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Raptors Conservation ÏÅÐÍÀÒÛÅ ÕÈÙÍÈÊÈ È ÈÕ ÎÕÐÀÍÀ 2005 ¹2

ISSN 1814–0076

Ðàáî÷èé áþëëåòåíü î ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêàõ Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè The Newsletter of the raptors of the East Europe and North Asia Áþëëåòåíü «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà» ó÷ðåæäåí ìåæðåãèîíàëüíîé áëàãîòâîðèòåëüíîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèåé «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» (Íîâîñèáèðñê) è íàó÷íî-èññëåäîâàòåëüñêîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèåé «Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé» (Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä).

The Newsletter «Raptors Conservation» has been founded by the non-governmental organisations Siberian Environmental Center (Novosibirsk) and Center of Field Studies (Nizhniy Novgorod).

Ðåäàêòîðû íîìåðà: Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî è Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí

Editors: Elvira Nikolenko and Igor Karyakin

Ýòîò âûïóñê ãîòîâèëè: Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî (Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð, Íîâîñèáèðñê, Ðîññèÿ), Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ), Åâãåíèé Ïîòàïîâ (Èíñòèòóò èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ, Êàðìàðñåí, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ), Àííà Øåñòàêîâà (Íèæåãîðîäñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ).

This issue has made by: Elvira Nikolenko (Siberian Environmental Center, Novosibirsk, Russia), Igor Karyakin (Center of Field Studies, N.Novgorod, Russia), Eugene Potapov (Falcon Research Institute, Carmarthen, UK), Anna Shestakova (State University, N.Novgorod, Russia).

Ôîòîãðàôèÿ íà ëèöåâîé ñòîðîíå îáëîæêè: áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) ïîìå÷åííûé ñïóòíèêîâûì ïåðåäàò÷èêîì, Àëòàéñêèé êðàé, èþëü 2004 ã. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà

Photo on the front cover: Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) marked by satellite transmitter, Altay Kray, July 2004. Photo by I. Karyakin

 èëëþñòðàöèè çàäíåé ñòîðîíû îáëîæêè èñïîëüçîâàíû ôîòîãðàôè È. Êàðÿêèíà, Ð. Ìåäæèäîâà, Ì. Ïåñòîâà, À. Ñàëòûêîâà è Ý. Íèêîëåíêî

Photos on the back cover by I. Karyakin, R. Medzhidov, M. Pestov, A. Saltykov and E. Nikolenko

Äèçàéí: Ä. Ñåíîòðóñîâ, À. Êëåùåâ Âåðñòêà: À. Êëåùåâ Êîððåêòóðà: Å. Êëåùåâà

Design by D. Senotrusov, A. Kleschev Page-proofs by A. Kleschev Proof-reader: E. Klescheva

Àäðåñ ðåäàêöèè: 630090 Ðîññèÿ, Íîâîñèáèðñê, à/ÿ 547

Tel./Fax: (3832) 39 78 85

Editorial adress: P.O. Box 547, Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090

Ýëåêòðîííàÿ âåðñèÿ/RC online http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/RC

E-mail: rc_news@mail.ru ikar_research@mail.ru nikolenko@ecoclub.nsu.ru http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors

Ïðàâèëà äëÿ àâòîðîâ äîñòóïíû íà ñàéòå: Guidelines for Contributors available on website: http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/RC/guidelines/


Events

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2

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Events ÑÎÁÛÒÈß (1) Contact: Rhona Rodger The Observatory Buchanan Gardens University of St Andrews St Andrews, Fife KY16 9LZ, Scotland tel.: (+44)(0) 1334461842 fax: (+44)(0)1334461800 rhona@mcs.st-and.ac.uk

Ñ ÿíâàðÿ 2005 ãîäà Öåíòð èññëåäîâàíèé â îáëàñòè ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî è ïðèðîäîîõðàííîãî ìîäåëèðîâàíèÿ (CREEM)1 îðãàíèçóåò ñåìèíàðû2 äëÿ îðíèòîëîãîâ ïî ðàáîòå ñ íîâîé âåðñèåé ïðîãðàììíîãî ïàêåòà Distance 5.0. 11–14.01.2005 ã. Ââåäåíèå â Distance 5 äëÿ îðíèòîëîãîâ: Àðèçîíà (ÑØÀ). 23–27.08.2005 ã. Îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè æèâîòíûõ: ã. Ñåíò-Ýíäðþñ (Øîòëàíäèÿ). 31.08–07.09.2005 ã. Ðàáîòà â Distance 5: ã. Ñåíò-Ýíäðþñ (Øîòëàíäèÿ). Êîíòàêò (1).

Distance – øèðîêî èñïîëüçóåìûé âî âñåì ìèðå ïðîãðàììíûé ïàêåò, îáúåäèíÿþùèé ðàçëè÷íûå ìåòîäû îöåíêè ÷èñëåííîñòè è ïëîòíîñòè íàñåëåíèÿ ðàçíûõ áèîëîãè÷åñêèõ âèäîâ, â òîì ÷èñëå ïòèö. Distance «ðèñóåò» êðèâóþ îáíàðóæåíèÿ äëÿ êàæäîãî âèäà â êàæäîé ó÷åòíîé ïðîáå è çàòåì, íà îñíîâå èíôîðìàöèîííîãî êðèòåðèÿ Àêàèêå, ïðèìåíÿåò ñîîòâåòñòâóþùóþ ìàòåìàòè÷åñêóþ ìîäåëü äëÿ îïèñàíèÿ õàðàêòåðà äàííûõ. Âåðñèÿ 4.0 âêëþ÷àåò â ñåáÿ âñòðîåííóþ ãåî-èíôîðìàöèîííóþ ñèñòåìó è ñîäåðæèò àëãîðèòìû äëÿ àâòîìàòèçèðîâàííîé ãåíåðàöèè âûáîðîê. Àëãîðèòìû è ïðîãðàììíîå îáåñïå÷åíèå äëÿ íîâîé âåðñèè áûëè ðàçðàáîòàíû äîêòîðîì Ôåðíàíäîé Ìàðêóýñ, îíè ïîçâîëÿþò âêëþ÷àòü â îáùèé àíàëèç äîïîëíèòåëüíóþ èíôîðìàöèþ, ñîáðàííóþ â õîäå èññëåäîâàíèé. Distance 4.0, à òàêæå ïðåäïîñëåäíÿÿ âåðñèÿ Distance 4.1 äîñòóïíû äëÿ áåñïëàòíîãî ñêà÷èâàíèÿ íà ñàéòå Ñîþçà èññëåäîâàòåëåé ïîïóëÿöèé äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ (RUWPA)3. Ñïèñîê ïóáëèêàöèé ïî ðàáîòå ñ Distance ïðèâåäåíû â àíãëèéñêîì òåêñòå.

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The Center for Research into Ecological and Environmental Modelling (CREEM)1 will hold workshops2 on program «Distance Sampling for Ornithologists» from 2005. 11–14.01.2005. Introduction to Distance Sampling for Ornithologists: Arizona, USA. 23–27.08.2005. Estimating Animal Abundance Workshop: St Andrews, Scotland. 31.08–07.09.2005. Distance Sampling Workshops: St Andrews, Scotland. Contact (1).

Distance sampling is a widely-used group of related methods for estimating the density and abundance of biological populations. The methods have been used successfully in an incredibly diverse array of taxa, including shrubs and herbs, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, marine and land mammals. The Distance 4.0 incorporates a built-in Geographic Information System (GIS), and contains algorithms for the automated generation of survey designs. The algorithms and software were developed by Dr. Samantha Strindberg as part of her PhD here. New analysis capabilities, developed by Dr. Fernanda Marques during her PhD, allow users to incorporate additional information collected during the surveys into their analyses. Distance 4õ is available for download at no cost over the internet (website RUWPA)3. Publications on work with Distance: Buckland S.T., Anderson D.R., Burnham K.P., Laake J.L, Borchers D.L. and Thomas L. (editors) Advanced Distance Sampling. Oxford University Press, September 2004. 595 p. 20% discount available for online orders from the publisher4. Borchers D. L., Buckland S.T. and Zucchini W. Estimating Animal Abundance: Closed Populations. Springer Verlag, August 2002. 314 p. Order copies directly from Springer-Verlag5. Buckland S. T., Anderson D. R., Burnham K. P., Laake J. L., Borchers D.L. and Thomas L. Introduction to Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. Oxford University Press, July 2001. 432 p. 20% discount available for online orders from the publisher6. Buckland S.T., Anderson D.R., Burnham K.P. and Laake J.L. Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. Chapman and Hall, reprinted 1999 by RUWPA, University of St Andrews. 446 pp. Download on-line version of book: UK site or USA Site. Please note that printed copies of this book are no longer available7.

http://www creem.st-and.ac.uk http://www.creem.st-and.ac.uk/conferences.php http://www.ruwpa.st-and.ac.uk/distance/ http://www.ruwpa.st-and.ac.uk/distance.book/advanced.html http://dolphin.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/distancebook/estan.html http://www.ruwpa.st-and.ac.uk/distance.book/intro.html http://www.ruwpa.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/distance.book/download.html


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

(2) Contact: Rowena Langston Conference Programme Organiser Department of Zoology University of Oxford South Parks Road Oxford OX1 3PS tel./fax: 01 865 281 842 bou@bou.org.uk

(3) Êîíòàêò: Òàòüÿíà Ãðèãîðüåâíà Ñîðîêèíà Äèðåêòîð ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî ôîðóìà «Âåëèêèå ðåêè’ 2005» 603086 Ðîññèÿ ã. Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Ñîâíàðêîìîâñêàÿ 13, îôèñ 216 òåë.: (8312) 77 55 95 ôàêñ: (8312) 77 55 68 icef@yarmarka.ru (3) Contact: Tatyana G. Sorokina Directors of the International Forum «Great Rivers 2005» str. Sovnarkomovskaya 13 office 216 N. Novgorod 603086 Russia tel.: (8312) 77 55 95 fax: (8312) 77 55 68 icef@yarmarka.ru

1–3 àïðåëÿ 2005 ãîäà â Óíèâåðñèòåòå ã. Ëåéñèñòåð (Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ) ïðîéäåò åæåãîäíàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ Ñîþçà áðèòàíñêèõ îðíèòîëîãîâ ïî òåìå «Ïòèöû è âîçîáíîâëÿåìûå èñòî÷íèêè ýíåðãèè: âåòåð, îãîíü è âîäà».  êîíôåðåíöèè çàÿâëåíû äîêëàäû î ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêàõ: Ìàéê Ìàääåðñ (Èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïðèðîäû). Èçó÷åíèå ïòèö ãîðíûõ ðàéîíîâ è ïðîáëåìà ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ïòèö ñ âåòðÿíûìè ýëåêòðîñòàíöèÿìè íà ïðèìåðå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Àëâ Îòòàð Ôîëêåñòàä (Ïðîåêò ïî íîðâåæñêîìó îðëàíó-áåëîõâîñòó). Îïûò âåòðÿíûõ ýëåêòðîñòàíöèé íà Ñìîëà (Ôèíëÿíäèÿ) â îòíîøåíèè ê îðëàíó-áåëîõâîñòó. Êîíòàêò (2).

The British Ornithologists’ Union will hold the annual conference «Wind, Fire & Water – Renewable Energy & Birds» in the University of Leicester (UK), 1–3 April 2005. Several reports about raptors were declared on conferences: Mike Madders (Natural Research). Upland bird studies and wind farm collision risk models with reference to raptors. Alv Ottar Folkestad (Norwegian Sea Eagle Project). Experience of wind farms on Smola (Finland) in relation to White-tailed Sea Eagle. Contact (2).

 2005 ãîäó íà Íèæåãîðîäñêîé ßðìàðêå ïðîéäóò ñïåöèàëèçèðîâàííûå âûñòàâêè, ïîñâÿùåííûå ðàçëè÷íûì àñïåêòàì èçó÷åíèÿ è ñîõðàíåíèÿ ïòèö è ìåñò èõ îáèòàíèÿ8.

The exhibitions dedicated to different aspects of studying and conservation of birds and their habitat will take place at the Nizhegorodskaya Fair in 20058.

17–20 ìàÿ 2005 ãîäà â ðàìêàõ Ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî ôîðóìà «Âåëèêèå ðåêè’ 2005» ñîñòîèòñÿ âûñòàâêà «Ëþäè è ïòèöû». Öåëü âûñòàâêè «Ëþäè è ïòèöû» – äåìîíñòðàöèÿ ñîñòîÿíèÿ è ïåðñïåêòèâ îòå÷åñòâåííîãî è çàðóáåæíîãî îïûòà äåÿòåëüíîñòè ïî èçó÷åíèþ è ñîõðàíåíèþ ïòèö è ìåñò èõ îáèòàíèÿ êàê ôàêòîðà óñòîé÷èâîãî ðàçâèòèÿ ðåãèîíîâ. Âûñòàâêà ïðèçâàíà ñîäåéñòâîâàòü ðàçâèòèþ áåðäâîò÷èíãà (íàáëþäåíèå ïòèö â ïðèðîäå) – íîâîãî äëÿ Ðîññèè ÿâëåíèÿ êóëüòóðû è âèäà ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ – è ñâÿçàííîé ñ íèì èíäóñòðèè, à òàêæå ïàðòíåðñòâó ãîñóäàðñòâåííûõ, êîììåð÷åñêèõ è îáùåñòâåííûõ îðãàíèçàöèé. Òåìàòèêà âûñòàâêè – êóëüòóðíûå, íàó÷íûå, ïðèðîäîîõðàííûå, ýêîíîìè÷åñêèå

The exhibition «People and birds» will take place on 17–20 May 2005 within the framework of the International Forum «The Great Rivers, 2005». The purpose of the exhibition «People and birds» is to demonstrate the domestic and foreign experience of studying and conservation of birds and to built a capacity in the protection of bird habitats as a potential tool for the sustainable development of regions. The exhibition will help the development of bird watching and the bird watching industry of Russia, as well as partnerships of state, commercial and public organizations. Themes of exhibition will be cultural, scientific and economic aspects of studying and the conservation of birds.

 âûñòàâî÷íîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå Ðîññèè Íèæåãîðîäñêàÿ îáëàñòü çàíèìàåò îñîáîå ìåñòî, êàê ðîäèíà çíàìåíèòîé è, â ñâîå âðåìÿ, êðóïíåéøåé â Åâðîïå Íèæåãîðîäñêîé ÿðìàðêè. Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä âêëþ÷åí ÞÍÅÑÊÎ â ñïèñîê 100 ãîðîäîâ ìèðà, ïðåäñòàâëÿþùèõ ìèðîâóþ èñòîðè÷åñêóþ è êóëüòóðíóþ öåííîñòü. Ôîðóì «Âåëèêèå ðåêè», êîòîðûé ïðîâîäèòñÿ óæå íåñêîëüêî ëåò, ïîñâÿùåí ðåøåíèþ ïðîáëåì óñòîé÷èâîãî ðàçâèòèÿ â áàññåéíàõ êðóïíûõ ðåê, îáåñïå÷åíèÿ ñîöèàëüíî-ýêîíîìè÷åñêîãî ðàçâèòèÿ Ðîññèè, ñîõðàíåíèÿ îêðóæàþùåé ïðèðîäíîé ñðåäû äëÿ íûíåøíåãî è áóäóùèõ ïîêîëåíèé, à òàêæå êîîðäèíàöèè äåÿòåëüíîñòè ðåãèîíîâ â áàññåéíàõ âåëèêèõ ðåê.  2004 ãîäó ôîðóì ñîáðàë ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé 19 ñòðàí, 18 ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ îðãàíèçàöèé, 54 ðåãèîíîâ Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè. Ðàáîòó ôîðóìà îñâåùàëè áîëåå 200 ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé ñðåäñòâ ìàññîâîé èíôîðìàöèè. 8

Ñîáûòèÿ

http://www.yarmarka.ru

The Nizhniy Novgorod district is special for Russia, as it is a native ground for famous and, in past times the largest in the World, the Nizhegorodskaya Fair. Nizhniy Novgorod is included in the UNESCO’s list of the top 100 cities most significant to world history and culture. The Forum «Great Rivers» is dedicated to solving the problems of sustainable development in the watersheds of large rivers. The forum has united representatives from 19 countries, 18 international organizations, and delegate from 54 administrative districts of the Russian Federation in 2004.


Events (4) Êîíòàêò: Íàòàëüÿ Ãåííàäüåâíà Ñìèðíîâà Äèðåêòîð Ôîðóìà è Âûñòàâêè «Çîîìèð-2005» òåë.: (8312) 77 56 89 ôàêñ: (8312) 77 55 87 natsmi@yarmarka.ru Íàäåæäà Þðüåâíà Êèñåëåâà Êîîðäèíàòîð âûñòàâêè «Çà ñèíåé ïòèöåé-2005» òåë.: (8312) 34 46 79 sopr@dront.ru (4) Contact: Natalya Smirnova Directors of the Forum and the Exhibition «Zoo World-2005» tel.: (8312) 77 56 89 tel./fax: (8312) 775587 natsmi@yarmarka.ru Nadezhda Kiseleva Coordinator of the exhibition «For the blue bird – 2005» tel.: (8312) 34 46 79 sopr@dront.ru

(5) Êîíòàêò: Íàäåæäà Èâàíîâíà Äîðîôåþê ÈÏÝÝ ÐÀÍ Ìîñêâà Ðîññèÿ òåë./ôàêñ: (095) 9530713 pgunin@online.ru ×. Äîðæñóðýí Ìîíãîëèÿ òåë./ôàêñ: +976 (11) 45 18 37 ibot@mongol.net (5) Contact: Nadezhda Dorofeyuk Russia Moscow tel./fax: (095) 953 0713 pgunin@online.ru Ch. Dorzhsuren Mongolia tel./fax: +976(11) 451837 ibot@mongol.net

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 àñïåêòû äåÿòåëüíîñòè ïî èçó÷åíèþ è ñîõðàíåíèþ ïòèö. Ê ó÷àñòèþ â âûñòàâêå ïðèãëàøàþòñÿ ãîñóäàðñòâåííûå è îáùåñòâåííûå îðãàíèçàöèè, ó÷åíûå, ðåàëèçóþùèå ïðîåêòû ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ ïòèö è èõ ìåñò îáèòàíèé, ïðîèçâîäèòåëè è ïðîäàâöû îáîðóäîâàíèÿ è ñíàðÿæåíèÿ äëÿ íàáëþäåíèé çà ïòèöàìè, òóðôèðìû, îðãàíèçóþùèå òóðû ïî áåðäâîò÷èíãó (â ñòðàíå è çà ðóáåæîì), ó÷ðåæäåíèÿ îáðàçîâàíèÿ è êóëüòóðû, ñïîíñîðû. Êîíòàêò (3). 7–9 îêòÿáðÿ 2005 ãîäà â ðàìêàõ 6-ãî Âñåðîññèéñêîãî ôîðóìà «Ìèëëèîí äðóçåé: æèâàÿ ïðèðîäà è îáùåñòâî» ïðîéäåò Ïåðâàÿ ñïåöèàëèçèðîâàííàÿ âûñòàâêà îáîðóäîâàíèÿ è ñíàðÿæåíèÿ äëÿ íàáëþäåíèé çà ïòèöàìè «Çà ñèíåé ïòèöåé – 2005». Îíà àäðåñîâàíà íàáëþäàòåëÿì ïòèö è áóäåò ïðåäñòàâëÿòü: – áèíîêëè, çðèòåëüíûå òðóáû – ôîòîàïïàðàòû è âèäåîêàìåðû – ëàçåðíûå äàëüíîìåðû – GPS-íàâèãàòîðû – ïîëåâîå îáîðóäîâàíèå è îäåæäó – ëèòåðàòóðó î ïòèöàõ – ïåðèîäè÷åñêèå èçäàíèÿ, ñâÿçàííûå ñ èçó÷åíèåì è îõðàíîé ïòèö – îïûò è óñïåõè îðãàíèçàöèè áåðäâîò÷èíãà – ìåòîäû íàáëþäåíèÿ çà ïòèöàìè â ïðèðîäå. Êîíòàêò (4). 5–9 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2005 ãîäà â ã. Óëàí-Áàòîð, Ìîíãîëèÿ, ñîñòîèòñÿ Ìåæäóíàðîäíàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ «Ýêîñèñòåìû Ìîíãîëèè è ïðèãðàíè÷íûõ ðåãèîíîâ ñîïðåäåëüíûõ ñòðàí: ïðèðîäíûå ðåñóðñû, áèîðàçíîîáðàçèå è ýêîëîãè÷åñêèå ïåðñïåêòèâû». Îðãàíèçàòîðû êîíôåðåíöèè: Àêàäåìèÿ Íàóê Ìîíãîëèè è Ðîññèéñêàÿ Àêàäåìèÿ Íàóê. Öåëè êîíôåðåíöèè: – îöåíèòü ñîâðåìåííîå ñîñòîÿíèå ýêîñèñòåì è áèîëîãè÷åñêèõ ðåñóðñîâ Ìîíãîëèè; – âûÿâèòü òðåíäû ðàçâèòèÿ ïðèðîäíîé ñðåäû â ñâÿçè ñ àíòðîïîãåííîé äåÿòåëüíîñòüþ íà ïðèãðàíè÷íûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ Ìîíãîëèè, Ðîññèè, Êàçàõñòàíà è Êèòàÿ; – ïðîâåñòè àíàëèç ñîâðåìåííûõ ïðîöåññîâ ôóíêöèîíèðîâàíèÿ îñíîâíûõ òèïîâ ýêîñèñòåì Öåíòðàëüíîé Àçèè. Ãëàâíûå òåìû: – áèîëîãè÷åñêîå ðàçíîîáðàçèå è áèîëîãè÷åñêèå ðåñóðñû; – îïòèìèçàöèÿ èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ è ñîõðàíåíèå áèîëîãè÷åñêèõ ðåñóðñîâ; – äèíàìèêà ýêîñèñòåì è ñîâðåìåííûå ñóêöåññèîííûå ïðîöåññû;

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We invite all interested persons for the participation in the exhibition. Contact (3). The First exhibition of bird watching equipment «In search of the bluebird – 2005» will be held within the framework of the 6th Russian Forum «Million friends: wilderness and society» on 7–9 October 2005. It will target birdwatchers and will present: – binoculars, telescopes – equipment for photo and video – laser range finders – GPS-navigators – field equipment and clothing – literature on birds – periodicals on bird studies and bird conservation – experiences and successes in organization of bird watching – methods of bird watching in real wilderness. Contact (4).

Íàáëþäåíèå ïòèö. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Birdwatching. Photo by I. Karyakin

An International conference «Ecosystems of Mongolia and bordering regions of adjoining countries: natural resources, biodiversity and ecological perspectives» will take place 5–9 September 2005 in Ulanbataar, Mongolia. The organizers of the conference are the Academy of Sciences of Mongolia and the Russian Academy of Sciences. Purposes of the conference: – to examine the modern conditions of ecosystems and biological resources of Mongolia; – define trends of nature development in relation to human activity on the border territories of Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan and China; – analysis of modern processes of operating main types of ecosystems of Central Asia. Main topics: – biodiverstity and biological resources; – optimization of use and conservation of biological resources; – trends and successional changes in ecosystems;


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Ñîáûòèÿ

– æèâîòíûå è ðàñòåíèÿ êàê íàèáîëåå óÿçâèìûå êîìïîíåíòû ýêîñèñòåì; – àíòðîïîãåííîå âîçäåéñòâèå íà îêðóæàþùóþ ñðåäó è çàãðÿçíåíèå ýêîñèñòåì; – áèîëîãè÷åñêèå èíâàçèè ÷óæåðîäíûõ âèäîâ; – äèñòàíöèîííîå çîíäèðîâàíèå è ýêîëîãè÷åñêîå êàðòîãðàôèðîâàíèå; – ïðèðîäíûå è ñîöèàëüíî-ýêîíîìè÷åñêèå àñïåêòû äåãðàäàöèè è îïóñòûíèâàíèÿ; – òðàíñôîðìàöèÿ òðàäèöèîííîãî ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèÿ â ñîâðåìåííûé ïåðèîä. Êîíòàêò (5).

Ìîëîäîé áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Juveniles of the Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga). Photo by I. Karyakin

19–21 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2005 ãîäà â Íàöèîíàëüíîì ïàðêå Áèåáðçà (Ïîëüøà) ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ïðîâåäåíèå Ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî ñîáðàíèÿ ïî èññëåäîâàíèþ è îõðàíå áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà (Aquila clanga) 9. Ñîáðàíèå ïðîâîäèòñÿ Íàöèîíàëüíûì ïàðêîì Áèåáðçà ñîâìåñòíî ñ Ïîëüñêèì êîìèòåòîì ïî îðëàì (PEC) è Ìåæäóíàðîäíîé ãðóïïîé ïî õèùíûì ïòèöàì è ñîâàì (WWGBP). Íàó÷íàÿ ïðîãðàììà ñîáðàíèÿ áóäåò âêëþ÷àòü óñòíûå ñîîáùåíèÿ è ïîñòåðû. Ïðèíèìàþòñÿ äîêëàäû ïî âñåì àñïåêòàì áèîëîãèè áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà è åãî îõðàíå, âêëþ÷àÿ ãíåçäîâóþ áèîëîãèþ, òàêñîíîìèþ, ïèòàíèå, ìèãðàöèè, çèìîâêè è ò.ä. Ðåôåðàòû îáúåìîì äî 300 ñëîâ äîëæíû áûòü ïîñëàíû íà ýëåêòðîííûé àäðåñ Ìåæäóíàðîäíîé ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû ïî õèùíûì ïòèöàì è ñîâàì: WWGBP@aol.com äî 1 àâãóñòà 2005 ã. Ýòè ðåôåðàòû áóäóò ïðåäñòàâëåíû ó÷àñòíèêàì ñîáðàíèÿ è îïóáëèêîâàíû íà âåáñàéòå WWGBP10. Ìàòåðèàëû äëÿ ñîáðàíèÿ ìîãóò áûòü ïîñëàíû è òåìè, êòî íå ñìîæåò ëè÷íî ó÷àñòâîâàòü â

Áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga) – ãëîáàëüíî óãðîæàåìûé è ìàëîèçó÷åííûé âèä, ãíåçäîâîé àðåàë êîòîðîãî ðàñïðîñòèðàåòñÿ îò Ïîëüøè äî Êèòàÿ, à îáëàñòü çèìîâêè îõâàòûâàåò òåððèòîðèþ îò þãà Åâðîïû äî ßïîíèè, âêëþ÷àÿ Àôðèêó, Ñðåäíèé Âîñòîê, Èíäèþ, Ìàëàéñêèé Àðõèïåëàã è Ñóìàòðó.  Íàöèîíàëüíîì ïàðêå Áèåáðçà íà ñåâåðî-âîñòîêå Ïîëüøè íàõîäèòñÿ ñàìàÿ çàïàäíàÿ â àðåàëå ãíåçäîâàÿ ãðóïïèðîâêà áîëüøèõ ïîäîðëèêîâ, êîòîðàÿ èçó÷àåòñÿ â òå÷åíèå ïîñëåäíèõ 30 ëåò. Èññëåäîâàíèÿ âêëþ÷àþò, â òîì ÷èñëå, ñïóòíèêîâîå ïðîñëåæèâàíèå 12 ïòèö. 9 10

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Spotted-Eagles www.raptors-international.de

– animals and plants as the most threatened components of ecosystems; – human impacts on environment and pollution; – spread of alien species; – remote sensing and ecological mapping; – natural and social-economic aspects of land degradation and desertification; – transformation of the traditional nature resources usage. Contact (5). International Meeting on the Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) – Research and Conservation OSOWIEC, Biebrza National Park, NE Poland, 19–21 September 20059. The meeting will be hosted by the Biebrza National Park and jointly organized by the Biebrza National Park, the Polish Eagle Committee and WWGBP, the World Working Group on Birds of Prey. The Scientific Programme will include oral presentations and posters. Papers on all aspects of the biology and conservation of the GSE are welcome, including breeding biology, taxonomy, food habits, migration, wintering etc. Abstracts: If you intend to contribute either an oral presentation or a poster you should send an abstract of about 300 words before 1 August 2005 to WWGBP@aol.com. These abstracts will be available to the participants at the meeting and will also be published on the internet10. There will be oral presentations by both invited and uninvited speakers as well as posters. Posters may also be sent to the conference from people who cannot attend the meeting in person. Proceedings will be published by the Biebrza National Park. Both oral presentations and posters will be refereed and considered for publication in the proceedings.

The Greater Spotted Eagle (GSE) (Aquila clanga) is a globally threatened species breeding from eastern Poland to China and wintering from Europe and Africa across the Middle East to Japan and south to the Malay Archipelago and Sumatra. It has been studied comparatively little. The Biebrza valley in NE Poland holds the westernmost population of the species, which has been studied here for 30 years including satellite tracking of 12 individuals, mostly adult birds.


Events (6) Contact: Prof. Dr. Bernd-U. Meyburg Chairman World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls (WWGBP) Wangenheimstr, 32 D-14193 Berlin Germany tel.: ++49 30 893 88133 fax: ++49 30 892 80 67 tel.(mob.): ++49 172 38 38 084 privat@Bernd-Meyburg.de WWGBP@aol.com

(7) Êîíòàêò: Îëüãà Åãîðîâíà Áîðîäèíà Çàì. äèðåêòîðà ïî íàó÷íîé ðàáîòå Îáëàñòíîãî êðàåâåä÷åñêîãî ìóçåÿ Òàòüÿíà Ãðîìîâà Çàâ. îòäåëîì ïðèðîäû Îáëàñòíîãî êðàåâåä÷åñêîãî ìóçåÿ Îáëàñòíîé êðàåâåä÷åñêèé ìóçåé, îòäåë ïðèðîäû 432601 Ðîññèÿ ã. Óëüÿíîâñê áóëüâàð Íîâûé Âåíåö ä. 3/4 òåë.: (8422) 44 30 16 ôàêñ: (8422) 44 30 92 orlasha@mail.ru (7) Contact: Olga Borodina Deputy director on scientific work of the Regional museum Tatyana Gromova Manager of the Department of Nature in the Regional museum The Regional Museum, the Department of Nature Boulevard Noviy Venets, 3/4 Ulyanovsk 432601, Russia tel.: (8422) 44 30 16 fax: (8422) 44 30 92 orlasha@mail.ru

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Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 ðàáîòå ñîáðàíèÿ. Ìàòåðèàëû ïðåäîñòàâëÿþòñÿ íà àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêå, ëèáî ïîëüñêîì ÿçûêå ñ àíãëèéñêèì àáñòðàêòîì. Çàÿâêè íà ôèíàíñîâóþ ïîääåðæêó äîêëàä÷èêîâ äîëæíû áûòü ïîñëàíû íà ýëåêòðîííûé àäðåñ WWGBP. Ê çàÿâêå äîëæíû áûòü îáÿçàòåëüíî ïðèëîæåíû ðåôåðàò è ñìåòà ðàñõîäîâ. Êîíòàêò (6). 21–24 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2005 ãîäà â ã. Óëüÿíîâñêå ñîñòîÿòñÿ II Áóòóðëèíñêèå ÷òåíèÿ, ïîñâÿù¸ííûå ïàìÿòè èçâåñòíîãî ðîññèéñêîãî îðíèòîëîãà, îõîòîâåäà, èññëåäîâàòåëÿ Ñåâåðà, îäíîãî èç îñíîâ îïîëîæíèêîâ ïðèðîäîîõðàííîãî äâèæåíèÿ â Ðîññèè – Ñåðãåÿ Àëåêñàíäðîâè÷à Áóòóðëèíà. ×òåíèÿ ïðèóðî÷åíû ê 100-ëåòèþ Êîëûìñêîé ýêñïåäèöèè, êîòîðóþ âîçãëàâëÿë ó÷¸íûé, è 100-ëåòèþ îòêðûòèÿ èì ãíåçäîâèé ðîçîâîé ÷àéêè.  ïðîãðàììå: íàó÷íàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ, îòêðûòèå âûñòàâêè â Óëüÿíîâñêîì îáëàñòíîì êðàåâåä÷åñêîì ìóçåå, âûåçä íà òåððèòîðèþ Ñóðñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî çîîëîãè÷åñêîãî çàêàçíèêà èìåíè Ñ.À. Áóòóðëèíà. Ïî èòîãàì ðàáîòû áóäåò èçäàí ñáîðíèê ñòàòåé. Çàÿâêè íà ó÷àñòèå è òåìû äîêëàäîâ ïðèíèìàþòñÿ äî 3 ìàÿ 2005 ã. âêëþ÷èòåëüíî.  çàÿâêå íåîáõîäèìî óêàçàòü: ÔÈÎ ó÷àñòíèêà, ìåñòî ðàáîòû (ó÷åáû), äîëæíîñòü, íàó÷íóþ ñòåïåíü, àäðåñà, òåëåôîíû, àäðåñ ýëåêòðîííîé ïî÷òû, òåìó âûñòóïëåíèÿ, ïðèìåðíûé îáú¸ì ñòàòüè â ñòðàíèöàõ ñòàíäàðòíîãî òåêñòà.  îòâåò íà çàÿâêó áóäåò îòïðàâëåíî èìåííîå ïðèãëàøåíèå. Òðåáîâàíèÿ ïî îôîðìëåíèþ ñòàòåé áóäóò óêàçàíû â èìåííûõ ïðèãëàøåíèÿõ. Êîíòàêò (7). 31 ÿíâàðÿ – 5 ôåâðàëÿ 2006 ãîäà â ã. Ñòàâðîïîëå íà áàçå Ñòàâðîïîëüñêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà áóäåò ïðîõîäèòü XII Ìåæäóíàðîäíàÿ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè11. Îðãàíèçàòîðû êîíôåðåíöèè: Ñòàâðîïîëüñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò, Ìåíçáèðîâñêîå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîå îáùåñòâî, Íàó÷íî-èññëåäîâàòåëüñêèé Çîîëîãè÷åñêèé ìóçåé ÌÃÓ, Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè, Ìèíèñòåðñòâî ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ Ñòàâðîïîëüñêîãî êðàÿ è äð. Íàïðàâëåíèÿ ðàáîòû êîíôåðåíöèè: – èñòîðè÷åñêàÿ äèíàìèêà ôàóíû ïòèö – ìîðôîëîãèÿ è ñèñòåìàòèêà ïòèö – âîïðîñû îõðàíû ïòèö

http://zmmu.msu.ru/menzbir/action/conf/index.htm

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The Papers should be in English or Polish (with English summaries). To promote the conservation of the species in Poland, the Proceedings will also contain Polish translations or extanded summaries of some papers already published in other languages. Applications for financial support for speakers should be sent as soon as possible to WWGBP@aol.com including an abstract and a detailed estimate of travel expenses. The stay of invited speakers at the conference will also be sponsored by the National Park. Invited speakers are expected to bring the final manuscript with them to the conference, ready for publication. Contact (6). II Buturlinskie Chtenia («Buturlin Workshop» – conference dedicated to memories by famous Russian ornithologist, naturalist, researcher of the North of Russia, the founder of environmental movement in Russia – Sergey Alexandrovich Buturlin) will take place in Ulyanovsk in 21–24 September 2005. Chtenia will be dedicated to the centenary of the 1905 Kolyma expedition by Buturlin during which he discovered the breeding grounds of the Rosses Gull. The preliminary program: scientific conference; opening of the exhibition in the Ulyanovsk state museum, excursion to Surskiy Federal Zoological Zakaznik (Natural Reserve) named by S.A. Buturlin. It is planned to publish the Proceedings of the conference. Deadline for submission of reports and application forms is 3 May 2005. Application form must be include: name of participant, place of work (studying), position, scientific degree, address, telephones, e-mail, title of presentation, approximate volume of article in pages of standard text. Personal invitation will be sent to each author after receiving his application form. Submission form for papers will be sent with personal invitation. Contact (7). XII International ornithological conference11 is planned for 31 January – 5 February 2006 in the Stavropol State University, Stavropol. Organizations: The Stavropol State University, Menzbirovskoe Ornithological Society (MOS), Scientific Zoological Museum of the Moscow State University, RBCU, Ministry of Nature Sources of the Stavropolskiy Kray and others. The following problems will be sounded: – historical trends of birds – morphology and systematic of birds


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

(8) Êîíòàêò: Ìåíçáèðîâñêîå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîå îáùåñòâî Çîîëîãè÷åñêèé ìóçåé ÌÃÓ Îòäåë îðíèòîëîãèè 125009 Ìîñêâà Á. Íèêèòñêàÿ, ä. 6 òåë.: (095) 203 43 66 ôàêñ: (095) 203 27 17 menzbir@narod.ru (8) Contact: Menzbirovskoe Ornithological Society Scientific Zoological Museum of the Moscow State University Department of Ornithology 125009 Moscow Bol. Nikitskaya str., 6 tel: (095) 203 43 66 fax: (095) 203 27 17 menzbir@narod ru

Àëòàéñêèé áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Altay Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug). Photo by I. Karyakin

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Ñîáûòèÿ

Ðàáî÷èå ÿçûêè êîíôåðåíöèè: ðóññêèé è àíãëèéñêèé. Îðãàíèçàöèîííûé âçíîñ äëÿ âñåõ ó÷àñòíèêî⠖ 300 ðóá., äëÿ àñïèðàíòîâ è ñòóäåíòî⠖ 100 ðóá. îïëà÷èâàåòñÿ ïî ïðèáûòèè. Æåëàþùèì ó÷àñòâîâàòü â ðàáîòå Êîíôåðåíöèè íåîáõîäèìî çàðåãèñòðèðîâàòüñÿ12 äî 1 èþíÿ 2005 ã. íà ñàéòå ÖÑ ÌÎÎ èëè âûñëàòü â ýëåêòðîííîì âèäå àíêåòó-çàÿâêó óñòàíîâëåííîé ôîðìû13 íà àäðåñ Îðãêîìèòåòà <conf@zmmu.msu.ru>. Òåçèñû (òîëüêî â ýëåêòðîííîì âèäå) áóäóò ïðèíèìàòüñÿ äî 15 îêòÿáðÿ 2005 ã. Êîíòàêò (8).

– birds conservation – domestic birds – migrations of birds – ecology of birds – demography and behavior of birds – ornithology studying in universities and ornithology promoting in mass-media – human influence and pollution of environment. Russian and English are the official languages of the conference. The registration fee for participants is 300 rubles, for students and post-graduates – 100 rubles (will paid on the conference). The deadline for registration12 is 1 June 2005. The application form is available on website13 of the Central Consul of MOS. The deadline for submission of Abstracts is 15 October 2005. Send the abstracts to the Organization Committee at E-mail: conf@zmmu.msu.ru. For more information please visit the websites. Contact (8).

Ñîêîëû è ÑÈÒÅÑ

Falcons and SITES

16–19 ìàÿ 2004 ãîäà â ã. Àáó Äàáè (ÎÀÝ) ïðîøëà êîíñóëüòàöèîííàÿ âñòðå÷à ïî òîðãîâëå ñîêîëàìè äëÿ íóæä ñîêîëèíîé îõîòû14. Íà âñòðå÷å ïðîçâó÷àëè 18 äîêëàäîâ: Ôîêñ Í. Îáçîð ñèòóàöèè ñ áàëîáàíîì â ìèðå, ìîíèòîðèíã ïðèðîäíûõ ïîïóëÿöèé, ðîëü ñîêîëèíûõ ïèòîìíèêîâ. Ïîòàïîâ Å., Áàðòîí Í. Ìîíèòîðèíã òîðãîâëè ñîêîëàìè. Ëåâèí À. Ñòàòóñ áàëîáàíà â Êàçàõñòàíå. Ãîìáîáàòààð Ñ., Øàãäàðñóðåí Î., Ñóìüÿ Ä., Ïîòàïîâ Å. è Ôîêñ Í. Ñòàòóñ áàëîáàíà â Ìîíãîëèè. Ãàëóøèí Â., Ìîñåéêèí Â. Ñòàòóñ áàëîáàíà â Ðîññèè è Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïå. Ìà Ìèíã. Ñòàòóñ ïîïóëÿöèè áàëîáàíà â Çàïàäíîì Êèòàå. Âàí Çèìèíã. Îõðàíà è þðèäè÷åñêèé ñòàòóñ áàëîáàíà â Êèòàå. Áðèãàäèð Ìóõòàð Àõìåä. Ñòàòóñ áàëîáàíà â Ïàêèñòàíå. Ïîòàïîâ Å. Ïðîãíîç ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà.

The Consultative Meeting on trade in falcons for falconry on the 16–19 May 2004, Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates14. On meeting have sounded 18 reports: Fox N. A Global Overview of the Saker Falcon, Monitoring wild populations, The role of captive bred falcons, Networking and information exchange. Potapov E. and Barton N. Monitoring through flow of falcons. Levin A. Status of Saker Falcon in Kazakhstan. Gombobataar S., Shagdarsuren O., Sumya D., Potapov E. and Fox N. Status of Saker Falcon in Mongolia. Galushin V., Moseikin V. Status of the Saker in Russia ad Eastern Europe. Ma Ming. The status of Saker falcon population in the western China. Ziming Wan. Protection and Legal Status of Saker Falcon in China. Brigadier Mukhtar Ahmed. The Status of Saker in Pakistan. Potapov E. Projection of the final loss of the Saker. Majid Al Mansouri. Emirates Falconers’ Club. Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Villa and Dr. Timothy Kimmel. International Support and Networking of Falconers around the World. Abdulnasser A. Al Shamsi. CITES registration systems, surveys of falconers, Controlling Imports.

– ñèíàíòðîïíûå ïòèöû – ìèãðàöèè – ýêîëîãèÿ ïòèö – äåìîãðàôèÿ è ïîâåäåíèå ïòèö – ïðåïîäàâàíèå îðíèòîëîãèè â ÂÓÇàõ è ïðîïàãàíäà îðíèòîëîãèè â ÑÌÈ – àíòðîïîãåííîå âëèÿíèå è çàãðÿçíåíèå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû.

http://zmmu.msu.ru/menzbir/action/conf/register.htm http://zmmu.msu.ru/menzbir/action/conf/prop.doc http://www.cites.org/common/prog/falcon_sum.pdf


Events

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 Ìàäæèä Àëü Ìàíñóðè. Êëóá ñîêîëüíèêîâ Ýìèðàòîâ. Æîçå Ìàíóýëü Ðîäðèãåç-Âèëëà, Òèìîòè Êèììåë. Ìåæäóíàðîäíàÿ ïîääåðæêà è îðãàíèçàöèÿ ñåòè ñîêîëüíèêîâ â ìèðå. À òàêæå ðÿä ñîîáùåíèé ïî âîïðîñàì ÑÈÒÅÑ Äæîíàòàíà Áîðçî è Àáäóëíàçèðà A. Àëü Øàìñè. Èòîãîâûå òåçèñû âñòðå÷è ìîæíî óâèäåòü íà ñàéòå ïðîåêòà ïî ñîêîëóáàëîáàíó15. Ëåòîì 2004 ãîäà áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) âíåñåí â Êðàñíûé ñïèñîê Ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî ñîþçà îõðàíû ïðèðîäû â êà÷åñòâå óãðîæàåìîãî âèäà (ENDANGERED A2bcd+3bcd)16.

(9) Contact: CITES Secretariat International Environment House Chemin des Anemones CH-1219 Chatelaine Geneva, Switzerland tel.: (+4122) 917 8139 tel.: (+4122) 917 8140 fax: (+4122) 797 3417 cites@unep.ch

15 16 17

2–14 îêòÿáðÿ 2004 ãîäà â ã. Áàíãêîê (Òàéëàíä) ñîñòîÿëîñü 13-å ñîâåùàíèå ñòðàí – ÷ëåíîâ ÑÈÒÅÑ17. Ïðåäïîëàãàëîñü, ÷òî íà ñîâåùàíèè áóäåò ðàññìîòðåíî ïðåäëîæåíèå î âíåñåíèè áàëîáàíà â Ïðèëîæåíèè 1 ÑÈÒÅÑ íà òîì îñíîâàíèè, ÷òî åãî ÷èñëåííîñòü ñóùåñòâåííî ñîêðàòèëàñü ïî ïðè÷èíå íåëåãàëüíîé òîðãîâëè. Çà ïîëãîäà äî ñîâåùàíèÿ áûëà îðãàíèçîâàíà äèñêóññèÿ íà ýòó òåìó. Íåñìîòðÿ íà òî, ÷òî áîëüøèíñòâî ó÷àñòíèêîâ äèñêóññèè ñîãëàñèëèñü, ÷òî äëÿ ñîõðàíåíèÿ âèäà ýòà ìåðà íåîáõîäèìà, íè îäíà èç ñòðàí ó÷àñòíèö êîíâåíöèè, íà òåððèòîðèÿõ êîòîðûõ îáèòàåò áàëîáàí, íå ïðåäëîæèëà âíåñòè åãî â Ïðèëîæåíèå 1 ÑÈÒÅÑ. Èòîãîâîå çàêëþ÷åíèå Êîíñóëüòàöèîííîé âñòðå÷è ïî òîðãîâëå ñîêîëàìè äëÿ íóæä ñîêîëèíîé îõîòû îïóáëèêîâàíî íà ñòð. 17. Êîíòàêò (9).

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Barzdo J. The Role of CITES as a Legal Framework, Controlling Exports from Range States. The summary record from meeting is at website15. Summer 2004: the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) contributed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ENDANGERED A2bcd+3bcd)16. 2–14 October 2004: CITES 13th meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Bangkok, Thailand17. Despite various discussions, no signatory country has proposed to up-list the Saker to Appendix 1 of CITES at the COP13 in Bangkok. Summary record of Consultative meeting on trade in falcons for falconry is given on the page 17. Contact (9).

Îòëîâëåííûé áàëîáàí. Ôîòî Å. Ïîòàïîâà The catched Saker Falcon. Photo by E. Potapov

Êîíòðàáàíäà ñîêîëîâ

Contraband of falcons

7 ìàÿ 2004 ãîäà âîñåìüäåñÿò ñîêîëîâ, êîíôèñêîâàííûå ó êîíòðàáàíäèñòîâ â Îáúåäèíåííûõ Àðàáñêèõ Ýìèðàòàõ, âûïóùåíû â ãîðàõ ñåâåðíîãî Ïàêèñòàíà. Ñîêîëû áûëè ïîéìàíû â ñåâåðíîì Ïàêèñòàíå è Êèòàå è ïðîâåçåíû êîíòðàáàíäîé â ÎÀÝ, ãäå îíè áûëè çàäåðæàíû âëàñòÿìè. 6 ìàÿ ïòèö ïåðåâåçëè èç ã. Àáó-Äàáè â ã. Ãèëãèò íà áîðòó ñàìîëåòà âîåííî-âîçäóøíûõ ñèë ÎÀÝ. Âûïóñê ñîñòîÿëñÿ íà ïåðåâàëå Êóíäæåðàá íà âûñîòå 16 òûñ. ôóòîâ. Àêöèÿ îñóùåñòâëåíà ïðè ïîääåðæêå Ìåæäóíàðîäíîé Ñîêîëèíîé Îðãàíèçàöèè. Ïî ìàòåðèàëàì Õàëåéäæ Òàéìñ (Ãèëãèò, Ïàêèñòàí).

Eighty falcons confiscated from smugglers in the United Arab Emirates will 7th of May 2004 be released in their mountainous home region of northern Pakistan, officials said. The UAE yesterday returned the birds which were flown to Gilgit, Pakistan’s northern gateway to the Himalayas, aboard a UAE Air Force plane. Officials said the falcons would be freed today at the 16,000 – feet high Khunjerab Pass which links Pakistan and China’s northwest Xinjiang region. «Eighty falcons will be set free in the Khunjerab by Falcon International Organization (a non governmental organization)», said World Wildlife Federation official Ali Ahmed Jan. He said the birds were captured in northern Pakistan and China and were smuggled to UAE where they were seized by authorities.

http://www.savethesaker.com/index.asp?id=72 http://www.redlist.org/search/details.php?species=49515 http://www.cites.org/eng/resols/13/index.shtml

On material Khaleej Times (Gilgit, Pakistan)


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Ñîáûòèÿ

9 ìàÿ 2004 ãîäà 49 ñàïñàíîâ (Falco peregrinus) è 27 áàëîáàíîâ (Falco cherrug) áûëè âûïóùåíû â Ïàêèñòàíå áëèç ãðàíèöû ñ Êèòàåì â ïðåäãîðüÿõ Ãèìàëàåâ â èñòîêàõ ð. Èíäóñ18. Ýòà àêöèÿ áûëà îñóùåñòâëåíà â ðàìêàõ ðåàëèçàöèè Íàöèîíàëüíîé ïðîãðàììû Îáúåäèíåííûõ Àðàáñêèõ Ýìèðàòîâ ïî âîçâðàùåíèþ ñîêîëîâ â ïðèðîäó, âåäóùåéñÿ Àãåíòñòâîì ïî îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû ÎÀÝ (ERWDA, UAE), ïðè ïîääåðæêå Âñåìèðíîãî ôîíäà äèêîé ïðèðîäû Ïàêèñòàíà, Ìåæäóíàðîäíîé ñîêîëèíîé îðãàíèçàöèè è Ñîêîëèíîãî ãîñïèòàëÿ â Àëü Õàçíà.

