22 years. In 1987, he became a teacher at CERCI (a pioneering institution for the rehabilitation of young people with disabilities) of Peniche, and there he began to create his own sculptures. Since 1990 he has participated in more than 50 collective exhibitions, although with few or no representative works. However, it is worth mentioning that he won the first prize at the 2008 Lisbon International Folk Art Fair, the collective exhibition at Portugal Pavilion in 2008, the solo exhibitions held in 2010 at the Culture Building and at the Sea Technology School, in Peniche. Most of Nico’s sculpture should be considered outsider art, or near to it, and only through that perspective can it be fully understood and admired. The characteristics appointed by Jean Dubuffet in his concept of outsider art match Nico’s profile: a self-taught artist, using intuitive forms and subjects deriving from their own depths, with little or no influence from erudite art and even creating their own techniques. Peniche is a town in the middle of the western coast of Portugal, almost surrounded by the ocean, and Nico chooses and collects stones of different types and dimensions along the coast line. The stones are mostly limestone, weathered by the sea and full of perforations made by strange mollusca, where, later on, bivalves or other small sea animals and plants may affix themselves. ‘When looking at a stone, I start searching for its soul, or listening to what it has to say; it is somehow like seeing figures in the clouds. The idea comes, and I carve it smoothly, and in most cases I don’t change the overall form so much, and I like to maintain the perforations and the way nature made its art,’ says Nico. Actually, the perforations, in a human face or in a head, give a peculiar sense of timeless marks or of a stronger feeling (see his sculptures Sereia [Mermaid] or Cabeça de Mulher [Woman’s Head]).


GONE WITH THE WAVE: UNSUNG SAND SCULPTORS Francine Kirsch explores the history of an ephemeral art form

above Sand Artist, Atlantic City, N.J., 1909, postcard, chauffeur-driven cars were not only common in sand art but were also a weapon in the class war. Note the sculpture’s surrounding captions and caricatures. above opposite James Taylor, Cast Up By The Sea, 1904, postcard showing this sand star’s most famous theme. Note his copyright. below opposite The Sand Artist, Atlantic City, N.J., c. 1900 postcard showing an unnamed artist working on an animal, possibly a horse, as a helper brings water to keep the sand moist.

Francine Kirsch has written two books and over 200 articles about many aspects of cultural history, including sand bottle art, Native American beadwork, homemade paper dolls, confectionery-based sculpture and grain palaces.



and sculpting is something of a sport today, attracting talented amateurs and enthusiastic families alike to contests across both North America and Western Europe. However, from the late 1890s until the mid-1940s men made a living from sand art, playing to beach and boardwalk crowds at burgeoning seaside resorts. The growth of leisure time and summer vacations, along with improved and affordable transport, ensured a paying audience. The simultaneous birth of the picture postcard assured some immortality – if not for their actual works or their names, then for representations of their creations. Yet, even in their heyday, these sculptors of summer, seen as superb showmen by some, were viewed as charlatans by others; con artists rather than sand artists. Despite the down-market reputation of some sand artists, it was at the more refined resorts that American sand sculpture got both its start and staying power. Cedar Point in Sandusky, Ohio, was home to an unnamed master who, in the 1890s, recreated Rodin’s The Thinker along with a shipwreck, the Crucifixion and lions (which were to become a favourite sand subject). The lion’s share of sand sculpture, however, was centred in New Jersey, particularly in Asbury Park and Atlantic City where swimming took second place to strolling. Not only did both attract the affluent, they brought conventions to their boardwalks which meant that hardier sand sculptors could work year-round. Conventioneers – particularly fraternal orders – and

local businesses even commissioned them to create promotional sand pieces. What helped in the off-season were sand pits constructed as protection from the weather – for the sculptors as well as the sculptures. These held as many as six men at a time. Another more controversial way of combating Mother Nature was to mix one part cement to three parts sand. This not only made sculptures longer lasting but sculpting faster, and was especially helpful with multi-panelled megastructures, often supported by wooden frames up to 20 feet long and at 45-degree slants. Lindbergh and his Spirit of St Louis was a common theme, as was the automobile. As early as 1909, a postcard shows a sand chauffeur-driven car holding two sand passengers. Other auto sculptures made a social statement when surrounded with sand titles such as Flayees At The Flay . Their creators, posing nearby, wore the flat caps synonymous with the working class, but a man in a bowler, who sided as strongly with the proletariat in his sand statements, was the art’s first star. ‘Don’t Forget The Worker’ was James J. Taylor’s frequent admonition in sand, his way of asking for ‘donations’ as well as recognition for the class and for himself. Born in 1860 and active in the early 1900s, Taylor not only made certain that he appeared alongside his works on postcards but that his copyright appeared on the postcards as well. An enthusiastic San Francisco Chronicle article of 1909 detailed what we today call performance art on Ocean