Íèññàð Õîàç, øòàòíûé ðåïîðòåð ãàçåòû «Gulf News» (Íîâîñòè Çàëèâà)

 íà÷àëå 2004 ãîäà íà ×óêîòêå áûëè ïðåñå÷åíû ïîïûòêè âûâîçà 2-õ ïàðòèé èç 4 è 8 êðå÷åòîâ (Falco rusticolus). 13 àâãóñòà 2004 ãîäà â àýðîïîðòó ãîðîäà Àíàäûðü ïðè ïîãðóçêå íà ðåéñ Àíàäûðü-Èðêóòñê ñîòðóäíèêàìè ÎÂÄ Àíàäûðüñêîãî ðàéîíà ×óêîòñêîãî àâòîíîìíîãî îêðóãà áûëà çàäåðæàíà ïàðòèÿ èç 25 êðå÷åòîâ (Falco rusticolus) áåç ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ äîêóìåíòîâ. Ñîêîëû áûëè ïîäãîòîâëåíû ê ïåðåâîçêå â ÿùèêàõ è áûëè ëèøåíû âîçìîæíîñòè äâèãàòüñÿ. Ïî ïðè÷èíå ýòèõ íåóäîâëåòâîðèòåëüíûõ óñëîâèé, 12 ïòèö (âñå ñàìöû) ïîãèáëè.

The 49 peregrines (Falco peregrinus) and 27 sakers (Falco cherrug) were released in the wild at the Pakistan-China border along the Himalaya Mountains, the sources of the Indus River, in May 9 2004 under the National Falcon Release Programme18. The release programme was organised under the aegis of ERWDA with support from the Falcon Hospital at AI Khazna. Help in Pakistan was provided by the World Wide Fund for Nature (Pakistan) and the Falcon International Organisation. Nissar Hoath, Staff Reporter, Gulf News

In 2004 two illegal attempts to export 4 and 8 gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) were intercepted in Chukotka. On the 13 th of August, police of the Anadyr district of the Chucotka autonomous region (AR) arrested a party with 25 gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) which carried no official harvest documents. Falcons were prepared for transportation in boxes and were deprived of movement. Due to the unsatisfactory conditions, 12 birds (all males) died. Grygory Tynankergav, Press secretary of the Department of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation in the Chucotka AR

Ãðèãîðèé Òûíàíêåðãàâ, ïðåññ-ñåêðåòàðü ÓÏÐ ÌÏÐ Ðîññèè ïî ×óêîòñêîìó ÀÎ

7 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2004 ãîäà â ñ. Àíòîíüåâêà Ïåòðîïàâëîâñêîãî ðàéîíà Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ (Ðîññèÿ) ïðè ïðîâåðêå ïàñïîðòíîãî ðåæèìà ñîòðóäíèêàìè îðãàíîâ âíóòðåííèõ äåë ó äâóõ ãðàæäàí Àçåðáàéäæàíà áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ìàííûå ãîëóáè è ëîâóøêè äëÿ îòëîâà ñîêîëîâ. Íà ñëåäóþùèé äåíü, 8 ñåíòÿáðÿ, â õîäå ðåéäà ïî îõîòíè÷üèì óãîäüÿì ðàéîíà, ñîòðóäíèêàìè îïåðãðóïïû êðàéîõîòóïðàâëåíèÿ è íà÷àëüíèêàìè ðàéîòäåëîâ Þðèåì Ñåðèùåâûì (Ïåòðîïàâëîâñèé ðàéîí) è Þðèåì Òâåðèêèíûì (Óñòü-Ïðèñòàíñêèé ðàéîí) áûëè çàäåðæàíû äâå ãðóïïû áðàêîíüåðîâ, â òîì ÷èñëå è óæå óïîìÿíóòûå ãðàæäàíå Àçåðáàéäæàíà, ó êîòîðûõ áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ãîëóáè è ëîâóøêè äëÿ ñîêîëîâ. Ïî èíôîðìàöèè «Regions.Ru» è «Àëòàé òðàíñãðàíè÷íûé» 20. 19

http://www.erwda.gov.ae/eng/pages/news/press_articles/pa2004/ pa2004_093.html 19 http://www.ftinform.com/Russian/News/read.asp?id=10922 20 http://www.altaiinter.org/news/?id=1405 18

Ìàííûé ãîëóáü ñ ïåòëÿìè äëÿ ïîèìêè ñîêîëîâ. Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî Pigeon with nooses for catching falcons. Photo by E. Nikolenko

Pigeons and traps for catching falcons have confiscated from two men from the Azerbaijan Republic on the 7th of September 2004 in Anton’evka of the Petropavlovsk district of the Altay Kray. The following day (8 September), in the course of the roadstead two groups of poachers were arrested by special group of Federal Service for the Hunting, including


Events

Áåëûé êðå÷åò (Falco rusticolus). Ôîòî À. Ñåìåíîâà The Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) white morph. Photo by A. Semenov

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 19 îêòÿáðÿ 2004 ãîäà íà Êàì÷àòêå ñîòðóäíèêè ÔÑÁ ïðåäîòâðàòèëè ïîïûòêó âûâîçà 14 áåëûõ êðå÷åòîâ (Falco rusticolus). Êàê ñîîáùèë ÐÈÀ «Íîâîñòè» ïðåññ-ñåêðåòàðü ðåãèîíàëüíîãî óïðàâëåíèÿ ÔÑÁ Ñåðãåé Êîøåëåâ, 14 ðåäêèõ ïòèö áûëè âûâåçåíû èç ðàçíûõ ðàéîíîâ îáëàñòè (Óñòü-Õàéðþçîâî, Òèëè÷èêè) æèòåëÿìè ã. ÏåòðîïàâëîâñêàÊàì÷àòñêîãî è ã. Åëèçîâî è ïîäãîòîâëåíû äëÿ îòïðàâêè çà ïðåäåëû Êàì÷àòêè. Ïòèöû èçúÿòû ó áðàêîíüåðîâ. Îäíà èç íèõ íå âûíåñëà óñëîâèé ñîäåðæàíèÿ è ïîãèáëà. Îñòàëüíûå 13 êðå÷åòîâ âûïóùåíû íà âîëþ. Ïî ôàêòó êîíòðàáàíäû ðåäêèõ ïòèö ïðîâîäèòñÿ ïðîâåðêà. Ïî äàííûì ÔÑÁ ñ òåððèòîðèè Êàì÷àòêè åæåãîäíî âûâîçèòñÿ îêîëî 100 ðåäêèõ ïòèö. Îêñàíà Ãóñåâà, ÐÈÀ «Íîâîñòè»

(10) Êîíòàêò: Àíàòîëèé Ôåäîðîâè÷ Êîâøàðü Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè Àêàäåìèè íàóê Êàçàõñòàíà Àêàäåìãîðîäîê ã. Àëì-Àòû 480032 Êàçàõñòàí òåë.: (3272) 48 27 54 ôàêñ: (3272) 48 27 54 (10) Contact: Anatoly Kovshar Institute of Zoology Kazakhstan National Academy of Sciences Almaty 480032 Kazakhstan tel./fax: (3272) 48 27 54

Ïåðåäåðæêà èçúÿòûõ áàëîáàíîâ (Falco cherrug). Ôîòî À. Êîâøàðÿ The over-exposure of smuggled falcons (Falco cherrug). Photo by A. Kovshar

27 îêòÿáðÿ 2004 ãîäà êðóïíàÿ ïàðòèÿ ñîêîëîâ àðåñòîâàíà íà ðîññèéñêîé âîåííîé áàçå Êàíò â Êèðãèçèè â ìîìåíò ïîãðóçêè íà ñàìîëåò Èë-II äëÿ îòïðàâêè â Ñèðèþ. 125 ñîêîëîâ îêàçàëèñü áàëîáàíàìè è 2 – ñàïñàíàìè, ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå – ñàìêè. Äî âûÿñíåíèÿ îáñòîÿòåëüñòâ äåëà ñîêîëà ñîäåðæàëèñü íà áàçå Êèðãèçñêîãî ñîêîëèíîãî öåíòðà. Ïîñëå öåëîãî ðÿäà áþðîêðàòè÷åñêèõ ïðîöåäóð â ïðèñóòñòâèè êîìèññèè ïòèöû áûëè âûïóùåíû íà âîëþ 2 íîÿáðÿ. Îäíàêî óõîä çà ïòèöàìè âî âðåìÿ ïåðåäåðæêè áûë íåóäîâëåòâîðèòåëüíûì. Ïòèö âûïóñòèëè íà õîëîä íå ïîêîðìèâ, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî íåêîòîðûå äàæå íå ñìîãëè âçëåòåòü. Íåò íèêàêîãî ñîìíåíèÿ, ÷òî áîëüøèíñòâî áàëîáàíîâ èç èçúÿòîé ïàðòèè – ýòî êàçàõñòàíñêèå ñîêîëà è, ìîæåò áûòü, ÷àñòü èç íèõ – ðîññèéñêèå.  Êèðãèçèè íà ïðîëåòå è íà ãíåçäîâüå ñòàë äîñòàòî÷íî îáû÷åí øàõèí, à âîò áàëîáàíîâ çäåñü äàâíî íå íàõîäèëè. Êîíòàêò (10).

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and already mentioned men from Azerbaijan. The information has been received about the people interested in the catching of falcons were visiting Belokuricha, Shipunovskiy and other districts, where Peregrine and Saker Falcons are breeding.

According with information from «Regions.Ru»19 and «AltayInter»20

Agents of the FSA (Federal Security Agency) have prevented the attempt of export of 14 white gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) in Kamchatka on the 19th of October 2004. According the report by the press-secretary of the regional FSA Sergei Êoshelev to the Russian Information Agency «Novosty» a total of 14 gyrs were removed from different districts of the region (Ust-Hayryuzovo, Tilichky) by dwellers of PetropavlovskKamchatsky and Elizovo and prepared for transporting out of Kamchatka. Birds were confiscated from poachers. One of the birds died because of bad keeping conditions. The rest of the gyrfalcons were released. The FSA estimates that about 100 rare birds are transported from the territory of Kamchatka every year. Oksana Guseva, Russian Information Agency «Novosty»

A large party of falcons was arrested at the Russian Force base Kant in the Republic of Kyrgyzia while it was loading into the Ilyushin Il–18 airliner destined to Syria on the 27th of October 2004. 125 were saker falcons and 2 were peregrine falcons; most of them were females. The falcons temporarily stayed at the Kyrgyz Falcon Center. On the 2nd of November, after a number of bureaucratic procedures, the falcons were released under the witnesses of a specially appointed commission. However care for the birds during the over-exposure was unsatisfactory. Hungry birds have been released in the cold weather, and as a result some of them were not able to fly. There is no doubt that a majority of the sakers from the confiscated party came from the Republic of Kazakhstan, and some of them may have come from Russia. Usually the Peregrine Falcon breeds and migrates in the Republic of Kyrgyzia. However the Saker Falcon has not been found there breeding for a long time. Contact (10).


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Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà

Problem of Number ÏÐÎÁËÅÌÀ ÍÎÌÅÐÀ Saker Falcon in East Europe – stay in one step to tragedy ÁÀËÎÁÀÍ Â ÂÎÑÒÎ×ÍÎÉ ÅÂÐÎÏÅ – ÄÎ ÒÐÀÃÅÄÈÈ ÎÄÈÍ ØÀà I.V. Karyakin (Center of Field Studies, N.Novgorod, Russia) È.Â. Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ)

Ãíåçäî áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) íà òðàíñôîðìàòîðå â ïîñòðîéêå ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà (Buteo hemilasius). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nest of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) on transformer in the old nest by the Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius). Photo by I. Karyakin

Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Êîîðäèíàòîð ðîññèéñêîãî ïðîåêòà ïî èçó÷åíèþ è îõðàíå ñîêîëà-áàëîáàíà Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a-17 òåë.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Leader Russian Falcon Research and Protection Project Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a-17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru

 íà÷àëå ÕÕ âåêà àðåàë áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) çàíèìàë îãðîìíóþ òåððèòîðèþ Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè îò Àâñòðèè äî Äàëüíåãî Âîñòîêà. Íàèáîëåå êðóïíûå ïîïóëÿöèè áûëè èçâåñòíû â Ïîâîëæüå è Ïðåäóðàëüå, â äîëèííûõ ëåñàõ Óðàëà è Ýìáû. Îäíàêî, âî âòîðîé ïîëîâèíå ÕÕ âåêà ýòîò ñîêîë ïåðåæèë ñàìûå ÷åðíûå ñòðàíèöû ñâîåé èñòîðèè. Îñâîåíèå öåëèíû ïðèâåëî ê ïîòåðå îãðîìíûõ ïëîùàäåé åãî ìåñòîîáèòàíèé, áîðüáà ñ âðåäèòåëÿìè ñåëüñêîãî õîçÿéñòâà ëèøèëà áàëîáàíà äîáû÷è íà áîëüøåé ÷àñòè îõîòíè÷üèõ óãîäèé, ïðèìåíåíèå ïåñòèöèäîâ â ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííîé ïðàêòèêå ïîäîðâàëî ðåïðîäóêòèâíûé ïîòåíöèàë, à áîðüáà ñ õèùíûìè ïòèöàìè â 60-õ ãã. ñóùåñòâåííî ðàçðåäèëà ïîïóëÿöèè. Íî, íåñìîòðÿ íà ýòî, äî êîíöà 70-õ ãã. ÕÕ âåêà âèä ãíåçäèëñÿ åùå â äîñòàòî÷íîì êîëè÷åñòâå êàê íà Ñðåäíåé Âîëãå è â íèæíåì òå÷åíèè ð. Óðàë, òàê è íà ñåâåðíîì ïðåäåëå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ – â ëåñàõ ð. Ñóðû è ð. Áåëîé äî óñòüÿ ð. Êàìû âêëþ÷èòåëüíî. Íàèáîëåå çàìåòíîå ïàäåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà ïðîèçîøëî â 80–90-õ ãã. ÕÕ âåêà, â òî æå âðåìÿ, êîãäà áîëüøèíñòâî õèùíûõ ïòèö, òàêèõ êàê ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca), îðåë-êàðëèê (Hieraaetus pennatus), ñàïñàí (Falco peregrinus), îáèòàþùèå â òîì ÷èñëå è â ïðåäåëàõ àðåàëà áàëîáàíà, áûñòðî óâåëè÷èâàëè ñâîþ ÷èñëåííîñòü, âîññòàíàâëèâàëè èëè äàæå ðàñøèðÿëè ãíåçäîâûå àðåà-

At the beginning of the XXth century the breeding region of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) was a large territory of East Europe and North Asia from Austria to the Far East. The most significant populations of species were located in Povolzhye (the Volga River area) and Preduralye (the territory before the Ural Mountains), forests along the Ural and the Emba rivers. However, in the second half of the XXth century its number declined very quickly. Its most productive areas happened to be those under intensive agricultural pressure as a result of massive development of pristine steppe. Also the most reasons of the decline were a sharp decline in quarry species (Susliks, etc.), which were severely controlled on arable lands, spreading of DDT contamination and hunting on birds of prey. But, in spite of this, before the end of 1970s the Saker bred from the middle Volga river else, lower part of the Ural river, forests along the Sura and Belaya rivers to the

Ðèñ. 1. Ñîâðåìåííûé àðåàë áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) â Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïå (ïóíêòèðíîé ëèíèåé ïîêàçàíà ñåâåðíàÿ ãðàíèöà àðåàëà â íà÷àëå ÕÕ âåêà) Fig. 1. Modern range of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in East Europe (northern border of the Saker range in East Europe at the beginning of XXth century is marked by dotted line)


Problem of Number

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2

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ëû. Ýòîò ïàðàäîêñ ìîæíî îáúÿñíèòü òîëüêî òåì, ÷òî èìåííî â ýòîò ïåðèîä íà áàëîáàíà ðåçêî âûðîñ ñïðîñ â ñòðàíàõ Ïåðñèäñêîãî çàëèâà. Óâåëè÷èâøèéñÿ ïðåññ èçúÿòèÿ ïòèö èç äèêîé ïðèðîäû íàíåñ íåïîïðàâèìûé óùåðá òåì æå ïîïóëÿöèÿì ñîêîëîâ â ñòåïíîé è ëåñîñòåïíîé çîíå âîñòîêà Óêðàèíû è Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè, êîòîðûå íàèáîëåå ñèëüíî ïîñòðàäàëè è â 30– 60-õ ãã.  90-õ ãã. ÕÕ âåêà ñòàëè èñ÷åçàòü ïîñëåäíèå ïàðû â Ãíåçäî áàëîáàíà íà ËÝÏ â ïîñòðîéêå ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà. Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè, Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà ÷òî äîñòàòî÷íî íàãëÿäíî îòðà- The nest of the Saker Falcon on power line in the old nest by the Upland Buzzard. Photo by I. Karyakin æåíî â ïîñëåäíåì îáçîðå Â.Ì. Ãàëóøèíà (Galushin, 2004). Ê íà÷àëó mouth of the Kama river. The crash decline ÕÕI âåêà âîñòî÷íîåâðîïåéñêèå ïîïóëÿöèè of the number of the Saker was during 80– áàëîáàíà ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïðåêðàòèëè ñâîå ñó- 90 s, when most of birds of prey (Imperial ùåñòâîâàíèå, öåëüíûé àðåàë âèäà ñîõðà- Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Booted Eagle (Hiíèëñÿ ëèøü â Àçèè, à â Åâðîïå ñîõðàíè- eraaetus pennstus), Peregrine Falcon (Falëîñü ëèøü äâà íåáîëüøèõ àíêëàâà â co peregrinus)), increased quickly their Âåíãðèè è íà þãå Óêðàèíû (ïðåèìóùå- numbers and restored or even enlarged ñòâåííî â Êðûìó). Íàìåòèëàñü òåíäåíöèÿ their areas. This paradox is possible to ðàçäåëåíèÿ àðåàëà áàëîáàíà â Çàïàäíîì explain only by an increasing demand for Êàçàõñòàíå: ìåæäó ïóñòûííûìè è ëåñîñòåï- sakers in n the Gulf States that time. The íûìè ïîïóëÿöèÿìè áàëîáàíîâ îáðàçîâàë- trapping increase of falcons inflicted the ñÿ áóôåð, âíóòðè êîòîðîãî ñîêîëû ïðåêðà- significant damage on wild populations of òèëè ãíåçäèòüñÿ.  èòîãå, ìîæíî birds, breeding in the steppe and forestêîíñòàòèðîâàòü òîò ôàêò, ÷òî áàëîáàí â steppe areas of the east of Ukraine and Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïå ïåðåøåë òó îïàñíóþ Russia European part, which yet declined ãðàíü, çà êîòîðîé ñëåäóåò âûìèðàíèå âèäà. in 1930–60s. Last pairs were reported Èññëåäîâàíèÿ, âåäóùèåñÿ â ðàìêàõ ìåæ- (Galushin, 2004) to disappear in 1990s in äóíàðîäíîãî ïðîåêòà ïî èçó÷åíèþ è îõ- the European part of Russia. At the beðàíå ñîêîëà-áàëîáàíà Öåíòðîì ïîëåâûõ ginning of the XXI th century practically all èññëåäîâàíèé ïîêàçûâàþò, ÷òî â Åâðîïåé- East European populations of sakers have ñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè áîëüøå íåò ïîëíîöåí- disappeared, the non fragmented area of íîé ïîïóëÿöèè ýòîãî âèäà, èìåþòñÿ ëèøü species is preserved only in Asia, but in ñëó÷àè íåðåãóëÿðíîãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ îòäåëü- Europe there are only two small enclaves in íûõ ïàð ñîêîëîâ, âûæèâàíèå êîòîðûõ íà- Hungary and in the south Ukraine (mainly õîäèòñÿ ïîä áîëüøèì âîïðîñîì. Ñîîòâåò- in Crimea). The trend has begun to divide ñòâåííî, ìåðû òåððèòîðèàëüíîé îõðàíû the Saker’s area in West Kazakhstan (buffer óæå íå èìåþò ñìûñëà, íî âîññòàíîâëåíèå between desert and forest-steppe populations has been formed, when falcons have áàëîáàíà âîçìîæíî. Ïðåäïîñûëêè äëÿ âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ âèäà, stopped to breed). Thus we can conclude that in the East Europe sakers are on the õîòÿ è ñëàáûå, íî âñå æå èìåþòñÿ: – íåêîòîðûå ãíåçäîâûå ãðóïïèðîâêè, verge of extintion. Studies of the Field Study Center within ñòàáèëüíî ñóùåñòâóþùèå â ëåñîñòåïíîé çîíå Ñèáèðè, â êîòîðûõ â ïîñëåäíèå íå- international project on studying and proñêîëüêî ëåò íàìåòèëèñü ïîëîæèòåëüíûå tection of the Saker Falcon show the absence òåíäåíöèè ðîñòà ÷èñëåííîñòè, ìîãóò îáåñ- of population of species in the European part ïå÷èòü äèñïåðñèþ ìîëîäûõ ïòèö íà çàïàä; of Russia. Only events of irregular breeding – àêòèâèçàöèÿ ïðîöåññà çàñåëåíèÿ áàëî- were registered, and surviving species on áàíîì îïîð ËÝÏ â ñòåïÿõ Êàçàõñòàíà è this territory is doubtful. Accordingly the Óêðàèíû ìîæåò ñïîñîáñòâîâàòü îñâîåíèþ measures of territorial protection have no èì ïîäîáíûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé è â Åâðîïåé- sense already, but recovery of the Saker is possible. ñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè.


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 òî æå âðåìÿ, èìååòñÿ è ðÿä íåãàòèâíûõ òåíäåíöèé: – ñîêðàùåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ñóñëèêîâ â ðåçóëüòàòå çàðàñòàíèÿ ïàñòáèù, íå èìåþùèõ ïàñòáèùíîé íàãðóçêè, çàõëåñòíóëî áîëüøóþ ÷àñòü ñòåïíîé è ëåñîñòåïíîé çîíû Ðîññèè, ÷òî êðàéíå íåáëàãîïðèÿòíî äëÿ áàëîáàíà; – âî ìíîãèõ ðàéîíàõ ïåðèôåðèè ñòðàíû ïðîöåññ çàñåëåíèÿ áàëîáàíîì ËÝÏ ñòàë ïîëíîñòüþ íåâîçìîæåí â ðåçóëüòàòå ðàçâîðîâûâàíèÿ ìåñòíûìè æèòåëÿìè íå òîëüêî ïðîâîäîâ, à òàêæå è ñàìèõ îïîð ËÝÏ. Ïðè ýòîì, åñëè ðàçâîðîâûâàíèå ïðîâîäîâ ñêàçàëîñü ïîëîæèòåëüíî, ñíèçèâ ãèáåëü ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì, òî ðàçâîðîâûâàíèå îïîð ñêàçàëîñü êðàéíå îòðèöàòåëüíî, îñòàâèâ áåç ìåñò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ öåëûå ïîïóëÿöèè è ïîëíîñòüþ íèâåëèðîâàâ ïîëîæèòåëüíîå âëèÿíèå ïåðâîãî ïðîöåññà; – ñìåùåíèå ïðåññà íåëåãàëüíîãî âûëîâà íà âîñòîê, ñ îäíîé ñòîðîíû, äîëæíî áëàãîïðèÿòíî ñêàçàòüñÿ íà çàïàäíûõ ïîïóëÿöèÿõ áàëîáàíîâ, ñ äðóãîé ñòîðîíû, ïðè ðåçêîì ñîêðàùåíèè ÷èñëåííîñòè âîñòî÷íûõ ïîïóëÿöèé, âîññòàíîâëåíèå âèäà â Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè ñòàíåò íåâîçìîæíûì. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ íóæíî ãîâîðèòü î òðåõ íàèáîëåå ñåðüåçíûõ íåãàòèâíûõ ôàêòîðàõ, âëèÿþùèõ íà ñîêðàùåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà – íåëåãàëüíûé îòëîâ, îñêóäåíèå êîðìîâîé áàçû è íåäîñòàòîê ìåñò äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãíåçä â ðàéîíàõ ñ îïòèìàëüíîé ÷èñëåííîñòüþ îáúåêòîâ êîðìîäîáû÷è. Èçúÿòèå ïòèö èç ïðèðîäû íà ñåãîäíÿøíèé äåíü äàëåêî îò óñòîé÷èâîãî. ×èñëåííîñòü ìèðîâîé ïîïóëÿöèè áàëîáàíà íå ïðåâûøàåò 7 òûñ. ðàçìíîæàþùèõñÿ ïàð äàæå ïî ñàìûì îïòèìèñòè÷íûì îöåíêàì, â òî æå âðåìÿ èç ïðèðîäû åæåãîäíî èçûìàåòñÿ 6,5 – 8 òûñ. áàëîáàíîâ, 93% èç êîòîðûõ ñàìêè, 80% ìîëîäûå (ïðåèìóùå-

But there are some premises for species recovering: – stable nesting groups are existing. Some in the forest-steppe area in Siberia have increasing trend and can ensure a dispersion of young to the west; – activating the process to occupy electric poles by sakers in Kazakhstan, Ukraine, can promote the inhabitance in the European part of Russia. In the same time, there is a number of negative trends: – gophers number decline the of as a result of pastures foresting without herding (as consequence of agriculture crushing in Russia) is observed in the most part of steppe and forest-steppe area of Russia that extremely disadvantageous for sakers; – for most regions on periphery the process of occupying power lines by sakers completely stopped, or become impossible, as a result of electric poles stealing and wires being stolen by local inhabitants (if stealing the wires was a positive moment in declining of birds electrocutions, cutting the electric poles was extremely negative to ruin completely the positive influence of the first process); – moving a press of illegal trapping of sakers out to east would be favorable for the western populations of sakers, but at the crush decline of a number of the east populations a recovering the species in the European part of Russia will be impossible. Thereby, at present three most serious negative factors influencing the reduction of the sakers number of need to be discussed: an illegal trapping, a poor food base and lack of nesting places in regions with the optimum number of quarry species. A bird taking from nature is very far from sustainable. The number of world population is not more than 7000 breeding pairs even according the most optimistic estimation, in the same time taking the birds from nature is 6500 – 8000 ind. every year, 93% – females, 80% – young birds (fledglings – 1–3 months after the flight) (Fox and others, 2003). Still in 1960s gophers were widely spread agriculture pests and were hunted for fur in the most regions of Russia. Now they are in the most regional Red Data Books as en-

Ìîëîäîé áàëîáàí âî âðåìÿ ïîïûòêè âûâîçà â ÎÀÝ èç Í.Íîâãîðîäà. Ôîòî Ñ. Áàêêà The young Saker Falcon in the moment of attempting the illegal export from N.Novgorod to UAE. Photo by S. Bakka


Problem of Number

Ñàìêà áàëîáàíà íà êëàäêå â íåëåãàëüíîì ïèòîìíèêå â ã. ×åëÿáèíñêå. (28.04.2003) Ôîòî Å. ×èáèëåâà The female of the Saker Falcon on clutch in an illegal farm in Chelyabinsk (28.04.2003) Photo by E. Chibilev

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 ñòâåííî ñëåòêè, âûëîâëåííûå â òå÷åíèå 1– 3-õ ìåñÿöåâ ïîñëå âûëåòà) (Ôîêñ è äð., 2003). Ñóñëèêè, åùå â 60-õ ãã. ÿâëÿâøèåñÿ â áîëüøèíñòâå îáëàñòåé Ðîññèè îáúåêòîì ìàññîâîé çàãîòîâêè øêóðîê, à òàêæå îñíîâíûìè âðåäèòåëÿìè ñåëüñêîãî õîçÿéñòâà, â ïîñëåäíèå äåñÿòèëåòèÿ âíåñåíû â ðåãèîíàëüíûå Êðàñíûå êíèãè, êàê âèäû ñ íåáëàãîïîëó÷íûì ñòàòóñîì. Âî ìíîãèõ ðåãèîíàõ ÷èñëåííîñòü ñóñëèêîâ óïàëà â 50–100 ðàç ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ òàêîâîé â 80-õ ãã. ÕÕ âåêà.  ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû îñîáåííî çàìåòíûì ñòàëî ñîêðàùåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ñóñëèêîâ â ïîëóïóñòûííûõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ, ïðè÷èíîé ÷åìó ÿâëÿåòñÿ çàðàñòàíèå ñòåïè áóðüÿííîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòüþ è îñòåïíåíèå ïîëóïóñòûíè â ðåçóëüòàòå âîçðàñòàþùåãî èç ãîäà â ãîä óâëàæíåíèÿ íà ôîíå îòñóòñòâèÿ ïàñòáèùíîé íàãðóçêè è ó÷àñòèâøèõñÿ ïàëîâ. Ñîêðàùåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ïîãîëîâüÿ ñêîòà â Ðîññèè âûãëÿäèò êàòàñòðîôè÷åñêèì: òîëüêî ñ 1990 ã. ïî 2000 ã. ïîãîëîâüå êðóïíîãî ðîãàòîãî ñêîòà ñîêðàòèëîñü íà 29 749 òûñ. ãîëîâ èëè íà 53%, ëîøàäåé – íà 1 ìëí. ãîëîâ (40%), ñâèíåé – íà 22 607 òûñ. ãîëîâ (60%), îâåö è êîç – íà 43 423 òûñ. ãîëîâ (75%) (Ñìåëÿíñêèé, 2003).  ñâÿçè ñ êðàõîì æèâîòíîâîäñòâà èíôðàñòðóêòóðà ËÝÏ â ñòåïíûõ ðàéîíàõ áûëà ïîëíîñòüþ ðàçðóøåíà. Áîëåå 80 òûñ. êì ËÝÏ, â òîì ÷èñëå îñíàùåííûõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè, áûëè îôèöèàëüíî äåìîíòèðîâàíû, è áîëåå 200 òûñ. êì ðàçâîðîâàíû ìåñòíûìè æèòåëÿìè, âïëîòü äî óòèëèçàöèè áåòîííûõ ïàñûíêîâ. ×òî æå äåëàòü â ñëîæèâøåéñÿ ñèòóàöèè äëÿ îõðàíû áàëîáàíà è âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ åãî ÷èñëåííîñòè? Êàê ïîêàçûâàåò ïðàêòèêà, ñèëàìè íåïðàâèòåëüñòâåííûõ îðãàíèçàöèé (ÍÏÎ) ìîæíî óñ-

Ñóêöåññèÿ â ñòåïè êàê ðåçóëüòàò îòñóòñòâèÿ ïàñòáèùíîé íàãðóçêè. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Succession in the steppe as a result of absents the grazing livestock. Photoby I. Karyakin

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dangered species. In many regions the number of gophers declined in 50–100 times. During last years the number of gophers is particularly observed to decline in the semi-desert areas as a result of a steppe weeding and a desert grassing following the increase of moistening from year to year and absence of herding and regular fairs. The number of live-stocks in Russia has catastrophic declined: only since 1990 to 2000 the number of live-stocks has decline on 29749000 ind. or on 53%, horses – on 1000000 ind. (40%), pigs – on 22607000 ind. (60%), sheeps and goats – on 43423000 ind. (75%) (Smelyanskiy, 2003). With the crush of stockbreeding an infrastructure of power lines in the steppe areas was completely destroyed. More than 80000 km of power lines, were officially destructed and more than 200000 km stolen by herders. What is being done in the established situations for the conservation of sakers and recovering its number? It is necessary to: – put the end to illegal catching and smuggling of falcons; – increase a numbers of horses and livestock on agricultural lands in steppe and forest-steppe zones, and to realize the projects on recovering the populations of gophers on several territories; – realize projects on erecting the artificial nests on the whole breeding territory of the Saker Falcon together with bird-protecting actions from electrocutions on power lines. Practice shows the ability to solve successfully problems on erecting the artificial nests for sakers by NGO (RC, 2005 ¹1) and realizes bird-protecting actions from electrocutions on power lines (RC, 2005 ¹2). However to stop an illegal catching and a smuggling export of falcons from the coun-


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Êîíòàêò: Âëàäèìèð Ìèõàéëîâè÷ Ãàëóøèí Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè Ìîñêâà óë. Òàðóññêàÿ, 8-211 òåë.: (095) 425 74 52 v-galushin@yandex.ru Contact: Vladimir Galushin Russian Bird Conservation Union Tapusskaya str. 8-211 Moscow, Russia tel.: (095) 425 74 52 v-galushin@yandex.ru

Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà

ïåøíî ðåøàòü çàäà÷è ïî óâåëè÷åíèþ ãíåçäîâîãî ôîíäà äëÿ áàëîáàíà (ñì. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà, 2005 ¹ 1), îäíàêî ïðåñå÷ü íåëåãàëüíûé îòëîâ è âûâîç ñîêîëîâ èç ñòðàíû è óâåëè÷èòü êîðìîâóþ áàçó áàëîáàíà íåâîçìîæíî áåç ñîâìåñòíûõ óñèëèé ÍÏÎ è îðãàíîâ âëàñòè. Èìåííî äâå ïîñëåäíèõ ïðîáëåìû ñòîÿò î÷åíü îñòðî è óãðîæàþò ñóùåñòâîâàíèþ âèäà â öåëîì, è èìåííî èõ íå ðåøèòü áåç îáúåäèíåíèÿ óñèëèé. Íàñóùíî íåîáõîäèìà ðàçðàáîòêà íàöèîíàëüíîé ïðîãðàììû ïî îõðàíå áàëîáàíà è åãî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ â Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè. Áûëî áû ëîãè÷íûì, åñëè áû ïîäãîòîâêó ïðîåêòà òàêîé ïðîãðàììû âçÿëè íà ñåáÿ Ðàáî÷àÿ ãðóïïà ïî ñîêîëîîáðàçíûì è ñîâîîáðàçíûì Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè (ÐÃÑÑ) è Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè (ÑÎÏÐ) ïðè òåñíîì âçàèìîäåéñòâèè ñ Ìèíèñòåðñòâîì ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ Ðîññèè (ÌÏÐ). Ïîêà æå ñäåëàí òîëüêî ïåðâûé øà㠖 èíèöèàòèâíîé ãðóïïîé ÐÃÑÑ ïîäãîòîâëåíî îáðàùåíèå ê Ìèíèñòðó ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ ÐÔ Þ.Ï. Òðóòíåâó, íî ñóäüáà ýòîãî îáðàùåíèÿ äî ñèõ ïîð îñòàåòñÿ íåèçâåñòíîé.

try and increase a food base for sakers without joint efforts of NGO and governmental organizations are impossible. These two last problems are very acute and threaten the existence of species can’t be solved without mutual efforts. It should be the national program on the conservation and recovering of sakers in the European part of Russia. East Europe and North Asia Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls (EENAWGBPO) and Russian Birds Conservation Union (RBCU) should prepare the project of such program to be accepted in interaction with Ministry of Natural Resources of Russian Federation (MNR).

Ëèòåðàòóðà / List of Literature: Ñìåëÿíñêèé È.Ý. Áèîðàçíîîáðàçèå ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ çåìåëü Ðîññèè: ñîâðåìåííîå ñîñòîÿíèå è òåíäåíöèè. Ì.: Âñåìèðíûé Ñîþç Îõðàíû Ïðèðîäû, 2003. – 56 ñ. Ôîêñ Í., Áàðòîí Í., Ïîòàïîâ Å. Îõðàíà ñîêîëàáàëîáàíà è ñîêîëèíàÿ îõîòà. – Ñòåïíîé áþëëåòåíü, 2003. ¹14. Ñ. 28–33. Galushin V.M. Status of the Saker in Russia and Eastern Europe. – Falco, 2004. ¹ 24. P. 3–8.

Êîíôèñêîâàííûé áàëîáàí. Ôîòî Å. Ïîòàïîâà The confiscated Saker. Photo by E. Potapov

Ìèíèñòðó ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ ÐÔ Þ.Ï. Òðóòíåâó ÎÒÊÐÛÒÎÅ ÏÈÑÜÌÎ Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè, Ðàáî÷àÿ ãðóïïà ïî ñîêîëîîáðàçíûì è ñîâàì Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè îáåñïîêîåíû êðèòè÷åñêîé ñèòóàöèåé, ñëîæèâøåéñÿ ñ êðóïíûìè âèäàìè ñîêîëîâ íà òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè.  ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû çíà÷èòåëüíàÿ ÷àñòü ýòèõ ïòèö íåçàêîííî èçûìàåòñÿ èç ïðèðîäû è íåëåãàëüíî ýêñïîðòèðóåòñÿ â ðÿä Áëèæíåâîñòî÷íûõ ñòðàí. Âñå êðóïíûå âèäû ñîêîëîâ, îáèòàþùèå íà òåððèòîðèè ÐÔ, çàíåñåíû â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðîññèè, âêëþ÷åíû â ñïèñîê âèäîâ, ïîïàäàþùèõ ïîä äåéñòâèå ìåæäóíàðîäíîé Êîíâåíöèè î òîðãîâëå âèäàìè äèêîé ôëîðû è ôàóíû, íàõîäÿùèìèñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ (ÑÈÒÅÑ), ðàòèôèöèðîâàííîé ÐÔ. Íåñìîòðÿ íà ýòî, êîíòðàáàíäà ñîêîëîâ èç ÐÔ äîñòèãëà êàòàñòðîôè÷åñêèõ ìàñøòàáîâ. Èçâåñòíû ñëó÷àè ïîïûòîê êîíòðàáàíäíîãî âûâîçà èç ÐÔ ñîòåí ñîêîëîâ, ñòîèìîñòü êîòîðûõ íà ÷åðíîì ðûíêå îöåíèâàåòñÿ ìèëëèîíàìè äîëëàðîâ.  íåëåãàëüíóþ è òåíåâóþ äåÿ-

òåëüíîñòü ïî íåçàêîííîìó èçúÿòèþ èç ïðèðîäû è êîíòðàáàíäíîìó âûâîçó èç ñòðàíû âîâëå÷åíû êîììåð÷åñêèå ñîêîëèíûå ïèòîìíèêè, êîíòðîëü çà äåÿòåëüíîñòüþ êîòîðûõ íà òåððèòîðèè ÐÔ íåäîñòàòî÷íî ýôôåêòèâåí. Äëÿ ïðåäîòâðàùåíèÿ ïîëíîãî âûìèðàíèÿ ïîïóëÿöèé êðóïíûõ âèäîâ ñîêîëîâ íà òåððèòîðèè ÐÔ ñ÷èòàåì êðàéíå íåîáõîäèìûì ñðî÷íî ñôîðìèðîâàòü ïðè ÌÏÐ ÐÔ ñïåöèàëüíóþ ìåæâåäîìñòâåííóþ Êîìèññèþ (ñ îáÿçàòåëüíûì âêëþ÷åíèåì â íåå ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé íåïðàâèòåëüñòâåííûõ ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ îðãàíèçàöèé) ñ öåëüþ âûðàáîòêè ïðåäëîæåíèé î ïðèíÿòèè ýêñòðåííûõ ìåð ïî ñïàñåíèþ êðóïíûõ âèäîâ ñîêîëîâ íà òåððèòîðèè ÐÔ. Ïî ïîðó÷åíèþ èíèöèàòèâíîé ãðóïïû è ïî ðåøåíèþ çàñåäàíèÿ Áþðî ÑÎÏÐ Ïðåçèäåíò Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè, ïðåäñåäàòåëü Ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû ïî ñîêîëîîáðàçíûì è ñîâàì Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè, Çàñëóæåííûé ýêîëîã Ðîññèè, àêàäåìèê ÐÀÅÍ, ïðîôåññîð Â.Ì. Ãàëóøèí


Problem of Number

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2

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CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA Consultative meeting on trade in falcons for falconry Abu Dhabi, 16–19 May 2004. Summary record ÊÎÍÂÅÍÖÈß Î ÌÅÆÄÓÍÀÐÎÄÍÎÉ ÒÎÐÃÎÂËÅ ÂÈÄÀÌÈ ÄÈÊÎÉ ÔÀÓÍÛ È ÔËÎÐÛ, ÍÀÕÎÄßÙÈÌÈÑß ÏÎÄ ÓÃÐÎÇÎÉ ÈÑ×ÅÇÍÎÂÅÍÈß Êîíñóëüòàöèîííàÿ âñòðå÷à ïî òîðãîâëå ñîêîëàìè äëÿ íóæä ñîêîëèíîé îõîòû Àáó Äàáè, 16–19 ìàÿ 2004 Èòîãîâîå çàêëþ÷åíèå 16 ïî 19 ìàÿ 2004 ã. â Àáó-Äàáè ïðîøëà èòîãîâàÿ âñòðå÷à, îðãàíèçîâàííàÿ Ðóêîâîäñòâîì ÑÈÒÅÑ è ó÷åíûìè ÎÀÝ, íà êîòîðîé ïðèñóòñòâîâàëè ïðàâèòåëüñòâåííûå è íåïðàâèòåëüñòâåííûå îðãàíèçàöèè, à òàêæå íàáëþäàòåëè èç ñëåäóþùèõ ñòðàí: Êàíàäà, Ãðå÷åñêàÿ Ðåñïóáëèêà, Åãèïåò, Ãåðìàíèÿ, Âåíãðèÿ, Èîðäàíèÿ, Êàçàõñòàí, Êóâåéò, Ìîíãîëèÿ, Ïàêèñòàí, Êàòàð, Ðîññèÿ, Ñàóäîâñêàÿ Àðàâèÿ, Òóíèñ, ÎÀÝ, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ, Òóðêìåíèñòàí, Birdlife International, Greifvogelzuchtverband è ìåæäóíàðîäíàÿ àññîöèàöèÿ ñîêîëüíèêîâ (International Association for Falconry). Äåëåãàòû îòìåòèëè, ÷òî ïðàêòèêà ñîêîëèíîé îõîòû íàñ÷èòûâàåò ñîòíè ëåò è çàíèìàåò âàæíåéøåå ìåñòî â òðàäèöèÿõ è êóëüòóðå ìíîãèõ ñòðàí, îñîáåííî ñòðàí Ïåðñèäñêîãî çàëèâà. Îíè îäîáðèëè ìåðû, ïðåäïðèíèìàåìûå ðÿäîì ñòðàí ïî êîíòðîëþ çà èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ñîêîëîâ äëÿ ñîêîëèíîé îõîòû è îòìåòèëè âàæíîñòü ðàçðàáîòêè è ðàñøèðåíèÿ òàêèõ ìåð âî âñåõ ñòðàíàõ, çàíèìàþùèõñÿ èìïîðòîì, ýêñïîðòîì, ðåýêñïîðòîì è òðàíçèòîì ñîêîëîâ. Êîíòðîëü îòëîâà, ýêñïîðòà è îïðåäåëåíèå ýêñïîðòíûõ êâîò Äåëåãàòû îòìåòèëè, ÷òî íåîáõîäèìî íàïîìíèòü íåêîòîðûì ñòðàíàì, ðàçðåøèâøèì îòëîâ è ýêñïîðò ñîêîëîâ èç äèêîé ïðèðîäû, î òðåáîâàíèè äî ðàçðåøåíèÿ ýêñïîðòà ñîáðàòü ñâåäåíèÿ î ÷èñëåííîñòè ñîêîëîâ, ÷òîáû îòëîâ íå íàíîñèë óùåðá èõ äèêèì ïîïóëÿöèÿì. Òàêæå áûëî âûðàæåíî áåñïîêîéñòâî îòñóòñòâèåì ó íåêîòîðûõ ñòðàí äîñòàòî÷íîé èíôîðìàöèè îòíîñèòåëüíî ðàçìåðîâ ïîïóëÿöèé ñîêîëîâ, è, ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, äîñòîâåðíûõ ñâåäåíèé ïî ñòàòüÿì III è IV ÑÈÒÅÑ, êîòîðûå èìåþò îòíîøåíèå ê âûæèâàíèþ âèäà â ïðèðîäå. Äåëåãàòû ïîääåðæàëè èñïîëüçîâàíèå ðàçðàáîòàííîãî IUCN ðóêîâîäñòâà ïî áåçâðåäíîìó ñáîðó ñâåäåíèé î äèêèõ ïîïóëÿöèÿõ. Äåëåãàòû îäîáðèëè äåéñòâèÿ ñòðàí, âêëþ÷àþùèõ àðåàë áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) è òîðãóþùèõ ýòèì âèäîì, îáúåäèíèâøèõñÿ ñ êîìèòåòîì ïî æèâîòíûì (Animals Committee) è ñåêðåòàðèàòîì ÑÈÒÅÑ ñ öåëüþ îïðåäåëåíèÿ íàó÷íî îáîñíîâàííîãî óðîâíÿ ýêñïîðòà ñîêîëîâ. Îíè òàêæå âûðàçèëè óáåæäåííîñòü â âàæíîñòè îõðàíû äèêèõ ïîïóëÿöèé áàëîáàíà. Äåëåãàòû âûðàçèëè æåëàíèå, ÷òîáû äåéñòâèÿ âñåõ îðãàíèçàöèé (ñòðàí ÷ëåíîâ è íå ÷ëåíîâ ÑÈÒÅÑ), çàíèìàþùèõñÿ âûäà÷åé ðàçðåøåíèé íà ýêñïîðò ñîêîëîâ, áûëè ïðîçðà÷íûìè è ÷åñòíûìè, îñîáåííî â îòíîøåíèè îïëàòû êâîò òîðãîâöàì, è îòìåòèëè âàæíîñòü ýòîãî äëÿ Ñåêðåòàðèàòà ÑÈÒÅÑ, ó÷åíûõ è âëàñòåé. Áûëè îäîáðåíû âñå îðãàíèçàöèè, çàíèìàþùèåñÿ ëåãàëèçàöèåé ýêñïîðòà, ïðåäîñòàâèâøèå ïîäðîáíóþ èíôîðìàöèþ ïî êâîòàì â Ñåêðåòàðèàò äëÿ ïóáëèêàöèè íà ñàéòå ÑÈÒÅÑ. Ìàòåðèàëû äëÿ ïðåòâîðåíèÿ â æèçíü Äåëåãàòû îòìåòèëè, ÷òî íåçàêîííàÿ òîðãîâëÿ âûçûâàåò áîëüøîå áåñïîêîéñòâî è óãðîæàåò ñóùåñòâîâàíèþ ïîïóëÿöèé íåêîòîðûõ âèäîâ, â ÷àñòíîñòè áàëîáàíà. Äåëåãàòû ñ÷èòàþò, ÷òî ñóùåñòâóåò íàñóùíàÿ íåîáõîäè-

A consultative meeting, hosted by the CITES Management Authorities and Scientific Authority of the United Arab Emirates, was held in Abu Dhabi from 16 to 19 May 2004 and was attended by representatives of the following Parties, non-Party and observer organizations: Canada, the Czech Republic, Egypt, Germany, Hungary, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Mongolia, Pakistan, Qatar, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Turkmenistan, Birdlife International, Greifvogel-zuchtverband and the International Association for Falconry. Delegates noted that falconry has been practised for hundreds of years and that it has an important traditional and cultural place in many countries, especially in the Gulf States. They recognized the efforts being made by many countries to ensure that the use of falcons for falconry is conducted in a sustainable manner and believed that it was important to develop and expand further such efforts, in all States of import, export, re-export and transit. Establishment and management of catch and export quotas Delegates believed it was necessary to remind some countries that authorize the capture and export falcons from the wild of the requirement to make non-detriment findings prior to authorizing exports. Concern was also expressed that, in some countries, insufficient information is available regarding the population sizes of falcons, and that it was therefore difficult to make the findings required under Articles III and IV of CITES relating to the survival of the species in the wild. Delegates encouraged the use of the guidance relating to the making of non-detriment findings that has been produced by IUCN. Delegates encouraged range States of Falco cherrug affected by the current Review of Significant Trade of this species to cooperate with the Animals Committee and CITES Secretariat in providing information about the scientific basis upon which they determine the level of export of falcons that can be authorized. They also expressed their belief that this was an important process to help safeguard wild populations of Falco cherrug. Delegates expressed their desire that all Parties and nonParties authorizing exports of falcon species should do so in a transparent and fair manner, especially with regard to the disbursement of quotas to traders and believed that this was a matter for CITES Management and Scientific Authorities to determine. All Parties and non-Parties that authorize exports were encouraged to supply detailed quota information to the Secretariat which should make it available on the CITES website. Enforcement matters Delegates noted that illicit trade in falcons was of great concern and that it threatens the survival of wild populations of some species, in particular Falco cherrug.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