Suggested reading Boucher, Jack E. (1966) ‘Atlantic City’s famed sand sculptors’ in Yearbook of the Atlantic County Historical Society, October, pp. 140–144. Fried, Fred, and Fried, Mary (1978) America’s Forgotten Folk Arts. New York, NY: Pantheon Books. James, Emory (1901) ‘The Greatest of Sand Sculptors’, The Strand Magazine, (no month), pp. 259–262.


Lewery, A. J. (1991) Popular Art Past & Present. Newton Abbot: David & Charles.


Siebert, Ted (1990) The Art of Sandcastling. Seattle: Roman Books.

FILE. (Lorenzo Harris, Sr.)


www.oceanbeachbulletin. com (James J. Taylor)


www.sculpturesin (Fred Darrington and Mark Anderson)


Beach: ‘Taylor’s mastery was such that, while sculpting one of his [sand] women, a passerby implored him to dig out the poor girl underneath before she smothered.’ But the reporter was not totally taken in, also writing that ‘Taylor knew how to work the crowd, waiting until a decent number of onlookers had gathered at the beach before he would begin a piece.’ Unlike the native-born Taylor, Spagnola not only represented a new generation of sand artist but a new kind of American, emigrating to the United States from Calabria, Italy, in 1897 when he was four years old. Spagnola specialised in two kinds of sand art: a form of graffiti that was done quickly with a stick and the more typical showpieces that took weeks or even months. These included Lindbergh and the Spirit of St Louis, a World War I battle scene, a reproduction of Victor Giraud’s painting The Slave Merchant and bathing beauties. For the highbrow b o a rd w a l k e r, Spagnola made sand busts of Caruso and Paderewski; for the masses, Chaplin and Valentino. Describing

the general technique, Spagnola said, ‘We would build a big sand platform, sometimes flat, sometimes at (an) angle... . We’d pack the sand real hard... then we would sketch the outline roughly and build up a mound of sand in relief. Using our hands and a pointed stick, we would fashion the sculpture, and finish off the very fine details with a nail file. Smooth areas would be worked with a paintbrush.’ Spagnola did admit that ‘in later years we sometimes did apply a light wash of cement as a kind of varnish’, but denied ever adding it to the sand itself. He did add paint, however, for colourful sea captains, parrots perched on pirates’ chests, little boys and a pair of lovers framed by the warning He Who Hesitates. The third American sand artist to achieve celebrity, Lorenzo Harris, Sr, may well have come to Spagnola’s attention – he remembered watching a one-armed black man as well as Taylor sculpt sand. A trained sculptor who studied at Philadelphia’s p r e s t i g i o u s Pennsylvania Academy of Art and who apprenticed with Giuseppe Donato,

overleaf, top A different postcard, a different sculptor, a different chauffeured auto. To the right, a sand bust of President Abraham Lincoln and various mounds-inprogress. overleaf, upper middle Beach Scene, Showing Sand Sculpture, Atlantic City, N.J., c. 1905, illustrated postcard. overleaf, lower middle In a c. 1920 photo, a young Dominick Spagnola puts the finishing touches on two sand bathing beauties. Spagnola liked to add paint to his sand for colour. overleaf, below An impressive sand frieze and an exhausted sand lion front this 1911 postcard. Wrote the sender, ‘Saw a lot of this work. It is done with beach sand and a little plaster to hold it together. Lasts for months.’ Concrete was the actual binder of choice.

All postcards 3.5 x 5.5 ins, 8.9 x 14 cm.