ìîñòü ïîâûøåíèÿ îñâåäîìëåííîñòè ñðåäè ñîêîëüíèêîâ êàñàòåëüíî óñëîâèé Êîíâåíöèè ÑÈÒÅÑ, î÷åíü íèçêîé ÷èñëåííîñòè ïîïóëÿöèé áàëîáàíà è çíà÷èòåëüíîãî âëèÿíèÿ íåçàêîííîé òîðãîâëè íà ñîñòîÿíèå äèêèõ ïîïóëÿöèé ïòèö. Îíè òàêæå îòìåòèëè íåîáõîäèìîñòü ïîâûøåíèÿ óðîâíÿ îñâåäîìëåííîñòè è ïîäãîòîâêè ñðåäè ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé ñèëîâûõ âåäîìñòâ, âîâëå÷åííûõ â ðåàëèçàöèþ Êîíâåíöèè, ïðîâåäåíèÿ ïîëîæåíèé Êîíâåíöèè â íàöèîíàëüíîå çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâî è áîðüáû ñ íåçàêîííûì îòëîâîì ñîêîëîâ èç ïðèðîäû. Áûëà îòìå÷åíà íåîáõîäèìîñòü äëÿ âñåõ ñòðàí, îñóùåñòâëÿþùèõ èìïîðò, ýêñïîðò, ðåýêñïîðò è òðàíçèò ñîêîëîâ, îáåñïå÷åíèÿ îñâåäîìëåííîñòè ñðåäè ïåðñîíàëà ñëóæá áåçîïàñíîñòè àýðîïîðòîâ è òàìîæåí î ÑÈÒÅÑ è ïîòåíöèàëüíîé ðîëè, êîòîðóþ îíè ìîãóò ñûãðàòü â îáíàðóæåíèè êîíòðàáàíäû ñîêîëîâ. Äåëåãàòû îòìåòèëè âàæíóþ ðîëü Ñîâåòà ñòðàí Ïåðñèäñêîãî çàëèâà, êîòîðóþ îí èãðàåò â îáëåã÷åíèè ñîãëàñîâàííîãî ïîäõîäà ê ðåãóëÿöèè òîðãîâëè ñîêîëàìè ñòðàíàìè Ïåðñèäñêîãî çàëèâà. Äåëåãàòû ïðèâåòñòâîâàëè èíèöèàòèâó íåêîòîðûõ Ñòîðîí ïî îñóùåñòâëåíèþ ðåãèñòðàöèè ñîáñòâåííîñòè íà ñîêîëîâ è âûðàçèëè ïîîùðåíèå ðåàëèçàöèè ïîäîáíûõ ïðîåêòîâ âñåìè ñòðàíàìè çàëèâà, à òàêæå äðóãèìè ñòðàíàìè, ãäå çíà÷èòåëüíîå ÷èñëî ñîêîëîâ íàõîäèòñÿ â ÷àñòíûõ ðóêàõ. Îíè îòìåòèëè, ÷òî ïðîåêòû ïî îáÿçàòåëüíîé ðåãèñòðàöèè, â êîòîðûõ òðåáóåòñÿ ïîäòâåðäèòü çàêîííîñòü ïðèîáðåòàåìûõ ñîêîëîâ, îáåñïå÷èâàþò èäåíòèôèêàöèþ íåëåãàëüíî ïðèîáðåòåííûõ è íåëåãàëüíî ïðîäàííûõ ïòèö è âûñòóïàþò â êà÷åñòâå ñðåäñòâà ñäåðæèâàíèÿ íåëåãàëüíîãî èìïîðòà è íåëåãàëüíîãî ïðèîáðåòåíèÿ ñîêîëîâ. Äåëåãàòû íàïîìíèëè, ÷òî ñîãëàñíî Ðåøåíèþ 9.15 Êîíôåðåíöèè ñòðàí ÷ëåíîâ ÑÈÒÅÑ â óñëîâèÿõ ÑÈÒÅÑ íå ìîæåò áûòü èñêëþ÷åíèé íåçàâèñèìî îò äèïëîìàòè÷åñêîãî èëè ñîöèàëüíîãî ñòàòóñà ÷åëîâåêà. Îíè ïîëàãàþò, ÷òî äåéñòâèÿ îòäåëüíûõ ïåðñîí, èìåþùèõ äèïëîìàòè÷åñêèé, VIP èëè äðóãîé ñîöèàëüíûé ñòàòóñ, êîòîðûå îòêàçûâàþòñÿ ïîä÷èíÿòüñÿ òðåáîâàíèÿì Êîíâåíöèè è íàöèîíàëüíîãî çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâà, ðèñêóþò ïîäîðâàòü óñèëèÿ óïðàâëåíèÿ ÑÈÒÅÑ è ñèëîâûõ âåäîìñòâ ïî îñóùåñòâëåíèþ çàêîíîâ ÑÈÒÅÑ è ìåñòíûõ çàêîíîâ è ïîäàþò ïëîõîé ïðèìåð äëÿ äðóãèõ ñîêîëüíèêîâ. Ê òîìó æå, äåëåãàòû ðåêîìåíäîâàëè ïðàâèòåëüñòâàì òåõ ñòðàí, ãäå îõîòà ñ ñîêîëàìè çàïðåùåíà èëè ðåãóëèðóåòñÿ, âîçäåðæàòüñÿ îò óñòóïîê äëÿ ëèö, èìåþùèõ äèïëîìàòè÷åñêèé, VIP èëè äðóãîé âûñîêèé ñîöèàëüíûé ñòàòóñ, ò.ê. ýòî ÷àñòî ñâÿçàíî ñ íàðóøåíèåì Êîíâåíöèè. Äåëåãàòû îïðåäåëèëè íåîáõîäèìîñòü äëÿ ñòðàí îáìåíèâàòüñÿ èíôîðìàöèåé îòíîñèòåëüíî íåëåãàëüíîé òîðãîâëè ñîêîëàìè.  ÷àñòíîñòè, ñòðàíû, èçûìàþùèå ñîêîëîâ, ïðîâîçèìûõ êîíòðàáàíäîé, äîëæíû ñîîáùàòü çàèíòåðåñîâàííûì ñòðàíàì î êàæäîì êîíêðåòíîì ñëó÷àå êîíòðàáàíäû äëÿ âûÿâëåíèÿ ëèö, âîâëå÷åííûõ â íåëåãàëüíóþ òîðãîâëþ íà êàæäîì ýòàïå òðàíçèòà, è ïðèíÿòèÿ ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ ìåð ïðîòèâ íèõ. Äåëåãàòû îòìåòèëè ïðåäëîæåíèå, âûíåñåííîå íà 13óþ âñòðå÷ó ñòðàí ÷ëåíîâ ÑÈÒÅÑ, î íåîáõîäèìîñòè ó÷ðåæäåíèÿ ñïåöèàëüíûõ îïåðàòèâíûõ ãðóïï ÑÈÒÅÑ (Enforcement Task Forces). Îíè òàêæå ñ÷èòàþò, ÷òî â ñëó÷àå ïðèíÿòèÿ ýòîãî ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, íåëåãàëüíàÿ òîðãîâëÿ äîëæíà ñòàòü îáúåêòîì âíèìàíèÿ òàêîé îïåðàòèâíîé ãðóïïû.

Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà Delegates believed that there is a need to raise awareness among falconers of the provisions of the Convention, the seriously low levels of Falco cherrug populations and the significant impact of illicit trade on wild populations of birds, in order to encourage compliance with CITES. They also believed there was a need for awareness-raising and training for law enforcement officials who are involved in implementing the Convention, enforcing national legislation and combating illegal capture of falcons from the wild. The need was also noted for all countries of import, export, re-export and transit of falcons to ensure that airport security, airline company and all border control staff are aware of CITES and of the potential role that they might play in the detection of the smuggling of falcons, e.g. during the examination of vehicles, vessels and passenger baggage. Delegates noted the important role that the Gulf Cooperation Council could play in facilitating a harmonized approach to the regulation of trade in falcons by Gulf States. Delegates welcomed the initiative of some Parties to engage in national schemes to register the ownership of falcons and encouraged the implementation of such schemes by all Gulf States and other countries where there is significant private ownership of falcons. They believed that mandatory registration schemes, where there is a requirement to demonstrate the legal acquisition of individual falcons, provide for the ready identification of illicitly-acquired and illicitly-traded birds and act as a deterrent to those that might wish to illegally import or illegally acquire falcons. Delegates recalled, as stated in Decision 9.15 of the Conference of the Parties, that there is no immunity from the provisions of CITES regardless of a person’s diplomatic or social status. They believed that the actions of some persons holding diplomatic, VIP or other high social status, who fail to comply with the requirements of the Convention and national legislation, risk undermining the efforts of CITES Management Authorities and law enforcement agencies to implement CITES and domestic law and set a very poor example to others in the falconry community. Additionally, delegates discouraged the governments of countries where hunting with falcons is prohibited or regulated from waiving such prohibitions or regulations for persons holding diplomatic, VIP or other high social status, as this has often been associated with violations of the Convention. It was suggested that specific awareness-raising for persons with diplomatic, VIP and other high social status may be appropriate. Delegates stressed the need for countries to exchange information regarding illicit trade in falcons. In particular, countries seizing falcons being smuggled cross-border should advise the relevant countries of origin and transit so that such cases can be fully investigated with a view to identifying and taking action against the persons engaged at each stage in illicit trade. Delegates noted the proposal, to be made at the 13th meeting of the Conference of the Parties, that ad hoc CITES Enforcement Task Forces should be established. They believed that, if this was adopted at CoP13, illicit trade in falcons should be the subject of such a Task Force.


Problem of Number

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2

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Èñïîëüçîâàíèå ñåðòèôèêàòîâ ñîáñòâåííîñòè (âêëþ÷àÿ ïàñïîðòà ñîêîëîâ) Äåëåãàòû îòìåòèëè, ÷òî êîíöåïöèÿ ñåðòèôèêàòîâ ñîáñòâåííîñòè íåñêîëüêî îáëåã÷àåò ïîëó÷åíèå ðàçðåøåíèÿ íà ïðîâîç ñîêîëîâ, íàõîäÿùèõñÿ â ëè÷íîé ñîáñòâåííîñòè, çà ðóáåæ. Íî, â ñî÷åòàíèè ñ íàöèîíàëüíûìè òðåáîâàíèÿìè ïî ðåãèñòðàöèè, èñïîëüçîâàíèå òàêèõ ñåðòèôèêàòîâ ìîæåò ñïîñîáñòâîâàòü ñäåðæèâàíèþ íåëåãàëüíîé òîðãîâëè, ÿâëÿÿñü äîïîëíèòåëüíîé ìåðîé äëÿ ïîäòâåðæäåíèÿ ëåãàëüíîãî ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ ñîêîëîâ. Îäíàêî îíè ïðèçíàëè, ÷òî ìàòåðèàëû ïî ñåðòèôèêàòàì ñîáñòâåííîñòè äëÿ ñîêîëüíèêîâ òðåáóþò êîððåêòèðîâêè, èëè äîëæåí áûòü ïðèíÿò ê ðàññìîòðåíèþ ïðîåêò ðåçîëþöèè, ñâÿçàííûé ñ òîðãîâëåé ñîêîëîâ äëÿ ñîêîëèíîé îõîòû. Äåïóòàòû îäîáðèëè âêëþ÷åíèå â äîêóìåíòû íà ðàçðåøåíèå âûâîçà ñîêîëîâ èíôîðìàöèè äîïîëíèòåëüíîé ê òîé, ÷òî óæå ñîäåðæèòñÿ â ñîêîëèíûõ ïàñïîðòàõ è äîêóìåíòàõ íà ïðîâîç.  ÷àñòíîñòè, îíè ïîääåðæàëè âíåñåíèå èíôîðìàöèè î ñòðàíå-ýêñïîðòåðå ñîêîëà, åãî ïðîèñõîæäåíèè (äèêèé èëè âûâåäåííûé â íåâîëå), è äîêóìåíòû, ïîäòâåðæäàþùèå çàêîííîñòü ïðèîáðåòåíèÿ ïòèöû. Áûëî òàêæå ïðåäëîæåíî îòêàçàòüñÿ îò òåðìèíà «ïàñïîðò» â áóäóùåì, ò.ê. îí âûçâàë íåêîòîðóþ íåðàçáåðèõó îòíîñèòåëüíî ñôåðû òàêèõ äîêóìåíòîâ è èõ ïðèíÿòèÿ ñòðàíàìè. Äåëåãàòû îïðåäåëèëè íåîáõîäèìîñòü äëÿ âñåõ ñòðàí ÷ëåíîâ ÑÈÒÅÑ ïðîèíôîðìèðîâàòü Ñåêðåòàðèàò îá èõ ãîòîâíîñòè ðàçðåøèòü òîðãîâëþ ñîêîëàìè ïî ñåðòèôèêàòàì ñîáñòâåííîñòè è èñïîëüçîâàòü òàêèå ñåðòèôèêàòû.

Use of certificates of ownership (including falcon passports) Delegates noted that the concept of certificates of ownership offers some positive gains in facilitating the authorization of frequent cross-border movements of personally owned falcons. They also believed that, when combined with national registration schemes, the use of such certificates could help deter illicit trade and was an additional measure in confirming the legal origin of falcons. However, they believed that there are matters relating to certificates of ownership for falconers that Resolution Conf. 10.20 does not adequately address and that either it should be amended or consideration be given to the drafting of a resolution related to trade in falcons for falconry. Delegates encouraged the inclusion in documents authorizing cross-border movements of falcons of information additional to that provided in existing falcon passports and travel documents. In particular, they encouraged the recording of the country of origin of the falcon, its source (wild or captive-bred), and a reference to the proof of legal acquisition (e.g. the number of the relevant export permit or re-export certificate, captivebreeding operation or licence for removal from the wild). It was also suggested that the term ‘passport’ be avoided in future, as it had caused some confusion regarding the scope of such documents and their acceptance by countries of destination. Delegates stressed the need for all Parties to inform the Secretariat of their willingness to accept trade in falcons authorized by certificates of ownership and their use of such certificates.

Ðàçâåäåíèå â íåâîëå Äåëåãàòû âûðàçèëè áåñïîêîéñòâî òåì, ÷òî, õîòÿ íåêîòîðûå ãîñóäàðñòâà ñòðîãî ðåãóëèðóþò ðàçâåäåíèå ñîêîëîâ â íåâîëå è îñóùåñòâëÿþò ðåãóëÿðíûå ïðîâåðêè, íåêîòîðûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïî ðàçâåäåíèþ ïðîâåðÿþòñÿ íå äîñòàòî÷íî è èñïîëüçóþòñÿ íåðàçáîð÷èâûìè òîðãîâöàìè äëÿ «îòìûâàíèÿ» ñîêîëîâ, èçúÿòûõ èç ïðèðîäû. Òàêæå áûëî âûðàæåíî áåñïîêîéñòâî, ÷òî ñîêîëà, íåçàêîííî èçúÿòûå èç ïðèðîäû èëè íåçàêîííî èìïîðòèðîâàííûå, èíîãäà èñïîëüçóþòñÿ â ïèòîìíèêàõ äëÿ ðàçâåäåíèÿ. Áûëî ïðèçíàíî ïðåèìóùåñòâî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ ÄÍÊ-àíàëèçà äëÿ ïîäòâåðæäåíèÿ ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ ñîêîëà. ÄÅËÅÃÀÒÛ ÎÒÌÅÒÈËÈ, ×ÒÎ ÐÎÑÒ ÈÑÏÎËÜÇÎÂÀÍÈß Â ÑÎÊÎËÈÍÎÉ ÎÕÎÒÅ ÂÛÂÅÄÅÍÍÛÕ Â ÍÅÂÎËÅ ÑÎÊÎËΠÑÏÎÑÎÁÑÒÂÓÅÒ ÓÌÅÍÜØÅ ÍÈÞ ÏÐÅÑÑÀ ÍÀ ÅÑÒÅÑÒÂÅÍÍÛÅ ÏÎÏÓËßÖÈÈ . Ò ÀÊÎÅ ÐÀÇÂÅÄÅÍÈÅ , ÏÐÈ ÄÎËÆÍÎÌ ÓÏÐÀÂËÅÍÈÈ È ÐÅÃÓËÈÐÎÂÀÍÈÈ ÑÎÊÎËÈÍÎÃÎ ÁÈÇ ÍÅÑÀ, À ÒÀÊÆÅ ÏÐÈ ÂÛÏÎËÍÅÍÈÈ ÄÐÓÃÈÕ ÌÅÐ ÏÎ ÑÎÕÐÀÍÅÍÈÞ ÑÎÊÎËΠ, ÌÎÆÅÒ ÁÛÒÜ ÎÑÎÁÅÍÍÎ ÏÎËÅÇÍÛÌ ÄËß ÒÅÕ ÑÒÐÀÍ , ÃÄÅ ×ÈÑËÅÍÍÎÑÒÜ ÅÑÒÅÑÒÂÅÍÍÛÕ ÏÎÏÓËßÖÈÉ ÑÅÐÜÅÇÍÎ ÑÎÊÐÀÒÈËÀÑÜ . Á ÛËÎ ÎÒÌÅ×ÅÍÎ , ×ÒÎ ÈÑÏÎËÜÇÎÂÀÍÈÅ ÈÑÊÓÑÑÒÂÅÍÍÛÕ ÃÍÅÇÄ ÂÌÅ ÑÒÅ Ñ ÄÐÓÃÈÌÈ ÌÅÐÀÌÈ ÏÎ ÎÕÐÀÍÅ ÑÏÎÑÎÁÑÒÂÎÂÀË ÐÀÇÌÍÎÆÅ ÍÈÞ ÑÎÊÎËΠ ÏÐÈÐÎÄÅ . Äåëåãàòû îòìåòèëè, ÷òî âîçìîæíî ñóùåñòâîâàíèå óãðîçû ãåíåòè÷åñêîé ÷èñòîòå äèêèõ ïîïóëÿöèé ñîêîëîâ, âûçâàííîé ñëó÷àéíîé óòåðåé ãèáðèäíûõ ñîêîëîâ. Îíè ïðèçâàëè ñîêîëüíèêîâ, èñïîëüçóþùèõ ãèáðèäû, èñïîëüçîâàòü ñðåäñòâà, ïîìîãàþùèå îòñëåæèâàòü è ïîâòîðíî îòëàâëèâàòü óëåòåâøèõ ïòèö.

Captive-breeding Delegates expressed their concern that, although some States regulate captive breeding of falcons strictly and carry out regular inspections, some captive-breeding operations are not adequately monitored and are used by unscrupulous traders to ‘launder’ falcons that have been taken from the wild. An additional concern was that falcons taken illegally from the wild or illegally imported are sometimes used as breeding stock. The benefits of using DNA profiling to confirm parent-offspring relationships was acknowledged. Delegates noted that increasing the use of captivebred falcons in falconry helps reduce the pressure on wild populations. They recognized that, when appropriately operated and regulated, and provided other conservation measures are also implemented, such breeding might be particularly beneficial for those countries where wild populations have seriously declined, especially if operations include a release element that meets existing IUCN reintroduction criteria. The success achieved in using artificial nesting sites to encourage breeding in the wild was noted and, together with other in situ conservation measures, its potential for the future was also acknowledged. Delegates noted that there may be a threat to the genetic purity of wild falcon populations caused by the accidental escape of hybrid falcons. They encouraged falconers using hybrids to use means to assist the tracking and recapture of birds that escaped.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Ìå÷åíèå Äåëåãàòû âûðàçèëè æåëàíèå î ïðèíÿòèè ñîãëàñîâàííîãî ïîäõîäà ê ìå÷åíèþ ïòèö. Áûëî îòìå÷åíî, ÷òî ñïåöèàëèçèðîâàííûå ñëóæáû êîíòðîëÿ îáîðîòà ïòèö â ñòðàíàõ ÅÑ, Àìåðèêè è Êàíàäû â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ òðåáóþò èñïîëüçîâàíèå öåëüíûõ êîëåö. Åñëè ïî êàêèì-òî ïðè÷èíàì ýòî íåâîçìîæíî, òî ñëåäóåò èñïîëüçîâàòü ìèêðî÷èïû. Íàñòîÿùåé ðåçîëþöèåé ÑÈÒÅÑ ïðèíèìàåòñÿ èñïîëüçîâàíèå êàê êîëåö, òàê è ìèêðî÷èïîâ. Äåëåãàòû îòìåòèëè ñóùåñòâîâàíèå òàêèõ íîâåéøèõ ìåòîäîâ ìàðêèðîâêè êàê ID CHIPS, òàê è ‘Mark and Bank’. Äåëåãàòû îòìåòèëè, ÷òî áûëî áû ïîëåçíî äëÿ êîíôåðåíöèè ñòðàí ÷ëåíîâ ÑÈÒÅÑ ñäåëàòü ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî ñòàíäàðòèçàöèè ðàçìåðîâ êîëåö è ôîðìàòó èíôîðìàöèè, êîòîðóþ îíè íåñóò. Áûëî ïðåäëîæåíî âêëþ÷èòü ISO êîä ñòðàíû, â êîòîðîé êîëüöî áûëî ñäåëàíî. Áûëî îäîáðåíî èñïîëüçîâàíèå öåëüíûõ êîëåö, ïîäõîäÿùèõ ïî ðàçìåðó äëÿ âèäà è ïîëà ïòèöû, êîòîðûå ìîãóò áûòü îäåòû òîëüêî íà ïòåíöîâ, ïðè ðàçâåäåíèè ïòèö â íåâîëå. Äåëåãàòû ïðèçíàëè, òåì íå ìåíåå, ÷òî êîëüöåâàíèå èëè ìèêðî÷èïèðîâàíèå ïòèö íå ìîãóò ïîëíîñòüþ èñêëþ÷èòü âîçìîæíîñòü «îòìûâàíèÿ» ïòèö è íàïîìíèëè, ÷òî èñïîëüçîâàíèå àíàëèçà ÄÍÊ ìîæåò ïîìî÷ü ïðè ðåøåíèè ñïîðíûõ âîïðîñîâ ïðè âûÿñíåíèè ïðîèñõîæäåíèÿ ïòèö. Áûëà ïðåäëîæåíà íåîáõîäèìîñòü ïðîâåðêè îáúåêòà ïî áàçå äàííûõ, â êîòîðîé õðàíèòñÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ î ìå÷åíèè. Ñåêðåòàðèàò îáÿçàëñÿ äîâåñòè ýòè ìàòåðèàëû äî âíèìàíèÿ Êîìèòåòà ÑÈÒÅÑ, êîòîðûé ìîã áû íàïðàâèòü èõ â íàäëåæàùèå îðãàíû â êà÷åñòâå âîïðîñà äëÿ òåõíè÷åñêîãî âíåäðåíèÿ. Îáùèå ìàòåðèàëû Äåëåãàòû îòìåòèëè, ÷òî ýêñïåðòàìè Birdlife International áàëîáàí âíåñåí â Êðàñíûé ñïèñîê ÌÑÎÏ êàê óãðîæàåìûé âèä ñ êàòåãîðèåé «ïîñòàâëåííûé ïîä óãðîçó» (Endangered) èç-çà âûñîêèõ òåìïîâ ñíèæåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè â íåäàâíåì ïðîøëîì. Äåëåãàòû îòìåòèëè, ÷òî â ðåçóëüòàòå êîíòàêòîâ â õîäå êîíñóëüòàòèâíîé âñòðå÷è äîëæíû áûòü ñäåëàíû ïîïûòêè óòâåðäèòü Åâðîïåéñêèé ïëàí äåéñòâèé ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ áàëîáàíà*. Äåëåãàòû ïîòðåáîâàëè, ÷òîáû èòîãîâàÿ çàïèñü èõ äèñêóññèé áûëà ïðåäñòàâëåíà ê 51 âñòðå÷å Êîìèòåòà ÑÈÒÅÑ, à òàêæå â äèïëîìàòè÷åñêèõ ìèññèÿõ ñòðàí ÷ëåíîâ ÑÈÒÅÑ â Æåíåâå. Îáúåäèíåííûå Àðàáñêèå Ýìèðàòû ïðåäëîæèëè, ÷òîáû ïðè îöåíêå êâîò äëÿ îòëîâà ñîêîëîâ èç ïðèðîäû êâîòû äîëæíû áûòü ñáàëàíñèðîâàíû ïî ïîëó è íå âêëþ÷èëè âçðîñëûõ ïòèö. Òåì íå ìåíåå, òàê êàê ýòà ïðîáëåìà áûëà ïîäíÿòà íà ïîñëåäíåì ýòàïå Âñòðå÷è, êîãäà ïðåäñòàâèòåëè íåêîòîðûõ ñòðàí, óñòàíàâëèâàþùèõ êâîòû, óæå îòñóòñòâîâàëè, äåëåãàòû ñîãëàñèëèñü, ÷òî õîòÿ ýòîò ìàòåðèàë è âàæåí, íî åãî ìîæíî òîëüêî îòìåòèòü**.

Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà Marking Delegates expressed their wish that a harmonized approach to the marking of birds be adopted. It was noted that the EC Regulation and Canadian and United States’ regulations currently require the use of a closed ring. If, for some reason, this is not possible, microchips can be used. The relevant CITES resolution accepts the use of either a ring or microchip. Delegates noted the existence of such procedures as ID CHIPS and ‘Mark and Bank’. Delegates believed it would be useful for the Conference of the Parties to make recommendations regarding the standardization of sizes of legs rings and format of the information they include. It was suggested that this could include the ISO code for the country in which the ring was issued. The use of closed rings in sizes relevant to the species and sex of the bird, which can only be fitted to chicks, was encouraged for captive-breeding operations. Delegates acknowledged, however, that the ringing or microchipping of birds cannot totally exclude the possibility of ‘laundering’ and recalled that the use of DNA profiling may help prove or disprove claims relating to the origin and source of birds. It was suggested that the subject of the databases in which marking information would be stored should be examined. The Secretariat undertook to bring these matters to the attention of the Standing Committee which could direct them to the appropriate body as a technical implementation issue. General matters Delegates noted that Birdlife International, as the listing authority for birds on the IUCN Red List, in evaluating the status of the Saker falcon, had found that it now qualifies for threatened status with the category Endangered, owing to the high rate of overall decline in the recent past. Delegates noted that, as a result of the contacts made during the consultative meeting, attempts would be made to establish a European action plan for the conservation of Falco cherrug. Delegates requested that the summary record of their discussions be provided to the 51st meeting of the Standing Committee and also to the diplomatic missions in Geneva of Parties and non-Parties. The United Arab Emirates suggested that, when assessing quotas for a harvest of wild falcons, the quota should be balanced between the sexes and not include adult birds. However, owing to the late stage at which this point was raised and the absence of some Parties that establish quotas and which had been present during previous discussions on quotas, the meeting agreed that this matter, although important, could only be noted.

* Êîíôåðåíöèÿ Birdlife International ïî ðàçðàáîòêå ïëàíà äåéñòâèé ïî áàëîáàíó ïðîøëà 11-14 ôåâðàëÿ â Âåíãðèè. Îò Ðîññèè íà êîíôåðåíöèè ïðèñóòñòâîâàë ïðîô. Âëàäèìèð Ìèõàéëîâè÷ Ãàëóøèí, ïðåçèäåíò Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè. ** ê íåñ÷àñòüþ, äèñïðîïîðöèÿ â èçúÿòèè èç ïðèðîäû ïòèö ñ îòêðîâåííûì óêëîíîì â ñòîðîíó ñàìîê, ïðèîáðåëà óãðîæàþùèå ìàñøòàáû è èçìåíèòü ýòó ñèòóàöèþ ïîêà íå óäàëîñü.


Problem of Number

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2

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What will Peregrine Falcon expected on the Zilim River? Bashkiria, Russia ×ÒÎ ÎÆÈÄÀÅÒ ÑÀÏÑÀÍÀ  ÄÎËÈÍÅ ÐÅÊÈ ÇÈËÈÌ? ÁÀØÊÈÐÈß, ÐÎÑÑÈß A.S. Pazhenkov (The Volga-Ural ECONET Assistance Center, Samara, Russia) À.Ñ. Ïàæåíêîâ (Öåíòð ñîäåéñòâèÿ Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòè, Ñàìàðà, Ðîññèÿ) Êîíòàêò: Àëåêñåé Ïàæåíêîâ Öåíòð ñîäåéñòâèÿ Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòè Ðîññèÿ, Ñàìàðà 443045 à/ÿ-8001 òåë.: (9272) 15 39 60 f_lynx@hotbox.ru Contact: Aleksey Pazhenkov The Volga-Ural ECONET Assistance Center P.O. Box 8001 443045 Samara, Russia tel.: (9272) 15 39 60 f_lynx@hotbox.ru

Ðåêà Áåëàÿ äî ñòðîèòåëüñòâà ïëîòèíû Þìàãóçèíñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Belaya river before constructing the dam of the Yumaguskioe water reservoir. Photo by I. Karyakin

Ñàïñàí (Falco peregrinus) âíåñåí â Êðàñíóþ Êíèãó Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè è Ðåñïóáëèêè Áàøêîðòîñòàí. Þæíûé Óðàë ÿâëÿåòñÿ ðåôóãèóìîì, ãäå ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ îäíà èç ñàìûõ êðóïíûõ ïîïóëÿöèé ýòîãî âèäà â Åâðîïå. ×èñëåííîñòü ñàïñàíà â Åâðîïå ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ íà 1996–98 ãã. îöåíèâàëàñü â 7600–11000 ïàð, èç êîòîðûõ îêîëî 1000 ïàð ãíåçäèëîñü â Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè (European bird populations…, 2000). Ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ íà 2002 ã. ÷èñëåííîñòü ñàïñàíà â Áàøêèðèè îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 470–480 ïàð, ÷òî ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 5% îò åâðîïåéñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè è 34% îò ïîïóëÿöèè Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè (Êàðÿêèí, 2005). Ñóùåñòâåííîé îñîáåííîñòüþ ñàïñàíà, ãíåçäÿùåãîñÿ â ãîðíî-ëåñíîé çîíå Þæíîãî Óðàëà, ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðèóðî÷åííîñòü ê äîëèíàì ãîðíûõ ðåê, ãäå íàõîäèòñÿ îñíîâíîé êîðìîâîé ðåñóðñ, à íèøè â îáðûâèñòûõ ñêàëüíûõ áåðåãàõ ÿâëÿþòñÿ ìåñòîì óñòðîéñòâà ãíåçä. Ñ 1999 ã. â õîäå ñòðîèòåëüñòâà Þìàãóçèíñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà íà ð. Áåëîé Þæíîóðàëüñêîé ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêå ñàïñàíà áûë íàíåñåí ñåðüåçíûé óðîí (Karyakin, Pazhenkov, 2004). Äîëèíà ð. Áåëîé â åå øèðîòíîé èçëó÷èíå ïîëíîñòüþ çàðåçåðâèðîâàíà îñîáî-îõðàíÿåìûìè ïðèðîäíûìè òåððèòîðèÿìè âûñîêîãî ðàíãà: ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé ïðèðîäíûé çàïîâåäíèê «Øóëüãàí-Òàø», Íàöèîíàëüíûé ïðèðîäíûé ïàðê «Áàøêèðèÿ» è êîìïëåêñíûé ëàíäøàôòíûé çàêàçíèê ðåñïóáëèêàíñêîãî çíà÷åíèÿ «Àëòûí-Ñîëîê».  ïðåäåëàõ äàííîãî ïðèðîäîîõðàííîãî êîìïëåêñà âûäåëåíà êëþ÷åâàÿ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ «Áåëüñêî-Íóãóøñêîå ìåæäóðå÷üå» (Áі008) (Watershead of Belaya and Nugush river, RU208), âûñîêàÿ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêàÿ çíà÷èìîñòü êîòîðîé

Ïòåíåö ñàïñàíà (Falco peregrinus). Ôîòî À. Ïàæåíêîâà The chick of the Peregrine (Falco peregrinus). Photo by A. Pazhenkov

The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) is listed in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation and of the Bashkortostan Republic. The Southern Urals was a refuge territory where the species survived during the DDT era and perhaps has acted as a source population in the re-colonizing of the former part of the range in Eastern Europe and western Siberia. The examples of recent negative trends are rarely reported in scientific literature. The numbers of Peregrines in Europe was estimated as 7600–11000 pairs, out of which some 1000 pairs were breeding in the European part of Russia. Out of these 1,000 pairs about 260 pairs breed in Bashkortostan Republic (Karyakin, 1998b; European bird populations…, 2000). In 2002 the total numbers of Peregrines in Bashkortostan is estimated as 470–480 pairs, which is about 5% of the European Population and 34% of the European portion of the Russian population (Karyakin 2005). The Belaya river valley is protected by several high ranking protected territories:


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Ñòðîèòåëüñòâî ïëîòèíû Þìàãóçèíñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà. Ôîòî À. Ïàæåíêîâà Constructing the dam of the Yumaguskioe water reservoir. Photo by A. Pazhenkov

Ðèñ. 1. Êàðòà ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñàïñàíà (Falco peregrinus) â äîëèíå ð. Áåëîé äî (1996) è âî âðåìÿ ñòðîèòåëüñòâà âîäîõðàíèëèùà â 2003 ã. Fig. 1. Map of Peregrine (Falco peregrinus) nests distribution in Belaya river before (1996) and during the flooding of the reservoir in 2003

áàçèðóåòñÿ íà âûñîêîé ÷èñëåííîñòè â ïåðèîä ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ðÿäà êðóïíûõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, â òîì ÷èñëå è ñàïñàíà (Êëþ÷åâûå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèå òåððèòîðèè…, 2000; Important Bird Areas…, 2000). Òåððèòîðèÿ íîìèíèðîâàíà â Ñïèñîê îáúåêòîâ âñåìèðíîãî íàñëåäèÿ Þíåñêî. Îäíàêî âûñîêèé ïðèðîäîîõðàííûé ñòàòóñ òåððèòîðèè íå ïîìîã.  1999 ã. â íàðóøåíèå 20 çàêîíîâ è íîðìàòèâíûõ äîêóìåíòîâ êàê Ðåñïóáëèêè Áàøêîðòîñòàí, òàê è Ðîññèè, â äîëèíå Áåëîé áûëî íà÷àòî ñòðîèòåëüñòâî Þìàãóçèíñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà. Ê 2003 ãã. äîëèíà ð. Áåëîé íà 50 êì ââåðõ ïî òå÷åíèþ îò ìåñòà âûõîäà ðåêè èç ãîð íà ðàâíèíó áûëà ïðîéäåíà ñïëîøíûìè ðóáêàìè äëÿ ðàñ÷èñòêè ëîæà áóäóùåãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà íà ïëîùàäè îêîëî 5000 ãà. Ñêëîíû äîëèíû áûëè ðàñ÷èùåíû íà âûñîòó äî 50– 60 ì îò óðåçà âîäû, ïî îáîèì áåðåãàì ïðîëîæåíû âðåìåííûå äîðîãè äëÿ ïðîåçäà òÿæåëîé òåõíèêè.  èòîãå ê âåñíå 2003 ãîäà â çîíó ñòðîèòåëüñòâà âîäîõðàíèëèùà ïîïàëè 20 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñàïñàíà.

Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà The State Nature Reserve «Shul’gan Tash»; National Park «Bashkiria» and complex landscape Nature Reserve (zakaznik) «AltynSolok». Within the territory under the question there is one Key Ornithological territory of international importance named «Bel’skoNugushkoe Confluence» (RU208) (Heath et al., 2000). The territory has been nominated as a World Heritage Site (UNESCO). Nevertheless the high rank of protection status of the territory did not help. In 1999, breaking 20 laws and legislative documents of both Russia and the Bashkorstan Republic, it was decided to go ahead with the construction of the Yumaguskioe water reservoir in the Belaya river valley. As a result a total of 20 breeding territories of Peregrines have ceased to exist. In 1996 breeding occurred in 18 out of 20 pairs (only two pairs did not breed due to disturbance caused by construction). Breeding by 2 pairs of the remaining 18 was not successful, but a total of 34 fledglings left the nests of 16 pairs. After construction work 2003 a total of 14 breeding territories ceased to exist, one new breeding territory upstream of the reservoir site has been establishes, and only 6 pairs were breeding on their old territories (most of them in niches). Breeding by 5 pairs has been successful: they produced 10 fledglings. So the total toll of the construction is a decrease more than 3 times with a similar reduction in the breeding rate per total territory. We noticed that the disappearance of 14 pairs of Peregrines from the Belaya did not lead to an increase in the numbers in the upper part of the river. Here only one new breeding territory was found. We believe that the limiting factor for Peregrines in the upper Belaya river is a high density of Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo) as well as a high density of Peregrines. It appears that the Peregrines uprooted by the reservoir construction had no place to go nearby. In 2005 it is planned to fill up the newly constructed reservoir with water. This undoubtedly means that the remaining 6 pairs will be flooded. It is possible that after there the situation will settle. The Peregrines might re-occupy the cliffs above the newly formed reservoir, but the density will never be the same. We have indirect evidence in a similar situation that has been developed at the Nugush Water Reservoir, which is located 7 km north of the Belaya river. We have surveyed old nest sites on the cliffs and compared this with the numbers after the reservoir had been


Problem of Number

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2  1996 ã. È.Â. Êàðÿêèíûì (1998à, 1998á) íà òåððèòîðèè áóäóùåãî ëîæà Þìàãóçèíñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà ó 18 èç 20 ïàð ñàïñàíîâ áûëî çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî ðàçìíîæåíèå. Ðàçìíîæåíèå 2-õ ïàð îêàçàëîñü íåóäà÷íûì, è ãíåçäà 16 ïàð ïîêèíóëè 34 ñëåòêà.  2003 ã. ïî íàøèì äàííûì 14 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñàïñàíîâ ïóñòîâàëî, ïîÿâèëñÿ 1 íîâûé ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê íà ñêàëàõ, ìàêñèìàëüíî óäàëåííûõ îò çîíû ðàñ÷èñòêè ëîæà áóäóùåãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà, íà êîòîðîì, âïðî÷åì, ðàçìíîæåíèå ñîêîëîâ íå èìåëî óñïåõà, è ëèøü 6 ïàð ñàïñàíîâ ðàçìíîæàëèñü íà ïðåæíèõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ, áîëüøèíñòâî – â íîâûõ ãíåçäîâûõ íèøàõ (ðèñ. 1). Ðàçìíîæåíèå 5 ïàð îêàçàëîñü óñïåøíûì: âñòàëè íà êðûëî 10 ñëåòêîâ, ÷òî â 3,4 ðàçà ìåíüøå, ÷åì â 1996 ã. (ðèñ. 2). Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìîæíî êîíñòàòèðîâàòü ôàêò ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà â ðåçóëüòàòå ðàáîò ïî ñòðîèòåëüñòâó Þìàãóçèíñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà áîëåå ÷åì â 3 ðàçà (Karyakin, Pazhenkov, 2004). Ñóùåñòâåííî òî, ÷òî èñ÷åçíîâåíèå 14 ïàð ñàïñàíîâ â øèðîòíîé èçëó÷èíå Áåëîé íå ïðèâåëî ê çíà÷èòåëüíîìó óâåëè÷åíèþ ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà âûøå ïî òå÷åíèþ ðåêè, â íåîñâîåííîé ÷àñòè äîëèíû – çäåñü ïîÿâèëñÿ ëèøü 1 íîâûé ãíåçäîâîé ó÷àñòîê ñîêîëîâ (îáíàðóæåíî æèëîå ãíåçäî äî âûëåòà ïòåíöîâ).  ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ýòî ñâÿçàíî ñ âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ íà ýòîé òåððèòîðèè êàê ñàïñàíà, òàê è äðóãèõ êðóïíûõ õèùíèêîâ, â îñîáåííîñòè ôèëèíà (Bubo bubo), è îòñóòñòâèåì ïîòåíöèàëüíî ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ñàïñàíà ñêàë, íå çàíÿòûõ õèùíèêàìè. Ñàïñàíû, ëèøèâøèåñÿ íîðìàëüíûõ óñëîâèé ãíåçäîâàíèÿ â øèðîòíîé èçëó÷èíå Áåëîé â ðåçóëüòàòå ñòðîèòåëüñòâà Þìàãóçèíñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà, ïðîñòî íå èìåþò âîçìîæíîñòü íàéòè äðóãèå ìåñòà äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ. Àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì ìåíÿëàñü ñèòóàöèÿ íà Íóãóøñêîì âîäîõðàíèëèùå, ðàñïîëîæåí-

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Ðèñ. 2. Êîëè÷åñòâî çàíÿòûõ ñàïñàíîì ãíåçäîâûõ òåððèòîðèé (1) è òåððèòîðèé, íà êîòîðûõ çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî óñïåøíîå ðàçìíîæåíèå (2) íà ð. Áåëîé äî ñòðîèòåëüñòâà âîäîõðàíèëèùà â 1996 ã. è ïîñëå – â 2003 ã. Fig. 2. Number of Occupied (1) territories and number of breeding pairs (2) before flooding (1996) and after flooding of the reservoir in 2003

filled up. The number of historic sites around the reservoir was twice as high than the numbers in 1996–98. The water reservoir is planned to construct on the Zilim river in 2005. It is supposed to flood the fragment of the river by length 50 km. The characteristics of this reservoir will be similar with the constructing one on the Belaya river located on 100 km southward. We can predict changing the number of Peregrines there by using the data on trending the number of Peregrines on the Belaya river. In 1996 11 breeding territories of Peregrines were surveyed in the Zilim river valley. If the constructing work of reservoir is started the total number of Peregrines will decline to 3–4 pairs. Thereby, one more the large nesting group of Peregrines on the South Ural will disappear. Within the territory under the question there is one Key Ornithological territory of international importance named «Mountain valley of Zilim river» (BC–007). However, there are no any State Nature Reserves unlike of «Bel’sko-Nugushkoe Confluence» (BC–008). But the State Nature Reserves were not preserved from destruction of the Belaya river nature. The Zilim river will have the similar perspectives. We believe the final decision of starting the reservoir on the Zilim river will be not accepted.

Ðèñ. 3. Êàðòà ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñàïñàíà â äîëèíå ð. Çèëèì â 1996 ã. Fig. 3. Map of Peregrine nests distribution in Zilim river in 1996


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà Íóãóøñêîå ìåæäóðå÷üå», ÿâëÿåòñÿ êëþ÷åâîé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé òåððèòîðèåé ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ (Áі007) (Êëþ÷åâûå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèå òåððèòîðèè…, 2000). Îäíàêî, â îòëè÷èå îò äîëèíû ð. Áåëîé, äîëèíà ð. Çèëèì íå çàùèùåíà îñîáî îõðàíÿåìûìè ïðèðîäíûìè òåððèòîðèÿìè ôåäåðàëüíîãî ðàíãà. Åñëè Áåëóþ íå ñïàñëè ôåäåðàëüíûå ÎÎÏÒ, òî ïåðñïåêòèâû ðàçâèòèÿ ñèòóàöèè íà ð. Çèëèì êðàéíå ïåññèìèñòè÷íû. Ìû âñå æå íàäååìñÿ, ÷òî çäðàâûé ñìûñë âîñòîðæåñòâóåò, è îêîí÷àòåëüíîå ðåøåíèå î íà÷àëå ñòðîèòåëüñòâà âîäîõðàíèëèùà íà ð. Çèëèì íå áóäåò ïðèíÿòî. Âî âñÿêîì ñëó÷àå, â áëèæàéøèé ïîëåâîé ñåçîí òðåáóåòñÿ ïîäðîáíîå îáñëåäîâàíèå äàííîé òåððèòîðèè äëÿ óòî÷íåíèÿ ñîâðåìåííîãî ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ñàïñàíà è äðóãèõ óãðîæàåìûõ âèäîâ â äîëèíå ð. Çèëèì. Âîçìîæíî, ÷òî ýòè äàííûå, íàðÿäó ñ ïðîòåñòàìè îáùåñòâåííîñòè, ïîçâîëÿò âëàñòÿì Áàøêîðòîñòàíà îòêàçàòüñÿ îò ñòðîèòåëüñòâà.

Ëèòåðàòóðà / List of Literature:

Ðåêà Çèëèì. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Zilim river. Photo by I. Karyakin

íîì â 7 êì ñåâåðíåå äîëèíû ð. Áåëîé, î ÷åì ìîæíî ñóäèòü ïî ñòàðûì ãíåçäàì, ñîõðàíèâøèìñÿ â íèøàõ ïîäòîïëåííûõ ñêàë.  2005 ã. ÷èíîâíèêè Ðåñïóáëèêè Áàøêîðòîñòàí ïëàíèðóþò íà÷àòü ïîäãîòîâêó ê ñòðîèòåëüñòâó åùå îäíîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà íà ðåêå Çèëèì. Ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ, ÷òî áóäåò çàòîïëåí ó÷àñòîê ðåêè íà ïðîòÿæåíèè îêîëî 50 êèëîìåòðîâ îò ñ. Òîëïàðîâî äî ñ. Èìåíäÿøåâî. Ïî ñâîèì õàðàêòåðèñòèêàì äàííîå âîäîõðàíèëèùå áóäåò àíàëîãè÷íûì óæå ñòðîÿùåìóñÿ âîäîõðàíèëèùó íà ð. Áåëîé, ðàñïîëîæåííîìó íà 100 êì ê þãó. Äëÿ ïðîãíîçà èçìåíåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà â äîëèíå ð. Çèëèì ìû ìîæåì èñïîëüçîâàòü èìåþùèåñÿ äàííûå ïî äèíàìèêå ÷èñëåííîñòè ýòîãî âèäà â äîëèíå ð. Áåëîé.  1996 ã. â äîëèíå ð. Çèëèì È.Â. Êàðÿêèíûì (1998à, 1998á) ó÷òåíî 11 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñàïñàíà (ðèñ. 3). Åñëè íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè íà÷íåòñÿ ñòðîèòåëüñòâî âîäîõðàíèëèùà, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü, ÷òî ÷èñëåííîñòü ñàïñàíà ñîêðàòèòñÿ äî 3–4 ïàð. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, åùå ïî îäíîé êðóïíîé ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêå ñàïñàíà íà Þæíîì Óðàëå áóäåò íàíåñåí ñåðüåçíûé óäàð. «Ãîðíàÿ äîëèíà ð. Çèëèì» (Mountain valley of Zilim river), òàêæå êàê è «Áåëüñêî-

Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Êîíñïåêò ôàóíû ïòèö Ðåñïóáëèêè Áàøêîðòîñòàí. – Ïåðìü, ÖÏÈ Ñîþçà îõðàíû æèâîòíûõ Óðàëà, 1998à. 253 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè Óðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà. Ñîêîëîîáðàçíûå (Falconiformes), Ñîâîîáðàçíûå (Strigiformes). Ïåðìü: ÖÏÈ Ñîþçà îõðàíû æèâîòíûõ Óðàëà / ÑîÝÑ, 1998á. 483 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ñàïñàí â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå, Ðîññèÿ – Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà, 2005, ¹ 1. Ñ. 43–56. Êëþ÷åâûå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèå òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè. Òîì. 1. Êëþ÷åâûå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèå òåððèòîðèè ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ â Åâðîïåéñêîé Ðîññèè. Ïîä. Ðåä. Ñâèðèäîâîé Ò.Â., Çóáàêèíà Â.À. – Ì.: Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè, 2000. 702 ñ. European bird populations: estimates and trends. Heath M., Borggreve C., Peet N., Hagemeijer W., eds. – Cambridge, UK: BirdLife Inter national, 2000. (BirdLife Conservation Series ¹ 10). 160 p. Important Bird Areas in Europe: Priority sites for conservation. 2 vols. Heath M.F. and Evans M.I., eds. – Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International, 2000. (BirdLife Conservation Series ¹ 8). 800 p. Karyakin I. and Pazhenkov A. Rapid Peregrine decline caused by hydroelectric dam. – Falco, 2004, ¹ 23. P. 13–14.