William Hawkins

Philadeplhia Museum of Art Until June 9, 2013

Great & Mighty Things by Ann Percy (ed.) with Cara Zimmerman, Francesco Clemente, Lynne Cooke, Joanne Cubbs, Bernard L. Herman, Colin Rhodes. Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2013. ISBN: 9780300191752 The exhibition is accompanied by a weighty, beautifully illustrated book. For anyone who has either been to or is unable to visit the landmark exhibition, this hardback book is a wonderful insight into the collection. It delves deep into the collectors and the history of their fabulous hoard. Alongside the legion of colour plates in the catalogue of American self-taught artists, there are essays that place them among historical visionary creative figures, scientifically examine the materials they use and more. NE Martin Ramirez

Over the last four decades Jill and Sheldon Bonovitz have put together an enviably rich collection of American Self-Taught and Outsider Art, a major part of which is currently on show at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. This significant exhibition in a major institutional setting is in equal parts an acknowledgement of the quality of their collection, a celebration of a major promised gift to the museum’s holdings, and an important step toward mainstream recognition of the importance of the field. Beautifully curated by Ann Percy, and installed in generously proportioned spaces that show off the works to their greatest effect, viewers are exposed to a broad ranging and highly personal accumulation of art, ranging from ceramics and bone sculpture by Eugene von Bruenchenhein, through drawings by George Widener and Joseph Yoakum, paintings by Justin McCarthy and William Hawkins, and a massive relief montage picture by Simon Sparrow. If the work viewed en masse sometimes has an eclectic feel, it is because the Bonovitzes have consistently collected according to personal taste rather than attempting to create an encyclopedic representation of the field. There is, nevertheless, a visual cohesiveness governed by two sensibilities working in concert. While the Bonovitzes never aimed for encyclopedic coverage (and of course we could all suggest ‘gaps’), inevitably the accession of these works by the Philadelphia Museum of Art will suggest they have canonical status: confirmatory for artists like Martín Ramírez, Bill Traylor, William Edmondson (who is amply represented by some particularly fine examples), and James Castle; suggestive for the likes of Consuelo González Amezcua, Bruno del Favero and John Serl; and recuperative for Eddie Arning and Lee Godie, whose stars though once bright have dimmed in recent years. On my two visits the crowds were large and enthusiastic. And rightly so. Colin Rhodes




DRAWING FROM THE CITY by Tejubehan Orig. Tamil text Salaai Selvam, English text V Geetha & Gita Wolf Tara Books, India, 2013 ISBN: 9782759601868 Entirely handmade and silkscreen-printed, with a gorgeous and tactile cloth binding, this English translation of a autobiographical, magical-realism story recited by Tejubehan, realised by independent Indian publisher Tara, sketches a materially impoverished world where imagination is superrich. Her large pen-and-ink drawings swirl across the pages, with a small amount of text below. A beautiful analogue respite from this digital age, this book will delight children and adults alike. NE

GODS FOR FUTURE RELIGIONS Sculpture by Ho Baron Gallant Link, El Paso, Texas, 2012 ISBN: 9780985349707 With tongue firmly in cheek, and literally poking out in many of his sculptures, Chicago-born sculptor Ho Baron’s bronze and stone cast sculptures are his idols, icons, demons and spirits, with him the trickster creator. Spiritual and surreal, Baron’s works (his ‘waking dreams’) are paired with his text to describe a theory of the the universe, incorporating the Jungian ‘universal creative unconscious’. He explains this while describing his creative processes and the methods by which he makes the sculptures. The book is thoughtful and enjoyable, providing an overview of his work to date and an insight into his visionary perspective of spirituality and existence; gargoyles, Ginger and Giacometti lurk in the peripheries. NE

WOLF TRACKS Popular Art and Re-Africanization in Twentieth-Century Panama Peter Szok University Press of Mississippi, 2012 ISBN: 9781617032431 Self-taught Panamanian painters, who are both socially and economically marginalised, are the subject of this book, with Szok exploring the political and cultural context for a wider perspective. There are chapters on writers, music (rumba, salsa), sports and politics, followed by a chapter of artists’ biographies (the ‘Wolf Pack’). Over ten years of research and study are distilled in this book, which also describes the swagger of the painting tradition. The competitiveness and machismo of the artists are compared with boxing; ‘Few women venture into these areas’, and when they do it is in the form of, for example, a swatch of nail art templates outside a salon. If you’re interested in African- and Latin-American history and culture, buy the ticket and take the ride on the Red Devil buses of Panama. NE