Problem of Number

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2

25

Raptors Conservation ÎÕÐÀÍÀ ÏÅÐÍÀÒÛÕ ÕÈÙÍÈÊΠBirds of Prey and PowerLines – results of project in the Republic of Kalmykia, Russia ÕÈÙÍÛÅ ÏÒÈÖÛ È ËÝÏ – ÈÒÎÃÈ ÏÐÎÅÊÒÀ  ÊÀËÌÛÊÈÈ, ÐÎÑÑÈß R.A. Medzhidov (Center of Ecological Projects, Elista, Republic of Kalmykia, Russia) M.V. Pestov (Amphibian and Reptiles Protection Society within the Ecocenter Dront, N.Novgorod, Russia) A.V. Saltykov (Municipality of Ulyanovsk, Russia) Ð.À. Ìåäæèäîâ (Öåíòð ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðîåêòîâ, Ýëèñòà, Ðåñïóáëèêà Êàëìûêèÿ) Ì.Â. Ïåñòîâ (Îáùåñòâî îõðàíû àìôèáèé è ðåïòèëèé ïðè Ýêîöåíòðå «Äðîíò», Í.Íîâãîðîä) À.Â. Ñàëòûêîâ (Êîìèòåò ÆÊÕ è ýíåðãåòèêè àäìèíèñòðàöèè ã. Óëüÿíîâñêà)

Ìàðê Ïåñòîâ íàä îñòàíêàìè ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ â òå÷åíèå ëåòà íà îñìîòðåííîé ËÝÏ. Ôîòî Ð. Ìåäæèäîâà M. Pestov with remains of raptors killed by electrocutions on the surveyed power line. Photo by R. Medzhidov

Ïðîåêò «Êîìïëåêñíàÿ îïòèìèçàöèÿ óñëîâèé îáèòàíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö íà òåððèòîðèè Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàëìûêèÿ» âûïîëíÿëñÿ ñ öåëüþ ñîçäàíèÿ óñëîâèé äëÿ ñòàáèëèçàöèè è ðîñòà ÷èñëåííîñòè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö ïðè ôèíàíñîâîé ïîääåðæêå Èíñòèòóòà Óñòîé÷èâûõ Ñîîáùåñòâ è Àãåíòñòâà ÑØÀ ïî ìåæäóíàðîäíîìó ðàçâèòèþ (US AID) â ðàìêàõ ïðîãðàììû ROLL (ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå îïûòà è ðåçóëüòàòîâ).  Êàëìûêèè âñòðå÷àåòñÿ áîëåå 30 âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö. Îêîëî ïîëîâèíû èç íèõ çàíåñåíû â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðîññèè è ïîýòîìó íóæäàþòñÿ â îñîáîì âíèìàíèè.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ îäíèì èç îñíîâíûõ ôàêòîðîâ, ëèìèòèðóþùèõ ÷èñëåííîñòü õèùíûõ ïòèö â Ñåâåðíîì Ïðèêàñïèè è Íèæíåì Ïîâîëæüå, ÿâëÿåòñÿ èõ ìàññîâàÿ ãèáåëü íà îïîðàõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ) îò êîðîòêîãî çàìûêàíèÿ. Êðîìå òîãî, äëÿ ðÿäà âèäîâ ñóùåñòâóåò ÿðêî âûðàæåííûé äåôèöèò ìåñò, ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãíåçä. Ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, íàø ïðîåêò áûë

Àíäðåé Ñàëòûêîâ ñ êàíþêîì (Buteo buteo vulpinus), ïîãèáøèì íà ËÝÏ. Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà A. Saltykov with the killed Buzzard (Buteo buteo vulpinus) by electrocutions. Photo by M. Pestov

A selective survey of the electrocution rates at the medium voltage power lines was carried out during October 2003 to October 2004. The total length of the surveyed power lines was 590 km, all within the Republic of Kalmykia (fig. 1). A total of 334 bird remains were found, including remains of 272 raptors (81.4%) (fig. 2, table 1). There were: Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis) (53 ind., 15.9% of the total number of dead birds); Long-Legged Buzzards (Buteo rufinus) (13


26

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Ðèñ. 1. Îáñëåäîâàííûå ðàéîíû. Íóìåðàöèÿ ðàéîíîâ ñîîòâåòñòâóåò íóìåðàöèè â òàáë. 1 Fig. 1. Surveyed regions. Numbers of the regions are the same as in table 1

Ðèñ. 2. Êîëè÷åñòâî ðàçíûõ âèäîâ ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ íà ËÝÏ Fig. 2. Numbers of species of dead birds on power lines

íàïðàâëåí íà èçó÷åíèå è ÷àñòè÷íóþ êîìïåíñàöèþ ýòèõ ëèìèòèðóþùèõ ôàêòîðîâ.  ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà ñ îêòÿáðÿ 2003 ïî îêòÿáðü 2004 ã. ïðîâîäèëîñü âûáîðî÷íîå îáñëåäîâàíèå ËÝÏ ñðåäíåé ìîùíîñòè íà ïðåäìåò ãèáåëè ïòèö â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì. Âñåãî àâòîìîáèëüíûìè è ïåøèìè ìàðøðóòàìè áûëî îõâà÷åíî 590 êì âäîëü ËÝÏ ÂË 10 ê íà òåððèòîðèè áîëüøèíñòâà ðàéîíîâ Êàëìûêèè (ðèñ. 1).  ðåçóëüòàòå áûëè îáíàðóæåíû îñòàíêè 334 ïòèö, â òîì ÷èñëå îñòàíêè 272 õèùíûõ ïòèö (81,4%),41 âðàíîâîé ïòèöû (12,3%), 12 âîðîáüèíûõ ïòèö (3,6%) è 9 ïðî÷èõ (ñòðåïåòû, ãîëóáü, ùóðêà, óäîä – 2,7%) íà ðàçëè÷íûõ ñòàäèÿõ óòèëèçàöèè (ðèñ. 2). Ïðè ýòîì â ó÷åòå îòðàæàëèñü ïòèöû, ïîãèáøèå îðèåòèðîâî÷íî çà ïåðèîä ñ 2003 ãîäà ïî îêòÿáðü 2004 ãîäà. Áîëåå ñòàðûå êîñòíûå îñòàíêè íàìè íå ó÷èòûâàëèñü.

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ind., 3.9%); Buzzards (Buteo buteo) (42 ind., 12.6 %); Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus fulvus) and Black Vultures (Aegypius monachus) (14 ind., 4.2%); Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) (22 ind., 6.6 %); Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo) (3 ind., 0.9%); Black Kites (Milvus migrans) (4 ind., 1.2%); Saker Falcons (Falco cherrug) (entangled by sabooka jesses, 1 ind.); Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) (1 ind.). Besides, there were some unidentified remains of large raptors, perhaps eagles and long-legged buzzards (59 ind., 17.7%); middle size raptors, perhaps buzzards and honey buzzards (55 ind., 16.5%) and remains of small raptors, perhaps kestrels and red-footed falcons (5 ind., 1.5%). About 37% of the total number of dead raptors were eagles and long-legged buzzards, c. 4% – vultures, c. 30% – medium-size raptors (buzzards, honey buzzards, kites) and c. 9% – falcons, mainly small. On average c. 0.5 dead birds is found on 1 km of power lines every year. In Kalmykia alone the total length of this type of power line is about 14000 km. A simple extrapolation suggests that several thousands of Birds of Prey are killed on the territory of the republic every year. We tried to use anti-electrocution devices designed and first used in the Ulyanovsk District. The crossarms of power poles dandgerous for birds were isolated by polyethylene bottles. Unfortunatly, efficiency of such protecting devices, especially for large raptors was very low.


Raptors Conservation Ðàéîíû Regions

¹

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 Íàèìåíîâàíèå Ïðîòÿæåííîñòü ïîëèãîíîâ ìàðøðóòîâ, êì Names of plots Lengths of routes, km

Ïîãèáøèå õèùíûå ïòèöû ïî âèäàì Numbers of dead birds of Prey

27 Âñåãî Total

ßøàëòèíñêèé ðàéîí Yashaltinsky region Îêòÿáðüñêèé ðàéîí Oktyabr’sky region Ñàðïèíñêèé ðàéîí Sarpinsky region Ñàðïèíñêèé ðàéîí Sarpinsky region Ïðèþòíåíñêèé ðàéîí Priyutnensky region ßøêóëüñêèé ðàéîí Yashkul’sky region ßøêóëüñêèé ðàéîí Yashkul’sky region ßøêóëüñêèé ðàéîí Yashkul’sky region

1

Ïîëèãîí «Îêòÿáðüñêèé» Plot Oktyabr’sky

3,4

Ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) (juv.) – 1

6

2

Ïîëèãîí «Ìèðíûé» Plot Mirny

10,0

Êðóïíûå õèùíèêè* – 2

2

3

Ïîëèãîí «Ñàðïà» Plot Sarpa Ïîëèãîí «Êîðîáêèíî» Plot Korobkino Ïîëèãîí «Ïðèìàíû÷üå» Plot Primanytsh’e

4,5

Ñòåïíîé îðåë (Aquila nipalensis) – 1

1

12,0

ãèáåëè ïòèö íå âûÿâëåíî

0

21,6

Ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) – 1 Ôèëèí (Bubob bubo) – 1

9

3,5

ãèáåëè ïòèö íå âûÿâëåíî

0

22,0

13

ßøêóëüñêèé ðàéîí Yashkul’sky region

5

Êðóïíûå õèùíèêè* – 11 Ñðåäíèå õèùíèêè* – 3 ×åðíûé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans) – 3 Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) – 2 Êàíþê (Buteo buteo) – 4 Ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) – 3 Ôèëèí (Bubob bubo) – 1 Îðëû (Aquila sp.) – 6 Êðóïíûå ïàäàëüùèêè* – 4 Êðóïíûå õèùíèêè* – 9 Ñðåäíèå õèùíèêè* – 5 Êàíþê (Buteo buteo) – 1

ßøêóëüñêèé ðàéîí Yashkul’sky region ßøêóëüñêèé ðàéîí Yashkul’sky region Ëàãàíñêèé ðàéîí Lagansky region

5

3 4 5

Ïîëèãîí «ÀÇÑ ßøêóëü» Plot AZS Yashkul Ïîëèãîí «25-é êèëîìåòð» Plot 25’ kilometer Ïîëèãîí «Óòòèíñêèé» Plot Uttinsky

5 5

5 6

Ïîëèãîí «Ñàéãà÷èé ïèòîìíèê ÃÓ «Öåíòð äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ ÐÊ» Plot Saygatshiy pitomnik Ïîëèãîí «Óëàí-Õåå÷» Plot Ulan-Heetsh Ïîëèãîí «Ìîëîäåæíûé» Plot Molodezhny Ïîëèãîí «ÀðòåçèàíÄæàëûêîâî» Plot Artesian-Dzhalykovo Ïîëèãîí «Áåëîçåðíûé» Plot Beloserny

Þñòèíñêèé ðàéîí Yustinsky region

7

Þñòèíñêèé ðàéîí Yustinsky region

7

Ïîëèãîí «Þñòèíñêèé» Plot Yustinsky

Öåëèííûé ðàéîí Tselinny region

8

Ïîëèãîí «Åðãåíè» Plot Ergeni

×åðíîçåìåëüñêèé ðàéîí Tshernosemel’sky region

9

Ïîëèãîí «×åðíîçåìåëüå» Plot Tshernosemel’e

Âñåãî Total

*

81,9

2,5

10,2 17,1 6,2

Ñòåïíîé îðåë (Aquila nipalensis) (juv.) – 4 Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) – 1 Êàíþê (Buteo buteo) – 3 Îðëû (Aquila sp.) – 3 (1 juv.) Ñòåïíîé îðåë (Aquila nipalensis) – 1 Ñðåäíèå õèùíèêè* – 2,

56,2

Êàíþê (Buteo buteo) – 1 Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) – 2 Ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) – 3 Îðëû (Aquila sp.) – 8 (3 juv.) Êðóïíûå ïàäàëüùèêè* – 2 Êðóïíûå õèùíèêè* – 37 Ñðåäíèå õèùíèêè* – 23 Ìåëêèå õèùíèêè* – 3 24,3 Ñòåïíîé îðåë (Aquila nipalensis) – 5 (2 juv.) Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) – 1 Ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) – 2 13,3 Êàíþê (Buteo buteo) – 1 Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) – 1 Ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) – 9 Êîá÷èê (Falco vespertinus) – 1 Îðëû (Aquila sp.) – 1 300,2 ×åðíûé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans) – 1 Êàíþê (Buteo buteo) – 32 Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) – 6 Ñòåïíîé îðåë (Aquila nipalensis) – 12 Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) – 1 (ëîâ÷èé) Ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) – 3 Ôèëèí (Bubob bubo) – 1 Îðëû (Aquila sp.) – 13 Êðóïíûå ïàäàëüùèêè* – 8 Ñðåäíèå õèùíèêè* – 22 Ìåëêèå õèùíèêè* – 2 588,9

áëèæå íå îïðåäåëåíî

Òàáë. 1. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãèáåëè ïòèö ïî âèäàì â òå÷åíèå ó÷åòíîãî ïåðèîäà (29.10.2003-3.11.2004 ãã.) íà îáñëåäîâàííûõ ìàðøðóòàõ Table 1. The total numbers of dead birds on routes (29.10.2003-3.11.2004)

×åðíûé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans) – 4 Êàíþê (Buteo buteo) – 42 Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) – 13 Ñòåïíîé îðåë (Aquila nipalensis) – 53 Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) – 1 (ëîâ÷èé) Ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) – 22 Êîá÷èê (Falco vespertinus) – 1 Ôèëèí (Bubob bubo) – 3 Êðóïíûå ïàäàëüùèêè* – 14 Êðóïíûå õèùíèêè* – 59 Ñðåäíèå õèùíèêè* – 55 Ìåëêèå õèùíèêè* – 5

42

4

5 6 5 79

9 43

110

334


28

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Îñòàíêè ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ â òå÷åíèå ëåòà íà ËÝÏ. Ôîòî Ð. Ìåäæèäîâà Remains of raptors killed by electrocutions. Photo by R. Medzhidov

Ïîãèáøèé íà ËÝÏ ñàìåö ïóñòåëüãè (Falco tinnunculus). Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà The male of Kestrel (Aquila nipalensis) dead killed by electrocutions. Photo by M. Pestov

Ñðåäè ïîãèáøèõ õèùíèêîâ îòìå÷åíû ñòåïíîé îðåë (Aquila nipalensis) (53 ýêç., 15,9% îò îáùåãî ÷èñëà ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö); êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) (13 ýêç., 3,9%); îáûêíîâåííûé êàíþê (Buteo buteo) (42 ýêç., 12,6 %); áåëîãîëîâûé ñèï (Gyps fulvus fulvus) è ÷åðíûé ãðèô (Aegypius monachus) (14 ýêç., 4,2%); îáûêíîâåííàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) (22 ýêç., 6,6 %); ôèëèí (Bubo bubo) (3 ýêç., 0,9%); ÷åðíûé êîðøóí (Milvus migrans) (4 ýêç., 1,2%); áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) (ëîâ÷àÿ ïòèöà ñ îïóòåíêàìè, 1 ýêç.); ñòåðâÿòíèê (Neophron percnopterus) (1 ýêç., îáíàðóæåííûå íàìè êîñòíûå îñòàíêè ïðèíàäëåæàëè ñòåðâÿòíèêó, î÷åâèäíî, ïîãèáøåìó ðàíåå 2003 ãîäà, ïîýòîìó äàííûé ôàêò íå îòðàæåí â ñâîäíîé òàáëèöå è óïîìèíàåòñÿ â âèäå èñêëþ÷åíèÿ, òàê êàê ñòåðâÿòíèê î÷åíü ðåäêî âñòðå÷àåòñÿ íà òåððèòîðèè Êàëìûêèè). Êðîìå òîãî, îáíàðóæåíû íå èäåíòèôèöèðîâàííûå äî âèäà îñòàíêè êðóïíûõ õèùíèêîâ, ïðåäïîëîæèòåëüíî îðëîâ è êóðãàííèêîâ (59 ýêç., 17,7%); îñòàíêè ñðåäíèõ ïî ðàçìåðó õèùíèêîâ, ïðåäïîëîæèòåëüíî êàíþêîâ è îñîåäîâ (55 ýêç., 16,5%), è îñòàíêè ìåëêèõ õèùíèêîâ, ïðåäïîëîæèòåëüíî ïóñòåëüã è êîá÷èêîâ (5 ýêç., 1,5%). Òàêèì îáðàçîì, íà äîëþ ïîãèáøèõ îðëîâ è êóð-

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ãàííèêîâ ïðèõîäèòñÿ îêîëî 37%, ïàäàëüùèêîâ (ãðèôîâ, ñèïîâ è ñòåðâÿòíèêîâ) – îêîëî 4%, ñðåäíèõ õèùíèêîâ, ãèáíóùèõ íà ïðîëåòå (êàíþêîâ, îñîåäîâ, êîðøóíîâ) – îêîëî 30% è íà äîëþ ñîêîëîâ, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ìåëêèõ, – îêîëî 9%.  ðàçëè÷íûõ ïðèðîäíûõ çîíàõ Êàëìûêèè ñìåðòíîñòü ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, âèäîâîé ñîñòàâ è êîëè÷åñòâåííîå ñîîòíîøåíèå âèäîâ ñóùåñòâåííî îòëè÷àþòñÿ (òàáë. 1). Íà ×åðíûõ çåìëÿõ è Ñàðïèíñêîé íèçìåííîñòè ãèáíóò, â îñíîâíîì, êðóïíûå è ñðåäíèå õèùíèêè – îðëû, êóðãàííèêè, ïàäàëüùèêè. Íà Åðãåíèíñêîé âîçâûøåííîñòè è â ïðèìîðñêîé ÷àñòè ðåñïóáëèêè çíà÷èòåëüíóþ ÷àñòü ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö ñîñòàâëÿþò âðàíîâûå – ãðà÷è, âîðîíû, ñîðîêè, èç õèùíèêîâ ïðåîáëàäàåò ïóñòåëüãà îáûêíîâåííàÿ.  ñðåäíåì, ïî íàøèì äàííûì íà 1 êì ËÝÏ ÂË 10 ê ïðèõîäèòñÿ îêîëî 0,5 ýêç. ïîãèáøèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö â ãîä. À òîëüêî ïî Êàëìûêèè îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæåííîñòü òàêèõ «ËÝÏ-óáèéö» ñîñòàâëÿåò îêîëî 14 òûñ. êì. Î÷åâèäíî, ÷òî íà òåððèòîðèè ðåñïóáëèêè åæåãîäíî ãèáíóò ìíîãèå òûñÿ÷è õèùíûõ ïòèö, ÷òî íàíîñèò îãðîìíûé óùåðá ïîïóëÿöèÿì ðåäêèõ âèäîâ, ñòàâÿ ïîä óãðîçó ñóùåñòâîâàíèå íåêîòîðûõ èç íèõ.  ðåçóëüòàòå îáñëåäîâàíèÿ óñòàíîâëåíî, ÷òî â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ñåòü ËÝÏ ÂË 10 ê â Êàëìûêèè ñìîíòèðîâàíà ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî íà æåëåçîáåòîííûõ îïîðàõ, îñíàùåííûõ ãîðèçîíòàëüíûìè òðàâåðñàìè èç óãîëêîâîé ñòàëè. Íåëüçÿ ñêàçàòü, ÷òî âñå âëàäåëüöû ËÝÏ áåçðàçëè÷íû ê ýòîé ïðîáëåìå. Íàïðîòèâ, áîëüøèíñòâî èç íèõ äîáðîñîâåñòíî ñîáëþäàþò ñóùåñòâóþùèå ýêîëîãè÷åñêèå òðåáîâàíèÿ ïî îñíàùåíèþ ËÝÏ ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè (ÏÇÓ). Ïðîáëåìà ëèøü â òîì, ÷òî âñå ðàçðàáîòàííûå äî ñèõ ïîð è âûïóñêàåìûå â íàøåé ñòðàíå ÏÇÓ (â òîì ÷èñëå íà îñíîâå õîëîñòûõ èçîëÿòîðîâ) íåäîñòàòî÷íî ýôôåêòèâíû, à íåêîòîðûå èç íèõ (ÏÇÓ òèïà «óñû») äàæå ïîâûøàþò ðèñê ãèáåëè êðóïíûõ ïòèö. Ñïåöèàëüíûå îòâëåêàþùèå ïðèñàäû ñî âðåìåíåì (ïî ìåðå ñãíèâàíèÿ äåðåâÿííûõ áðóñêîâ) òàêæå ñòàíîâÿòñÿ âåñüìà îïàñíûìè äëÿ æèçíè ïòèö, ïîñêîëüêó íà÷èíàþò ïðîâîäèòü ýëåêòðè÷åñêèé òîê. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ìîæíî êîíñòàòèðîâàòü, ÷òî ýôôåêòèâíîñòü ïðèìåíåíèÿ âñåõ ýòèõ óñòðîéñòâ êðàéíå íåâåëèêà, îíè íå ïðåäîòâðàùàþò ìàññîâîé ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö.  õîäå ïðîåêòà íà òåððèòîðèè Êàëìûêèè íàìè áûë îïðîáîâàí îïûò, ïîëó÷åííûé íà òåððèòîðèè Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè. Ñ ïîìîùüþ ÎÀÎ «Êàëìýíåðãî» â ßøêóëüñêîì ðàéîíå íà òðåõ ìîäåëüíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ


Raptors Conservation

Ðóñëàí Ìåäæèäîâ ñ êîðøóíîì (Milvus migrans), ïîãèáøèì íà ËÝÏ. Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà R. Medzhidov with the killed Black Kite (Milvus migrans) by electrocutions. Photo by M. Pestov

Îïîðû ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ, â òîì ÷èñëå ñ íåýôôåêòèâíûìè ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè ñîîðóæåíèÿìè (1, 3, 5, 6). Ôîòî À. Ñàëòûêîâà The electric poles dangered for birds without bird-protecting constructions (2, 4) and with non effective bird-protecting constructions (1, 3, 5, 6). Photo by A. Saltykov

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 îáùåé ïðîòÿæåííîñòüþ 18,5 êì áûëè óñòàíîâëåíû ñàìîäåëüíûå ÏÇÓ, èçãîòîâëåííûå èç ïðåäâàðèòåëüíî ðàñêðîåííûõ ÏÝÒ-áóòûëîê åìêîñòüþ 1,5 è 2 ë, à òàêæå èç ïîëèýòèëåíîâîé òðóáêè. Ïðè ýòîì áûëè èçîëèðîâàíû ãîðèçîíòàëüíûå ïëå÷è òðàâåðñû èëè ó÷àñòêè òîêîíåñóùåãî ïðîâîäà, ïðèëåãàþùèå ê èçîëÿòîðàì. Áûëè îïðîáîâàíû ðàçëè÷íûå âàðèàíòû èõ ðàçìåùåíèÿ è êðåïëåíèÿ. Ê ñîæàëåíèþ, ýôôåêòèâíîñòü ïîäîáíûõ ñàìîäåëüíûõ ÏÇÓ, îñîáåííî â îòíîøåíèè êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö, òàêæå îêàçàëàñü íåäîñòàòî÷íîé. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, áåç øèðîêîãî âíåäðåíèÿ ñîâðåìåííûõ ïðîìûøëåííûõ ïîëèìåðíûõ ÏÇÓ, èçîëèðóþùèõ òîêîíåñóùóþ ÷àñòü, êîòîðûå ñåé÷àñ øèðîêî ïðèìåíÿþòñÿ âî ìíîãèõ ñòðàíàõ, èëè áåç ïåðåîñíàùåíèÿ îïàñíûõ ËÝÏ íà áåçîïàñíûå, êàðäèíàëüíî ïðîáëåìó ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ ðåøèòü íåâîçìîæíî. Ïîïûòêà ïåðåíÿòü óñïåøíûé çàïàäíûé îïûò çàùèòû ïòèö íà ËÝÏ ïðåäñòàâëÿåòñÿ âåñüìà ïåðñïåêòèâíîé, îäíàêî â óñëîâèÿõ Ðîññèè îíà íåèçáåæíî ñòîëêíåòñÿ ñ ðÿäîì òðóäíîñòåé, ñâÿçàííûõ ñ òåõíè÷åñêèìè è ýêîíîìè÷åñêèìè îñîáåííîñòÿìè ñîîðóæåíèÿ è ýêñïëóàòàöèè ËÝÏ, à òàêæå ñ áîëüøèì ðàçíîîáðàçèåì êëèìàòè÷åñêèõ óñëîâèé. Òàê, íàïðèìåð, âíåäðåíèå çàùèòíûõ êîæóõîâ, èçîëèðóþùèõ òîêîíåñóùèå ïðîâîäà âáëèçè èçîëÿòîðîâ íà îïîðàõ, ïîâñåìåñòíî ïðèçíàííûõ çà ðóáåæîì, â íàøåé ñòðàíå ìîæåò ñòîëêíóòüñÿ íå òîëüêî ñ ïðîáëåìîé îòñóòñòâèÿ äåíåã ó âëàäåëüöåâ ËÝÏ. Íåñòàáèëüíîñòü ýëåêòðîñíàáæåíèÿ, ñêà÷êè íàïðÿæåíèÿ â ñåòÿõ íåðåäêî ïðèâîäÿò

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ê ðàçðóøåíèþ ðàáî÷èõ èçîëÿòîðîâ, ÷òî òðåáóåò ïðîâåäåíèÿ èõ ïðîôèëàêòè÷åñêîãî îñìîòðà è ñâîåâðåìåííîé çàìåíû íà îïîðàõ. Çà÷åõëåíèå èçîëÿòîðîâ ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè êîæóõàìè áóäåò ïðåïÿòñòâîâàòü ïðîôèëàêòè÷åñêîìó îñìîòðó è âûÿâëåíèþ ïîâðåæä¸ííûõ èçîëÿòîðîâ, ÷òî ïðîòèâîðå÷èò òðåáîâàíèÿì òåõíèêè áåçîïàñíîñòè. Ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, øèðîêîå ïðèìåíåíèå ïîäîáíûõ ÏÇÓ ìîæåò âñòðåòèòü ñåðüåçíûå âîçðàæåíèÿ ñî ñòîðîíû ñëóæá íàäçîðà çà ýëåêòðè÷åñêèìè ñåòÿìè è âëàäåëüöåâ ËÝÏ.  ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ äåø¸âûå ïîëèýòèëåíîâûå êîëïàêè è êîæóõè íå ñìîãóò ïðèìåíÿòüñÿ ïî ïðè÷èíå èõ íåñòîéêîñòè ê âûñîêèì òåìïåðàòóðàì è ñîëíå÷íîé ðàäèàöèè. Âîçìîæíî, ïîòðåáóåòñÿ èñïîëüçîâàòü ïîëèïðîïèëåíîâûå è äàæå ïîëèìåðíî-êåðàìè÷åñêèå ÏÇÓ. Âåñüìà ïåðñïåêòèâíûì ïðåäñòàâëÿåòñÿ âûïóñê ÏÇÓ èç îòõîäîâ ïîëèýòèëåíà, ñ ïåñêîì â êà÷åñòâå íàïîëíèòåëÿ, íà ñòàíäàðòíîì îáîðóäîâàíèè ïî ïðîèçâîäñòâó ÷åðåïèöû è îáëèöîâî÷íîé ïëèòêè. Îäíàêî íåîáõîäèìî ïðîéòè âåñü êîìïëåêñ ïðåäâàðèòåëüíûõ èñïûòàíèé òàêèõ óñòðîéñòâ ñ öåëüþ îïðåäåëåíèÿ âîçìîæíîñòè èõ ïðèìåíåíèÿ â óñëîâèÿõ Ðîññèè.  êàæäîì êîíêðåòíîì ñëó÷àå òðåáóåòñÿ òùàòåëüíî âûáèðàòü ñòðàòåãèþ çàùèòû ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, îïðåäåëÿòü îïòèìàëüíûé êîìïëåêñ ìåð è óñòðîéñòâ, ó÷èòûâàÿ â ñåâåðíûõ øèðîòàõ ôàêòîðû ïîâûøåííîé âëàæíîñòè è îáëåäåíåíèÿ, à â þæíûõ – çàñîëåíèÿ ïîâåðõíîñòåé è ñâåòîâîé äåñòðóêöèè ìàòåðèàëîâ. Åñëè äëÿ äåéñòâóþùèõ ËÝÏ ðåêîìåíäóåòñÿ èñïîëüçîâàòü ïòèöåçàùèòíûå êîæóõè, ëèáî ïåðåîñíàùåíèå òðàâåðñ ñ çàìåíîé øòûðåâûõ èçîëÿòîðîâ íà ïîäâåñíûå, òî äëÿ âíîâü ñîçäàâàåìûõ ëèíèé àññîðòèìåíò âîçìîæíûõ ìåð çàùèòû ãîðàçäî øèðå. Áîëüøîå, õîòÿ è âåñüìà îòäàë¸ííîå, áóäóùåå ïðî÷àò êàáåëüíîé èçîëÿöèè ó÷àñòêîâ ïðîâîäîâ â çîíå èõ êðåïëåíèÿ ê îïîðå è íà ââîäàõ â òðàíñôîðìàòîðû. Ïîæàëóé, îäíèì èç íàèáîëåå ðåàëüíûõ íàïðàâëåíèé íà áëèæàéøèå äåñÿòèëåòèÿ ìîæåò ñòàòü èñïîëüçîâàíèå áåñòðàâåðñíûõ äåðåâÿííûõ îïîð ñ ïðîïèòûâàþùèìè ìàòåðèàëàìè íîâîãî ïîêîëåíèÿ, ïðåâîñõîäÿùèõ æåëåçîáåòîííûå ñòîéêè ïî ìíîãèì òåõíè÷åñêèì ïàðàìåòðàì (ñòîèìîñòü, ñðîê ñëóæáû, âåñ, óñòîé÷èâîñòü, áåçîïàñíîñòü äëÿ ïòèö). Èíñòèòóòîì «ÐÎÑÝÏ» ðàçðàáîòàíû ïðîåêòû òèïîâûõ ÂË 0,4; 6–10 ê íà áàçå íîâûõ êîíñòðóêöèé îïîð. Ñ öåëüþ ïîâûøåíèÿ óñòîé÷èâîñòè ïðè ãîëîëåäíîâåòðîâûõ íàãðóçêàõ è ñíèæåíèÿ ñòîèìîñòè ÂË 0,4; 6–10ê äåïàðòàìåíò ýëåêòðè-


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Êîíòàêò: Ðóñëàí Ìåäæèäîâ ÊÐÎÎ «Öåíòð ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðîåêòîâ» 358004 Ðîññèÿ Ðåñïóáëèêà Êàëìûêèÿ ã. Ýëèñòà ïð. Àðøàíñêèé centercep@yandex.ru Ìàðê Ïåñòîâ Îáùåñòâî îõðàíû àìôèáèé è ðåïòèëèé ïðè Ýêîöåíòðå «Äðîíò» 603000 Ðîññèÿ Í.Íîâãîðîä, à/ÿ 631 òåë.: (8312) 30-25-07 vipera@dront.ru Àíäðåé Ñàëòûêîâ Êîìèòåò ÆÊÕ è ýíåðãåòèêè Àäìèíèñòðàöèè ã. Óëüÿíîâñêà 432600 Ðîññèÿ ã. Óëüÿíîâñê óë. Êóçíåöîâà, 7-118 òåë.: (8422) 41-41-53 aves-pl@mail.ru Contact: Ruslan Medzhidov NGO Environmental Project Center Elista, pr. Arshanskiy Republic of Kalmikiya 358004 Russia centercep@yandex.ru Mark Pestov Amphibian and Reptiles Protection Society under Ecocenter Dront P.O. Box 631 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 30-25-07 vipera@dront.ru Andrey Saltykov Municipality of Ulyanovsk Kuznetsova str., 7-118 Ulyanovsk 432600 Russia tel.: (8422) 41-41-53 aves-pl@mail.ru

÷åñêèõ ñåòåé ÐÀÎ «ÅÝÑ Ðîññèè», ñîãëàñíî öèðêóëÿðó ¹ 11–02/1–05 îò 30.10.2001, ðåêîìåíäóåò ïðè òåõíè÷åñêîì ïåðåâîîðóæåíèè, ðåêîíñòðóêöèè è íîâîì ñòðîèòåëüñòâå ÂË ìàññîâîå ïðèìåíåíèå äåðåâÿííûõ îïîð íîâîãî ïîêîëåíèÿ, îñîáåííî â ðàéîíàõ, ïîäâåðæåííûõ ãîëîëåäíî-âåòðîâûì àâàðèÿì, ñ ïîâûøåííîé ãðîçîâîé äåÿòåëüíîñòüþ è ÷àñòîé ãèáåëüþ ïòèö. Äðåâåñèíà – âîçîáíîâëÿåìûé ðåñóðñ. «Âûðàùèâàòü» ñòîëáû äëÿ ËÝÏ ãîðàçäî ýêîëîãè÷íåå ïðîìûøëåííîãî ïðîèçâîäñòâà æåëåçîáåòîííûõ îïîð è ìåòàëëè÷åñêèõ òðàâåðñ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, íåñìîòðÿ íà íàëè÷èå ìíîãî÷èñëåííûõ òåõíè÷åñêèõ ðàçðàáîòîê, äîñòóïíûõ ê âíåäðåíèþ, ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â íàøåé ñòðàíå îñòàåòñÿ íåðåøåííîé. Äàííûå íàøèõ èññëåäîâàíèé, à òàêæå ïóáëèêàöèè è ñîîáùåíèÿ äðóãèõ àâòîðîâ ñâèäåòåëüñòâóþò î åæåãîäíîé ãèáåëè òûñÿ÷ õèùíûõ è äðóãèõ âèäîâ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ 10 ê òîëüêî íà òåððèòîðèè Êàëìûêèè. Îñíîâíûì ïðåïÿòñòâèåì íà ïóòè çàùèòû ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñòâîì íà ËÝÏ, ïî íàøåìó ìíåíèþ, ÿâëÿåòñÿ îòñóòñòâèå íîðìàòèâíûõ äîêóìåíòîâ, çàïðåùàþùèõ ýêñïëóàòàöèþ ËÝÏ-«óáèéö». Äåéñòâóþùèå Ôåäåðàëüíûé çàêîí «Î æèâîòíîì ìèðå» (ñò. 28) è «Òðåáîâàíèÿ ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè îáúåêòîâ æèâîòíîãî ìèðà ïðè îñóùåñòâëåíèè ïðîèçâîäñòâåííûõ ïðîöåññîâ, à òàêæå ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè òðàíñïîðòíûõ ìàãèñòðàëåé, òðóáîïðîâîäîâ, ëèíèé ñâÿçè è ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è» (óòâ. Ïîñòàíîâëåíèåì Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ÐÔ îò 13 àâãóñòà 1996 ã. ¹ 997), õîòÿ è ïðåäóñìàòðèâàþò íåîáõîäèìîñòü îñíàùåíèÿ ýëåêòðîëèíèé ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè, îäíàêî íå ñîäåðæàò òðåáîâàíèé, ïðåäúÿâëÿåìûõ ê ýôôåêòèâíîñòè ýòèõ óñòðîéñòâ.  ðåçóëüòàòå, ôîðìàëüíî ñëåäóÿ ýòèì íîðìàòèâàì, âëàäåëåö ËÝÏ ìîæåò îñíàñòèòü ñâîè ëèíèè ëþáûìè ÏÇÓ, íå çàáîòÿñü îá ýôôåêòèâíîñòè ñâîèõ äåéñòâèé. ×òîáû ïðèâëå÷ü âíèìàíèå îáùåñòâåííîñòè ðåñïóáëèêè ê ïðîáëåìå ñîõðàíåíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö, ìû àêòèâíî ðàáîòàëè ñî ñðåäñòâàìè ìàññîâîé èíôîðìàöèè ñîâìåñòíî ñ Ìèíèñòåðñòâîì îáðàçîâàíèÿ ÐÊ, Ãîñóäàðñòâåííûì áèîñôåðíûì çàïîâåäíèêîì «×åðíûå çåìëè» è Öåíòðîì äèêèõ æèâîòíûõ ÐÊ.

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Áåçîïàñíûå äëÿ ïòèö îïîðû ËÝÏ. Ôîòî À. Ñàëòûêîâà Bird-friendly power poles. Photo by A. Saltykov

Âàðèàíòû ñàìîäåëüíûõ ÏÇÓ, èçãîòîâëåííûõ èç ÏÝÒáóòûëîê. Ôîòî À. Ñàëòûêîâà Different bird-protecting constructions power poles were made by authors of polyethylene bottles. Photo by A. Saltykov

Óñèëèÿìè íåáîëüøèõ îðãàíèçàöèé è îòäåëüíûõ ýíòóçèàñòîâ áåç ïîääåðæêè íà ãîñóäàðñòâåííîì óðîâíå ïðîáëåìó ñîõðàíåíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö íå ðåøèòü.  ñâÿçè ñ ýòèì â õîäå íàøåãî ïðîåêòà áûë ðàçðàáîòàí ïðîåêò «Òðåáîâàíèé ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è», ïîëíîñòüþ áàçèðóþùèéñÿ íà äåéñòâóþùåé íîðìàòèâíîé áàçå, è ïðîåêò ðåñïóáëèêàíñêîé Ïðîãðàììû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ», ó÷èòûâàþùèå çàðóáåæíûé è îòå÷åñòâåííûé îïûò ðåøåíèÿ äàííîé ïðîáëåìû.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ îíè íàõîäÿòñÿ íà ðàññìîòðåíèè â ïðàâèòåëüñòâå Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàëìûêèÿ. Ìû ãîòîâû ê ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâó ñî âñåìè, êîãî çàèíòåðåñóåò íàø îïûò.


Raptors Conservation

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2

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Electrocutions of birds of prey on power lines in the Aral Sea region, Kazakhstan ÃÈÁÅËÜ ÕÈÙÍÛÕ ÏÒÈÖ ÍÀ ËÝÏ Â ÏÐÈÀÐÀËÜÅ, ÊÀÇÀÕÑÒÀÍ I.V. Karyakin (Center of Field Studies, N.Novgorod, Russia) L.M. Novikova (Nizhniy Novgorod Branch of the Russian Birds Conservation Union, N.Novgorod, Russia) A.S. Pazhenkov (The Volga-Ural ECONET Assistance Center, Samara, Russia) È.Â. Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ) Ë.Ì. Íîâèêîâà (Íèæåãîðîäñêîå îòäåëåíèå Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ) À.Ñ. Ïàæåíêîâ (Öåíòð ñîäåéñòâèÿ Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòè, Ñàìàðà, Ðîññèÿ)

Ë. Íîâèêîâà ñ ïîãèáøèì íà ËÝÏ ñòåïíûì îðëîì (Aquila nipalensis). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà L. Novikova with the killed Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis) by electrocutions. Photo by I. Karyakin

 2003 ãîäó íàøåé ýêñïåäèöèîííîé ãðóïïîé ïîñåùàëàñü òåððèòîðèÿ Çàïàäíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà â ðàìêàõ «Ñòåïíîé ïðîãðàììû» è ïðîåêòà ïî èçó÷åíèþ ñîêîëà-áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) Èíñòèòóòà èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ (FRI, IWC Ltd.). 2 ìàÿ áûë îñìîòðåí ó÷àñòîê ïòèöåîïàñíîé ëèíèè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ) íà áåòîííûõ îïîðàõ ìåæäó ñ. Áîçîé è ñ. Áåãèìáåò íà ó÷àñòêå 42,65 êì. Íà äàííîì ó÷àñòêå ËÝÏ áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 5 ãíåçäîâûõ ïîñòðîåê êóðãàííèêà (Buteo rufinus), 3 èç êîòîðûõ ïóñòîâàëè ïî ïðè÷èíå ãèáåëè ïòèö. Ïîä îäíèì ãíåçäîì áûëè îáíàðóæåíû òðóïû ñàìöà è ñàìêè, ïîä äâóìÿ äðóãèìè ãíåçäàìè òðóïû ñàìîê.

In 2003 an expedition by the Center of Field Studies surveyed the West Kazakhstan. In the 2 May the power line between towns Bozoy and Begimbet (42,65 km) was surveyed. On the area of power line 5 nests by LongLegged Buzzards (Buteo rufinus) were found, 3 from which were empty by reason of bird deaths. Under first nest dead male and female were found, under two other nests only dead females were found. Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) tried to occupy all empty nests of Long-Legged Buzzards, but only a female on a clutch in the nest during the checkup of power line was observed. Under two other nests we have found 2 and 3 dead females of Kestrels. In all events birds were killed by electrocutions during 10 days. Except the birds, trying to nest on power poles dangerous for birds, death of 15 Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis) which nested near power line and used power poles for sitting during hunting was also registered. On the route 4 dead eagles (1 – a male and 3 – females), died during the last several days, remains of 2 Steppe Eagles died during a week, and bones with furthers of 9 birds died several weeks before our visit were found. Abundance of dead raptors was 5,6 individuals per 10 km of power line (Steppe Eagles – 3,5 individuals per 10 km, Kestrels – 1,2 ind/10 km, Long-Legged Buzzards – 0,9 ind/10 km). Surveyed power line was not equipped by insulators for safeguarding birds that was characterizing feature for many other power lines in the Aral Sea region. Considering the length of such power lines (1107 km) which was determined on maps Ì 1:200000, we can suppose that only for the short time in spring nearby 600–700 individuals of birds of prey are dying on the power lines, the Steppe Eagle obviously dominates (62,5%).


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a-17 òåë.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru Ëþäìèëà Íîâèêîâà Íèæåãîðîäñêîå îòäåëåíèå Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè 603000, Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, à/ÿ 631 Ýêîöåíòð «Äðîíò» òåë.: (8312) 34-46-79 sopr@dront.ru

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Òàáë. 1. Ðàçìåðû ïîãèáøèõ ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ (Aquila nipalensis) Table 1. Sizes of dead Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis)

Ðàçìåðû (ìì) / Sizes (mm) Êëþâ îò / Bill from ¹

Äëèíà Length

Êðûëî Wing

Õâîñò Tail

Öåâêà Tarsus

1 2 3 4*

760 780 790 790

545 560 580 570

280 270 300 260

94,7 102,0 97,2 90,6

ëáà âîñêîâèöû forehead cere 49,2 52,8 55,0 54,3

36,6 39,5 41,4 39,2

íîçäðè nostril

Ðàçðåç ðòà Mouth

Íîçäðÿ Nostril

30,4 33,5 34,4 33,0

63,5 68,0 67,5 67,9

8,6õ4,5 8,8õ4,5 8,3õ5,0 6,8õ4,0

* – ìîëîäàÿ ñàìêà íà 2-ì ãîäó æèçíè / young female (2 year)



Àëåêñåé Ïàæåíêîâ Öåíòð ñîäåéñòâèÿ Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòè Ðîññèÿ, Ñàìàðà 443045 à/ÿ-8001 òåë.: (9272) 15-39-60 f_lynx@hotbox.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a-17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru Ludmila Novikova The N. Novgorod branch of RBCU, Russia P.O. Box 631 Ecocenter Dront Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 34-46-79 sopr@dront.ru Aleksey Pazhenkov The Volga-Ural ECONET Assistance Center P.O. Box 8001 443045 Samara, Russia tel.: (9272) 15-39-60 f_lynx@hotbox.ru

Âñå ïóñòóþùèå ïîñòðîéêè êóðãàííèêîâ ïûòàëèñü çàíÿòü ïóñòåëüãè (Falco tinnunculus), íî ëèøü íà îäíîì èç ãíåçä âî âðåìÿ îñìîòðà ËÝÏ íàáëþäàëàñü ñàìêà íà êëàäêå. Ïîä äâóìÿ äðóãèìè ãíåçäàìè ìû íàøëè 2 è 3 òðóïà ñàìîê ïóñòåëüã. Âî âñåõ ñëó÷àÿõ ïòèöû ïîãèáëè îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì â òå÷åíèå ïîñëåäíèõ 10 äíåé. Ãèáåëü ïòèö ïðîèçîøëà â ðåçóëüòàòå çàìûêàíèÿ ôàçû ïðîâîëîêîé, êîòîðóþ êóðãàííèêè ïðèíåñëè íà ãíåçäî â êà÷åñòâå ñòðîèòåëüíîãî ìàòåðèàëà. Ïîìèìî ïòèö, ïûòàâøèõñÿ ãíåçäèòñÿ íà îïîðàõ ïòèöåîïàñíîé ËÝÏ, çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíà ãèáåëü 15 ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ (Aquila nipalensis), êîòîðûå ãíåçäèëèñü â áëèæàé-

Ãíåçäî êóðãàííèêà (Buteo rufinus) íà ËÝÏ. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nest of the Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) on a power pole. Photo by I. Karyakin

øèõ îêðåñòíîñòÿõ è èñïîëüçîâàëè îïîðû ËÝÏ â êà÷åñòâå ïðèñàä. Íà ìàðøðóòå áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 4 ñâåæèõ òðóïà îðëîâ (1 – ñàìöà è 3 – ñàìîê), ïîãèáøèõ â áëèæàéøèå íåñêîëüêî äíåé, îñòàíêè 2-õ ñòåïíûõ îðëîâ, ïîãèáøèõ â òå÷åíèå íåäåëè, è êîñòíî-ïåðüåâûå îñòàíêè 9 ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ â òå÷åíèå íåñêîëüêèõ íåäåëü äî íàøåãî ïîñåùåíèÿ òåððèòîðèè. Îáèëèå ïîãèáøèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö â ñðåäíåì ñîñòàâèëî 5,6 îñîáåé íà 10 êì ËÝÏ (ñòåïíîé îðåë – 3,5 îñîáåé/10 êì, ïóñòåëüãà – 1,2 îñîáåé/10 êì, êóðãàííèê – 0,9 îñîáåé/10 êì). Îñìîòðåííàÿ ËÝÏ îêàçàëàñü íå îñíàùåííîé ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè ñîîðóæåíèÿìè, ÷òî õàðàêòåðíî äëÿ ìíîãèõ äðóãèõ ËÝÏ Ïðèàðàëüÿ. Ó÷èòûâàÿ ïðîòÿæåííîñòü òàêèõ ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (1107 êì), îïðåäåëåííóþ ïî êàðòàì Ì 1:200000, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî òîëüêî çà íåñêîëüêî âåñåííèõ íåäåëü íà íèõ ïîãèáàåò îêîëî 600–700 îñîáåé õèùíûõ ïòèö, ñòåïíîé îðåë èç êîòîðûõ ÿâíî äîìèíèðóåò (62,5%).

Îñòàíêè ïóñòåëüã (Falco tinnunculus), ïîãèáøèõ íà ËÝÏ. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) is killed by electrocutions. Photo by I. Karyakin


Raptors Conservation

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2

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The estimation and prediction of killed raptors by electrocutions on the power lines in the Nizhniy Novgorod District (forest and foreststeppe zones of the Center of the European Part of Russia) ÎÖÅÍÊÀ È ÏÐÎÃÍÎÇÈÐÎÂÀÍÈÅ ÌÀÑØÒÀÁΠÃÈÁÅËÈ ÕÈÙÍÛÕ ÏÒÈÖ ÍÀ ËÝÏ Â ÍÈÆÅÃÎÐÎÄÑÊÎÉ ÎÁËÀÑÒÈ (ËÅÑÍÀß È ËÅÑÎÑÒÅÏÍÀß ÇÎÍÀ ÅÂÐÎÏÅÉÑÊÎÉ ×ÀÑÒÈ ÐÎÑÑÈÈ) A.I. Matsina (Laboratory of Ornithology under Ecocenter Dront) À.È. Ìàöûíà (Îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ëàáîðàòîðèÿ ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî öåíòðà «ÄÐÎÍÒ», Í.Íîâãîðîä) Êîíòàêò: Àëåêñàíäð Ìàöûíà Îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêàÿ ëàáîðàòîðèÿ Ýêîöåíòðà «Äðîíò», Ðîññèÿ 603000 Í.Íîâãîðîä à/ÿ 631 òåë.: (8312) 36-84-92 ôàêñ: (8312) 30-28-81 mai@sandy.ru Contact: Alexander Matsina Laboratory of Ornithology under Ecocenter Dront Russia 603000 P.O. Box 631 N. Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 36-84-92 fax: (8312) 30-28-81 mai@sandy.ru

Ïðîáëåìà ãèáåëè ïòèö ïðè êîíòàêòå ñ âîçäóøíûìè ëèíèÿìè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è ìîùíîñòüþ 6–10 ê (ÂË 6–10 êÂ) ñåãîäíÿ øèðîêî èçâåñòíà (Ñàëòûêîâ, 1999; Haas, Nipkow, 2004). Íåñîìíåííî, íàèáîëüøóþ îïàñíîñòü äëÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö ýòè ëèíèè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è ïðåäñòàâëÿþò â þæíûõ, áåçëåñíûõ ðàéîíàõ, ãäå èõ îïîðû ÷àñòî ÿâëÿþòñÿ åäèíñòâåííûìè ìåñòàìè äëÿ îòäûõà è ïîäêàðàóëèâàíèÿ äîáû÷è (Çâîíîâ, Êðèâîíîñîâ, 1981; Ïåðåðâà, Áëîõèí, 1981). Îäíàêî, êàê ïîêàçàëè íàøè èññëåäîâàíèÿ, âûïîëíåííûå â ëåñíîé è ëåñîñòåïíîé çîíàõ öåíòðà Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè, è çäåñü ýêñïëóàòèðóåìûå â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ÂË 6– 10 ê ïðåäñòàâëÿþò ñåðüåçíóþ óãðîçó äëÿ ìíîãèõ âèäîâ äíåâíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ.

The problem of bird electrocutions on the power lines with voltage 6–10 kV is broad known today (Saltikov, 1999; Haas, Nipkow, 2004). Certainly, the power lines with voltage 6– 10 kV are the most dangerous for raptors in the southern woodless regions where the electric poles are used by birds for rest and to look about for prey very often (Zvonov, Krivonosov, 1981). However, our researches in the forest and the forest-steppe zones of the European part of Russia have shown that here the power lines with voltage 6– 10 kV are very dangerous for many species of raptors.

Ðàéîí èññëåäîâàíèé

Geographical coordinates of the Nizhniy Novgorod District are N 54°35'–58°10', E 41°40'–47°35'. The total territory is 76624 km2 and there are much different nature conditions. The degree of covering by woods is 40,7% (2004) and gradually decreases from North to South from 80.2% to 1.1%. Density of power lines is irregular in different regions of district and fluctuates from 0.1 to 0.59 km power lines per km2. In the most regions the ferro-concrete poles with an iron cross-arm dominate.

Íèæåãîðîäñêàÿ îáëàñòü ðàñïîëîæåíà ìåæäó 54°35' è 58°10' ñåâåðíîé øèðîòû è ìåæäó 41°40' è 47°35' âîñòî÷íîé äîëãîòû. Åå îáùàÿ ïëîùàäü ñîñòàâëÿåò 76624 êì2 è õàðàêòåðèçóåòñÿ áîëüøèì ðàçíîîáðàçèåì ïðèðîäíûõ óñëîâèé. Ñòåïåíü ëåñîïîêðûòèÿ òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè ñîñòàâëÿåò 40,7%

Area

Methods The estimation of raptors electrocution has been done within program of studying the general influence of power lines on birds in the Nizhniy Novgorod District. During summer-autumn periods in 2001–2004 we have inspected 4100 electric poles. The total

Çèìíÿê (Buteo lagopus), ïîãèáøèé íà ËÝÏ. Ôîòî À. Ìàöûíû Rough-legged buzzard (Buteo lagopus) killed by electrocutions. Photo by A. Matsina


34

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2 (2004), ïîñòåïåííî óìåíüøàÿñü ïî íàïðàâëåíèþ ñ ñåâåðà íà þã îò 80,2 % (Âàðíàâèíñêèé ðàéîí) äî 1,1% (Êðàñíîîêòÿáðüñêèé ðàéîí). Ýíåðãåòè÷åñêàÿ ñèñòåìà õîðîøî ðàçâèòà è ñòðóêòóðèðîâàíà. Ïëîòíîñòü ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèõ ñåòåé ïî ðàçëè÷íûì ðàéîíàì îáëàñòè íåðàâíîìåðíà è êîëåáëåòñÿ îò 0,1 äî 0,59 êì ÂË/êì2 (â ñðåäíåì 0,32). Ñîîòíîøåíèå ðàçëè÷íûõ òèïîâ îïîð â ðàçíûõ ðàéîíàõ Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè êîëåáëåòñÿ â øèðîêèõ ïðåäåëàõ.  áîëüøèíñòâå ðàéîíîâ ïðåîáëàäàþò æåëåçîáåòîííûå êîíñòðóêöèè ñ ìåòàëëè÷åñêîé òðàâåðñîé. Ïðè ýòîì äîëÿ äåðåâÿííûõ îïîð â íåêîòîðûõ ðàéîíàõ äîñòàòî÷íî âûñîêà è äîñòèãàåò 45 % (Êñòîâñêèé ðàéîí), íî â öåëîì ïî îáëàñòè çíà÷èòåëüíî íèæå.

Ìàòåðèàë è ìåòîäèêà Îöåíêà ìàñøòàáîâ ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö âûïîëíåíà â ðàìêàõ ðàáîòû ïî èçó÷åíèþ îáùåãî âëèÿíèÿ ËÝÏ íà îðíèòîôàóíó Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Ñ ýòîé öåëüþ â ëåòíå-îñåííèé ïåðèîä 2001–2004 ãã. áûë âûïîëíåí ðÿä ìàðøðóòíûõ ó÷åòîâ, ïðîòÿæåííîñòüþ 277,5 êì ÂË 6–10ê (áîëåå 4100 îïîð). Îñíîâíûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ âûïîëíåíû â Áîãîðîäñêîì (1), Êñòîâñêîì (2) è Àðçàìàññêîì (3) ðàéîíàõ (ðèñ. 1). Çäåñü ïðîèçâåäåí äåòàëüíûé îñìîòð çíà÷èòåëüíîé ÷àñòè ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è. Òàê, â Àðçàìàññêîì ðàéîíå îñìîòðåíî 47,1 êì èç 664,1 (7,1%), â Êñòîâñêîì ðàéîíå 63,8 êì èç 217,1 (29,4%).  Áîãîðîäñêîì ðàéîíå îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæåííîñòü ìàðøðóòîâ ñîñòàâèëà 30,1 êì. Çäåñü áûëà âûïîëíåíà ñåðèÿ ïîâòîðíûõ îñìîòðîâ ëèíèé íà ìîäåëüíîì ó÷àñòêå, ïîçâîëèâøàÿ îïðåäåëèòü ñêîðîñòü

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

ËÝÏ (6-10êÂ) ñ æåëåçîáåòîííûìè îïîðàìè â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Ôîòî À. Ìàöûíû The power lines in Nizhniy Novgorod District (6-10 kV) with the ferro-concrete poles. Photo by A. Matsina

length of our routes along power lines with voltage 6–10 kV (table 1) was 277.5 km. For studying the influence of ecological location of power lines on frequency of bird electrocutions we according of locality divide the of power lines on five basic ecological types: Type 1 – open territories without trees (fields, meadows, pastures and marshes); Type 2 – forest edges and forest-lines; the power lines are not more 200 m from forest; Type 3 – nature and cultivated forests, and the woodland parks; Type 4 – towns and villages with their vicinities*; Type 5 – the attractive objects for birds – rubbish heaps, farms, granaries and others (including 350–500 m around)*.

The species and numbers of death birds The electrocutions has been noted for 9 species of raptors (table 1). It is 23% from

Ðèñ. 1. Êàðòà ðàéîíà ðàáîò; íóìåðàöèÿ ðàéîíîâ ñîîòâåòñòâóåò òàêîâîé â òåêñòå Fig. 1. Map of surveyed regions. Numbers of the regions are the same in text

* sometimes the impact zone of the objects was increased till 1000 m, it depended from locations and mutual influences of objects (for example, when the towns or villages are located too close).


Raptors Conservation

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 åñòåñòâåííîé óòèëèçàöèè òóøåê ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö (â ðåçóëüòàòå ðàçëîæåíèÿ è ðàñòàñêèâàíèÿ íàçåìíûìè ïîçâîíî÷íûìè), à òàêæå âûïîëíèòü ðàñ÷åò ïîïðàâî÷íîãî êîýôôèöèåíòà óòèëèçàöèè, êîìïåíñèðóþùåãî íåäîó÷åò ïðè ðàçîâîì ïîñåùåíèè ÂË. Äîïîëíèòåëüíûé ìàòåðèàë, õàðàêòåðèçóþùèé ãèáåëü õèùíèêîâ â ðàçëè÷íûõ ïðèðîäíûõ çîíàõ ðåãèîíà ñîáðàí â Ñîêîëüñêîì (4), Âîñêðåñåíñêîì (5), Ñåìåíîâñêîì (6), Ïàâëîâñêîì (7), Äàëüíåêîíñòàíòèíîâñêîì (8), Áîëüøåìóðàøêèíñêîì (9), Ïî÷èíêîâñêîì (10) è Âîðîòûíñêîì (11) ðàéîíàõ Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (ðèñ. 1). Ó÷åòíûå ðàáîòû åæåãîäíî îõâàòûâàëè ïåðèîä ñ àâãóñòà ïî îêòÿáðü âêëþ÷èòåëüíî, à â 2004 ãîäó ïðîäîëæàëèñü ñ 6 èþëÿ ïî 7 íîÿáðÿ. Îñìîòð ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è âûïîëíÿëñÿ íà ïåøèõ ìàðøðóòàõ ñ ïðåäâàðèòåëüíûì âûáîðîì ó÷àñòêîâ íà îñíîâå àíàëèçà ïîîïîðíûõ ñõåì ÂË 6–10 êÂ, ïðåäîñòàâëåííûõ ÎÀÎ «Íèæíîâýíåðãî». Òàêèì îáðàçîì, êàæäûé ìàðøðóò âêëþ÷àë ó÷àñòîê îïðåäåëåííîé ÂË 6–10 ê ïðîèçâîëüíîé äëèíû (â çàâèñèìîñòè îò õàðàêòåðèñòèê âûáðàííîé ÂË). Äëÿ îñìîòðà ëèíèé, õàðàêòåðèçóþùèõñÿ çíà÷èòåëüíîé ïðîòÿæåííîñòüþ (áîëåå 5 êì), çàêëàäûâàëè íåñêîëüêî ìàðøðóòîâ, äàííûå êîòîðûõ âïîñëåäñòâèè îáúåäèíÿëè.  2004 ã. íà òåððèòîðèè Àðçàìàññêîãî è Êñòîâñêîãî ðàéîíîâ, ïàðàëëåëüíî ñ îñìîòðîì ëèíèé, âûïîëíåíà òàêñàöèÿ âñåõ ÂË 6–10 ê ñ æåëåçîáåòîííûìè îïîðàìè (881,7 êì) ñ öåëüþ âûÿñíåíèÿ ñòàöèàëüíîé ïðèóðî÷åííîñòè ëèíèé è îöåíêè îáùèõ ìàñøòàáîâ ãèáåëè ïòèö ñ ó÷åòîì íåðàâíîìåðíîñòè èõ òåððèòîðèàëüíîãî ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ. Ïðè îáíàðóæåíèè òóøåê èëè îñòàíêîâ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö, â ó÷åòíûõ âåäîìîñòÿõ ðåãèñòðèðîâàëñÿ òèï îïîðû ÂË è èçîëÿòîðîâ,

Ïòèöåîïàñíàÿ îïîðà ñ îòïàéêîé è èçîëÿòîðàìè. Ôîòî À. Ìàöûíû The electric poles dangered for birds. Photo by A. Matsina

the total number of birds of prey (27) and owls (12), which were surveyed in the Nizhniy Novrorod District (Bakka, Kiseleva, 2001). The most of them are common breeding species and they inhabit over the all district, except the Rough-Legged Buzzard (Buteo lagopus), which is surveyed during migrations only in autumn. The most of them is birds of prey (86.5%). The Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) (47.3%) and the Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) (29.7%) dominate. They are three quarters from the total number of perished birds (fig. 2). These species are regularly observed during the researches. The rest species are observed more rarely. The Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) were observed among perished birds more rare from middle of July till end of October, so we can guess these were mostly the moving individuals. The Eurasian Sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus) was found only once.

¹ Âèä Species

Òàáë. 1. Ðåçóëüòàòû ó÷åòîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ ïðè êîíòàêòå ñ ÂË 6-10 ê â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, 2001-2004 ãã. Table 1. Results of census for killed raptors by electrocutions on the PL 6-10 kV in the Nizhniy Novgorod District, 2001-2004

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Êàíþê Buzzard Çèìíÿê Rough-Legged Buzzard Òåòåðåâÿòíèê Goshawk Ïåðåïåëÿòíèê Sparrowhawk Ïóñòåëüãà Kestrel Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà Long-Eared Owl Áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà Short-Eared Owl Ñåðàÿ íåÿñûòü Tawny Owl Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü Ural Owl

ÂÑÅÃÎ Total Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæåííîñòü ìàðøðóòîâ, êì. The general length of routes



35

2001 2002 2003 2004 Âñåãî Total 1

9

10

1 1 5 2

2 5

1 1 35,7

19 56,7

17 44,1

15 1 2

3

35 1 5 1 22 3 3 1 3

37 141

74 277,5

12 1 3


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

ðàñïîëîæåíèå ïòèöû, õàðàêòåð ïîâðåæäåíèé, ñòàäèÿ óòèëèçàöèè (Ñàëòûêîâ, 1999). Ïðè íåâîçìîæíîñòè îïðåäåëåíèÿ âèäà íà ìåñòå, ñîáèðàëèñü ôðàãìåíòû îïåðåíèÿ è ñêåëåòà äëÿ ëàáîðàòîðíîãî îïðåäåëåíèÿ. Âïîñëåäñòâèè áûëà ñîñòàâëåíà îïðåäåëèòåëüíàÿ êîëëåêöèÿ ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ýòàëîíîâ (ýëåìåíòû ñêåëåòà, íàèáîëåå õàðàêòåðíûå ýëåìåíòû îïåðåíèÿ). Äëÿ èçó÷åíèÿ âëèÿíèÿ íà ÷àñòîòó ïîðàæåíèÿ ïòèö ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì ÂË èõ áèîòîïè÷åñêîãî ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ îñóùåñòâëÿëàñü äèôôåðåíöèàöèÿ ÂË è ñâÿçàííûõ ñ íèìè îðíèòîöåíîçîâ ïî èõ ïðèóðî÷åííîñòè ê ïÿòè îñíîâíûì ëàíäøàôòíî-ýêîëîãè÷åñêèì òèïàì ìåñòíîñòè:

Òàáë. 2. Ðåçóëüòàòû ó÷åòà ïòèö, ïîðàæåííûõ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì ÂË 6-10 ê ¹1008 ïîäñòàíöèÿ ÐÏ Ëîìîâêà, Àðçàìàññêèé ðàéîí. 29.10.2004 ã. Table 2. Results of census for killed raptors by electrocutions on the PL 6-10 kV in the substation Lomovka, Arzamas region 29.10.2004

Êàíþê Buzzard Êàíþê Buzzard Êàíþê Buzzard Êàíþê Buzzard Êàíþê Buzzard Êàíþê Buzzard Êàíþê Buzzard Êàíþê Buzzard Êàíþê Buzzard

Òèï 1 – îòêðûòûå ïðîñòðàíñòâà, ëèøåííûå äðåâåñíîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòè; Òèï 2 – îïóøêè, ëåñîïîëîñû, ïðè ýòîì ðàññòîÿíèå îò ÂË äî ãðàíèöû ëåñîíàñàæäåíèé íå ïðåâûøàåò 200 ì; Òèï 3 – ëåñíûå ìàññèâû, ïðîñåêè, èñêóññòâåííûå ëåñîíàñàæäåíèÿ è ëåñîïàðêîâûå çîíû; Òèï 4 – íàñåëåííûå ïóíêòû è èõ îêðåñòíîñòè â ïðåäåëàõ 350–500 ìåòðîâîé çîíû*;

Ðåçóëüòàòû ñáîðà ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ íà ÂË 6–10ê â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Ôîòî À. Ìàöûíû Collection of birds killed on the PL 6–10 kV. Photo by A. Matsina

Òèï 5 – îáúåêòû, õàðàêòåðèçóþùèåñÿ íàëè÷èåì ìàññîâûõ ñêîïëåíèé ïòèö (ñâàëêè ÒÁÎ, æèâîòíîâîä÷åñêèå ôåðìû è êîìïëåêñû, ïòèöåôàáðèêè, çâåðîõîçÿéñòâà, êîðìîöåõà, çåðíîòîêà, õîçöåíòðû, è ïð.) è ïðèëåãàþùèå ê íèì òåððèòîðèè â ïðåäåëàõ 350–500 ìåòðîâîé çîíû*.

Òèï ¹ ñòàäèÿ îïîðû óòèëèçàöèè, áèîòîïà, 1-5 Poles 0-4 áàëëà Stage of Type of destruction biotope

ÂÈÄ Species

38 39 40 42 42 54 54 59 59

2 3 4 3 4 4 4 3 4

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

 We found only one Rough-Legged Buzzard (29.10.2004), but we guess the birds of this species perish and more, but after season of our records, as basic autumn migration of them goes from second part of October till beginning of November.

Spatial distribution of death birds The analysis of spatial distribution of killed birds shows that birds were found in the 1,2 and 4 type of site (fig. 4) and distribution of them was according to specific habitats. The most of victims were found near the edges of forests (buzzards, goshawks) and forestlines (owls).

% 70,0 60,0 50,0 40,0 30,0 20,0 10,0 0,0 IV

* â îòäåëüíûõ ñëó÷àÿõ çîíà âëèÿíèÿ òîãî èëè èíîãî òèïà ìåñòîîáèòàíèé ïòèö óâåëè÷èâàëàñü äî 1000 ì ñ ó÷åòîì îñîáåííîñòåé èõ âçàèìîðàñïîëîæåíèÿ è âçàèìíîãî âëèÿíèÿ (íàïðèìåð, ïðè íåçíà÷èòåëüíîì óäàëåíèè ãðàíèö ñîñåäíèõ íàñåëåííûõ ïóíêòîâ).

V

VI VII VIII Ìåñÿöû Months

IX

X

Ðèñ. 2. Ñåçîííàÿ äèíàìèêà ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö â ëåòíå-îñåííèé ïåðèîä, n=74 Fig. 2. The season dynamics of killed raptors by electrocutions in summer-autumn period, n=74


Raptors Conservation

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2

Ïóñòåëüãà Kestrel Ïåðåïåëÿòíèê Sparrowhawk Òåòåðåâÿòíèê Goshawk Çèìíÿê Rough-Legged Buzzard

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Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà Long-Eared Owl Áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà Short-Eared Owl Ñåðàÿ íåÿñûòü Tawny Owl Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü Ural Owl

Êàíþê Buzzard Ðèñ. 3. Ñîîòíîøåíèå ÷èñëà ïîãèáøèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö ðàçëè÷íûõ âèäîâ ïðè êîíòàêòå ñ ÂË 6-10 ê â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (2001-2004 ãã.) n=74, % Fig. 3. Numbers of killed raptors by electrocutions on the PL 6-10 kV in the Nizhniy Novgorod District (2001-2004), n=74, %

Õàðàêòåð ïîðàæåíèÿ ïòèö ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì Èç 74 îáíàðóæåííûõ ïîãèáøèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö òîëüêî 1 (1,35%) – ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus) – îáíàðóæåíà ïîä àíêåðíîé äåðåâÿííîé îïîðîé. Îñòàëüíûå 98,65% – ïîä æåëåçîáåòîííûìè îïîðàìè ñî øòûðåâûìè èçîëÿòîðàìè òèïà ØԖ20Ã, ØԖ10Ã, Øі10Ã. Ãèáåëü ïòèö âî âñåõ ñëó÷àÿõ ëîêàëèçîâàíà â îáëàñòè îãîëîâêà ñ èçîëÿòîðàìè (çàìûêàíèå ìåæäó òîêîíåñóùèì ïðîâîäîì è çàçåìëåííîé òðàâåðñîé). Âî âñåõ ñëó÷àÿõ, êîãäà îñòàíêè ïòèöû íàõîäèëèñü íà çíà÷èòåëüíîì ðàññòîÿíèè îò áëèæàéøåé îïîðû (5–15 ì), óäàâàëîñü óñòàíîâèòü, ÷òî ýòî ïåðåìåùåíèå ñâÿçàíî ñ ðàñòàñêèâàíèåì òóøåê íàçåìíûìè æèâîòíûìè – ïî îñòàòêàì îïåðåíèÿ â ìåñòå ïåðâîíà÷àëüíîãî ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ óïàâøåé ïòèöû. Ãèáåëü ïòèö â ðåçóëüòàòå ñòîëêíîâåíèÿ ñ ïðîâîäàìè ÂË íå îòìå÷åíà.  ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ (ó ñîâ ÷àùå, ÷åì ó äíåâíûõ õèùíèêîâ) îòìå÷åíû ñëåäû îæîãîâ íà ëàïàõ. Èíîãäà, â ðåçóëüòàòå êîíâóëüñèâíîãî ñæàòèÿ ïàëüöåâ â ìîìåíò ýëåêòðè÷åñêîãî çàìûêàíèÿ, ïðîèñõîäèò «çàâèñàíèå» ïòèöû íà ïðîâîäå è ïîñòåïåííîå ñìåùåíèå åå â ñòîðîíó ñîñåäíåé îïîðû (ñåðàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix aluco), óøàñòàÿ ñîâà (Asio otus)).

Âèäîâîé ñîñòàâ è ÷èñëåííîñòü ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö Ãèáåëü â ðåçóëüòàòå êîíòàêòà ñ ëèíèÿìè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è îòìå÷åíà äëÿ 9 âèäîâ

Îæîãè íà ëàïàõ äëèííîõâîñòîé íåÿñûòè (Strix uralensis), ïîãèáøåé íà ËÝÏ. Ôîòî À. Ìàöûíû Burns on the paws of Ural Owl (Strix uralensis). Photo by A. Matsina

The estimation of expected number of birds perishing on PL 6–10 kV The expected number of raptors death on the PL 6–10 kV in the Nizhniy Novgorod District was made by method of the direct extrapolation of established average frequency of surveyed birds to the total length of PL 6–10 kV. The extrapolation was made according to coefficient (increasing) of recovery. We take it as 2.5. Most vulnerable are Buzzard and Kestrel. The numbers of deaths from electrocutions among these species are compared with their numbers in the pre-breeding season for this territory. Even if our data far from absolute and the part of perished birds is migrants and breed out of our region we can conclude that it is extremely high dangerous for birds to use the ferro-concrete poles for power lines with voltage 6–10 kV in our district. Annual deaths of young Buzzards and Kestrels can progress to 50%. Certainly in the modern conditions there is the great limiting factor for these populations to achieve the ecological optimum.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Äîëÿ 0,25

Òèï 4 Êàíþê Buzzard

0,20

Òåòåðåâÿòíèê Goshawk

90%

Ïóñòåëüãà Kestrel

80%

0,15

Òèï 2

Òèï 1

100%

70% 60% 50%

0,10

40% 30%

0,05

20% 10% 0%

0,00 2002

2003

2004

Ãîäû Years Ðèñ. 4. Äèíàìèêà ÷àñòîòû âñòðå÷àåìîñòè õèùíûõ ïòèö, ïîãèáøèõ ïðè êîíòàêòå ñ ÂË 6–10 êÂ, 2002–2004 ãã., ïòèö/êì ÂË Fig. 4. Numbers of killed raptors by electrocutions on the power lines 6–10 kV, in 2002–2004, birds/km of PL

ßñòðåá òåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentilis), ïîãèáøèé íà ËÝÏ. Ôîòî À. Ìàöûíû Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) killed by electrocutions. Photo by A. Matsina

Êñòîâñêèé ðàéîí Ïî âñåì ðàéîíàì Áîãîðîäñêèé All regions ðàéîí Bogorodsk Kstovo region region

Àðçàìàññêèé ðàéîí Arzamas region

Ðèñ. 5. Áèîòîïè÷åñêîå ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ïòèö, ïîðàæåííûõ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì ÂË 6–10 êÂ, â íåêîòîðûõ ðàéîíàõ Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 2004 ãîäó, % Fig. 5. Spatial distribution of killed birds by electrocutions on the PL 6–10 kV in the several regions of Nizhniy Novgorod District in 2004, %

õèùíûõ ïòèö (òàáë. 1), ñóììàðíî ñîñòàâëÿþùèõ 23% îò îáùåãî ÷èñëà âèäîâ äíåâíûõ (27) è íî÷íûõ (12) õèùíèêîâ, îòìå÷åííûõ äëÿ Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (Áàêêà, Êèñåëåâà 2001). Áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü èç íèõ, çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì çèìíÿêà (Buteo lagopus), âñòðå÷àþùåãîñÿ òîëüêî âî âðåìÿ ñåçîííûõ ìèãðàöèé, îòíîñÿòñÿ ê îáû÷íûì ãíåçäÿùèìñÿ âèäàì è ðàñïðîñòðàíåíû ïî âñåé òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè.  îñíîâíîì (86,5 %) ýòî äíåâíûå õèùíèêè, ñðåäè êîòîðûõ äîìèíèðóþò êàíþê (Buteo buteo) (47,3%) è ïóñòåëüãà (29,7%), ñîñòàâëÿþùèå òðè ÷åòâåðòè â îáùåì îáúåìå ãèáåëè (ðèñ. 3). Ýòè âèäû åæåãîäíî âñòðå÷àþòñÿ íà ó÷åòàõ. Äëÿ íèõ áûëà îòìå÷åíà õàðàêòåðíàÿ îñîáåííîñòü, ÷òî, êàê ïðàâèëî, íà íåêîòîðûõ ìàðøðóòàõ ÷àùå íàõîäèëè ñðàçó 2–3 (äî 9) ïîãèáøèõ ïòèöû, è ðåäêî 1 íà ìàðøðóò (òàáë. 2). Ñ îäíîé ñòîðîíû ýòî ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñëåäñòâèåì îñî-

áîé ïðèâëåêàòåëüíîñòè îòäåëüíûõ áèîòîïîâ äëÿ äàííûõ âèäîâ, íî òàêæå ñâÿçàíî ñ ðàñïîëîæåíèåì â çîíå ÂË ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, íà êîòîðûõ ìîëîäûå íåîïûòíûå ïòèöû ïîãèáàþò íåïîñðåäñòâåííî ïîñëå âûëåòà.  ïîëüçó ýòîãî ãîâîðèò è òî, ÷òî, èñõîäÿ èç ñîñòîÿíèÿ îñòàíêîâ ïòèö, îñíîâíîå âðåìÿ ãèáåëè îòíîñèòñÿ ê èþëþ è ïåðâîé ïîëîâèíå àâãóñòà – ïåðèîäó âûëåòà ìîëîäûõ è íà÷àëó ïîñëåãíåçäîâûõ êî÷åâîê (ðèñ. 2). ßñòðåá òåòåðåâÿòíèê (Accipiter gentilis) âñòðå÷àåòñÿ ñðåäè ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö çíà÷èòåëüíî ðåæå. Òåì íå ìåíåå, îí âõîäèò â òðîéêó íàèáîëåå óÿçâèìûõ âèäîâ (ðèñ. 3). Íåñìîòðÿ íà òî, ÷òî âñå ïÿòü íàéäåííûõ íàìè òåòåðåâÿòíèêîâ áûëè ìîëîäûìè, èõ ãèáåëü ïðîèçîøëà â ïåðèîä ñ ñåðåäèíû ëåòà äî êîíöà îêòÿáðÿ. Ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî â îñíîâíîì ýòî áûëè êî÷óþùèå ïòèöû. ßñòðåá ïåðåïåëÿòíèê (Accipiter nisus) îáíàðóæåí íà ÂË ëèøü îäíàæäû. Âîçìîæíî, ÷òî ïðè óâåëè÷åíèè ïðîòÿæåííîñòè ó÷åòîâ íà ó÷àñòêàõ ÂË, ðàñïîëîæåííûõ â 3 òèïå áèîòîïîâ (ëåñíûõ ìàññèâàõ, ëåñîïàðêîâûõ çîíàõ è ïð.), áûëî áû çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî áîëüøå ñëó÷àåâ ïîðàæåíèÿ ïòèö ýòîãî âèäà ïðè êîíòàêòå ñ ËÝÏ. Íåñìîòðÿ íà òî, ÷òî íàìè íàéäåí òîëüêî îäèí ïîãèáøèé çèìíÿê (29.10.04 – ñîâñåì ñâåæàÿ òóøêà), ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî ãèáåëü ýòîãî âèäà ïðîèñõîäèò çíà÷èòåëüíî ÷àùå.  ïåðèîä åãî íàèáîëåå àêòèâíîé îñåííåé ìèãðàöèè, êîòîðûé â èññëåäóåìîì ðåãèîíå îáû÷íî íàáëþäàåòñÿ âî âòîðîé ïîëîâèíå îêòÿáðÿ – íà÷àëå íîÿáðÿ, âîçìîæíà ãèáåëü ÷àñòè ïðîëåòíûõ ïòèö íà ÂË


Raptors Conservation Ðèñ. 6. Ñîîòíîøåíèå ÷àñòîòû ãèáåëè ïðè êîíòàêòå ñ ÂË 6-10 ê ñðåäè ðàçëè÷íûõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö â Áîãîðîäñêîì ðàéîíå Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, n=13, %

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 Áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà Short-eared owl 15%

Ïóñòåëüãà Kestrel 46%

Fig. 6. Numbers of killed raptors by electrocutions on the PL 6-10 kV in the Bogorodsk region of the Nizhniy Novgorod District, n=13, %

Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü Ural owl 8% Êàíþê Buzzard 23%

Òåòåðåâÿòíèê Goshawk 8%

Ðèñ. 7. Ñîîòíîøåíèå ÷àñòîòû ãèáåëè ïðè êîíòàêòå ñ ÂË 6-10 ê ñðåäè ðàçëè÷íûõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö â Êñòîâñêîì ðàéîíå Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, n=4, %

Ïóñòåëüãà Kestrel 25%

Êàíþê Buzzard 50%

Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà Long-eared owl 25%

Ðèñ. 8. Ñîîòíîøåíèå ÷àñòîòû ãèáåëè ïðè êîíòàêòå ñ ÂË 6-10 ê ñðåäè ðàçëè÷íûõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö â Àðçàìàññêîì ðàéîíå Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, n=20, %

Çèìíÿê Rough-Legged Buzzard 5% Òåòåðåâÿòíèê

Êàíþê Buzzard 50%

Goshawk 5% Ïóñòåëüãà Kestrel 25%

Fig. 8. Numbers of killed raptors by electrocutions on the PL 6-10 kV in the Arzamas region of the Nizhniy Novgorod District, n=20, %

Áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà Short-Eared Owl Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü 5% Ural Owl 10%

Ðèñ. 9. Îòíîñèòåëüíàÿ âñòðå÷àåìîñòü ïîãèáøèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ìàðøðóòàõ â ðàçëè÷íûõ ðàéîíàõ Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, % îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà ìàðøðóòîâ 2004 ã. Fig. 9. Proportion of numbers of killed raptors by electrocutions in the different regions of the Nizhniy Novgorod District from the total numbers of routes in 2004, %

30

30

30

25 20 15

20 15

15 10

10 5

2

4

10

6 6

Êàíþê Buzzard Çèìíÿê Rough-Legged Buzzard Òåòåðåâÿòíèê Goshawk Ïóñòåëüãà Kestrel Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà Long-Eared Owl Áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà Short-Eared Owl Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü Ural Owl 14 12 10 10 6 6

2

5 5

5

0 Ïî âñåì ðàéîíàì All regions

6–10 êÂ, îäíàêî îíè ïðîñòî ìîãëè íå ïîïàñòü â ó÷åòû, çàêîí÷èâøèåñÿ ðàíüøå. Ñðåäè ñîâ ãèáåëü íà ÂË 6–10 ê îòìå÷åíà äëÿ ÷åòûðåõ âèäîâ. Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà, áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà (Asio flammeus) è äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix uralensis) ïðåäñòàâëåíû îäèíàêîâûì ÷èñëîì âñòðå÷. Ðåæå äðóãèõ ñòðàäàåò ñåðàÿ íåÿñûòü. Èçìåíåíèå ÷àñòîòû âñòðå÷àåìîñòè ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö â ðàçíûå ãîäû ïîêàçàíî äëÿ äîìèíèðóþùèõ âèäîâ (ðèñ. 4). Ó÷èòûâàÿ èõ âûñîêóþ êîíñåðâàòèâíîñòü â âûáîðå ãíåçäîâûõ ñòàöèé è ñòàáèëüíóþ ñòðóêòóðó ÂË 6–10 êÂ, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî ïîëó÷åííûå ðåçóëüòàòû â öåëîì õàðàêòåðèçóþò äèíàìèêó ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäîâ â ïîñëåãíåçäîâîé ïåðèîä ýòèõ ñåçîíîâ.

Áèîòîïè÷åñêîå ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö

Fig. 7. Numbers of killed raptors by electrocutions on the PL 6-10 kV in the Kstovo region of the Nizhniy Novgorod District, n=4, %

35

39

Áîãîðîäñêèé ðàéîí Bogorodsk region

Êñòîâñêèé ðàéîí Kstovo region

Àðçàìàññêèé ðàéîí Arzamas region

Ïðè àíàëèçå áèîòîïè÷åñêîãî ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü, ÷òî îíè áûëè íàéäåíû òîëüêî â 1,2 è 4 òèïå áèîòîïîâ (ðèñ. 4), è èõ âèäîâîå ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ñîîòâåòñòâóåò õàðàêòåðíûì ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿì. Ïðåîáëàäàþùåå ÷èñëî æåðòâ îáíàðóæåíî íà ÂË, ïðîõîäÿùèõ âáëèçè îïóøåê (çäåñü ïðåîáëàäàåò êàíþê, òåòåðåâÿòíèê) è ëåñîïîëîñ (ñîâû). Íà îòêðûòûõ ó÷àñòêàõ îáû÷íà ïóñòåëüãà. Îäíàêî, ðàññìîòðåâ áèîòîïè÷åñêîå ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö íà ïðèìåðå òðåõ ðàçëè÷íûõ ðàéîíîâ, ìîæíî óâèäåòü, ÷òî îíî íåîäíîðîäíî (ðèñ. 5) è îïðåäåëÿåòñÿ ðÿäîì ôàêòîðîâ. Îñíîâíûå èç íèõ – ñòàöèàëüíàÿ ïðèóðî÷åííîñòü ÂË è êîíöåíòðàöèÿ êîíòàêòèðóþùèõ ñ íèìè ïòèö. Îáà ïàðàìåòðà èìåþò îòíîøåíèå ê ñòåïåíè àíòðîïîãåííîé îñâîåííîñòè òåððèòîðèè, íî ñ ïðîòèâîïîëîæíûìè çíàêàìè. Ñ ðîñòîì ïëîòíîñòè íàñåëåíèÿ è àãðîïðîìûøëåííîé íàãðóçêè ðàñòåò è ïëîòíîñòü ÂË 6– 10 êÂ, ïðè ýòîì ÷èñëåííîñòü õèùíûõ ïòèö ñíèæàåòñÿ (áåñïîêîéñòâî, äåãðàäàöèÿ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ ñòàöèé). Ýòî ìîæíî ïðîñëåäèòü ïî ÷èñëó âèäîâ è îñîáåé ïîãèáøèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö (ðèñ. 6–8), îáíàðóæåííûõ â 2004 ã. ïðè îñìîòðå ÂË íà òåððèòîðèè òðåõ ðàéîíîâ, ðàñïîëîæåííûõ â ïðàâîáåðåæüå ð. Âîëãè. Îíè îòëè÷àþòñÿ ñòåïåíüþ ëåñîïîêðûòèÿ: ìèíèìàëüíàÿ â Àðçàìàññêîì ðàéîíå (17,8%), ìàêñèìàëüíàÿ â Áîãîðîäñêîì è Êñòîâñêîì (30,4% è 33,6% ñîîòâåòñòâåííî). Ïðè ýòîì Êñòîâñêèé ðàéîí õàðàêòåðèçóåòñÿ íàèáîëåå âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ ÂË 6–10 ê íà òåððèòîðèè îáëàñòè (0,58 êì ÂË/êì2), à òàêæå ðàçâèòîé ñåòüþ àâòîäîðîã è


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

çíà÷èòåëüíîé ïðîìûøëåííîé íàãðóçêîé.  èòîãå ìû íàáëþäàåì çäåñü íèçêóþ ãèáåëü õèùíûõ, íåñìîòðÿ íà íàèáîëüøóþ ïðîòÿæåííîñòü ìàðøðóòîâ.  äðóãèõ ðàéîíàõ âèäîâîé ñîñòàâ ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö ðàçíîîáðàçíåå, è çíà÷èòåëüíî Ìåëêèå âîðîáüèíûå Passerines 10%

Âðàíîâûå Crows 83%

Õèùíûå Raptors 6% ×àéêîâûå Gulls 0% Ãîëóáèíûå Pigeons Ñîâû Owls 0% 1%

Ðèñ. 10. Ñîîòíîøåíèå ðàçëè÷íûõ ãðóïï ïòèö, ïîðàæåííûõ ýëåêòðè÷åñêèì òîêîì ÂË 6-10 ê â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, 2001-2004 ãã. Fig. 10. Numbers of different group of killed birds by electrocutions on the PL 6-10 kV in the Nizhniy Novgorod District in 2001-2004.

×àéêîâûå Gulls 0% Ãîëóáèíûå Pigeons

âûøå èõ ÷èñëåííîñòü. Ïðè ýòîì ñîîòíîøåíèå äîëåé äâóõ äîìèíèðóþùèõ âèäî⠖ êàíþêà è ïóñòåëüãè, äèàìåòðàëüíî ïðîòèâîïîëîæíû (ðèñ. 6 è 8). Ïðè óñëîâèè âûñîêîé áèîòîïè÷åñêîé îáùíîñòè ýòèõ ðàéîíîâ òàêîå ðàçëè÷èå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñëåäñòâèåì ñìåùåíèÿ ïðåîáëàäàþùåé äîëè ó÷åòíûõ ìàðøðóòîâ â ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ êàæäîãî âèäà. Íåîäíîðîäíà è îòíîñèòåëüíàÿ âñòðå÷àåìîñòü (Íîâèêîâ, 1949) âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ìàðøðóòàõ â ðàçëè÷íûõ ðàéîíàõ (ðèñ. 9).  Áîãîðîäñêîì è Àðçàìàññêîì ðàéîíàõ ñîîòíîøåíèå ýòèõ ïîêàçàòåëåé äëÿ ïóñòåëüãè îòðàæàåò è ôàêòè÷åñêóþ ÷àñòîòó âñòðå÷àåìîñòè ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö ýòîãî âèäà (0,2 è 0,11 ïòèö/êì ÂË ñîîòâåòñòâåííî). À âîò êàíþê íà ìàðøðóòàõ â Áîãîðîäñêîì ðàéîíå âñòðå÷àåòñÿ â 3 ðàçà ÷àùå, ÷åì â Àðçàìàññêîì, ãäå ôàêòè÷åñêàÿ ÷àñòîòà âñòðå÷àåìîñòè ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö çíà÷èòåëüíî âûøå (0,1 è 0,21 ïòèö/êì ÂË ñîîòâåòñòâåííî). Óìåíüøåíèå îòíîñèòåëüíîé âñòðå÷àåìîñòè âèäîâ íà ìàðøðóòàõ ïðè óâåëè÷åíèè îáùèõ îáúåìîâ ãèáåëè – ðåçóëüòàò ãèáåëè ìîëîäûõ ïòèö èç ìåñòíûõ âûâîäêîâ.

1% Ñîâû Owls 11% Âðàíîâûå Crows 10% Õèùíûå Raptors 77%

Ìåëêèå âîðîáüèíûå Passerines 1%

Ðèñ. 11. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ýêîíîìè÷åñêîãî óùåðáà, âûçâàííîãî ãèáåëüþ ïòèö ðàçëè÷íûõ ãðóïï ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè ÂË 6-10 ê â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, 2001-2004 ãã. Fig. 11. Distribution of the economic damage from deaths of the different groups of birds on the PL 6-10 kV in the Nizhniy Novgorod District, 2001-2004

Äîëÿ õèùíûõ â îáùåì îáúåìå ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ Ñðåäè îáùåãî ÷èñëà ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö (n=1023), îáíàðóæåííûõ ïðè îáñëåäîâàíèè ÂË 6–10 ê â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, õèùíûå ïòèöû çàíèìàþò òðåòüå ìåñòî (ðèñ. 10), çàìåòíî óñòóïàÿ âðàíîâûì è äðóãèì âîðîáüèíûì. Îöåíèâ ýêîíîìè÷åñêèé óùåðá, âûçûâàåìûé íåçàêîííûì óíè÷òîæåíèåì ïòèö ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè ËÝÏ, ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ñóùåñòâóþùèõ íîðìàòèâíûõ äîêóìåíòîâ (1994), ìû ïîëó÷èì ñîâåðøåííî èíóþ êàð-

Òàáë. 3. Îöåíêà ìàñøòàáîâ ñðåäíåé åæåãîäíîé ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö ïðè êîíòàêòå ñ ÂË 6-10 ê â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè Table 3. The estimation of annual deaths of raptors on the PL 6-10 kV in the Nizhniy Novgorod District

¹ Âèä Species

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9



Îæèäàåìàÿ åæåãîäíàÿ ãèáåëü ×àñòîòà âñòðå÷àåìîñòè ïòèö ñ ó÷åòîì êîýôôèöèåíòà ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö, ïòèö/êì ÂË Frequency of registrations of óòèëèçàöèè (â îñîáÿõ) / Estimated dead birds, birds/km annual numbers of dead birds (ind.)

Ïðèìåðíàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (â ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàðàõ) Approximate number of species in the N.Novgorod region (breeding pairs)

Êàíþê Buzzard Çèìíÿê Rough-Legged Buzzard Òåòåðåâÿòíèê Goshawk Ïåðåïåëÿòíèê Sparrowhawk Ïóñòåëüãà Kestrel Óøàñòàÿ ñîâà Long-Eared Owl Áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà Short-Eared Owl Ñåðàÿ íåÿñûòü Tawny Owl Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü Ural Owl

0,129 0,004 0,016 0,004 0,065 0,012 0,004 0,004 0,008

7360 230 920 230 3680 690 230 230 460

3800-4100 1200-1600 -

ÂÑÅÃÎ / Total

0,243

13800

-


Raptors Conservation

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2

Ïòèöû, ïîãèáøèå íà ËÝÏ: ñëåâà – äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü, ñïðàâà – ïóñòåëüãà (Falco tinnunculus). Ôîòî À. Ìàöûíû Berds killed by electrocutions: left – Ural Owl, right – Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Photos by A. Matsina

òèíó (ðèñ. 11). Äàæå ó÷èòûâàÿ íåñîìíåííóþ óñëîâíîñòü â îïðåäåëåíèè «öåííîñòè» òîãî èëè èíîãî âèäà, ìîæíî îòìåòèòü âåñîìóþ äîëþ õèùíûõ â ôîðìèðîâàíèè ýòîãî ïîêàçàòåëÿ.

Îöåíêà îæèäàåìûõ ìàñøòàáîâ ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö ïðè êîíòàêòå ñ ÂË 6–10 ê Îöåíêà âîçìîæíûõ ìàñøòàáîâ ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö ïðè êîíòàêòå ñ ÂË 6–10 ê â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè âûïîëíåíà ïóòåì ïðÿìîé ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè óñòàíîâëåííîé ñðåäíåé ÷àñòîòû âñòðå÷àåìîñòè ïîãèáøèõ ïòèö (òàáë. 3) íà îáùóþ ïðîòÿæåííîñòü ËÝÏ äàííîé ìîùíîñòè (22 740 êì). Ýêñòðàïîëÿöèÿ âûïîëíåíà ñ ó÷åòîì ïîïðàâî÷íîãî (ïîâûøàþùåãî) êîýôôèöèåíòà óòèëèçàöèè. Äëÿ óñëîâèé îáñëåäîâàííûõ ðàéîíîâ ýòîò êîýôôèöèåíò ïðèíÿò ðàâíûì 2,5. Íàèáîëåå óÿçâèìûìè îêàçàëèñü êàíþê è ïóñòåëüãà, äëÿ êîòîðûõ ìàñøòàáû ãèáåëè ïðè êîíòàêòå ñ ÂË âïîëíå ñîïîñòàâèìû ñ ÷èñëåííîñòüþ ýòèõ âèäîâ íàêàíóíå ãíåçäîâàíèÿ. Äàííûå î ÷èñëåííîñòè ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð äëÿ êàíþêà è ïóñòåëüãè óêàçàíû ïî ýêñïåðòíîé îöåíêå Íèæåãîðîäñêîãî îòäåëåíèÿ Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè (óñòíîå ñîîáùåíèå Áàêêè Ñ.Â.). Äàæå ïðèíèìàÿ âî âíèìàíèå òî, ÷òî èñïîëüçóåìûå äëÿ ñðàâíåíèÿ ðåçóëüòàòû íåñîìíåííî íåñêîëüêî îòëè÷àþòñÿ îò àáñîëþòíûõ äàííûõ, êîòîðûìè ìû íå ðàñïîëàãàåì, à òàêæå ó÷èòûâàÿ, ÷òî ÷àñòü ïî-

41

ãèáøèõ ïòèö ïðåäñòàâëåíà ìèãðèðóþùèìè îñîáÿìè, ãíåçäÿùèìèñÿ çà ïðåäåëàìè èçó÷àåìîãî ðåãèîíà, ìîæíî êîíñòàòèðîâàòü êðàéíå âûñîêóþ îïàñíîñòü ýêñïëóàòèðóåìûõ ÂË 6–10 ê ñ æåëåçîáåòîííûìè îïîðàìè â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü èìåííî äëÿ ýòèõ âèäîâ. Èñõîäÿ èç ïîëó÷åííûõ çíà÷åíèé, åæåãîäíàÿ ãèáåëü ìîëîäûõ êàíþêîâ è ïóñòåëüã â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè ìîæåò äîñòèãàòü 50% è áîëåå. Íåñîìíåííî, â ñîâðåìåííûõ óñëîâèÿõ ýòî ñåðüåçíûé óãíåòàþùèé ôàêòîð, áëàãîäàðÿ êîòîðîìó ïîïóëÿöèè ýòèõ âèäîâ íå äîñòèãàåò ñâîåãî ýêîëîãè÷åñêîãî îïòèìóìà. Î÷åâèäíî, òàêàÿ æå ñèòóàöèÿ ñóùåñòâóåò è â äðóãèõ ÷àñòÿõ ãíåçäîâîãî àðåàëà êàíþêà è ïóñòåëüãè â ïðåäåëàõ ëåñíîé è ëåñîñòåïíîé çîí Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè, õàðàêòåðèçóþùèõñÿ àíàëîãè÷íîé êîíöåíòðàöèé ÂË 6–10 êÂ.