DARGER: HIS GIRLS A Sequence of Poems About the Life of Henry Darger by Julie Chevalier Puncher & Wattmann Poetry, 2012 ISBN: 9781921450648 Inhabiting the character of Darger, Chevalier’s poems are moving and capture something of the essence of his aesthetic. The poems recall John Berryman’s 77 Dream Songs, with a para-confessional style and thirdperson Henry character, wide-eyed and forlorn in early twentieth-century America. Reworkings of traditional children’s rhymes are woven in with free-form verse and associative word play, as well as quotes from Darger and his files. In her introductory chapters, Chevalier handles Darger’s life with empathy, and her hunger for finding out all available information about him is clear. She brings her own perspective to the existing research creatively. Darger becomes a decrepit Holden Caulfield, forever trying to protect children’s innocence. NE

OUTSIDER ART SOURCEBOOK by John Maizels Shanghai University Press, 2012 ISBN: 9787877783382/J The tides are turning for outsider art: worldwide interest in the expression of self-taught artists’ inner worlds is on the rise. Many things, from the social and political to fashion and physics, tend to move in waves, from one extreme to another. Perhaps, after decades where conceptual art has dominated, people are interested in the other end of the spectrum. Perhaps they want to reach deeper inside themselves, past the ironic and beyond the post-modern to the authentic, and to connect with raw work that sings from the soul about the human condition. Internet access and the speed of technology is giving momentum to this sea-change in art. This Chinese edition of the Raw Vision Sourcebook provides a directory of outsider and visionary artists and environments; galleries, collections, museums and fairs; organisations and websites that probably need to be updated already... NE


Some issues only available as pdf downloads: #4 #6 #9 #12 #13 #23 #24 #26 #54 #55 Please see page 72 for more details





RAW VISION 123 Facsimile reprint of the historic first three issues.

Art Brut Dubuffet, Art Cars, Definitions, Lonnie Holley, Abbé Fouré, Ray Morris.

Billy Lemming, Huichol, Australian Outsiders, Art of the Homeless.

von Bruenchenhein, Imagists, Monsiel, McKesson, Mabussa, Vahan Poladian.











Joe Coleman, Minnie Evans, Seillé, Peploe, Papa, Canadian Environments.

La Cathedral, Hauser, Norbert Kox, Zemankova, Anita Roddick, Laffoley.

Gugging, Art & Psychiatry, Traylor, M-J Gil, De Stadshof, Margaret’s Grocery.

Salvation Mountain, Yoakum, Dos Santos, Scottish Outsiders, Bartlett.

Ossorio, Irish Naïves, Nick Blinko, Ray Materson, Le Carré Galimard.

Adolf Wölfli, Art Cars Zeldis, Albert Louden, Cellblock Visions.

Sudduth Burgess Dulaney, St EOM, Mouly, Dulaney, Mr Eccles, SPACES.



Alex Grey, Lacemaker, Luna Rossa, Sekulic, Uddin, Mary Nohl.

Art & Madness, Lee Godie, Palace Depression, Saban, Benavides.








Mary Proctor, Carlo Zinelli, Dernier Cri, Art Brut, Jersey Shell Garden.

Picassiette, Benefiel, Vodou, Dellscahu, Mediumistic, Van Genk.

Mary T Smith, de Villiers, Matt Lamb, Old Curiosity Shop, Mithila Painters.

Robert Tatin, N-M Rowe, McQuirk, Denise Allen, Freddie Brice.

William Thomas Thompson, Alfred Wallis, Johnny Meah, Michael Rapanakis.

Dr. Leo Navratil, Ilija Bosilj, Simon Sparrow, Melvin Way, Pradeep Kumar.

Nek Chand, Finster, Valton Tyler, LaraGomez, P.Humphrey, War Rugs, Lonné.



Watts Towers, Bessy Harvey, Marginalia, F. Monchâtre, Tree Circus.

Palais Idéal, J. Scott, Charles Russell Donald Pass, Outsider portraits.