Áëàãîäàðíîñòè Àâòîð âûðàæàåò èñêðåííþþ áëàãîäàðíîñòü Å. Ìàöûíå, À. Ñåäóëü, À. Êàçàðèíó, Å. Áèðþêîâîé, À. Çàìàçêèíó, Ì. Êîðîëüêîâó è ìíîãèì ýíòóçèàñòàì, ïðèíèìàâøèì àêòèâíîå ó÷àñòèå â ñáîðå è îáðàáîòêå ìàòåðèàëîâ. Ëèòåðàòóðà / List of Literature: Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Êèñåëåâà Í.Þ. Îðíèòîôàóíà Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â XX âåêå // Òðóäû Ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ïðèðîäíîãî çàïîâåäíèêà «Êåðæåíñêèé». Òîì 1. Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä. 2001. Ñ. 214–237. Çâîíîâ Á.Ì., Êðèâîíîñîâ Ã.À. Ãèáåëü õèùíûõ ïòèö íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ â Êàëìûêèè // Áèîïîâðåæäåíèÿ: Òåçèñû äîêëàäîâ 2-é Âñåñîþçíîé êîíôåðåíöèè ïî áèîïîâðåæäåíèÿì. Ãîðüêèé. 1981. Ñ. 206–207. Íîâèêîâ Ã.À. Ïîëåâûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ ýêîëîãèè íàçåìíûõ ïîçâîíî÷íûõ æèâîòíûõ. Ì., «Ñîâåòñêàÿ íàóêà». 1949. Ñ.602. Ïåðåðâà Â.È., Áëîõèí À.Î. Îöåíêà ãèáåëè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷ / / Áèîëîãè÷åñêèå àñïåêòû îõðàíû ðåäêèõ æèâîòíûõ. Ì. 1981. 36–39. Ñàëòûêîâ À.Â. Ðóêîâîäñòâî ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è 6–10 êÂ. Ìåòîäè÷åñêîå ïîñîáèå. Óëüÿíîâñê. 1999. Ñ. 43. Ñîñòîÿíèå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû è ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè â 2003 ãîäó. Åæåãîäíûé äîêëàä. 2004. Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, Èçäàòåëüñòâî Âîëãî-Âÿòñêîé àêàäåìèè ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé ñëóæáû. Ñ.232. Òàêñû äëÿ èñ÷èñëåíèÿ ðàçìåðà âçûñêàíèÿ çà óùåðá, ïðè÷èíåííûé þðèäè÷åñêèìè è ôèçè÷åñêèìè ëèöàìè íåçàêîííûì äîáûâàíèåì èëè óíè÷òîæåíèåì íàçåìíûõ ìëåêîïèòàþùèõ, ïòèö, ðåïòèëèé, àìôèáèé è íàçåìíûõ áåñïîçâîíî÷íûõ æèâîòíûõ. Ïðèëîæåíèå 1 ê ïðèêàçó Ìèíïðèðîäû Ðîññèè îò 4 ìàÿ 1994 ã. ¹ 126 // Ñáîðíèê ðóêîâîäÿùèõ äîêóìåíòîâ ïî çàïîâåäíîìó äåëó. M. 2002. Ñ. 594–595. Haas D., Nipkow M. Suggest practices for bird protection on power lines. Bonn. 2004. P. 21.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Raptors Research ÈÇÓ×ÅÍÈÅ ÏÅÐÍÀÒÛÕ ÕÈÙÍÈÊΠSaker in the North-Western Kazakhstan: results of the 2003–2004 surveys ÁÀËÎÁÀÍ Â ÇÀÏÀÄÍÎÌ ÊÀÇÀÕÑÒÀÍÅ: ÐÅÇÓËÜÒÀÒÛ ÈÑÑËÅÄÎÂÀÍÈÉ 2003–2004 ÃÃ. I.V. Karyakin (Center of Field Studies, N.Novgorod, Russia) A.S. Levin (Institute of Zoology, Kazakhstan National Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan) L.M. Novikova (Nizhniy Novgorod Branch of the Russian Birds Conservation Union, N.Novgorod, Russia) A.S. Pazhenkov (The Volga-Ural ECONET Assistance Center, Samara, Russia) È.Â. Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ) À.Ñ. Ëåâèí (Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè, Àëìàòû, Êàçàõñòàí) Ë.Ì. Íîâèêîâà (Íèæåãîðîäñêîå îòäåëåíèå Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ) À.Ñ. Ïàæåíêîâ (Öåíòð ñîäåéñòâèÿ Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòè, Ñàìàðà, Ðîññèÿ)

Ëþäìèëà Íîâèêîâà ñ ïòåíöîì áàëîáàíà (14.05.2004). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Ludmila Novikova with chick of the Saker Falcon (14.05.2004). Photo by I. Karyakin

Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) îäèí èç íàèáîëåå óãðîæàåìûõ âèäîâ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè, ïëîùàäü àðåàëà è ÷èñëåííîñòü êîòîðîãî â ïîñëåäíèå òðè äåñÿòèëåòèÿ ñîêðàùàþòñÿ áûñòðûìè òåìïàìè.  Êàçàõñòàíå äî íåäàâíåãî âðåìåíè ñèòóàöèÿ ñ âèäîì îöåíèâàëàñü êàê êðèòè÷åñêàÿ (Levin, 2001). Îäíàêî, â 2003 ã. ýêñïåäèöèåé Öåíòðà ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé â õîäå ðåàëèçàöèè «Ñòåïíîé ïðîãðàììû» ìåæäó Êàñïèéñêèì è Àðàëüñêèì ìîðÿìè áûëà âûÿâëåíà êðóïíàÿ ïîïóëÿöèÿ áàëîáàíà, ïðåäâàðèòåëüíûå îöåíêè ÷èñëåííîñòè êîòîðîé èçìåíèëè ïðåäñòàâëåíèå î ñèòóàöèè ñ âèäîì â ðåãèîíå è â Êàçàõñòàíå â öåëîì (Ôîêñ è äð., 2003).

Ëèòåðàòóðíûå äàííûå Ïåðâûå ñâåäåíèÿ îá îáèòàíèè íà Óñòþðòå áàëîáàíà, ïðè÷åì ïðåäïîëîæèòåëüíî òóðêåñòàíñêîãî ïîäâèäà (F. c. coatsi), èìåþòñÿ ó Ã.Ï. Äåìåíòüåâà (1951). Îáû÷íîé ãíåçäÿùåéñÿ ïòèöåé Ìàíãûøëàêà è Óñòþðòà ñ÷èòàë áàëîáàíà Ì.Í. Êîðåëîâ (1962). Ë.Ñ. Ñòåïàíÿí (1990) îäíîçíà÷íî óêàçûâàåò íà òî, ÷òî âñÿ òåððèòîðèÿ çîíû ïóñòûíü è ïîëó-

In 2003 an expedition by the Center of Field Studies found a large population of Sakers (Falco cherrug). Preliminary estimates of this population have changed our view on the species state in the region and in Kazakhstan in general (Fox et al. 2003). In 2004 we continued surveys started in 2003. The total length of survey routes was 3,832 km in 2003 and 5,975 km in 2004. In 2003 we set 11 study areas for long-term monitoring with total area of 2,195 km2. Three additional study areas were ‘linear’ plots along power lines in the Caspian lowlands and in the Northern Aral Sea regions totaling 316 km. In 2004 we revisited 6 study areas set in 2003, out of which 3 where totally surveyed. The surveyed study areas of 2003 together with the new 2004 study areas have a combined area of 8,163 km2. Two linear study areas set in the Emba river basin had a combined length of 135 km. In total for the two years we have surveyed 25 study plots with a total area of 9,807 km2 and 5 linear study areas of total length of 451 km. The total length of cliffs in the region measured 7,290.6 km, the lengths of the cliffs within the study areas was 2,111.6 km. We classified all groups of the cliffs into 10 categories (namely cliffs of the Shagyrai plateau, Northern face of the Usturt Plateau, Western cliff-faces of Usturt, southern


Raptors Research

Îáðûâû âïàäèíû Áàçãóðëû Êèíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîãî ïëàòî – òèïè÷íûå ìåñòà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà (13.05.2004). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Cliffs of the depression Basgurli in the KinderlyKayasan plateau – typical nesting places for the Saker Falcon (13.05.2004). Photo by I. Karyakin

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 ïóñòûíü ìåæäó Êàñïèéñêèì è Àðàëüñêèì ìîðÿìè ê ñåâåðó äî Ìàíãûøëàêà è Óñòþðòà ëåæèò â àðåàëå òóðêåñòàíñêîãî áàëîáàíà, à ñåâåðíåå Óñòþðòà è íèçîâüåâ Òóðãàÿ ðàñïðîñòðàíåí áàëîáàí íîìèíàëüíîãî ïîäâèäà (F. c. cherrug). Åñëè ñèòóàöèÿ ñ ïîäâèäîâîé ïðèíàäëåæíîñòüþ áàëîáàíà â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå â ëèòåðàòóðå äîñòàòî÷íà ÿñíà, òî äåòàëè åãî ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ è äàííûå î ÷èñëåííîñòè ïðàêòè÷åñêè îòñóòñòâóþò, êàê ñîáñòâåííî è ôàêòû íàõîæäåíèÿ ãíåçä. Èìååòñÿ ëèøü îáùàÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ î ãíåçäîâàíèè áàëîáàíà â Óñòþðòñêîì çàïîâåäíèêå (Êîâøàðü, 1990; Êîâøàðü, Äÿêèí, 1999). Ñêóäíà èíôîðìàöèÿ è î âñòðå÷àõ ïòèö: Á.Ì. Ãóáèí (2002, 2004) íàáëþäàë 9 îñîáåé è 2 ïàðû áàëîáàíîâ â ïåðèîä ñ 23 èþëÿ ïî 14 îêòÿáðÿ 2002 ã. íà Ìàíãûøëàêå è ÷èíêàõ Óñòþðòà, à 24, 26 è 28 ìàÿ 2003 ã. íà ðàâíèíàõ Ìàíãûøëàêà èì áûëè âñòðå÷åíû 3 îäèíî÷íûå ïòèöû. 19 áàëîáàíîâ áûëè âñòðå÷åíû ñ 30 îêòÿáðÿ ïî 20 íîÿáðÿ 2002 ã. Ê.Í. Ïëàõîâûì (2002) íà ïðîòÿæåíèè 461 êì ó÷åòíûõ ìàðøðóòîâ ïî Ìàíãûøëàêó è Çàïàäíîìó ÷èíêó Óñòþðòà. Çà 3 äíÿ ïðåáûâàíèÿ â áàññåéíå Ýìáû (12– 14 èþíÿ 2003 ã.) ó÷àñòíèêè ñîâìåñòíîé ðîññèéñêî-êàçàõñòàíñêîé ýêñïåäèöèè âñòðåòèëè îäíó ñâåòëóþ ëèíÿþùóþ ïòèöó íà îïîðå ËÝÏ â ðàéîíå ïîñ. Ìèõàéëîâêà (Êîâøàðü, Äàâûãîðà, 2004).

Ìåòîäèêà Ðåãèîí, ðàññìàòðèâàåìûé â äàííîé ñòàòüå, çàíèìàåò îáøèðíóþ òåððèòîðèþ â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå (â àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûõ ãðàíèöàõ ãîñóäàðñòâà) ìåæäó Êàñïèéñêèì è Àðàëüñêèì ìîðÿìè ïëîùàäüþ 250,0 òûñ. êì2 (ðèñ.1) è ëåæèò ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â çîíå ïîëóïóñòûíü.

43

(chalky) cliffs of the Usturt Plateau, Karatup peninsula cliffs, chalky cliffs of the Aktau range, Aral cliff-face of the Usturt, Mangushlak peninsula cliffs, cliffs of the depressions in the Kinderly-Kayasan plateau (Karagie, Kaundy, Barsguly, Zhazguly), northern-eastern cliff-face of the Kinderly-Kayasan plateau, cliff-faces of Kolenkely and Zheltau. The study areas were set so as to cover all cliff types in the region. Extrapolation of the Saker numbers was made using the same types of cliffs in the region. The total length of the powerlines in the region was 11,675.1 km. We consider all safe types of powerlines suitable for nesting. The lengths of such powerlines were 5,306.1 km. In total, in the season 2004, we found 255 breeding territories of Sakers, including 245 within study areas, 4 along powerlines and 6 on transit routes. We also revisited 30 breeding territories found in 2003.23 of which are located in the surveyed territories. Nesting on cliffs dominates in Kazakhstan – 98.4% out of total records. The maximum local density of Sakers was recorded in the chalky cliffs of the southern Usturt, Aktau and Kinderly-Kayzsan plateau. Here the nearest neighbor distance was 2.91±3. km (average ± SD), N=135, range 0.25 to 25.5 km. In large cliffs inter-nest distance 0.5–1 km is a norm. However such cliffs are also good habitat for other predators, which limit Sakers (Golden Eagle and Eagle Owl). Their presence was the reason for Saker absence in some cliffs. The Sakers tend to breed densely on the cliffs facing north and less densely on those facing south. The cliffs facing the Caspian Sea have low numbers of Sakers – about 2.9 pairs per 100 km, the lower the cliff, the fewer the Sakers. Cliffs lower than 10 m do not attract Sakers at all. Perhaps the high density of the Eagle Owl is to blame. For example in the chalky cliffs of the Kinderly-Kayasan plateau along the Caspian (68.4 km) we located 2 Saker breeding territories and 14 Eagle Owl territories. At the time we did not put much effort into locating all Eagle Owl territories, so its numbers are severely underestimated. On similar cliffs of the Kinderly-Kayasan Plateau (39.1 km), 85 km away from the sea, we found 18 Saker territories (13 occupied nests) and only 4 Eagle Owl territories. Another type of cliffs is made of shell-stone. The breeding density on such cliffs is lower, and their distribution is highly irregular. It appears that the reason for a lower density of Sakers in such places is a corresponding high density of other raptors,


44

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Ðèñ. 1. Ðàñïîëîæåíèå ó÷åòíûõ ìàðøðóòîâ (A) è ïëîùàäîê (B – 2003 ã., Ñ – 2004 ã.); D – îáðûâû, E – ãðàíèöû ãîñóäàðñòâ Fig. 1. Plots (B – 2003, C – 2004) and routes (A); D – cliffs, E –borders of countries

Àíàòîëèé Ëåâèí íàáëþäàåò çà ãíåçäîì áàëîáàíà (06.05.2004). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Anatoliy Levin observes a nest of the Saker (06.05.2004). Photo by I. Karyakin

Äàííàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ îáñëåäîâàëàñü â àïðåëå 2003 ã. è â àïðåëå-ìàå 2004 ã. â ðàìêàõ «Ñòåïíîé ïðîãðàììû» Öåíòðà ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé è Öåíòðà ñîäåéñòâèÿ «Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòè» (Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ñàìàðà; Ðîññèÿ) è ïðîåêòà «Áàëîáàí â Ðîññèè è Êàçàõñòàíå» Èíñòèòóòà èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ (Falcon Research Institute, Carmarthen; UK). Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæåííîñòü ýêñïåäèöèîííûõ ìàðøðóòîâ ñîñòàâèëà 9807 êì (3832 êì – â 2003 ã. è 5975 êì – â 2004 ã.).  2003 ã. óäàëîñü îáñëåäîâàòü 11 ïëîùàäîê îáùåé ïëîùàäüþ 2194,95 êì2. Òàêæå áûëî çàëîæåíî 3 ëèíåéíûõ ó÷åòíûõ ìàðøðóòà âäîëü ËÝÏ â Ïðèêàñïèéñêîé íèçìåííîñòè, ñåâåðíåå Àðàëüñêîãî ìîðÿ, è â çàïàäíîé ÷àñòè ïëàòî Óñòþðò ïðîòÿæåííîñòüþ 316,45 êì (90,74; 182,13 è 43,58 êì).  2004 ã. ïîñåùàëîñü 6 ïëîùàäîê ïðîøëîãî ãîäà, 3 èç êîòîðûõ áûëè ïîëíîñòüþ îá-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ as well as a lack of vertical cliff-faces. The density of Sakers in shell-stone cliffs varied from 3.7 to 20.2 pairs per 100 km, with average 14.6 pairs/100km of cliffs. Cliffs of the depressions in the Kinderly-Kayasan plateau is an exception: the height of cliffs exceeds 25 m. In such cliffs the density reaches 44.2 pairs per 100 km, but the length of such cliffs is limited, hence the density is high. Clay precipices of the Northern Usturt, Shagurai and Karatup have even lower density of Sakers, varying from 1.5 to 5.6 pairs/ 100 km of cliff-faces. An exception amongst clay cliffs is the ones at the Aral Sea depression (eastern cliff of the Usturt, Karatup). Here the clays are high (up to 50 m), very dense and form many niches. Hence the density here is higher (15.6–23.0 pairs/100 km) and the nearest neighbour’s distance is 4.85±2.1 km (range 2.1–8.1 km; N=8). On average the Saker density in the cliff-faces of the Usturt Plateau is 14 pairs per 100 km with the average inter-nest distance of 3.9±5.15 (0.25–51.3; N=259) km. The total numbers of Sakers in the cliffs of this region is estimated as 1,021–1,216 pairs (estimated average 1,119 pairs). The largest nesting groups of the Sakers are in the Usturt plateau (extrapolated as 626 pairs), and Kinderly-Kayasan Plateau (307 pairs), where the breeding density varied between 13.2 to 24.1 paris/100 km. The surveys of the 2004 field season and GIS approaches based on cliff length corrected our estimation for 2003 (545 pairs for Usturt and 685 pairs for entire Kazakhstan (Karyakin 2004a) into the projected figure of 1,165 pairs for Kazakhstan. Besides clifffaces, the Sakers also nest on pinnacles and in ravines. The first is rare and sparse, and has negligible influence on the extrapola-


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2

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Òàáë. 1. ×èñëåííîñòü è ïëîòíîñòü áàëîáàíà íà îáðûâàõ ó÷åòíûõ ïëîùàäîê. Íóìåðàöèÿ ïëîùàäîê ñîîòâåòñòâóåò ðèñ. 1. Table 1. Number and density of the Saker Falcon on cliffs on the plots. Numbers of the plots are similar ones in the Fig.1.



Âñåãî â ðåãèîíå Total

7

80,79

3

3,7

1 2 4 5 6 11

80,79

3

3,7

27,36 59,73 72,39 34,66 55,61 249,75

4 11 6 4 7 32

14,6 18,4 8,3 11,5 12,6 12,8

30,38

7

23,0

380,42

39

10,25

ñëåäîâàíû. Âñåãî çà ãîä áûëî îñìîòðåíî 18 ïëîùàäîê (ñ ó÷åòîì íîâûõ) îáùåé ïëîùàäüþ 8162,70 êì2 è çàëîæåíî 2 ëèíåéíûõ ó÷åòíûõ ìàðøðóòà âäîëü ËÝÏ â áàññåéíå ð. Ýìáû ïðîòÿæåííîñòüþ 134,69 êì (56,66 è 78,03 êì). Òàêèì îáðàçîì, çà 2 ãîäà áûëî îáñëåäîâàíî 25 íå ïåðåêðûâàþùèõñÿ ó÷åòíûõ ïëîùàäîê ïëîùàäüþ 9806,74 êì2 è çàëîæåíî 5 ëèíåéíûõ ó÷åòíûõ ìàðøðóòîâ âäîëü ËÝÏ ïðîòÿæåííîñòüþ 451,14 êì (ðèñ. 1). Ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè áàëîáàíà âûÿâëÿëèñü â õîäå àâòîìîáèëüíûõ è ïåøèõ ìàðøðóòîâ,

Áàëîáàí Saker Ïàð/100 êì Density (pairs/100km)

12,2 8,7 12,7 11,3

16

167,17 167,17

27 27

16,2 16,2

24,61 34,64 167,17 226,42

3 3 27 33

12,2 8,7 16,2 14,6

15

153,67 153,67

7 7

4,6 4,6

80,79 153,67 234,46

3 7 10

3,7 4,6 4,3

12 14

327,63 158,46

54 29

16,5 18,3

486,09

83

17,1

327,63 158,46 72,39 34,66 55,61 648,75

54 29 6 4 7 100

16,5 18,3 8,3 11,5 12,6 15,4

30,38

7

23,0

Ïàðû Pairs

Ïàð/100 êì Density (pairs/100km)

3 3 6 12

Ó÷åòíûå ïëîùàäêè Plots

Ïàðû Pairs

24,61 34,64 47,34 59,25

Áàëîáàí Saker

Ïàðû Pairs

Þæíûé Óñòþðò è Àêòàó Southern Usturt Plateau and Aktau range Àðàëüñêèé ÷èíê ïëàòî Óñòþðò Aral cliff-face of the Usturt Ïîëóîñòðîâ Êàðàòóï Karatup peninsula cliffs Ïëàòî Øàãûðàé Shagyrai Plateau cliffs Ïîëóîñòðîâ Ìàíãûøëàê Mangushlak peninsula cliffs ×èíêè âïàäèí Êèíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîãî ïëàòî (Êàðàãèå, Êàóíäû, Áàñãóðëû, Æàçãóðëû) Cliffs of the depressions in the KinderlyKayasan Plateau (Karagie, Kaundy, Basgurly, Zhazgurly) Âïàäèíû Êèíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîãî ïëàòî Depressions in the Kinderly-Kayasan Plateau Ñåâåðî-âîñòî÷íûé ÷èíê Êèíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîãî ïëàòî Northern-eastern cliff-face of the KinderlyKayasan Plateau Ñåâ.-âîñò. Êèíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîãî ïëàòî NE Kinderly-Kayasan Plateau Êàñïèéñêèé ÷èíê Cliffs of the Caspian seaside Îáðûâû Êîëåíêåëè è Æåëüòàó Cliff-faces of Kolenkely and Zheltau

10 9 8

Âñåãî çà 2 ãîäà Total Ïðîòÿæåííîñòü îáðûâîâ (êì) Length of cliffs (km)

Çàïàäíûé Óñòþðò Western Usturt Plateau Ìåëîâîé ÷èíê ïëàòî Óñòþðò è ìåëîâûå îáðûâû Àêòàó Southern (chalky) cliffs of the Usturt Plateau and chalky cliffs of the Aktau range

Ïðîòÿæåííîñòü îáðûâîâ (êì) Length of cliffs (km)

Ñåâåðíûé Óñòþðò Northern Usturt Plateau Çàïàäíûé ÷èíê ïëàòî Óñòþðò Western cliff-faces of the Usturt Plateau

Áàëîáàí Saker

Ó÷åòíûå ïëîùàäêè Plots Ñåâåðíûé ÷èíê ïëàòî Óñòþðò Northern cliff-face of the Usturt Plateau

2004

Ïàð/100 êì Density (pairs/100km)

2003

Ïðîòÿæåííîñòü îáðûâîâ (êì) Length of cliffs (km)

Ãðóïïû ÷èíêîâ Types of cliffs

18

19,24

3

15,6

19,24

3

15,6

17

38,74

3

7,7

38,74

3

7,7

13

28,91

6

20,8

28,91

6

20,8

19 21 22 23

71,72 39,63 14,52 24,9 150,77

12 10 5 11 38

16,7 25,2 34,4 44,2 25,2

71,72 39,63 14,52 24,9 150,77

12 10 5 11 38

12,7 25,2 34,4 44,2 25,2

24 25

121,95 34,22

28 8

23,0 24,4

121,95 34,22

28 8

23,0 24,0

156,17

36

23,1

156,17

36

23,1

20

68,43

2

2,9

68,43

2

2,9

26

95,95

7

7,3

95,95

7

7,3

1365,14

212

15,5 1698,22

238

14,0

tion. The latter are not marked on 1:500,000 scale maps and therefore cannot be precisely used in extrapolation. We know of 5 Saker nests and 2 breeding territories in such types of nesting habitats, thus making only 2.8% of all known nests. Thus we extrapolate a minimum of 29–34 pairs breeding outside the cliff-face systems. The powerline breeding was recorded only in the Aral Sea region in the Bolshie Barsuki sands. Here we found 4 breeding territories of Sakers on a decommissioned powerline (182 km long). We also surveyed 43.6 km


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Ñàìêà áàëîáàíà íà ãíåçäå (17.04.2004). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Female of the Saker on the nest (17.04.2004). Photo by I. Karyakin

êîòîðûå áûëè ïðîëîæåíû ïî ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûì äëÿ âèäà áèîòîïàì – ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî âäîëü îáðûâîâ ðàçëè÷íîãî òèïà è â ìåíüøåé ñòåïåíè âäîëü ËÝÏ. Ðàáîòà çàêëþ÷àëàñü â ïîèñêå ãíåçä è ðåãèñòðàöèè îõîòÿùèõñÿ ïòèö. Îáðûâû è îïîðû ËÝÏ îñìàòðèâàëèñü â áèíîêëè (8õ30, 12õ50) ñ öåëüþ îáíàðóæåíèÿ íèø è ãíåçäîâûõ ïîñòðîåê, ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà. Îáíàðóæåííûå íèøè è ãíåçäîâûå ïîñòðîéêè ñ ïðèçíàêàìè çàñåëåíèÿ èõ áàëîáàíîì òùàòåëüíî îñìàòðèâàëèñü â òðóáó 30–60õ, äëÿ âûÿñíåíèÿ çàíÿòîñòè ãíåçä.  äàííîé ðàáîòå ïîä ãíåçäîâûìè ó÷àñòêàìè ïîäðàçóìåâàþòñÿ òåððèòîðèè, íà êîòîðûõ áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ãíåçäà áàëîáàíà (ëèáî æèëûå, ëèáî ïóñòóþùèå, íî àáîíèðóåìûå ïòèöàìè) ëèáî âñòðå÷åíû âçðîñëûå ïòèöû, íåîäíîêðàòíî ïðîÿâëÿâøèå ïðèçíàêè áåñïîêîéñòâà êàê ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê ÷åëîâåêó, òàê è ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê äðóãèì õèùíûì ïòèöàì. Ê âîçìîæíûì ãíåçäîâûì ó÷àñòêàì ïðèðàâíèâàþòñÿ èþíüñêèå âñòðå÷è âçðîñëûõ

ïòèö ñ äîáû÷åé, íåîäíîêðàòíî ðåãèñòðèðîâàâøèõñÿ íà îäíîé è òîé æå òåððèòîðèè. Âûÿâëåííûå ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè áàëîáàíà êàðòèðîâàëèñü, äàííûå âíîñèëèñü â ñðåäó ÃÈÑ (ArcView 3.2a, ESRI, CA, USA), ãäå ïðîèçâîäèëñÿ ðàñ÷åò îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà (Êàðÿêèí, 2000, 2004). Íà îñíîâå ðàñòðîâûõ êàðò Ì 1:500000 è êîñìîñíèìêîâ Landsat–7 áûëè ïîäãîòîâëåíû âåêòîðíûå ñëîè îáðûâîâ è ËÝÏ, íà îáùóþ ïðîòÿæåííîñòü êîòîðûõ ïðÿìî ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàëèñü äàííûå ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíîâ, ïîëó÷åííûå íà ó÷åòíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ. Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæåííîñòü îáðûâîâ â ðåãèîíå ñîñòàâèëà 7290,60 êì, à ïðîòÿæåííîñòü îáðûâîâ íà ó÷åòíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ – 2111,56 êì. Ïî ñâîåìó ãåîãðàôè÷åñêîìó ðàñïîëîæåíèþ, à òàêæå ïî äîìèíèðîâàíèþ òîãî èëè èíîãî òèïà îáíàæåíèé (ìåëîâûå, ðàêóøå÷íèêîâûå èëè ãëèíÿíûå), âñå îáðûâû ðåãèîíà áûëè ïîäåëåíû íà 10

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ of powerlines with metal utility poles in the eastern Usturt, 134.7 km of decommissioned powerlines with concrete poles in the Emba basin and 90.7 km of active powerlines with metal poles – all lacking Sakers. However every third pole of the surveyed powerline had a nest of raptors (mostly steppe or imperial eagles, and buzzards). The extrapolated number of Sakers breeding on powerlines in the Bolshie Barsuki sands is 10–12 pairs. The Mugodzhary Mountains and Mangistau range disappointed us with their lack of sakers, the reasons for which are difficult to understand. Mugodzhary has enough food supply (sousliks) and many nests of buzzards available, but is located too far north from the main core of the Sakers population. However a lack of Sakers in Mangistau (Eastern and Western Kara-Tau), located in the center of densely populated by Sakers Mangushlak peninsula, is difficult to comprehend. We did not find any sakers here in 2003 and in 2004, despite a thorough checking of the study area of 113.8 km2. A lack of Sakers in the Mugodzhary Range means that it is possible that there is a gap between the breeding groups of the Sakers of the Caspian-Aral population and the population of the Guberlinskiy hillocks (north of the Aktubinsk District of Kazakhstan and Orenburg District of Russia), as well as the Southern Urals populations. The gap is 300 km wide and covers forestless Mugodzhary, which also lacks good cliffs, as well as southern part of the Turgay depression, thus dividing the Saker range in Western Kazakhstan into 2 comparable parts. Extrapolating surveys of Sakers in the Guberlinskiy hillocks made in the Orenburg District of Russia we estimate 40 tree-nesting and 30 cliff-nesting pairs for this ecoregion, 35 and 25 of which live in the Kazakhstan territory. It is possible to assume that the Sakers also live in the Ori basin, with the total number being not more than 10 pairs. The numbers of Sakers breeding in the steppe pine tree forest patches and deciduous tree patches along the Tobol river in Kazakhstan is 80–90 and 20–30 pairs respectively. Thus the total number of the Northern Saker population in Kazakhstan is 145–165 pairs. The total numbers of the Sakers in the Western Kazakhstan is 1204–1427 (median 1316 pairs), 88.2% of which breeds in the Caspian-Aral population and 11.8% in the Northern population. The average clutch size was 4.6±0.89 (3– 6 eggs, N=16), average brood size was 4.1±0.82 (2–6 chicks, N=77).


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2

Òàáë. 2. Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãíåçäàìè ðàçíûõ ïàð áàëîáàíîâ íà ïëîùàäêàõ Table 2. Nearest neighbor’s distances for the Saker Falcon on the plots

Íàçâàíèå ïëàòî Plateau

¹ ïëîùàäêè Plots

Þæíûé ÷èíê Óñòþðò è ìåëîâûå îáðûâû Àêòàó Southern (chalky) cliffs of the Usturt Plateau and chalky cliffs of the Aktau range Çàïàäíûé ÷èíê Óñòþðòà Western cliff-faces of the Usturt Plateau Ñåâåðíûé ÷èíê Óñòþðòà Northern cliff-face of the Usturt Plateau Àðàëüñêèé ÷èíê Óñòþðòà Aral cliff-face of the Usturt Êàðàòóï Karatup peninsula cliffs Øàãûðàé Shagyrai Plateau cliffs Ìàíãûøëàê Mangushlak peninsula cliffs Ïðèêàñïèé, Êèíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîå Cliffs of the Caspian seaside Âïàäèíû, Êèíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîå Cliffs of the depressions in the Kinderly-Kayasan Plateau Ñåâåðî-âîñòîê, ÊèíäåðëèÊàÿñàíñêîå NE cliff-face of the KinderlyKayasan Plateau Êîëåíêåëè è Æåëüòàó Cliff-faces of Kolenkely and Zheltau Âñåãî ïî ðåãèîíó Total



n

Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãíåçäàìè (êì) Nearest neighbor’s distance (km)

4

5 3,19±0,83 (2,26-4,49)

5

3

2,80±1,34 (1,3-4,0)

8

4,53±1,81 (2,5-6,9)

6 12

76 2,83±2,04 (0,25-10,5)

14 7 15

32 3,93±5,01 (0,25-25,5) 2 8,84±0,92 (8,2-9,5) 6 9,07±8,26 (1,6-22,2)

9 10 16 11

2 7,36±0,24 (7,2-7,5) 2 3,80±0,59 (3,4-4,2) 26 5,55±9,55 (0,33-51,3) 6 3,88±1,27 (2,1-5,9)

18

2

17

2 10,65±0,21 (10,5-10,8)

13

5

3,76±3,69 (0,3-8,1)

20

1

45,2

19 21 22 23 24 25 26

7,75±0,49 (7,4-8,1)

During 2 years of surveys we found 194 active nests of Sakers (73.8% of all nests) on 176 breeding territories and 49 occupied, but empty nests on 40 breeding territories. The figures of occupancy project 836–943 (856 – median) breeding pairs in an average year, total number of adults 2119–2525 individuals, 1674–1886 of which take part in breeding. In autumn the total number of Sakers reaches 5558–6401 individuals. Relatively high breeding rate appears to be a characteristic of the Southern population. The Northern population appears to be less productive. Occupancy rate is 55%, which is still higher than for Southern Russia – 41%. The average brood size in the Northern population is 2.9±0.88 young per successful nest (N=24). This gives an estimated total of 517–589 individuals at the time of brood dispersal. This paper in English has published in Falco ¹ 2421.

3,23±0,94 (2,1-5,9) 14 9 2,13±0,86 (0,87-3,4) 10 1,71±1,11 (0,55-4,4) 4 3,00±4,01 (0,75-9,0) 27 1,96±2,30 (0,42-12,5) 11 3,73±2,23 (0,6-7,6) 6

9,18±6,01 (4,5-20,8)

259 3,88±5,15 (0,25-51,3)

ãðóïï: îáðûâû ïëàòî Øàãûðàé, ñåâåðíûé ÷èíê ïëàòî Óñòþðò, çàïàäíûé ÷èíê ïëàòî Óñòþðò, þæíûé (ìåëîâîé) ÷èíê ïëàòî Óñòþðò è ìåëîâûå îáðûâû Àêòàó, Àðàëüñêèé ÷èíê ïëàòî Óñòþðò, îáðûâû ïîëóîñòðîâà Êàðàòóï, îáðûâû ïîëóîñòðîâà Ìàíãûøëàê, îáðûâû âïàäèí Êèíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîãî ïëàòî (Êàðàãèå, Êàóíäû, Áàñãóðëû, Æàçãóðëû), ñåâåðî-âîñòî÷íûé ÷èíê Êèíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîãî ïëàòî, îáðûâû Êîëåíêåëè è Æåëüòàó (òàáë. 2). Ó÷åòíûå ïëîùàäêè â 2003–2004 ãã. çàêëàäûâàëèñü òàêèì îáðàçîì, ÷òîáû ê êîíöó ïîëåâîãî ñåçîíà 2004 ã. îõâàòèòü âñå ãðóïïû îáðûâîâ â ðåãèîíå. Äàëåå, ýêñòðàïîëÿöèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà ïðîèçâîäèëàñü äëÿ êàæäîé ãðóïïû îáðûâîâ îòäåëüíî, íà îñíîâàíèè äàííûõ, ïîëó÷åííûõ íà ñîîòâåòñòâóþùèõ ïëîùàäêàõ. Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæåííîñòü ËÝÏ â ðåãèîíå 11675,11 êì, 21

47

http://www.falcons.co.uk/images/falco24.pdf

Ïòåíöû áàëîáàíà â ãíåçäå (15.05.2004). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chicks of the Saker on the nest (15.05.2004). Photo by I. Karyakin

èç íèõ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûìè äëÿ áàëîáàíà ìû ñ÷èòàëè âñå áåçîïàñíûå äëÿ ïòèö òèïû ËÝÏ, ïðîòÿæåííîñòü êîòîðûõ ñîñòàâèëà 5306,12 êì (45,4%).

Ãåîãðàôèÿ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ, ÷èñëåííîñòü Ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ íà 2004 ã. â ðåçóëüòàòå ïðîâåäåííîé ðàáîòû â ðåãèîíå âûÿâëåíî 255 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áàëîáàíà: 245 – íà ó÷åòíûõ ïëîùàäêàõ, 4 – íà ó÷åòíûõ ìàðøðóòàõ âäîëü ËÝÏ è 6 – íà òðàíçèòíûõ ìàðøðóòàõ.  2003 ã. âûÿâëåíî 60 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áàëîáàíà (56 íà ïëîùàäêàõ è 4 íà ó÷åòíûõ ìàðøðóòàõ), â 2004 ã. – 195 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ (189 – íà ïëîùàäêàõ è


48

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2 6 – íà òðàíçèòíûõ ìàðøðóòàõ). Ïîìèìî íîâûõ, â 2004 ã. ïîñåùàëèñü 30 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áàëîáàíà, âûÿâëåííûõ â 2003 ã., 23 èç êîòîðûõ íàõîäÿòñÿ íà ïîëíîñòüþ îáñëåäîâàííûõ ïëîùàäêàõ (òàáë. 1). ßäðî Êàñïèéñêî-Àðàëüñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè áàëîáàíîâ â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå ñîñòàâëÿþò íàñêàëüíîãíåçäÿùèåñÿ ïòèöû – 98,4% îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà èçâåñòíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ. Ìàêñèìàëüíûå ïîêàçàòåëè ëîêàëüíîé ïëîòíîñòè õàðàêòåðíû äëÿ ìåëîâûõ îáðûâîâ þæíîãî ÷èíêà Óñòþðòà, Àêòàó è Êèíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîãî ïëàòî. Çäåñü áàëîáàíû ãíåçäÿòñÿ (n=135) îò 0,25 äî 25,5 êì ïàðà îò ïàðû, â ñðåäíåì â 2,91±3,1 êì (çäåñü è äàëåå ñðåäíåå± SD) (òàáë. 2). Íà êðóïíûõ ìåëîâûõ ñòåíàõ ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó æèëûìè ãíåçäàìè îò 0,5 äî 1 êì ñòàíîâèòñÿ íîðìîé.  òî æå âðåìÿ íà ìåëîâûõ ñòåíàõ èççà èõ ñòðóêòóðû è ïðèâëåêàòåëüíîñòè äëÿ äðóãèõ êðóïíûõ õèùíèêîâ, âûòåñíÿþùèõ áàëîáàíà (áåðêóò, ôèëèí), ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð íåðàâíîìåðíî, è ïîêàçàòåëè ïëîòíîñòè íà áîëüøèõ ïëîùàäÿõ èçìåíÿþòñÿ îò 8,3 äî 38,5 ïàð/100 êì îáðûâîâ, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì 15,9 ïàð íà 100 êì. Èãðàþò ðîëü òàêæå ýêñïîçèöèÿ è ðàñïîëîæåíèå îáðûâîâ. Ìàêñèìàëüíàÿ ïëîòíîñòü ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãíåçä áàëîáàíîâ íàáëþäàåòñÿ íà ìåëîâûõ îáðûâàõ ñåâåðíîé ýêñïîçèöèè, à ìèíèìàëüíàÿ, ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, íà îáðûâàõ þæíîé ýêñïîçèöèè. Âûñîêàÿ ïëîòíîñòü íàáëþäàåòñÿ íà îáðûâàõ íàä ïåñêàìè è ñîðàìè.  òî æå âðåìÿ íà ïðèìîðñêèõ ìåëîâûõ îáðûâàõ áàëîáàí ãíåçäèòñÿ ñ äîâîëüíî íèçêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ (2,9 ïàð/100 êì), ïðè÷åì, ÷åì ìåíüøå âûñîòà ñòåí, òåì ìåíüøå ïëîòíîñòü áàëîáàíà. Íà ïðèìîðñêèõ îáðûâàõ ñ âûñîòîé îáíàæåíèé ìåíåå 10 ì áàëîáàí ïðàêòè÷åñêè îòñóòñòâóåò. Ñâÿçàíî ýòî íàïðÿìóþ ñ ÷èñëåííîñòüþ ôèëèíà, ãíåçäÿùåãîñÿ â òàêèõ áèîòîïàõ ñ î÷åíü âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ. Òàê, íà ìåëîâûõ îáðûâàõ Êèíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîãî ïëàòî âäîëü ïîáåðåæüÿ Êàñïèéñêîãî ìîðÿ (68,43 êì) 9–11 àïðåëÿ 2004 ã. íàìè áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 2 ó÷àñòêà áàëîáàíà (1 æèëîå ãíåçäî) è 14 ó÷àñòêîâ ôèëèíà (ïðè÷åì ôèëèíà ñïåöèàëüíî íå èñêàëè), â ñâÿçè ñ ÷åì ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü, ÷òî êàê ìèíèìóì åùå òðåòü ó÷àñòêîâ ýòîãî õèùíèêà áûëà ïðîïóùåíà. Íà àíàëîãè÷íûõ ìåëîâûõ îáðûâàõ íà ñåâåðî-âîñòîêå Êèíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîãî ïëàòî (óñòóïû Êóëàíäû, 39,11 êì), óäàëåííûõ îò ìîðÿ íà 85 êì, 14–16 àïðåëÿ 2004 ã. áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 18 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áàëîáàíà (13 æèëûõ ãíåçä) è âñåãî 4 ó÷àñòêà ôèëèíà. Òàêàÿ æå çàêîíîìåðíîñòü ðàñ-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ïðåäåëåíèÿ ãíåçä áàëîáàíà íàáëþäàåòñÿ è íà ìåëîâûõ îáðûâàõ Àêòàó. Âòîðîé òèï îáðûâîâ, ìåíåå ïëîòíî íàñåëåííûé áàëîáàíàìè ÷åì ïðåäûäóùèé – ýòî ðàêóøå÷íèêè. Êàê ïðàâèëî, âûõîäû ðàêóøå÷íèêà çàíèìàþò âåðõíþþ ÷àñòü ÷èíêà, ñêëîí êîòîðîãî ñëîæåí ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ãëèíàìè. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçä áàëîáàíà íà ðàêóøå÷íèêîâûõ îáðûâàõ, òàêæå êàê è íà ìåëîâûõ, íåðàâíîìåðíî. Îäíàêî, åñëè ïðè÷èíà íåðàâíîìåðíîãî ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ ãíåçä áàëîáàíà íà ìåëîâûõ îáðûâàõ, èìåþùèõ âûñîêóþ ãíåçäîïðèãîäíîñòü, êðîåòñÿ â âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòè íà íèõ äðóãèõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, òî íà ðàêóøå÷íèêîâûõ îáðûâàõ ñóùåñòâåííóþ ðîëü èãðàåò ÿâíûé íåäîñòàòîê êðóïíûõ îòâåñíûõ ñòåí, êîòîðûå ÿâëÿþòñÿ èçëþáëåííûìè ìåñòàìè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà. Ïëîòíîñòü ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ áàëîáàíà íà áîëüøåé ÷àñòè ðàêóøå÷íèêîâûõ îáðûâîâ âàðüèðóåò îò 3,7 äî 20,2 ïàð/100 êì, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì 14,6 ïàð/100 êì îáðûâîâ. Èñêëþ÷åíèåì ÿâëÿþòñÿ ðàêóøå÷íèêîâûå îáðûâû âïàäèí Êèíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîãî ïëàòî, êîòîðûå òÿíóòñÿ íà ìíîãèå äåñÿòêè êèëîìåòðîâ â âèäå èçðåçàííûõ óùåëüÿìè è öèðêàìè ñòåí, ïðåâûøàþùèõ âûñîòó 25 ì. Çäåñü íàáëþäàþòñÿ î÷åíü âûñîêèå ïîêàçàòåëè ïëîòíîñòè áàëîáàíà – äî 44,2 ïàð/100 êì îáðûâîâ, îäíàêî ïðîòÿæåííîñòü òàêèõ ó÷àñòêîâ îãðàíè÷åíà, ÷åì, âèäèìî, è âûçâàíà êîíöåíòðàöèÿ ñîêîëîâ. Ñ åùå ìåíüøåé ïëîòíîñòüþ áàëîáàí ãíåçäèòñÿ íà ãëèíÿíûõ îáðûâàõ, ðàñïðîñòðàíåííûõ äîâîëüíî øèðîêî â ñåâåðíîé ïîëîâèíå ðåãèîíà (Óñòþðò, Øàãûðàé, Êàðàòóï). Íèçêàÿ ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ñâÿçàíà ñ òåì, ÷òî íà ãëèíÿíûõ îáðûâàõ ïðàêòè÷åñêè îòñóòñòâóþò íèøè, à îñíîâíûì ïîñòàâùèêîì ïîñòðîåê ÿâëÿåòñÿ êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus), óñòðàèâàþùèé ãíåçäà íà îòêðûòûõ îñûïàþùèõñÿ ïîëêàõ. Êàê ñëåäñòâèå, ãíåçäà äîñòóïíû äëÿ õèùíèêîâ è íåäîëãîâå÷íû. Ïëîòíîñòü ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ áàëîáàíà íà áîëüøèíñòâå ãëèíÿíûõ îáðûâîâ âàðüèðóåò îò 1,5 äî 5,6 ïàð/100 êì. Îïÿòü-òàêè, åñòü èñêëþ÷åíèå – ãëèíÿíûå îáðûâû ïîáåðåæüÿ Àðàëüñêîãî ìîðÿ (âîñòî÷íûé ÷èíê Óñòþðòà, Êàðàòóï). Çäåñü îòâåñíûå ñòåíû îáðûâîâ äîñòèãàþò â âûñîòó 50 ì, è îíè ñëîæåíû áîëåå ïëîòíûìè ãëèíàìè, ÷òî ïîçâîëÿåò íèøàì ñîõðàíÿòüñÿ äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ. Èìåííî ïî ýòîé ïðè÷èíå íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè áàëîáàíû ãíåçäÿòñÿ ñ ïëîòíîñòüþ 15,6–23,0 ïàð/100 êì, à ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãíåçäàìè ñîñòàâëÿåò â ñðåäíåì 4,85±2,1 (2,07–8,10; n=8) êì.  ñðåäíåì ïî òåððèòîðèè ðåãèîíà ïëîòíîñòü áàëîáàíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè íà îáðû-


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 âàõ ÷èíêîâ ïëàòî ñîñòàâëÿåò 14,0 ïàð/100 êì ïðè ñðåäíåì ðàññòîÿíèè ìåæäó ãíåçäàìè 3,88±5,15 (0,25–51,30; n=259) êì. Îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ïîïóëÿöèè áàëîáàíîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà îáðûâàõ ÷èíêîâ, îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 1021–1216 ïàð, â ñðåäíåì â 1119 ïàð (òàáë. 3). Íàèáîëåå êðóïíûå ãíåçäîâûå ãðóïïèðîâêè áàëîáàíà ïðèóðî÷åíû ê ÷èíêàì ïëàòî Óñòþðò – 626 ïàð è Êèíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîãî ïëàòî – 307 ïàð, ãäå ñîêîëû íàñåëÿþò ðàçëè÷íûå òèïû îáðûâîâ ñî ñðåäíåé ïëîòíîñòüþ 13,2 è 24,1 ïàð/100 êì îáðûâîâ ñîîòâåòñòâåííî.

Ïòåíåö áàëîáàíà â ãíåçäå (19.05.2004). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chick of the Saker on the nest (19.05.2004). Photo by I. Karyakin

Äîïîëíèòåëüíûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ 2004 ã. è áîëåå êðèòè÷íûé ïîäõîä ê îöèôðîâêå êàðò â ñâåòå íîâûõ äàííûõ ïîâëèÿëè íà îöåíêó îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà, ãíåçäÿùåãîñÿ íà îáðûâàõ ÷èíêîâ â ïðåäåëàõ òåððèòîðèè Êàçàõñòàíà, ñäåëàííóþ ïî ìàòåðèàëàì 2003 ã. (545 ïàð äëÿ ïëàòî Óñòþðò è 685 ïàð äëÿ òåððèòîðèè Êàçàõñòàíà â öåëîì) (Êàðÿêèí, 2004à) â ñòîðîíó åå óâåëè÷åíèÿ â 1,7 ðàç. Ïîìèìî îáðûâîâ ÷èíêîâ ïëàòî, íà òåððèòîðèè ðåãèîíà áàëîáàí ãíåçäèòñÿ íà ñòåíàõ îñòàíöåâ è «ñàåâ» (îâðàãîâ). Ïåðâûå ÿâëÿþòñÿ òî÷å÷íûìè îáúåêòàìè, à âòîðûå íå âûðàæåíû â ìàñøòàáàõ 5-òè êèëîìåòðîâûõ êàðò, ïîýòîìó íå ïðåäñòàâëÿåòñÿ âîçìîæíûì ïðîâåñòè òî÷íóþ ýêñòðàïîëÿöèþ íà ýòè òèïû áèîòîïîâ. Íà îñòàíöàõ è â ñàÿõ íàìè áûëè îáíàðóæåíû 5 ãíåçä áàëîáàíà è 2 ó÷àñòêà òåððèòîðèàëüíûõ ïòèö, ÷òî ñîñòàâëÿåò 2,8% îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà íàñêàëüíîãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð. Ó÷èòûâàÿ ýòè öèôðû, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî êàê ìèíèìóì 29–34 ïàð ãíåçäÿòñÿ çà ïðåäåëàìè îöèôðîâàííîé ñåòè îáðûâîâ. Íà ËÝÏ áàëîáàí îáíàðóæåí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè òîëüêî â Ïðèàðàëüå íà òåððèòîðèè ïåñ÷àíîãî ìàññèâà Áîëüøèå Áàðñóêè. Çäåñü

49

â 2003 ã. âûÿâëåíî 4 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ñîêîëîâ, ïðèóðî÷åííûõ ê äåìîíòèðîâàííîé âûñîêîâîëüòíîé âåòêå ËÝÏ ñ áåòîííûìè îïîðàìè (ó÷àñòîê ïðîòÿæåííîñòüþ 182,13 êì). Êðîìå ýòîãî ó÷àñòêà íàìè áûëè îñìîòðåíû 43,58 êì äåéñòâóþùèõ ËÝÏ ñ ìåòàëëè÷åñêèìè îïîðàìè â çàïàäíîé ÷àñòè ïëàòî Óñòþðò, 134,69 êì äåìîíòèðîâàííûõ ËÝÏ ñ áåòîííûìè îïîðàìè â áàññåéíå ð. Ýìáû è 90,74 êì äåéñòâóþùèõ ËÝÏ ñ ìåòàëëè÷åñêèìè îïîðàìè íà òåððèòîðèè Ïðèêàñïèéñêîé íèçìåííîñòè ìåæäó ð. Ýìáîé è ð. Óðàëîì – áàëîáàí íèãäå áîëåå íå áûë îáíàðóæåí. Çà ïðåäåëàìè ïåñêîâ Áîë. Áàðñóêè ìû íå âñòðå÷àëè äàæå îäèíî÷íûõ áàëîáàíîâ íà ËÝÏ, íåñìîòðÿ íà òî, ÷òî ôàêòè÷åñêè íà êàæäîé òðåòüåé îïîðå îñìîòðåííûõ ËÝÏ èìåëàñü ïîñòðîéêà ïåðíàòîãî õèùíèêà (â îñíîâíîì, ñòåïíîãî îðëà Aquila nipalensis, ìîãèëüíèêà Aquila heliaca èëè êóðãàííèêà). Ó÷èòûâàÿ ýòè ôàêòû, ìîæíî îöåíèòü ÷èñëåííîñòü áàëîáàíà íà ËÝÏ òîëüêî äëÿ ïåñ÷àíîãî ìàññèâà Áîë. Áàðñóêè â 10–12 ïàð. Íå îïðàâäàëèñü íàäåæäû íà ãíåçäîâàíèå áàëîáàíà â ãîðàõ Ìàíãèñòàó è Ìóãîäæàðàõ.  Ìóãîäæàðàõ â 2004 ã. áûëè çàëîæåíû òðè ó÷åòíûõ ïëîùàäêè (571,23 êì2) â þæíîé ÷àñòè íà âîñòî÷íîì ìàêðîñêëîíå è â ñåâåðíîé ÷àñòè ãîðíî-ñòåïíîãî ìàññèâà, îäíàêî áàëîáàí çäåñü íå áûë âñòðå÷åí, êàê íå áûëî îáíàðóæåíî è ñëåäîâ åãî ïðåáûâàíèÿ. Ïðè÷èíû îòñóòñòâèÿ áàëîáàíà â Ìóãîäæàðàõ íå ñîâñåì ïîíÿòíû, ò.ê. çäåñü èìååòñÿ äîñòàòî÷íûé êîðìîâîé ðåñóðñ (æåëòûé ñóñëèê Spermofilus fulvus, ÿâëÿþùèéñÿ îäíèì èç îñíîâíûõ îáúåêòîâ ïèòàíèÿ áàëîáàíà íà áîëüøåé ÷àñòè èññëåäîâàííîé òåððèòîðèè) è ìíîãî÷èñëåííûé ãíåçäîâîé ôîíä (ïîñòðîéêè êóðãàííèêà íà ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèÿõ). Îäíàêî, ñèòóàöèÿ ñ îòñóòñòâèåì áàëîáàíà â Ìóãîäæàðàõ, ëåæàùèõ ñåâåðíåå îñíîâíîãî ÿäðà ðåãèîíàëüíîé ïîïóëÿöèè, âûãëÿäèò íå òàêîé ñòðàííîé, êàê ñèòóàöèÿ ñ ãîðàìè Ìàíãèñòàó (Çàïàîäíûé è Âîñòî÷íûé Êàðà-Òàó), êîòîðûå íàõîäÿòñÿ â öåíòðå ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè áàëîáàíà íà Ìàíãûøëàêå, è ãäå áàëîáàí òîæå îòñóòñòâóåò íà ãíåçäîâàíèè. Çäåñü îí íå áûë âñòðå÷åí íàìè íè â 2003 ã., íè â 2004 ã., íåñìîòðÿ íà òùàòåëüíîå îáñëåäîâàíèå òåððèòîðèè ïëîùàäüþ 113,68 êì2 è ïðîõîæäåíèå àâòîìàðøðóòîì âñåé ñåâåðíîé è þæíîé ïåðèôåðèè êàê Çàïàäíîãî, òàê è Âîñòî÷íîãî Êàðà-Òàó.  óùåëüÿõ Êàðà-Òàó ãíåçäÿòñÿ êóðãàííèêè è, êàê ñëåäñòâèå, èìååòñÿ õîðîøèé ãíåçäîâîé ôîíä, çäåñü âûñîêà ÷èñëåííîñòü îñíîâíûõ îáúåêòîâ äîáû÷è áàëîáàíà – æåë-


50

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Íàçâàíèå ïëàòî Plateau

Ãðóïïà ÷èíêîâ Types of cliffs

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ÏðîòÿæåíÁàëîáàí íîñòü îáðûSaker Falcon âîâ (êì) Ïàð/100 êì Âñåãî ïàð Length of Density Total pairs cliffs (km) (pairs/100 km)

Óñòþðò Usturt Plateau

Ñåâåðíûé Northern cliff-face Çàïàäíûé Western cliff-faces Ìåëîâîé Chalky cliffs Àðàëüñêèé Aral cliff-face Óñòþðò âñåãî Usturt Plateau (total)

1275,19 713,91 2509,42 96,53 4595,05

14,6 4,3 15,4 23,0

186 31 386 22 626

Êåíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîå Âïàäèíû Cliffs of the depressions Kinderly-Kayasan Plateau Ñåâåðî-âîñòîê NE cliff-face Ïðèêàñïèé Caspian cliff-face Êèíäåðëè-Êàÿñàíñêîå ïëàòî âñåãî Kinderly-Kayasan Plateau (total)

470,75 792,07 203,08 1465,90

25,2 23,1 2,9

119 183 6 307

377,15 663,46 56,47 132,59

7,7 20,8 15,6 7,3

29 138 9 10

Øàãûðàé Shagyrai Plateau cliffs Ìàíãûøëàê Mangushlak peninsula cliffs Êàðàòóï Karatup peninsula cliffs Êîëåíêåëè è Æåëüòàó Cliff-faces of Kolenkely and Zheltau  Âñåãî â ðåãèîíå Total 

Æåëòûé ñóñëèê (Spermophilus fulvus) – îäèí èç îñíîâíûõ îáúåêòîâ äîáû÷è áàëîáàíà íà Óñòþðòå (15.05.2004). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Yellow souslik (Spermophilus fulvus) – the basis of Saker diet on the Usturt plateau (15.05.2004). Photo by I. Karyakin

7290,60

òîãî ñóñëèêà è áîëüøîé ïåñ÷àíêè (Rhombomys opimus), íî áàëîáàí ïðåäïî÷èòàåò ãíåçäèòüñÿ ñ âûñîêîé ïëîòíîñòüþ (3,7–4,5 ïàð íà 100 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè, 16,5–18,3 ïàð íà 100 êì îáðûâîâ) âîêðóã ãîð Ìàíãèñòàó, âñåãî ëèøü íà ðàññòîÿíèè 5–7 êì îò íèõ.  ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ ñîêîëû çàíèìàþò íåòèïè÷íûå äëÿ äàííîé ïîïóëÿöèè áèîòîïû – ãëèíÿíûå îáðûâû ïî ñêëîíàì îâðàãîâ âûñîòîé íå áîëåå 3-õ ì âñåãî ëèøü â 2–5 êì îò ãîð, íî ïðè ýòîì â ñàìèõ ãîðàõ îòñóòñòâóþò. Ñëåäóåò çàìåòèòü, ÷òî ïî ñâîåé ãåîëîãè÷åñêîé ñòðóêòóðå ãîðû Ìàíãèñòàó è Ìóãîäæàðû äîâîëüíî ïîõîæè, è, âîçìîæíî, ïðè÷èíà îòñóòñòâèÿ íà èõ òåððèòîðèè áàëîáàíà îäíà è òà æå, êîòîðàÿ äî ñèõ ïîð îñòàåòñÿ íàì íåèçâåñòíîé. Òàê êàê áàëîáàí â Ìóãîäæàðàõ íå îáíàðóæåí, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü íàëè÷èå ðàçðûâà ìåæäó Êàñïèéñêî-Àðàëüñêîé ïîïóëÿöèåé áàëîáàíà è ãíåçäîâûìè ãðóïïèðîâêàìè, íàñåëÿþùèìè Ãóáåðëèíñêèé ìåëêîñîïî÷íèê (ñåâåð Àêòþáèíñêîé îáëàñòè Êàçàõñòàíà è òåððèòîðèÿ Îðåíáóðãñêîé îáëàñòè Ðîññèè), þæíóþ îêîíå÷íîñòü Þæíîãî Óðàëà (Ðîññèÿ) è ëåñîñòåïü Çàóðàëüÿ (×åëÿáèíñêàÿ è Êóðãàíñêàÿ îáëàñòè Ðîññèè è Êîñòàíàéñêàÿ îáëàñòü Êàçàõñòàíà) (ðèñ. 2). Ýòîò ðàçðûâ øèðèíîé 300 êì

Òàáë. 3. Îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà, ãíåçäÿùåãîñÿ íà îáðûâàõ â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå ìåæäó Êàñïèéñêèì è Àðàëüñêèì ìîðÿìè Table 3. Estimated numbers of breeding pairs of the Saker Falcon in Western Kazakhstan between the Caspian and the Aral Sea

1119

çàíèìàåò áåäíóþ ëåñîì è ïîëíîöåííûìè ñêàëüíûìè îáíàæåíèÿìè òåððèòîðèþ Ìóãîäæàð è, âîçìîæíî, þæíóþ ÷àñòü Òóðãàéñêîé ëîæáèíû è äåëèò àðåàë áàëîáàíà â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå íà äâå ÷àñòè, ïðàêòè÷åñêè ðàâíîöåííûå ïî ïëîùàäè. Ïî äàííûì ó÷åòîâ Ãóáåðëèíñêîé ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè â Îðåíáóðãñêîé îáëàñòè ÷èñëåííîñòü äðåâåñíîãíåçäÿùèõñÿ è íàñêàëüíîãíåçäÿùèõñÿ áàëîáàíîâ îöåíåíà â 40 è 30 ïàð ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, 35 è 25 ïàð èç êîòîðûõ îáèòàåò íà òåððèòîðèè Êàçàõñòàíà (Êàðÿêèí, 2004á). Òàê êàê â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ áàëîáàí íå îáíàðóæåí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â Ìóãîäæàðàõ, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü, ÷òî îáëàñòü ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ íàñêàëüíîãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïòèö îãðàíè÷åíà Ãóáåðëèíñêèì ìåëêîñîïî÷íèêîì è áàññåéíîì ð. Îðè, ãäå, ïî íàøèì îöåíêàì, âðÿä ëè ãíåçäèòñÿ áîëåå 10 ïàð.  áàññåéíå ð. Òîáîë íà òåððèòîðèè Êàçàõñòàíà ÷èñëåííîñòü áàëîáàíîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â ñòåïíûõ áîðàõ è ëèñòâåííûõ êîëêàõ, îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 80–90 è 20–30 ïàð ñîîòâåòñòâåííî (Bragin, 2001; Êàðÿêèí, 2004á). Òàêèì îáðàçîì, ÷èñëåííîñòü âñåé ñåâåðíîé ïîïóëÿöèè áàëîáàíà â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå ñ ó÷åòîì íîâûõ äàííûõ ìîæíî îöåíèòü â 145–165 ïàð. Îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü âèäà â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå ñîñòàâëÿåò 1204–1427, â ñðåäíåì 1316 ïàð. 88,2% ïàð áàëîáàíîâ ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà äîëþ Êàñïèéñêî-Àðàëüñêîé (þæíîé) ïîïóëÿöèè è 11,8% – íà äîëþ ñåâåðíîé ïîïóëÿöèè.


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 Îñíîâûâàÿñü íà èññëåäîâàíèÿõ Ë.Ñ. Ñòåïàíÿíà (1990) è íàøèõ íàáëþäåíèÿõ áàëîáàíîâ â þæíîé è ñåâåðíîé ÷àñòè Çàïàäíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà (ïðîàíàëèçèðîâàíî 57 èçîáðàæåíèé âçðîñëûõ ïòèö), ìîæíî óòâåðæäàòü, ÷òî Êàñïèéñêî-Àðàëüñêàÿ ïîïóëÿöèÿ ïðåäñòàâëåíà îñîáÿìè òóðêåñòàíñêîãî ïîäâèäà, à ñåâåðíàÿ – îñîáÿìè íîìèíàëüíîãî ïîäâèäà, àðåàëû êîòîðûõ â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ çàïàäíåå Àðàëà íå ïåðåêðûâàþòñÿ.

Îñîáåííîñòè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ

Ðèñ. 2. Êàðòà ïðåäïîëàãàåìîãî àðåàëà Áàëîáàíà â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå (öèôðàìè ïîêàçàíû îöåíêè ÷èñëåííîñòè ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð ðàçíûõ ïîïóëÿöèé) Fig. 2. Range of Sakers in NW Kazakstan (numbers show number of territorial pairs)

 2003 ã. áûëî ïðîâåðåíî 48 ãíåçä, èç íèõ 39 îêàçàëèñü æèëûìè íà ìîìåíò îáíàðóæåíèÿ (81,25%): 5 ãíåçä ñîäåðæàëè êëàäêè èç 4–5 ÿèö, â 1 ãíåçäå 24 àïðåëÿ îáíàðóæåí âûâîäîê èç 4-õ ïòåíöîâ â âîçðàñòå 1–2 äíÿ. Òàêæå îáíàðóæåíî ãíåçäî ñ ïîãèáøåé êëàäêîé èç 2-õ ÿèö.  2004 ã. áûëî íàéäåíî 155 æèëûõ ãíåçä (72,09%): â 84 ãíåçäàõ íàáëþäàëèñü âçðîñëûå ïòèöû íà êëàäêàõ èëè ïòåíöàõ, îäíàêî ñîäåðæèìîå ãíåçä ïðîâåðåíî íå áûëî èççà èõ íåäîñòóïíîñòè, 11 ãíåçä ñîäåðæàëè êëàäêè è 60 ãíåçä – âûâîäêè, êîëè÷åñòâî ÿèö è ïòåíöîâ â êîòîðûõ óäàëîñü ïîñ÷èòàòü. Íà 57 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ïóñòóþùèå ãíåçäà: â 3-õ èç íèõ îòìå÷åíà ãèáåëü ïîòîìñòâà, 36 ãíåçä ïóñòîâàëè ïî íåèçâåñòíûì ïðè÷èíàì, îäíàêî áëèç íèõ äåðæàëèñü âçðîñëûå ïòèöû, è íà 21 ãíåçäîâîì ó÷àñòêå ïòèö è ñëåäîâ èõ ïðåáûâàíèÿ ðÿäîì ñ ãíåçäàìè â ýòîì ãîäó íå çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî, õîòÿ 13 èç íèõ çàíèìàëèñü â ïðîøëîì ãîäó. 10 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áûëè ëîêàëèçîâàíû ïî âçðîñëûì ïòèöàì, îäíàêî, ïî ðàçíûì ïðè÷èíàì íà íèõ íå áûëî íàéäåíî ãíåçä ñîêîëîâ.  öåëîì, ïî èññëåäîâàííîé òåððèòîðèè çà 2 ãîäà áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 194 æèëûõ ãíåçäà (73,76% îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà îáíàðóæåííûõ ãíåçä) íà 176 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷à-

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ñòêàõ è 49 çàíÿòûõ, íî ïóñòóþùèõ ãíåçä, íà 40 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ áàëîáàíîâ. Èñõîäÿ èç ýòèõ äàííûõ è îöåíêè îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà äëÿ þæíîé ïîïóëÿöèè â 1059–1262, â ñðåäíåì 1161 ïàð, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü, ÷òî â çàâèñèìîñòè îò óñëîâèé ãíåçäîâàíèÿ è ÷èñëåííîñòè äîáû÷è, çäåñü óñïåøíî ãíåçäèòñÿ îò 837 äî 943 ïàð áàëîáàíîâ â ãîä, â ñðåäíåì 856 ïàð áàëîáàíîâ â ãîä. Îáùåå êîëè÷åñòâî âçðîñëûõ ïòèö ñîñòàâëÿåò 2119–2525 îñîáåé, èç êîòîðûõ 1674–1886 îñîáåé åæåãîäíî ïðèñòóïàþò ê ðàçìíîæåíèþ. Èç 77 æèëûõ ãíåçä, ñîäåðæèìîå êîòîðûõ óäàëîñü ïðîâåðèòü, 16 ãíåçä ñîäåðæàëè êëàäêè è 61 ãíåçäî – âûâîäêè. Ñðåäíÿÿ êëàäêà ñîñòàâèëà 4,63±0,89 (3–6) ÿèö. Ñðåäíèé âûâîäîê ñîñòàâèë 4,11±0,82 (2– 6) ïòåíöîâ. Ðàçìåð ÿèö ñîñòàâëÿåò 53,4–58,0 õ 39,2– 43,1 ìì, â ñðåäíåì 54,98±1,38 õ 42,08±1,01 (n=21). Íà îñíîâå îöåíîê ÷èñëåííîñòè è ïîêàçàòåëåé ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî ê êîíöó ìàÿ êîëè÷åñòâî áàëîáàíîâ þæíîé ïîïóëÿöèè çà ñ÷åò ìîëîäûõ óâåëè÷èâàåòñÿ äî 5558–6401 îñîáåé. Âûñîêèé óñïåõ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ þæíîé ïîïóëÿöèè, âèäèìî, ÿâëÿåòñÿ åå õàðàêòåðíîé îñîáåííîñòüþ. Íàøè èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïðîâîäèëèñü 2 ãîäà ïîäðÿä.  2003 ã. ÷èñëåííîñòü ïåñ÷àíêè, ÿâëÿâøåéñÿ òîãäà îñíîâíûì îáúåêòîì ïèòàíèÿ áîëüøèíñòâà áàëîáàíîâ, áûëà î÷åíü âûñîêîé â ãîðàõ Ìàíãèñòàó è íà þæíîì ÷èíêå Óñòþðòà, â òî æå âðåìÿ îíà ïðàêòè÷åñêè îòñóòñòâîâàëà â ñåâåðíîé ïîëîâèíå Óñòþðòà, çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì Ïðèàðàëüÿ. Æåëòûé ñóñëèê áûë íåìíîãî÷èñëåí, íî íàáëþäàëñÿ ïî âñåé òåððèòîðèè.  2004 ã. ïåñ÷àíêà ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïîëíîñòüþ îòñóòñòâîâàëà íà âñåé èññëåäîâàííîé òåððèòîðèè, â òî âðåìÿ êàê ÷èñëåííîñòü æåëòîãî ñóñëèêà áûëà âûøå, íî åãî ðàñïðåäåëåíèå íîñèëî ìîçàè÷íûé õàðàêòåð.  2004 ã. â ñðàâíåíèè ñ 2003 ã. â ãíåçäîâûõ ãðóïïèðîâêàõ áàëîáàíà ïðîèçîøëî ïåðåðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð – íà íåêîòîðûõ ó÷àñòêàõ ÷èíêîâ ñîêîëû ñòàëè ãíåçäèòüñÿ ïëîòíåå, à íà íåêîòîðûõ ïîëíîñòüþ îòñóòñòâîâàëè. Ýòî áûëî õîðîøî çàìåòíî ïî íàëè÷èþ íîâûõ (ðàíåå íå çàíèìàâøèõñÿ ñîêîëàìè) ãíåçä â ïëîòíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ãðóïïèðîâêàõ è áîëüøîãî êîëè÷åñòâà ìíîãîëåòíèõ, íî ïóñòóþùèõ, çà ïðåäåëàìè òàêèõ ãðóïïèðîâîê. Ïåðåìåùåíèå ïàð è óâåëè÷åíèå ïëîòíîñòè ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ áàëîáàíîâ, ïðè ñîõðàíåíèè îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè íàáëþäàëîñü íà ïëîùàäêàõ ¹ 1 – 2, êîòîðûå ïîñåùàëèñü 2 ãîäà


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

ïîäðÿä.  ñâÿçè ñ ïåðåðàñïðåäåëåíèåì ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð, ÷èñëåííîñòü áàëîáàíîâ, ó÷àñòâóþùèõ â ðàçìíîæåíèè, ñíèçèëàñü íåçíà÷èòåëüíî. Èíòåðåñíî òî, ÷òî ìàêñèìàëüíûå êëàäêè è âûâîäêè (ïî 6 ÿèö è 6 ïòåíöîâ) íàáëþäàëèñü èìåííî â ãîä äåïðåññèè îäíîãî èç îñíîâíûõ îáúåêòîâ ïèòàíèÿ áàëîáàíà (ïåñ÷àíêè) è áûëè ïðèóðî÷åíû ê ìåñòàì íàèáîëåå ïëîòíîãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ íàä êðóïíûìè êîëîíèÿìè æåëòîãî ñóñëèêà.  òî æå âðåìÿ íàáëþäàëèñü ïàðû, ïûòàâøèåñÿ ðàçìíîæàòüñÿ â ìåñòàõ îòñóòñòâèÿ êîðìîâ, íî èõ äîëÿ áûëà íåçíà÷èòåëüíîé. Îñíîâíàÿ ìàññà òàêèõ ïàð ê ìîìåíòó ïîñåùåíèÿ íàìè èõ ãíåçä ïîòåðÿëà êëàäêè èëè ïòåíöîâ íà ðàííåé ñòàäèè âûêàðìëèâàíèÿ. Ñîêîëû èç ýòèõ íåóäà÷íûõ ïàð áûëè âûíóæäåíû ïåðåõîäèòü íà äîáû÷ó ñòåïíûõ àãàì è äàæå ïîëîçîâ, ÷òî íåãàòèâíî ñêàçàëîñü íà èõ óñïåõå ðàçìíîæåíèÿ. Íåñìîòðÿ íà ýòî, íàìè áûëè çàôèêñèðîâàíû 5 ñëó÷àåâ óñïåøíîãî âûâåäåíèÿ òàêèìè íåáëàãîïîëó÷íûìè ïàðàìè 2–3-õ ïòåíöîâ äî ìîìåíòà ñëåòà. Ãíåçäà áàëîáàíà: (1) Êëàäêà (12.04.2004). (2) Ïóõîâûå ïòåíöû (18.04.2004). (3) Îïåðÿþùèåñÿ ïòåíöû (07.05.2004). Ôîòî È.Êàðÿêèíà

1

Saker nests: (1) The clutch (12.04.2004). (2) Chicks (18.04.2004). (3) Chicks (07.05.2004). Photo by I.Karyakin

2

3

Ñåâåðíàÿ ïîïóëÿöèÿ èìååò ãîðàçäî ìåíüøèé óñïåõ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ. Ïî íàøèì íàáëþäåíèÿì, â ðîññèéñêîé ÷àñòè àðåàëà êîëè÷åñòâî óñïåøíûõ ãíåçä ñîñòàâëÿåò â ñðåäíåì 55% îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà ó÷àñòêîâ, ÷òî íåñêîëüêî âûøå ñðåäíåãî ïî þãó Ðîññèè, êîòîðûé ñîñòàâëÿåò 41% (Êàðÿêèí, 2003; Karyakin et all., 2004).  âûâîäêàõ 1– 4 ïòåíöà, â ñðåäíåì 2,92±0,88 ïòåíöà íà óñïåøíîå ãíåçäî (n=24), â ëåòíûõ âûâîäêàõ 1–4, â ñðåäíåì 2,85±0,80 ñëåòêà (n=13) (Êàðÿêèí, 2004á). Ó÷èòûâàÿ âûøåïðèâåäåííûå ïîêàçàòåëè óñïåøíîñòè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ áàëîáàíîâ, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü, ÷òî ÷èñëåííîñòü ñåâåðíîé ïîïóëÿöèè â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå â ïåðèîä âûëåòà ïòåíöîâ ñîñòàâëÿåò 517–589 îñîáåé ñ ó÷åòîì ìîëîäûõ. Áàëîáàíû ñåâåðíîé ïîïóëÿöèè ãíåçäÿòñÿ ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî íà äåðåâüÿõ (85,14%, n=74), â îñíîâíîì, â ïîñòðîéêàõ ìîãèëüíèêà (68,92%), áîëüøåé ÷àñòüþ íà ñîñíàõ (Êàðÿêèí, 2004á). Áàëîáàíû þæíîé ïîïóëÿöèè, êàê óæå îòìå÷àëîñü âûøå, ãíåçäÿòñÿ ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî íà ñêàëàõ è îáðûâàõ ÷èíêîâ (98,57%, n=279) â ïîñòðîéêàõ õèùíûõ ïòèö è âîðîíà (66,31%), ðåæå â íèøàõ è íà ïîëêàõ áåç ïîñòðîåê (33,69%). Ãíåçäÿñü áåç ïîñòðîåê, ñîêîëû íàèáîëåå ÷àñòî èñïîëüçóþò íèøè íà ñòåíàõ ìåëîâûõ îáðûâîâ (62,77% îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà ãíåçä áåç ïîñòðîåê íà îáðûâàõ, n=94) (òàáë. 4). Âûñîêàÿ äîëÿ ïàð áàëîáàíîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â íèøàõ è íà ïîëêàõ áåç ïîñòðîåê, õàðàêòåðíà èìåííî äëÿ Êàñïèéñêî-Àðàëüñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè.  ðàçëè÷íûõ ðàéîíàõ Ðîññèè, Ìîíãîëèè è Âîñòî÷íîãî Êàçàõñòàíà êîëè÷åñòâî ïàð, èìåþùèõ òàêèå ãíåçäîâûå ñòåðåîòèïû, íå ïðåâûøàåò 1–2% îò îáùåãî êîëè÷åñòâà ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ (Potapov et all., 2001; Karyakin et all., 2004). Âûñîòà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãíåçä âàðüèðóåò îò 3 äî 120 ì, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì (n=265) 33,94±24,9 ì (ðèñ. 3). Áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ñîêîëîâ ãíåçäèòñÿ íà ñòåíàõ îáðûâîâ â äèàïàçîíå âûñîò îò 5 äî 55 ì (80,75%), âûáèðàÿ, èç èìåþùèõñÿ íà ó÷àñòêå íàèáîëåå âûñîêèå ñòåíû îáðûâîâ. Ôåíîëîãè÷åñêèå äàòû ðàçìíîæåíèÿ áàëîáàíîâ ìåæäó Êàñïèåì è Àðàëîì ñëåäóþùèå: îòêëàäêà ÿèö – 12 ìàðòà – 5 àïðåëÿ, âûëóïëåíèå ïòåíöî⠖ 9 àïðåëÿ – 3 ìàÿ, âûëåò ïòåíöî⠖ 20 ìàÿ – 17 èþíÿ. Îñíîâíàÿ ìàññà áàëîáàíîâ, ñóäÿ ïî òåìïàì ðàçâèòèÿ ïòåíöîâ, âûëåòàåò 28 ìàÿ – 7 èþíÿ. Îäíàêî, îòäåëüíûå ïàðû áàëîáàíîâ ìîãóò ðàçìíîæàòüñÿ è â áîëåå ïîçäíèå ñðîêè.


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2

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Òàáë. 4. Ìåñòîïîëîæåíèå ãíåçä áàëîáàíà â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå Table 4. Substrates of Saker nests in Russia and the original builders of nests

Ñóáñòðàò Substrates

8

14

15

26

6

94

88

39

94

88

33,69

31,54

Äîëÿ (â %) Proportion (%)

10

Âñåãî Total

21

Ðàçðó-øåííàÿ ïîñò-ðîéêà Ruined nest

12

Âîðîí Raven Corvus corax

23

Ñòåðâÿòíèê Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus

27

Ñòåïíîé îðåë Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis

59

Ìîãèëüíèê Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca

Áåðêóò Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos

Äîëÿ (â %) Proportion (%)

Êóðãàííèê Long-Legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus

Âñåãî Total

Ïîñòàâùèê ãíåçäîâîé ïîñòðîéêè Nest provider

Íèøè è ïîëêè áåç ïîñò-ðîéêè Niches and regiments Ìåëîâîé îáðûâ Chalky cliffs Ðàêóøå÷íèêîâûé îáðûâ Shell-stone cliffs Ãëèíÿíûé îáðûâ Clay cliffs Äðóãèå òèïû îáðûâîâ Other types Îáðûâû Cliffs ËÝÏ Power Lines

Ìåñòîïîëîæåíèå ãíåçäà Location of nest

3

18

14

144

51,61

11

5

59

21,15

22

7,89

2

1

50

17,92

3

31

20

275 4

98,57 1,43 100

1

3

39

1

3

3

31

20

279

13,98

0,36

1,08

1,08

11,11

7,17

100



Ðèñ. 3. Âûñîòà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãíåçä áàëîáàíà íà ñêàëàõ Fig. 3. Height of location of the Saker’s nests on cliffs

Äàòû ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ñóùåñòâåííî çàâèñÿò êàê îò ïîãîäíûõ óñëîâèé, òàê, ïî-âèäèìîìó, è îò ÷èñëåííîñòè îñíîâíûõ îáúåêòîâ ïèòàíèÿ. Íåáëàãîïîëó÷íàÿ ñèòóàöèÿ ñ êîðìîâûì ðåñóðñîì âûçûâàåò áîëåå ïîçäíåå ðàçìíîæåíèå áîëüøèíñòâà ïàð áàëîáàíîâ, íåçàâèñèìî îò õîäà âåñíû, ÷òî ÷åòêî íàáëþäàëîñü â 2004 ã. Èíòåíñèâíîñòü âåãåòàöèè ðàñòèòåëüíîñòè â ýòîò ãîä ñóùåñòâåííî îòëè÷àëàñü â þæíîé è ñåâåðíîé ÷àñòÿõ òåððèòîðèè ðàáîò íà 2–3 íåäåëè. Óñëîâíóþ ãðàíèöó ìåæäó ýòèìè ó÷àñòêàìè ìîæíî ïðîâåñòè ïî 450 ñ.ø. Îäíàêî ïàðàäîêñ çàêëþ÷àåòñÿ â òîì, ÷òî ñåâåðíåå 450 ñ.ø. ôåíîëîãè÷åñêèå äàòû öâåòåíèÿ è âåãåòàöèè ðàñòåíèé áûëè áîëåå ïîçäíèìè, ÷åì þæíåå, à ôåíîëîãè÷åñêèå äàòû ðàçâèòèÿ õèùíèêîâ, â òîì ÷èñëå è áàëîáàíîâ, íàîáîðîò, áîëåå ðàííèìè. Ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ 2003 ã. âåãåòàöèÿ ðàñòèòåëüíîñòè íà÷àëàñü ðàíüøå

íà ìåñÿö, à ðàçâèòèå õèùíèêîâ áûëî áîëåå ïîçäíèì (íà 1–2 íåäåëè ïîçæå, ÷åì â 2003 ãîäó). Ñêîðåå âñåãî, ýòî áûëî ñâÿçàíî ñ äåïðåññèåé ÷èñëåííîñòè ïåñ÷àíêè, êîãäà áàëîáàíû áûëè âûíóæäåíû æäàòü âûõîäà èç íîð æåëòûõ ñóñëèêîâ. Êàêàÿ-òî ÷àñòü ñîêîëîâ ïðèñòóïèëà ê êëàäêå â îáû÷íûå ñðîêè, â ñâÿçè ñ ÷åì ðàçíèöà â ñðîêàõ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ îòäåëüíûõ ïàð íà îäíîé è òîé æå òåððèòîðèè äîñòèãàëà ìåñÿöà. Íàèáîëåå ïîçäíÿÿ óìåðåííî íàñèæåííàÿ êëàäêà èç 3-õ ÿèö áûëà îáíàðóæåíà íàìè 16 ìàÿ 2004 ã. íà ñåâåðíîì ÷èíêå Óñòþðòà, ïðè÷åì â ãíåçäå îäíîé èç ñîñåäíèõ ïàð â ýòî æå âðåìÿ íàõîäèëèñü ãîòîâûå ê âûëåòó ïòåíöû, ïóõ ñ êîòîðûõ ïîëíîñòüþ îáëåòåë. Âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî, ÷òî ïòåíöû èç ýòîé êëàäêè âñòàíóò íà êðûëî â ïåðâîé ïîëîâèíå èþëÿ.  ýòî âðåìÿ óæå ïîêèäàþò ãíåçäà ïîñëåäíèå ñëåòêè áàëîáàíîâ íà ñåâåðíîé ãðàíèöå àðåàëà íà Óðàëå è â Çàóðàëüå.

Çàêëþ÷åíèå  ðåçóëüòàòå íàøèõ èññëåäîâàíèé ìåæäó Êàñïèåì è Àðàëîì áûëà âûÿâëåíà íàèáîëåå êðóïíàÿ è íàèáîëåå ïðîäóêòèâíàÿ â Êàçàõñòàíå ïîïóëÿöèÿ áàëîáàíà, ÷èñëåííîñòü êîòîðîé îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 1059–1262 ïàð èëè 5558–6401 îñîáåé â êîíöå ïåðèîäà ðàçìíîæåíèÿ. Ñ ó÷åòîì ïðèëåãàþùèõ òåððèòîðèé Òóðêìåíèñòàíà è Óçáåêèñòàíà ÷èñëåííîñòü äàííîé ïîïóëÿöèè ìîæåò áûòü


54

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Ñàìêà áàëîáàíà íà ãíåçäå â ïîçå àãðåññèè (18.04.2004). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Female of the Saker on the nest in the aggressive pose (18.04.2004). Photo by I. Karyakin

Èíôðàñòðóêòóðà ãàçîíåôòåäîáûâàþùåãî êîìïëåêñà â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ñ. Æàíàîçåí (â öåíòðå – êîñìîñíèìîê Landsat-7 ETM) (14.04.2004). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Infrastructure of gas and oil mining in the neighborhood of Zhanaozen (in the center – satellite image Landsat-7 ETM) (14.04.2004). Photos by I. Karyakin

îöåíåíà â 1290–1493, â ñðåäíåì 1392 ïàðû.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ îíà ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñàìîé êðóïíîé â Ñðåäíåé Àçèè, è îò åå áëàãîïîëó÷èÿ çàâèñèò ñóäüáà âèäà â ñòîëü îáøèðíîì ðåãèîíå. Îäíàêî, ñóùåñòâóþò ðåàëüíûå óãðîçû áëàãîïîëó÷èþ äàííîé ïîïóëÿöèè.  õîäå ýêñïåäèöèè 2003 ã. â ðåçóëüòàòå îáùåíèÿ ñ ñîòðóäíèêàìè ÊÍÁ ÐÊ â Áåéíåó áûëà ïîëó÷åíà èíôîðìàöèÿ î ñëó÷àÿõ çàäåðæàíèÿ ãðóïï ñèðèéñêèõ ëîâöîâ ñ ïàðòèÿìè áàëîáàíîâ.  2002 ã. 24 îêòÿáðÿ 12 ñàìîê áàëîáàíîâ áûëè èçúÿòû òàìîæåííèêàìè â àýðîïîðòó Àêòàó ó àðàáîâ (Ãóáèí, 2002). Íàìè â 2004 ã. íà Çàïàäíîì ÷èíêå Óñòþðòà áëèç Áåéíåó íàä íåñêîëüêèìè ìíîãîëåòíèìè ãíåçäàìè áàëîáàíà îáíàðóæåíû âáèòûå â ãðóíò ìåòàëëè÷åñêèå øòûðè äëÿ êðåïëåíèÿ âåðåâêè è òàéíèêè ñ ïðèñïîñîáëåíèÿìè äëÿ âûïóãèâàíèÿ èç ãíåçä ñëåòêîâ. Îáðàùàåò íà ñåáÿ âíèìàíèå òîò ôàêò, ÷òî áîëüøèíñòâî ñîòðóäíèêîâ ìèëèöèè è ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé èñïîëíèòåëüíîé âëàñòè, ñ êîòîðûìè íàì ïðèõîäèëîñü îáùàòüñÿ â Ìàíãèñòàóñêîé îáëàñòè, õîðîøî îñâåäîìëåíû î êîììåð÷åñêîé ïðèâëåêàòåëüíîñòè áàëîáàíà. Âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî, ÷òî ÷àñòü èç íèõ âîâëå÷åíà â íåëåãàëüíûå îïåðàöèè ñ ñîêîëàìè (àíàëîãè÷íî òîìó, êàê ýòî èìååò ìåñòî â äðóãèõ ðåãèîíàõ). Àðàëî-Êàñïèéñêàÿ ïîïóëÿöèÿ áàëîáàíà äî ñèõ ïîð ñóùåñòâåííî íå ïîñòðàäàëà îò áðàêîíüåðîâ ïî ïðè÷èíå òðóäíîäîñòóïíîñòè è ìåíüøåé çàìåòíîñòè áîëüøèíñòâà ãíåçä, à òàêæå áîëüøåé ñêðûò-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íîñòè ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïòèö, ïî ñðàâíåíèþ ñ äðóãèìè ÷àñòÿìè àðåàëà. Îäíàêî ñèòóàöèÿ ìîæåò èçìåíèòüñÿ â õóäøóþ ñòîðîíó, åñëè âûëîâ ïòèö â ïåðèîä ïîñëåãíåçäîâûõ êî÷åâîê ñòàíåò áîëåå èíòåíñèâíûì. Ïîìèìî íåëåãàëüíîãî îòëîâà ïòèö, èìååò ìåñòî ãèáåëü ñîêîëîâ íà ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ. Àêòèâèçàöèÿ íåôòå-ãàçîäîáû÷è â ïîñëåäíåå äåñÿòèëåòèå ïðèâåëà ê áåñêîíòðîëüíîìó ñòðîèòåëüñòâó ËÝÏ ìàëîé ìîùíîñòè ñ áåòîííûìè îïîðàìè, íåñóùèìè âåðòèêàëüíî óñòàíîâëåííûå èçîëÿòîðû íà ìåòàëëè÷åñêîé ãîðèçîíòàëüíîé òðàâåðñå íà âåðøèíå îïîðû. Òàêàÿ êîíñòðóêöèÿ îïîð ÿâëÿåòñÿ îïàñíîé äëÿ ïòèö, è â áîëüøèíñòâå ñòðàí ìèðà îò íåå îòêàçàëèñü. Íà ÷èíêàõ, ïîä êîòîðûìè ïðîòÿíóëèñü ïòèöåîïàñíûå ËÝÏ, îòñóòñòâóþò ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå êðóïíûå ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè, âêëþ÷àÿ áàëîáàíà. Õóæå âñåãî ñèòóàöèÿ îáñòîèò â îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ñ. Æàíàîçåíà, ãäå íà 1 êì2 îáùåé ïëîùàäè ïðèõîäèòñÿ 0,8 êì ïòèöåîïàñíûõ ËÝÏ. Íà ôîíå îáùåãî ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà è ôðàãìåíòàöèè åãî àðåàëà (Ôîêñ è äð., 2003), ñèëüíî ïîñòðàäàëè ñåâåðíûå ïîïóëÿöèè ýòîãî âèäà â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå. Çà ïîñëåäíèå 50–60 ëåò ïîëíîñòüþ èñ÷åçëè ãíåçäîâûå ãðóïïèðîâêè áàëîáàíà â ïîéìåííûõ ëåñàõ ð. Óðàë è ð. Ýìáû, ãäå ýòîò âèä áûë ìíîãî÷èñëåííûì (Äåìåíòüåâ, 1951). Òàêàÿ æå ñóäüáà ïîñòèãëà áàëîáàíîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â Ìóãîäæàðàõ, ïðè÷åì ñòåïíûå ðàéîíû Ìóãîäæàð â 40– 50-õ ãã. ñ÷èòàëèñü åäèíñòâåííîé áåçëåñíîé òåððèòîðèåé, íà êîòîðîé ðàçìíîæàëèñü áàëîáàíû, ïðè÷åì íîìèíàëüíîãî ïîäâèäà (Äåìåíòüåâ, 1951). Ïðèìå÷àòåëüíî òî, ÷òî êàòàñòðîôè÷åñêîå ñîêðàùåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè çàòðîíóëî èìåííî ñåâåðíûå ïîïóëÿöèè âèäà, ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ êîòîðûõ íàèáîëåå îñâîåíû, à ïòèöû ñîâåðøàþò ïåðåëåò ê ìåñòàì çèìîâîê íà çíà÷èòåëüíûå ïðîñòðàíñòâà è, ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, áîëåå ïîäâåðæåíû ðàçëè÷íûì íåãàòèâíûì ôàêòîðàì äåÿòåëüíîñòè ÷åëîâåêà (ËÝÏ, áðàêîíüåðñêèé îòëîâ). Âîçìîæíî, â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ âñå áîëåå óñèëèâàåòñÿ âëèÿíèå òàêèõ íåáëàãîïðèÿòíûõ äëÿ áàëîáàíà ôàêòîðîâ, êàê ìåçîôèòèçàöèÿ ñòåïè è îñòåïíåíèå ïîëóïóñòûíè. Èíôðàñòðóêòóðà ïàñòáèùíîãî æèâîòíîâîäñòâà íà îãðîìíîé òåððèòîðèè Çàïàäíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà ïîòåðïåëà êðàõ â íà÷àëå 1990õ ãã. Êàê ñëåäñòâèå, ðåçêî ñîêðàòèëñÿ âûïàñ ñêîòà, îñîáåííî îâåö, è íà îáøèðíûõ ïðîñòðàíñòâàõ ñòåïè ñòàëè èíòåíñèâíî âîññòàíàâëèâàòüñÿ äåðíîâèííûå çëàêè, à ñàìè ñòåïè – ïðîäâèãàòüñÿ íà þã îò þæíîé ãðàíèöû ñòåïíîé çîíû. Íà îáøèðíûõ ïðî-


Raptors Research Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë.Êîðîëåíêî, 17a-17 òåë.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru Àíàòîëèé Ëåâèí Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè Íàöèîíàëüíîé Àêàäåìèè íàóê Êàçàõñòàíà Êàçàõñòàí 480060 ã. Àëìà-Àòà Àêàäåìãîðîäîê Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè òåë.: (3272) 48-26-32 levin_saker@nursat.kz Ëþäìèëà Íîâèêîâà Íèæåãîðîäñêîå îòäåëåíèå Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè 603000, Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, à/ÿ 631 Ýêîöåíòð «Äðîíò» òåë.: (8312) 34-46-79 sopr@dront.ru Àëåêñåé Ïàæåíêîâ Öåíòð ñîäåéñòâèÿ Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòè Ðîññèÿ, Ñàìàðà 443045 à/ÿ-8001 òåë.: (9272) 15-39-60 f_lynx@hotbox.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a-17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru Anatoliy Levin Institute of Zoology Kazakhstan National Academy of Sciences Kazakhstan 480060 Almaty Institute of Zoology tel.: (3272) 48-26-32 levin_saker@nursat.kz Ludmila Novikova The N. Novgorod branch of RBCU, Russia P.O. Box 631 Ecocenter Dront Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 34-46-79 sopr@dront.ru Aleksey Pazhenkov The Volga-Ural ECONET Assistance Center P.O. Box 8001 443045 Samara, Russia tel.: (9272) 15-39-60 f_lynx@hotbox.ru

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 ñòðàíñòâàõ ïîëóïóñòûíè ó÷àñòèëèñü ñïîíòàííî âîçíèêàþùèå ïîæàðû, íà ìåñòå êîòîðûõ ïóñòûííûå ñåðîïîëûííèêè ñìåíÿþòñÿ îòíîñèòåëüíî óñòîé÷èâûìè ïèðîãåííûìè ñîîáùåñòâàìè ñòåïíîãî õàðàêòåðà – ñ äîìèíèðîâàíèåì ñòåïíûõ êîâûëåé è æèòíÿêà, âûñîêèì ó÷àñòèåì ñóõîñòåïíîãî ðàçíîòðàâüÿ. Ýòîò ïðîöåññ â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ çàòðàãèâàåò âñå áîëüøèå òåððèòîðèè íà ïëàòî Øàãûðàé è ïëàòî Óñòþðò è ïðîäîëæàåò ñìåùàòüñÿ ê þãó, ÷òî õîðîøî âèäíî ïî êîñìîñíèìêàì Landsat 7 çà ïîñëåäíèå 5 ëåò.  ðåçóëüòàòå «îñòåïíåíèÿ» ïîëóïóñòûíè ïðîèñõîäèò ðåçêîå ñîêðàùåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè òèïè÷íûõ åå îáèòàòåëåé – ïåñ÷àíêè è æåëòîãî ñóñëèêà, êîòîðûå ÿâëÿþòñÿ îñíîâíûìè îáúåêòàìè ïèòàíèÿ áàëîáàíà.  òî æå âðåìÿ, â ñòåïíûõ ñîîáùåñòâàõ ïðè îòñóòñòâèè âûïàñà ñîêðàùàåòñÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ìàëîãî ñóñëèêà. Âñå ýòî âåäåò ê óìåíüøåíèþ êîðìîâîé áàçû áàëîáàíà, è, ñëåäîâàòåëüíî, ñíèæàåò óñïåøíîñòü åãî ðàçìíîæåíèÿ.  ñâîþ î÷åðåäü, ðåçóëüòàòîì ñòàíîâèòñÿ óìåíüøåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ãíåçäîâûõ ãðóïïèðîâîê, íàñåëÿþùèõ òåððèòîðèè, ãäå ïðîèñõîäÿò âûøåîïèñàííûå ïðîöåññû. Íå èñêëþ÷åíî, ÷òî îïðåäåëåííóþ ðîëü â èñ÷åçíîâåíèè áàëîáàíà èç Ìóãîäæàð ñûãðàëè èìåííî ñóêöåññèè, ïðîèñõîäÿùèå â ñòåïíûõ ñîîáùåñòâàõ. Êîñâåííî íà ýòî ìîæåò óêàçûâàòü íèçêàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ñòåïíîãî îðëà è ìîãèëüíèêà íà áîëüøåé ÷àñòè òåððèòîðèè Ìóãîäæàð. Ïëîòíîñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ýòèõ îðëîâ ñóùåñòâåííî âîçðàñòàåò òàì, ãäå ñòåïü ïîäâåðæåíà çàìåòíîìó âûïàñó. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, áîðüáà ñ íåëåãàëüíûì îòëîâîì ñîêîëîâ, ïòèöåçàùèòíûå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ íà ËÝÏ è ðàçâèòèå ïàñòáèùíîãî æèâîòíîâîäñòâà â ñòåïíîé çîíå ÿâëÿþòñÿ îñíîâíûìè ìåðîïðèÿòèÿìè, êîòîðûå ìîæíî ðåêîìåíäîâàòü äëÿ îõðàíû áàëîáàíà è óâåëè÷åíèÿ åãî ÷èñëåííîñòè. Åñëè ïåðâàÿ ïðîáëåìà ðåøàåòñÿ êàê íà óðîâíå Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà Êàçàõñòàíà, òàê è íà ìåæäóíàðîäíîì óðîâíå (Äåêëàðàöèÿ ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ ñîêîëà-áàëîáàíà, 2003), òî äâå äðóãèõ íå ðåøàþòñÿ âîâñå.