58 Lobonov, Zindato, JB Murray, Anthony Jadunath, Seymour Rosen

68 Paul Amar, Phyllis Kind, D M Diaz, W Dawson, Joe Minter, Survivors, Martindale

47 Scottie Wilson, Gavin Bennett, Bispo Do Rosario, Art Behind Bars

59 Emery Blagdon, ZB Armstrong, Bali, Imppu (Finland), Mari Newman

69 Colin McKenzie, Eugene Andolsek, Surrealism/Madness, INSITA, Churchill D

Roger Cardinal Bentivegna, La Tiniaia,Grgich, Collis, Ray Morris.




Ben Wilson, Inner Architecture, Fasanella, Phase 2, Fryar, Gordon’s Patio.

Y5/P5, Chomo, Arning, Leonov, Kaiser, The Tarot Garden, Gene Merritt.

Van Genk, Purvis Young, Marcel Storr, RA Miller, Madge Gill, Makiki

Finnish Outsiders, Sylvain Fusco, Roy Ferdinand

Rio Museum, Voodoo,Carvers of Poland, Naïves of Taiwan, E. James.

48 Hung Tung, Photography, Bernard Schatz, Jessie Montes

60 Tom Duncan, Movie Posters, Spanish Sites, Rosa Zharkikh

39 Darger, R/stone Cowboy, Thévoz: Chiaroscuro, Pearl Blauvelt, Bressse

49 Mammi Wata, Fred Ressler, Mary Whitfield, Isaiah Zagar

61 Sam Doyle, Myrtice West, Lost In Time, Romanenkov



Electric Pencil, Gugging, JJ Cromer River Plate Voodoo

Mario Mesa, Tim Lewis, Joel Lorand, Chelo Amezcua, Clayton Bailey

40 Eli Jah, Singleton, Marie-Rose Lortet, Ross Brodar, Catalan site.

50 Hamtramck Disney, Roger Cardinal, Ken Grimes, Criminal Tattoos

62 S.L. Jones, Kevin Duffy, Frank Jones, Charles Steffen

72 Masao Obata, Takeshi Shuji, Henriette Zéphir, John Toney, Edward Adamson

41 G. Aiken, Junkerhaus, Kurt Haas, P Lancaster, Minnie Evans.

51 August Natterer, New Gugging, George Widener, Paul Hefti

63 Howard Finster, Michel Nedjar, James H Jennings, Rosemarie Koczy

73 Dalton Ghetti, Art & Disability, Danielle Jacqui, Andrei Palmer, Mingering Mike

42 Boix-Vives, Fred Smith, Rosa Zharkikh, Donald Mitchell

52 Ivan Rabuzin, Czech Art Brut, Sunnyslope, Prophet Blackmon

64 Joe Coleman, Harald Stoffers, Elis F. Stenman

74 Henry Darger, Peter Kapeller, Nadia Thornton Dial, Belykh

43 Thornton Dial, Richard Greaves, Martha Grunenwaldt

53 Toraja Death Figures, Chauvin Sculptures Josef Wittlich, Nigerian Sculpture

44 Theo, Jane-in-Vain, Janet Sobel, Lanning Garden

56 Maura Holden, Clarence Schmidt R.A. Miller, Hans Krüsi, Silvio Barile



Speller, Norbert Kox, Haiti street art BF Perkins Damian Michaels

Philly/K8, Sefolosha, Palmer, Belardinelli, Ludwiczac, Oscar’s sketchbook

75 August Walla, Adolf Wölfli, Antoni Gaudi, Tim Wehrle, Frank Walter, Art & Therapy

76 CJ Pyle, Aloïse Corbaz, Mr Imagination, John Danczyszak

45 William Hawkins, Expressionism and Insanity, Giovanni Battista Podesta

57 Burning Man, Matsumoto, Nicholas Herrera, William Fields

67 Renaldo Kuhler, Sonabai, Outsider Films, Giov Bosco, Finster/Ginsberg

77 Martin Ramirez, Bruce New, Stephanie Lucas, Ellen Greene, Art in Houston

Profile for Raw Vision

Raw Vision 78  

International journal of outsider art, folk art, visionary art and Art Brut.

Raw Vision 78  

International journal of outsider art, folk art, visionary art and Art Brut.