Áëàãîäàðíîñòè Àâòîðû áëàãîäàðÿò Àíäðåÿ Ñåìåíîâà, âîäèòåëüñêîå ìàñòåðñòâî êîòîðîãî ïîçâîëèëî óñïåøíî îáñëåäîâàòü îáøèðíûå ïðîñòðàíñòâà Çàïàäíîãî Êàçàõñòàíà â íå ñàìûõ áëàãîïðèÿòíûõ ïîãîäíûõ óñëîâèÿõ (â îñîáåííîñòè â 2003 ã.), Èëüþ Ñìåëÿíñêîãî è Àíäðåÿ Êîðîëþêà, ó÷àñòâîâàâøèõ â ýêñïåäèöèÿõ íà ïëàòî Øàãûðàé è â ãîðàõ Ìóãîäæàðû è, êîíå÷íî æå, Åâãåíèÿ Ïîòàïîâà,

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ïîääåðæàâøåãî íàøè íà÷èíàíèÿ ïî îáñëåäîâàíèþ Óñòþðòà, Èíñòèòóò èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ (FRI Ltd., IWC, UK) è Àãåíòñòâî ïî îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû Îáúåäèíåííûõ Àðàáñêèõ Ýìèðàòîâ (ERWDA, UAE) çà ôèíàíñîâóþ ïîìîùü. Ëèòåðàòóðà / List of Literature: Ãóáèí Á.Ì. Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug). – Êàçàõñòàíñêèé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèé áþëëåòåíü. Àëìàòû: «Tethys». 2002. Ñ. 69. Ãóáèí Á.Ì. Âñòðå÷è íåêîòîðûõ âèäîâ ïòèö íà ïîâå Áóçà÷è è Ìàíãûøëàêå â ìàå 2003 ã. – Êàçàõñòàíñêèé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèé áþëëåòåíü. Àëìàòû: «Tethys». 2004. Ñ. 20-23. Äåêëàðàöèÿ Àáó-Äàáè ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ ñîêîëà-áàëîáàíà. – Ñòåïíîé Áþëëåòåíü. ¹ 14. 2003. Ñ. 36-37. Äåìåíòüåâ Ã.Ï. Ïòèöû Ñîâåòñêîãî Ñîþçà. Ò.1. Ì.: Ñîâ. íàóêà. 1951. 652 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî ó÷åòó ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ è îáðàáîòêå ó÷åòíûõ äàííûõ. Íîâîñèáèðñê: èçä. äîì «Ìàíóñêðèïò». 2000. 32 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Áàëîáàí â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå – èòîãè 2003 ãîäà. – Ñòåïíîé Áþëëåòåíü. ¹ 14. 2003. Ñ. 34-35. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè (ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî èçó÷åíèþ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è ñîâîîáðàçíûõ). Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä: Èçä-âî «Ïîâîëæüå». 2004. 351 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Áàëîáàí íà ïëàòî Óñòþðò: êðàòêèå ðåçóëüòàòû ýêñïåäèöèè 2003 ã. – Ñòåïíîé Áþëëåòåíü. ¹ 15. 2004à. Ñ. 40-41. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Áàëîáàí â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå è íà ïðèëåãàþùèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ. – Ñòåïíîé Áþëëåòåíü. ¹ 15. 2004á. Ñ. 40-41. Êîâøàðü À.Ô. Óñòþðòñêèé çàïîâåäíèê. – Çàïîâåäíèêè ÑÑÑÐ. Çàïîâåäíèêè Ñðåäíåé Àçèè è Êàçàõñòàíà / Ïîä îáù. ðåä. Â.Å. Ñîêîëîâà è Å.Å. Ñûðîå÷êîâñêîãî. – Ì.: Ìûñëü. 1990. Ñ. 30-41. Êîâøàðü À.Ô., Äÿêèí Ã.Þ. Ãíåçäîâàÿ ôàóíà ïòèö Óñòþðòñêîãî çàïîâåäíèêà. – Òåððèòîðèàëüíûå àñïåêòû îõðàíû ïòèö â Ñðåäíåé Àçèè è Êàçàõñòàíå / Ïîä ðåä. Ñ.À. Áóêðååâà. Ì. 1999. Ñ. 30-33. Êîâøàðü À.Ô., Äàâûãîðà À.Â. Ê àâèôàóíå Ìóãîäæàð è âåðõíåé Ýìáû. Selevinia 2003. Êàçàõñòàíñêèé çîîëîãè÷åñêèé åæåãîäíèê. Àëìàòû. 2004. Ñ. 73-94. Êîðåëîâ Ì.Í. Îòðÿä Õèùíûå ïòèöû – Falconiformes. Áàëîáàí – Falco cherrug Gray.  êí.: Ïòèöû Êàçàõñòàíà. Ò.2. Àëìà-Àòà. 1962. C. 498-508. Ïëàõîâ Ê.Í. Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug). – Êàçàõñòàíñêèé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèé áþëëåòåíü. Àëìàòû: «Tethys». 2002. Ñ. 69. Ôîêñ Í., Áàðòîí Í., Ïîòàïîâ Å. Îõðàíà ñîêîëà-áàëîáàíà è ñîêîëèíàÿ îõîòà. – Ñòåïíîé Áþëëåòåíü. ¹ 14. 2003. Ñ. 28-33. Bragin E.A. Recent status and studies of the Saker Falcon in the Northern Kazakhstan. – Proc. of the II Internat. Conf. on the Saker Falcon and Houbara Bustard, Mongolia, 1-4 July 2000. Ulaanbaatar. 2001. P. 110-115. Karyakin I., Konovalov L., Moshkin A., Pazhenkov A., Smelyanskiy I., Rybenko A. Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in Russia. – Falco. ¹ 23. 2004. P. 3-9. Levin A.S. On the critical state of the Saker Falcon population in Kazakhstan. – Proc. of the II Internat. Conf. on the Saker Falcon and Houbara Bustard, Mongolia, 14 July 2000. Ulaanbaatar. 2001. P. 64-79. Potapov E.R., Fox N.C., Sumya D., Gombobaatar S., Shadarsuren O. Nest site selection in Mongolian Sakers. – Proc. of the II Internat. Conf. on the Saker Falcon and Houbara Bustard, Mongolia, 1-4 July 2000. Ulaanbaatar. 2001. P. 132-137.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Preliminary results of the project on migration studies of the Saker Falcon in Russia ÏÐÅÄÂÀÐÈÒÅËÜÍÛÅ ÐÅÇÓËÜÒÀÒÛ ÏÐÎÅÊÒÀ ÏÎ ÈÇÓ×ÅÍÈÞ ÌÈÃÐÀÖÈÈ ÁÀËÎÁÀÍÀ  ÐÎÑÑÈÈ I.V. Karyakin (Center of Field Studies, N.Novgorod, Russia) E.G. Nikolenko (NGO Siberia Environmental Center, Novosibirsk, Russia) E.R. Potapov (The Falcon Research Institute IWC Ltd., Carmarthen, UK) N. Fox (The Falcon Research Institute IWC Ltd., Carmarthen, UK) È.Â. Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ) Ý.Ã. Íèêîëåíêî (ÌÁÎÎ «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð», Íîâîñèáèðñê, Ðîññèÿ) Å.Ð. Ïîòàïîâ (Èíñòèòóò èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ, Êàðìàðñåí, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ) Í. Ôîêñ (Èíñòèòóò èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ, Êàðìàðñåí, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ)

Ïàðà àëòàéñêèõ áàëîáàíîâ (ñàìêà òåìíàÿ, ñàìåö ñâåëûé). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The pair of Altay Saker Falcons (female – dark, male – pale). Photo by I. Karyakin

Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) – ãëîáàëüíî óãðîæàåìûé âèä, íåîáõîäèìîñòü ñðî÷íûõ ìåð ïî åãî îõðàíå ïðèçíàíà ìèðîâûì ñîîáùåñòâîì (Ôîêñ è äð., 2003; IUCN Red List, 2004). Äëÿ ïîëíîöåííîé îõðàíû âèäà íåîáõîäèìî çíàòü åãî ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå íå òîëüêî íà ãíåçäîâàíèè, íî òàêæå íà ìèãðàöèÿõ è çèìîâêàõ. Ïîñëåäíåå îñîáåííî âàæíî, ó÷èòûâàÿ, ÷òî áàëîáàí íàèáîëåå ïîäâåðæåí íåëåãàëüíîìó îòëîâó èìåííî â ïåðèîä ìèãðàöèé. Ïðîåêò ïî èçó÷åíèþ ìèãðàöèé áàëîáàíà îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ Èíñòèòóòîì èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ (The Falcon Research Institute of the International Wildlife Consultants, Ltd, ) ïðè ôèíàíñèðîâàíèè Àãåíòñòâà ïî îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû ÎÀÝ (ERWDA). Èñòîðèÿ ïðîåêòà íàñ÷èòûâàåò 8 ëåò.  1997 ã. íà âçðîñëóþ ñàìêó áàëîáàíà, îòëîâëåííóþ ïîñëå ãíåçäîâîãî ïåðèîäà â ×óéñêîé ñòåïè íà òåððèòîðèè Ðåñïóáëèêè Àëòàé, áûë ïîâåøåí ìèêðîâîëíîâûé ñïóòíèêîâûé ïåðåäàò÷èê ìàññîé 35 ã ¹ 3839. Ïòèöà áûëà ïðîñëåæåíà äî çèìîâêè â Öåíòðàëüíîì Êèòàå è îáðàòíî (Potapov et all., 2001).  1999–2000 ãã. ñ ïîìîùüþ ðàäèîòðåêèíãà ñîêîëîâ, ïîìå÷åííûõ íà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ â Ìîíãîëèè, áûëî âûÿñíåíî, ÷òî íåêîòîðûå èç íèõ ïðîâåëè çèìó â ïðåäåëàõ ãíåçäîâûõ òåððèòîðèé (Sumya et all., 2001).  2000 ã. â Ìîíãîëèè íà ïÿòåðûõ áàëîáàíîâ (âçðîñëûé ñàìåö, òðè âçðîñëûõ ñàìêè è îäíà ìîëîäàÿ) áûëè îäåòû ìèêðîâîëíîâûå ñïóòíèêîâûå ïåðåäàò÷èêè íà ñîëíå÷íûõ áàòàðåÿõ (PTT–100) (òðè ìàññîé 35 ã è äâà ìàññîé 20 ã). Ëåòîì 2001 ã. åùå îäèí ïåðåäàò÷èê PTT–100 (35 ã) áûë îäåò íà ñàìêó áàëîáàíà, ãíåçäÿùóþñÿ ê ñåâåðó îò ã. Óëàí-Áàòîð. Ïðîñëåæèâàíèå ýòèõ ïòèö ïîêàçàëî, ÷òî îäíè èç íèõ áûëè òèïè÷íûìè ìèãðàíòàìè, äðóãèå øèðîêî êî÷åâàëè

The Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) is widespread in Eurasia and has been used in falconry for thousands of years. In recent years the pressure on Saker populations has become more intense due to persistent, but not always justified reports of high prices for this species, and widespread poverty in Asian countries. As a result the Sakers are caught and sold, and many perish due to lack of knowledge of basic management procedures. Most of the legal and illegal trapping takes place in autumn and early winter when the birds migrate. Knowing the migration patterns is essential for establishing protection measures for Saker Falcons. The pattern of movements of Mongolian Saker Falcons suggests that they can be either nomadic, migratory or sedentary as supported by some of the individuals which stayed at their breeding sites all winter and which was confirmed by conventional telemetry. The migratory birds from the north move extensively exposing themselves to the risks of being caught by trappers along the Chinese border. Clearly the non-migratory part of the population is less exposed to such risks, and they face more danger from local pressure (Sumya et al. 2001; Potapov et al. 2001; Potapov et al. 2002). It is expected in Russia some Sakers can winter on their breeding territories in the same way as in Mongolia, however this facts was not confirmed documentary. In 8 August 2002 of in the south of the Republic of Tuva the young female of Saker was marked by PTT tag solar batteries (35 g solar PTT–100 Microwave tag ¹ 35990) near the nest, in which it had flied out in that season (fig. 1) Since 26 August the bird was began to migrate to the south-west. Unfortunately the track of migration was not controlled to the end, because at the beginning


Raptors Research

Ðèñ. 1. Ìîëîäàÿ ñàìêà áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug), ïîìå÷åííàÿ PTT-100 ¹ 35990 8 àâãóñòà 2002 ã. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Fig. 1. Young female of the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) marked by PTT-100 ¹ 35990 8 August 2002. Photo by I. Karyakin

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 ëèáî âåëè îñåäëûé îáðàç æèçíè (Potapov et all., 2002). Ïðåäïîëîæèòåëüíî â Ðîññèè, òàê æå êàê â Ìîíãîëèè, íåêîòîðûå áàëîáàíû ìîãóò îñòàâàòüñÿ çèìîâàòü íà ñâîèõ ãíåçäîâûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ, îäíàêî ìåòîäîì òåëåìåòðèè íà ïòèöàõ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà ðîññèéñêîé òåððèòîðèè, ýòî ïîêà íå áûëî ïîäòâåðæäåíî.  2002 ã. 8 àâãóñòà íà þãå Ðåñïóáëèêè Òûâà íà ìîëîäóþ ñàìêó áàëîáàíà áëèç ãíåçäà, â êîòîðîì îíà âûâåëàñü â ýòîì ñåçîíå, áûë íàäåò ñïóòíèêîâûé ïåðåäàò÷èê íà ñîëíå÷íûõ áàòàðåÿõ (PTT–100) ìàññîé 35 ã ¹ 35990 (ðèñ. 1). Ìèãðàöèÿ ïòèöû íà÷àëàñü 26 àâãóñòà â þãî-çàïàäíîì íàïðàâëåíèè. Äî ýòîãî âðåìåíè îíà ïåðåìåùàëàñü íå äàëåå 10 êì îò ãíåçäà, îñíîâíîå âðåìÿ ïðîâîäÿ ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî íà ãíåçäîâîé ñêàëå. 31 àâãóñòà ñèãíàë áûë çàðåãèñòðèðîâàí áëèç Ìîíãîëüñêîãî Àëòàÿ. Ê 1 ñåíòÿáðÿ ñîêîë ïðåîäîëåë 205 êì è ïðàêòè÷åñêè íà ìåñÿö îñòàíîâèëñÿ íà þãî-çàïàäå Ìîíãîëèè áëèç ãðàíèöû ñ Êèòàåì, ñîâåðøàÿ òóò íåáîëüøèå êî÷åâêè íà 10–20 êì. 28 ñåíòÿáðÿ ïòèöà ñíîâà ñòàëà ïåðåìåùàòüñÿ, ïðåîäîëåâ â ïåðâûé äåíü 613 êì, à âî âòîðîé – 277 êì. Ìàðøðóò ñîêîëà íà çèìîâêó ïîøåë â þãîâîñòî÷íîì íàïðàâëåíèè è áûë ïðàêòè÷åñêè ïàðàëëåëåí ìàðøðóòó ïòèöû ñ Àëòàÿ, ïîìå÷åííîé â 1997 ã. Ê íåñ÷àñòüþ, ïðîñëåäèòü ìèãðàöèþ äî êîíöà íå óäàëîñü, òàê êàê â íà÷àëå îêòÿáðÿ ïòèöà áûëà îòëîâëåíà áðàêîíüåðàìè áëèç òðàññû íà Óðóì÷è â Êèòàå.  2004 ã. ñïóòíèêîâûå ïåðåäàò÷èêè ôèðìû North Star (PTT solar panel 18 g) áûëè íàäåòû íà 2-õ ñàìîê áàëîáàíîâ (âçðîñëóþ è ìîëîäóþ). 22 èþëÿ íà þãå Òóâû áûëà ïîìå÷åíà âçðîñëàÿ ñàìêà áàëîáàíà (¹ 46078) (ðèñ. 3-1) áëèç ñâîåãî ãíåçäà, çà êîòîðûì âåëîñü åæåãîäíîå íàáëþäåíèå ñ 1999 ã.  òå÷åíèå ïåðâûõ 2õ ìåñÿöåâ ïåðåìåùåíèÿ ñàìêè áûëè îãðàíè÷åíû òåððèòîðèåé ðàäèóñîì 30 êì âîêðóã ãíåçäà.  íà÷àëå íîÿáðÿ, íåñìîòðÿ íà ìîðîç äî –250 Ñ è óñòàíîâëåíèå ñíåæíîãî ïîêðîâà, ïòèöà ïðîäîëæàëà äåðæàòüñÿ áëèç ãíåçäà, ñîêðàòèâ äàëüíîñòü ñâîèõ ïåðåìåùåíèé äî 3-õ êì. 11–13 íîÿáðÿ ýòîò ó÷àñòîê ïîñåùàëñÿ íàøåé èñ-

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Ðèñ. 2. Êàðòà ïåðåìåùåíèé áàëîáàíîâ, ïîìå÷åííûõ ñïóòíèêîâûìè ïåðåäàò÷èêàìè â Ðîññèè â 1997-2004 ãã. Fig. 2. Tracks of Saker Falcons with PTTs marked in Russia (1997-2004)

of October the bird was trapped near the way to Urumchi in China. In 2004 two satellite transmitters of company North Star (PTT solar panel 18 g) were fitted on females of the Saker (adult and young). The Adult female Saker (¹ 46078) marked in 22 July (fig. 3-1) near the nest stayed on breeding territory until the middle of November. The young female Saker (fig. 3-2) marked by PTT tag ¹ 46076 in the 24 July (the Mountain Kolyvan, the Altay Kray) already began to migrate to the west in the 27 July. Since on August 1 the bird was in the steppe near Prirechenka village, Kustanay District, 30– 35 km from the border of Chelyabinsk District. The bird crossed the whole West Siberia along the southern border of the forest zone for 5 days. Near Prirechenka, the falcon stayed for a long time moving mainly within the area of 32 êì2. Although we have not controlled further routes of the bird because she died, her migrations has shown that: young Sakers, as compared to adults, begin to migrate earlier and in the course of migration prefer more wide movements and long stops in places rich in food; such movements of birds along the southern border of forest zone through the whole West Siberia to Zauralye allow to expect relationships between breeding populations of Sakers on the space between Ural and Altay at least in the northern part of the species range.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë.Êîðîëåíêî, 17a-17 òåë.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî ÌÁÎÎ «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» 630090 Ðîññèÿ Íîâîñèáèðñê, à/ÿ 547 òåë./ôàêñ: (3833) 39 78 85 nikolenko@ecoclub.nsu.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Leader by Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a-17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru Elvira Nikolenko NGO Siberia Enviromental Center P.O. Box 547 Novosibirsk 630090 Russia tel./fax: (3833) 39 78 85 nikolenko@ecoclub.nsu.ru Eugene Potapov Leader ERWDA Artificial Nest Project The Falcon Research Institute P.O. Box 19 Carmarthen SA33 5YL Wales UK office@falcons.co.uk eugene_potapov@ compuserve.com Dr. Nick Fox Director of the Falcon Research Institute P.O. Box 19 Carmarthen SA33 5YL Wales UK tel./fax: (44)(1267) 23 38 64 (44)(1267) 25 37 42 office@falcons.co.uk www.falcons.co.uk/falcon

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

ñëåäîâàòåëüñêîé ãðóïïîé. Îáå âçðîñëûå ïòèöû (ñàìåö è ïîìå÷åííàÿ ïåðåäàò÷èêîì ñàìêà) ïðèñóòñòâîâàëè áëèç ãíåçäà. Ñëåäóåò îáðàòèòü âíèìàíèå íà òî, ÷òî â ñåðåäèíå íîÿáðÿ íåêîòîðûå âçðîñëûå áàëîáàíû, êàê è ìîõíîíîãèå êóðãàííèêè (Buteo hemilasius), äåðæàëèñü áëèç ñâîèõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ êàê â Óáñóíóðñêîé, òàê è â Òóâèíñêîé êîòëîâèíå, õîòÿ çäåñü æå óæå íàáëþäàëèñü áåëûå ñîâû (Nyctea scandiaca) è çèìíÿêè (Buteo lagopus). Îáèëèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, îñòàâøèõñÿ íà çèìîâêó, ñêîðåå âñåãî, áûëî âûçâàíî âñïûøêîé ÷èñëåííîñòè äàóðñêîé ïèùóõè (Ochotona daurica). Çèìíåå ïðåáûâàíèå áàëîáàíà íà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå ïðåäïîëàãàåò åãî ïåðåñå÷åíèå çäåñü ñ êðå÷åòîì, îòêî÷åâûâàþùèì èç ñèáèðñêèõ òóíäð. Âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî, ÷òî íåêîòîðûå êðå÷åòû îáðàçóþò ïàðû ñ áàëîáàíàìè è âûâîäÿò ïîòîìñòâî. Âîçìîæíî ïî ýòîé ïðè÷èíå â ðåãèîíå íàáëþäàåòñÿ ìàêñèìàëüíîå ðàçíîîáðàçèå îêðàñêè è ðàçìåðîâ ñîêîëîâ, ìíîãèå èç êîòîðûõ áëèçêè ê àðêòè÷åñêèì êðå÷åòàì èëè äàæå íåîòëè÷èìû îò íèõ (áåëûå ïòèöû). Ìîëîäàÿ ñàìêà áàëîáàíà (ðèñ. 3-2), ïîìå÷åííàÿ 24 èþëÿ ïåðåäàò÷èêîì ¹ 46076 â Ãîðíîé Êîëûâàíè Àëòàéñêîãî êðàÿ óæå 27 èþëÿ íà÷àëà ìèãðàöèþ â çàïàäíîì íàïðàâëåíèè, ïðîéäÿ 305 êì çà îäèí äåíü. 28 èþëÿ ïòèöà óøëà êðóòî íà ñåâåðî-çàïàä âäîëü ð. Èðòûø íàä òåððèòîðèåé Êàçàõñòàíà è, ïîêðûâ 436 êì, îñòàíîâèëàñü íà íî÷åâêó â Îìñêîé îáëàñòè. Çà 29–30 èþëÿ îíà ïåðåñåêëà þã Îìñêîé è Òþìåíñêîé îáëàñòåé, ïîêðûâ ðàññòîÿíèå â 590 êì. 31 èþëÿ åå ìàðøðóò ïðîøåë âäîëü ð. Òîáîë íà þãî-çàïàä ÷åðåç âñþ Êóðãàíñêóþ îáëàñòü, ñîñòàâèâ 221 êì, è ê 1 àâãóñòà ïòèöà îñåëà â ñèëüíî âûáèòîé ñòåïè ìåæäó îçåð áëèç

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äåðåâíè Ïðèðå÷åíêà Êóñòàíàéñêîé îáëàñòè â 30–35 êì îò ãðàíèöû ñ ×åëÿáèíñêîé îáëàñòüþ. Çäåñü ñîêîë îñòàâàëñÿ äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ, ïåðåìåùàÿñü ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ïî ó÷àñòêó ïëîùàäüþ îêîëî 32 êì 2 . Ýòà òåððèòîðèÿ ïîñåùàëàñü íàøåé ãðóïïîé 7 íîÿáðÿ. Íà ìíîãî÷èñëåííûõ ïðèñàäàõ ñîêîëà áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ïîãàäêè, ñîäåðæàùèå îñòàíêè áîëüøèõ ñóñëèêîâ (Spermophilus major) è ïòèö, à òàêæå ïëå÷åâûå ïîÿñà 7 êðå÷åòîê (Chettusia gregarius), ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ñëåòêîâ ýòîãî ãîäà.  õîäå ìàðøðóòà íà ó÷àñòêå ×åëÿáèíñê – Òðîèöê – Êóñòàíàé íà ËÝÏ áûë âñòðå÷åí åäèíñòâåííûé áàëîáàí (âåðîÿòíî ñàìåö), õîòÿ äîâîëüíî ÷àñòî íàáëþäàëèñü ìîëîäûå ïîëåâûå ëóíè (Circus cyaneus), çèìíÿêè è äåðáíèêè (Falco columbarius aesalon). Íåñìîòðÿ íà òî, ÷òî ïðîñëåäèòü äàëüíåéøèå ïåðåìåùåíèÿ ïòèöû íå óäàëîñü â ñâÿçè ñ åå ãèáåëüþ, îòñëåæåííàÿ ìèãðàöèÿ ïîêàçàëà î÷åíü ìíîãîå. Áûëî ïîäòâåðæäåíî, ÷òî ìîëîäûå áàëîáàíû ðàíüøå âçðîñëûõ íà÷èíàþò ìèãðàöèþ è áîëåå ñêëîííû ê øèðîêèì ïåðåìåùåíèÿì è äëèòåëüíûì îñòàíîâêàì â õîäå ìèãðàöèè â êîðìíûõ ìåñòàõ. Ïåðåìåùåíèå ïòèöû âäîëü þæíîé ãðàíèöû ëåñíîé çîíû ÷åðåç âñþ Çàïàäíóþ Ñèáèðü â Çàóðàëüå ïîçâîëÿåò ïðåäïîëàãàòü íàëè÷èå ñâÿçè ìåæäó ãíåçäîâûìè ãðóïïèðîâêàìè áàëîáàíà íà ïðîñòðàíñòâå îò Óðàëà äî Àëòàÿ êàê ìèíèìóì íà ñåâåðíîé ãðàíèöå àðåàëà âèäà. Ðèñ. 3. (1) Âçðîñëàÿ ñàìêà áàëîáàíà, ïîìå÷åííàÿ 22 èþëÿ 2004 ã. PTT NS ¹ 46078. (2) Ìîëîäàÿ ñàìêà áàëîáàíà, ïîìå÷åííàÿ 24 èþëÿ 2004 ã. PTT NS ¹ 46076. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Fig. 3. (1) Adult female of the Saker Falcon marked by PTT NS ¹ 46078 22 July 2004. (2) Young female of the Saker Falcon marked by PTT NS ¹ 46076 24 July 2004. Photo by I. Karyakin

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Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2

Ñïóòíèêîâàÿ ñèñòåìà ñëåæåíèÿ Àðãîñ (Argos), èñïîëüçóþùàÿñÿ äëÿ èçó÷åíèÿ ìèãðàöèé ïòèö, âêëþ÷àåò â ñåáÿ ÷åòûðå êîìïîíåíòà: ïåðåäàò÷èêè, ñïóòíèêè, êîìïüþòåðíàÿ îáðàáîòêà äàííûõ è èòåðíåò-ñâÿçü. Ïåðåäàò÷èêè èìåþò ìàññó îò 18 äî 30 ã, íî òîëüêî 3,5 ã èç íèõ ïðèõîäèòñÿ íà ýëåêòðîíèêó. Îñòàëüíóþ ìàññó ñîñòàâëÿåò ìîùíàÿ ñîëíå÷íàÿ áàòàðåÿ è ëèòèåâûé àêêóìóëÿòîð. Ïåðåäàò÷èêè èçäàþò èìïóëüñíûé ñèãíàë êàæäûå 60 ñåêóíä íà ñòàáèëüíîé ÷àñòîòå 401, 65 MHz. Êàæäûé èìïóëüñ ïðîäîëæàåòñÿ 360 ìèëëèñåêóíä è ñîäåðæèò èíôîðìàöèþ î íîìåðå ïåðåäàò÷èêà, äåÿòåëüíîñòè ïòèöû, îêðóæàþùåé òåìïåðàòóðå è áàòàðåéíîì íàïðÿæåíèè. Òðè íàöèîíàëüíûõ àäìèíèñòðàöèè àòìîñôåðíûõ è îêåàíè÷åñêèõ èññëåäîâàíèé (NOAA) ïðèíèìàþò ñèãíàëû ñî ñïóòíèêîâ. Ñïóòíèêè îáëåòàþò Çåìëþ çà 102 ìèíóòû. Êàæäûé âèòîê îðáèòû ñìåùàåòñÿ îò ïðåäøåñòâóþùåãî íà 25 ãðàäóñîâ íà çàïàä, è â ðåçóëüòàòå ìàðøðóò îäíîãî ñïóòíèêà ïîêðûâàåò âñþ Çåìëþ â òå÷åíèå äíÿ. Ñïóòíèê ïðèíèìàåò äàííûå ñ ëþáîãî èç çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííûõ ïåðåäàò÷èêîâ, è, ïðè ïðîõîæäåíèÿ èì Ôðàíöèè, ïîñûëàåò íà ñåðâåð ïðèíèìàþùåé ñòàíöèè, ãäå ïî íèì âû÷èñëÿåòñÿ øèðîòà è äîëãîòà ïåðåäàò÷èêà, à ñëåäîâàòåëüíî è ïòèöû. Èç êîìïüþòåðà âî Ôðàíöèè äàííûå ïåðåäàþòñÿ êîíå÷íûì ïîëüçîâàòåëÿì. Îïèñàíèå ñèñòåìû Àðãîñ äàíî íà ñàéòå CLS22. Ñèñòåìà íå î÷åíü òî÷íà, îäíàêî áîëüøèíñòâî îòñëåæèâàåìûõ ïîçèöèé ëåæèò â ïðåäåëàõ 10 êì îò èñòèííîé òî÷êè, ÷òî âïîëíå äîñòàòî÷íî äëÿ ïðîñëåæèâàíèÿ ìèãðàöèîííûõ ìàðøðóòîâ ïòèö. Äàííûå çàòåì îáðàáàòûâàþòñÿ ñ ïîìîùüþ êîìïüþòåðíîé ïðîãðàììû «Argos-tools», ñîçäàííîé Åâãåíèåì Ïîòàïîâûì è Ìàêñèìîì Äóáèíèíûì, êîòîðàÿ ìîæåò áûòü çàãðóæåíà ñ ñàéòà ðîññèéñêîé ÃÈÑ-ëàáîðàòîðèè23.  äàííîå âðåìÿ ýòî åäèíñòâåííûé GIS – ìîäóëü ïðèãîäíûé äëÿ ïîëüçîâàòåëåé Àðãîñ. Ïåðåäàò÷èêè êðåïÿòñÿ ê ñîêîëó ñ ïîìîùüþ óïðÿæè èç òåôëîíîâîé ëåíòû, çàêðåïëÿåìîé âîêðóã òåëà ïòèöû. Îíà äîëæíà áûòü ñäåëàíà î÷åíü òùàòåëüíî, ò.ê. îò ýòîãî çàâèñèò ïîäâèæíîñòü ïòèöû. Ñòàòüè î ìåòîäàõ êðåïëåíèÿ ïåðåäàò÷èêîâ äîñòóïíû íà ñàéòå Êëóáà èññëåäîâàòåëåé ðóññêèõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ24, 25. Ñàì ïåðåäàò÷èê, â ïîñëåäñòâèè ïîêðûâøèñü ïåðüÿìè, ñòàíîâèòñÿ íåçàìåòåí, à êîðîòêóþ ïðî÷íóþ àíòåííó ìîæíî íàáëþäàòü íàä ñïèíîé ïòèöû â ïîëåòå ñ íåêîòîðîãî ðàññòîÿíèÿ. Ïîñëåäíÿÿ ìîäåëü ïåðåäàò÷èêà èìååò ìàññó âñåãî 18 ã è ðàáîòàåò íà ñîëíå÷íûõ áàòàðåÿõ, ñðîê äåéñòâèÿ êîòîðûõ (ïðè èäåàëüíûõ óñëîâèÿõ ýêñïëóàòàöèè) íå îãðàíè÷åí. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, èñïîëüçóÿ ìåòîä òåëåìåòðèè, ìîæíî ïîëó÷àòü èíôîðìàöèþ î ïåðåìåùåíèÿõ ñîêîëîâ íà áîëüøèå ðàññòîÿíèÿ ÷åðåç íåíàñåëåííûå òåððèòîðèè.

The Argos satellite tracking system used has four components: the transmitters, satellites, computer data processing and a modem/Internet link. The transmitter weighs 18-30g, but only 3.5 g of this is the electronics: the vast bulk consists of the high-rate solar-powered lithium battery. Signals are pulsed from the transmitters every 60 seconds at a stable frequency of 401.65 MHz. Each pulse lasts 360 milliseconds and contains information on the identity of the transmitter, the activity of the bird, the ambient temperature and the battery voltage. Three National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites receive signals. The satellites orbit the earth once every 102 minutes. Each orbit is displaced from the previous one by 25 degrees to the west, so that the satellite path covers the entire earth during the course of a single day. Data are collected from any of the registered transmitters and then stored by the satellite until it passes over France when the information is sent down to a receiving station. In France, the data are processed and the latitude and longitude of the transmitter, and hence of the bird, is calculated. From the computer in France the data can be assessed by the end user. The description of the Argos system can be found on website CLS22. The system is not perfect, but most locations are within 10 km of the true point, a remarkable accuracy for tracking migration routes. The data then can be filtered out using a sophisticated computer program «Argos-tools» authored by Dr. E. Potapov and M. Dubinin and can be downloaded from website GIS-lab23. At the moment this is the only GIS processing module available to Argos users. The tags themselves are attached to the falcon using a double-looped body harness made of Teflon ribbon. This has to be fitted very carefully. The articles about methods of attaching the transmitters are available on website of Russian Raptors Researchers Club24, 25. A short strong antenna projects outwards from the bird’s back and can often be seen in flight from some distance. Since the technology was first developed, the transmitters have got lighter; now it is possible to obtain 18 g solar-powered backpack harnesses which in theory at least, can last indefinitely. We can thus obtain information about the movements of the falcons over large distances and across very hostile terrain.

Ëèòåðàòóðà / List of Literature: Ôîêñ Í., Áàðòîí Í., Ïîòàïîâ Å. Îõðàíà ñîêîëà-áàëîáàíà è ñîêîëèíàÿ îõîòà. – Ñòåïíîé Áþëëåòåíü, 2003, ¹ 14. Ñ. 28-33. IUCN Red List, 2004. Karyakin I., Konovalov L., Moshkin A., Pazhenkov A., Smelyanskiy I., Rybenko A. Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in Russia. – Falco 23, 2004. P. 3-9. 22 23 24 25 26

http://www.cls.fr/html/argos/general/principe_en.html http://gis-lab.info/programs/argos/index.html http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/methods/Raptors_marking.pdf http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/methods/Transmitter_harness.pdf http://www.falcons.co.uk/mefrg/conference.htm

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Potapov E., Fox N, Sumya D., Gombobaatar S., Launay F., Combreau O. and Eastham C. The Mongolian Saker Falcon: migratory, nomadic or sedentary? – Argos Newsletter 58, 2001. P. 10-11, 16. Potapov E., Fox N., Sumya D. and Gombobaatar S. Migration studies of the Saker Falcon – Falco 19, 2002. P. 3-4. Sumya D., Gombobaatar S., Shagdarsuren O., Potapov E., Fox N. Wintering of Saker Falcon in Mongolia. – Saker Falcon in Mongolia: Research and Conservation. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of the Middle East Falcon Research Group on Saker Falcon and Houbara Bustard, Ulanbaatar 1-4 July 2000. Potapov E., Banzragch S., Fox N., and Barton N. Eds. Ulanbaatar, 2001. P. 138-14326.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Short reports ÊÐÀÒÊÈÅ ÑÎÎÁÙÅÍÈß The first record of breeding of the Ural Owl in the territory of N.Novgorod city ÏÅÐÂÛÉ ÑËÓ×ÀÉ ÃÍÅÇÄÎÂÀÍÈß ÄËÈÍÍÎÕÂÎÑÒÎÉ ÍÅßÑÛÒÈ Â ÍÈÆÍÅÌ ÍÎÂÃÎÐÎÄÅ A. Levashkin (9th Grade, School ¹ 48, N.Novgorod, Russia) À. Ëåâàøêèí (ó÷åíèê 9 êëàññà øêîëû ¹ 48, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ) (11) Êîíòàêò: Àëåêñåé Ëåâàøêèí Ó÷åíèê 9 êëàññà øêîëû ¹ 48 Ðîññèÿ Í.Íîâãîðîä óë. Áîí÷-Áðóåâè÷à, 1-56 òåë.: (8312) 64 30 96 sopr@dront.ru (11) Contact: Aleksey Levashkin 9th Grade, School ¹ 48 Bonch-Bruevich str., 1-56 N. Novgorod 603009 Russia tel.: (8312) 64 30 96 sopr@dront.ru

Íåÿñûòü äëèííîõâîñòàÿ (Striõ uralensis) – îáû÷íàÿ, íî â òî æå âðåìÿ ñêðûòíàÿ ñîâà ëåñíîé çîíû Ðîññèè.  Íèæíåì Íîâãîðîäå îíà áûëà âïåðâûå âñòðå÷åíà ìíîé â ñòàðîé äóáðàâå áîòàíè÷åñêîãî ñàäà Íèæåãîðîäñêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà íà ñêëîíàõ ð. Ðàõìà 21 ìàðòà 2004 ã. Ýòî ìåñòî âñòðå÷è íåÿñûòè â äàëüíåéøåì íåîäíîêðàòíî ïîñåùàëîñü, íî âñòðå÷ ñî âçðîñëûìè ïòèöàìè íå ïðîèñõîäèëî âïëîòü äî ìàÿ. 12 ìàÿ 2004 ã. áëèç ìåñòà ïðåäûäóùåé âñòðå÷è ïî êðèêàì âîðîí, ñîáðàâøèõñÿ âîêðóã äåðåâà, áûëà îáíàðóæåíà âçðîñëàÿ äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü, ïîäâåðãàâøàÿñÿ íàïàäêàì ïòèö. Âñêîðå íàøëîñü è ãíåçäî ñ òðåìÿ ïóõîâè÷êàìè. Ïîâåäåíèå íåÿñûòè áûëî î÷åíü àãðåññèâíûì: ïðè ïîïûòêàõ îñìîòðà ãíåçäîâîãî äåðåâà îíà ÷àñòî íàïàäàëà, íî ïîòîì ñåëà íà âåòêó ñîñåäíåãî äåðåâà, ïðîäîëæàÿ áåñïîêîèòüñÿ. Ãíåçäî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â äóïëå ñòàðîãî äóáà, íà âûñîòå îêîëî 9 ìåòðîâ. Ãíåçäîâîå äåðåâî ðàñïîëàãàëîñü â 50 ì îò îòêðûòîãî ïðîñòðàíñòâà. Êîíòàêò (11).

Äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü (Striõ uralensis) â Íèæíåì íîâãîðîäå. Ôîòî À. Ëåâàøêèíà The Ural Owl (Striõ uralensis) in the territory of N. Novgorod city. Photo by A. Levashkin

The Ural Owl (Striõ uralensis) is a common, but rather cryptic owl inhabiting forests in Russia. I met it on the slope of the Rahma River in the old oak forest on the territory of the Botanical Garden of N. Novgorod State University in 21 March 2004. The nest of the Ural Owl, which had three chicks, was found in 12 May 2004. The nest is located in a hollow of an old oak at a height of nearly 9 meters. The nesting tree was located 50 m from the edge of forest. Contact (11).

Observation for autumn migration of Buzzards near Voronezh ÍÀÁËÞÄÅÍÈÅ ÇÀ ÎÑÅÍÍÈÌ ÏÐÎËÅÒÎÌ ÊÀÍÞÊΠÏÎÄ ÂÎÐÎÍÅÆÅÌ O.G. Kiselev (Department of Nature Resources, Voronezsh, Russia) Î.Ã. Êèñåëåâ (Äåïàðòàìåíò ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ, Âîðîíåæ, Ðîññèÿ) Ìàññîâûé ïðîëåò îáûêíîâåííîãî êàíþêà (Buteo buteo) íàáëþäàëñÿ 3 îêòÿáðÿ 2004 ã. â 4 êì îò þãî-çàïàäíîé îêðàèíû ã. Âîðîíåæà. Ýòà òåððèòîðèÿ íàõîäèòñÿ â ìåæäóðå÷üå Äîíà è Âîðîíåæà, â 8 êì îò ìåñòà ñëèÿíèÿ ðåê. Âðåìÿ íàáëþäåíèé ñ 8:25 äî 11:56. Ïåðåä äíåì íàáëþäåíèé, â òå÷åíèå 11 äíåé, ñ 22 ñåíòÿáðÿ ïî 2 îêòÿáðÿ, åæåäíåâíî øëè äîæäè, èíîãäà ñèëüíûå, ñ ãðîçîé. Âòîðîãî îêòÿáðÿ â òå÷åíèå

A mass migration of the Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) was observed on the 3 of October, 2004, in 4 km from the southwest fringe of Voronezh. The observing took place between 8:25 to 11:56 am. It was raining during the period between 22 of September to 2 of October. The temperature in 7:00 was +50 Ñ on the 3of October. There was a strong northwest wind in the middle of the day. We registered 1042 buzzards (40


Raptors Research (12) Êîíòàêò: Îëåã Êèñåëåâ Äåïàðòàìåíò ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ ã. Âîðîíåæ, Ðîññèÿ òåë.: (0732) 14-45-44 (12) Contact: Oleg Kiselev Department of Nature Resources Voronezsh, Russia tel.: (0732) 14-45-44

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 âñåãî äíÿ, íå ïðåêðàùàÿñü, øåë äîæäü. Âî âðåìÿ íàáëþäåíèé áûëà ïàñìóðíàÿ ïîãîäà, áåç îñàäêîâ, ñïëîøíàÿ ñëîèñòàÿ îáëà÷íîñòü, ñ ðåäêèìè ïðîñâåòàìè ñðåäè òó÷ âî âòîðîì ÿðóñå. Òåìïåðàòóðà â 7:00 áûëà +50 Ñ. Ñåâåðî-çàïàäíûé âåòåð, â íà÷àëå íàáëþäåíèé ñëàáûé, ê ñåðåäèíå äíÿ ñòàë ñèëüíûì. Çà âñå âðåìÿ íàáëþäåíèé çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî 1042 êàíþêà (40 âñòðå÷). Ïåðâûå 18 ïòèö îòìå÷åíû â 8:48. Îñíîâíàÿ ìàññà ïòèö ëåòåëà â ïðîìåæóòîê âðåìåíè ñ 10:50 äî 11:53. Çà ýòî âðåìÿ îòìå÷åíî 974 êàíþêà (33 âñòðå÷è). Ïòèöû ëåòåëè â þæíîì, þãî-çàïàäíîì íàïðàâëåíèè, íà âûñîòå îò 80 äî 200 ì. Íàä òåððèòîðèåé èëîâûõ êàðò êàíþêè êðóæèëè â âîñõîäÿùèõ ïîòîêàõ âîçäóõà, íàáèðàÿ âûñîòó. Èíîãäà ïòèöû ñêðûâàëèñü çà íèæíåé êðîìêîé êó÷åâûõ îáëàêîâ. Ñðåäíèé ðàçìåð ñòàè ñîñòàâëÿë 26 ïòèö, íî êàíþêè ëåòåëè è ïî 1 – 5 ïòèö, ìàêñèìàëüíîå êîëè÷åñòâî ïòèö â ñòàå – 158 è 161 (òàáë. 1). Äâàæäû â ñòàå ñ êàíþêàìè ëåòåëè òåòåðåâÿòíèêè, ïî 2 ïòèöû. Íî ëåòåëè îíè â ãðóïïàõ ñ 3 è 5 êàíþêàìè. Òàê æå äâà ðàçà (ïî 1 ïòèöå) ïðîëåòåë êðóïíûé õèùíèê, âîçìîæíî ïîäîðëèê. Ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü, ÷òî ïîäîáíûé ïðîëåò â ýòîì ðàéîíå íå ÿâëÿëñÿ ïîñòîÿííûì ÿâëåíèåì â òå÷åíèå íå-

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flocks). Birds flew to south and southwest an the height of 80 – 200 meters. The mean size of flocks was 26 birds (table 1). Contact (12). Òàáë. 1. Êîëè÷åñòâî êàíþêîâ, çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííûõ â ïåðèîä íàáëþäåíèé Table 1. The number of Buzzards registered during the time of observing

Âðåìÿ íàáëþäåíèé Time

Êîëè÷åñòâî ïòèö â ñòàÿõ Number of Buzzards in flocks

8:25 – 9:09 9:12 – 10:21 10:25 – 10:32 10:50 – 11:56

18, 2, 3 3 38, 3, 1 1, 3, 38, 1, 10, 10, 13, 60, 2, 5, 24, 64, 27, 1, 1, 161, 36, 52, 44, 34, 12, 8, 11, 5, 158, 11, 35, 50, 68, 18, 9, 1, 1

 ñêîëüêèõ ëåò. Òàê, èíòåíñèâíûé ïðîëåò êàíþêîâ àâòîð íàáëþäàë íà þãî-çàïàäíîé îêðàèíå ã. Âîðîíåæà îñåíüþ 1973 ã., êîãäà çà 2 ÷àñà 40 ìèí. ïðîëåòåëî 109 êàíþêîâ. Ïòèöû ëåòåëè íà âûñîòå îêîëî 200 ì â þæíîì íàïðàâëåíèè, ÷àñòî êðóæà â âîñõîäÿùèõ ïîòîêàõ âîçäóõà. Êîëè÷åñòâî ïòèö â ñòàÿõ áûëî îò 8 äî 22. Íî âñòðå÷àëèñü è îäèíî÷íî ëåòÿùèå ïòèöû. Êîíòàêò (12).

Anomalous late event of breeding the Kestrel in Volgograd District ÀÍÎÌÀËÜÍÎ ÏÎÇÄÍÈÉ ÑËÓ×ÀÉ ÐÀÇÌÍÎÆÅÍÈß ÏÓÑÒÅËÜÃÈ Â ÂÎËÃÎÃÐÀÄÑÊÎÉ ÎÁËÀÑÒÈ I.V. Karyakin (Center of Field Studies, N.Novgorod, Russia) È.Â. Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ) (13) Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Ðîññèÿ Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë. Êîðîëåíêî, 17a-17 òåë.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru (13) Contact: Igor Karyakin Center of Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a-17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 33 38 47 ikar_research@mail.ru

7 äåêàáðÿ 2004 ã. â õîäå ïîñåùåíèÿ òåððèòîðèè Ëåíèíñêîãî ðàéîíà Âîëãîãðàäñêîé îáëàñòè â ãðà÷åâíèêå, ðàñïîëîæåííîì â ïîñàäêå âÿçà óçêîëèñòíîãî íà îêðàèíå íàñåëåííîãî ïóíêòà (N 49,11 E 45,48), áûë îáíàðóæåí äîêàðìëèâàåìûé âûâîäîê ïóñòåëüãè îáûêíîâåííîé (Falco tinnunculus) èç òðåõ îïåðåííûõ, íî åùå ïëîõî ëåòàþùèõ ïòåíöîâ (ó ìëàäøåãî îñòàâàëîñü íåêîòîðîå êîëè÷åñòâî ïóõà íà ãîëîâå).  ìîìåíò íàáëþäåíèÿ ñàìåö ïðèíåñ äîáûòîãî èì ãðûçóíà, è äâà ñòàðøèõ ïòåíöà ïîëåòåëè íàâñòðå÷ó ñàìöó, à ìëàäøèé îñòàâàëñÿ ñèäåòü íà äåðåâå è êðè÷àòü. Ýòîò àíîìàëüíî ïîçäíèé äëÿ ñòåïíîé çîíû Ðîññèè ñëó÷àé ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ïóñòåëüãè ñâÿçàí, ñêîðåå âñåãî, ñ îáèëèåì ìûøåâèäíûõ ãðûçóíîâ è áëàãîïðèÿòíûìè êëèìàòè÷åñêèìè óñëîâèÿìè â êîíöå îñåíè è íà÷àëå çèìû 2004 ã. íà òåððèòîðèè Âîëãîãðàäñêîãî Çàâîëæüÿ. Êîíòàêò (13).

I recorded a brood (3 juveniles) of Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) in the territory of the Volgograd District (N 49.11 E 45.48) in 7 December 2004. The brood was in a nesting colony of Rooks (Corvus frugilegus) in an artificial line-forest. This event of breeding the Kestrel was anomalously late for the steppe zone in Russia and was probably evoked by a mass abundance of voles and favourable weather conditions at the autumn and the beginning of winter in 2004. Contact (13).


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Ãðàíòû

Grants ÃÐÀÍÒÛ OBC Conservation Fund27 ÏÐÈÐÎÄÎÎÕÐÀÍÍÛÉ ÔÎÍÄ ÊËÓÁÀ ËÞÁÈÒÅËÅÉ ÂÎÑÒÎ×ÍÛÕ ÏÒÈÖ (OBC)27

Contact: Simon Wotton OBC Conservation Committee Senior Research Assistant The RSPB, Conservation Science UK Headquarters The Lodge Sandy Bedfordshire UK tel.: +44(0)1767680551 fax: +44(0)1767683508 simon.wotton@rspb.org.uk www.rspb.org.uk Graeme Spinks graeme.spinks@bbc.co.uk

27

Åæåãîäíî Êëóá ëþáèòåëåé âîñòî÷íûõ ïòèö (OBC), ñîâìåñòíî ñ êîìïàíèÿìè Leica, Asia Ecological Consultants è Wildwings âûäåëÿåò òðè ñóáñèäèè. Ãðàíòû Forktail-Leica è AEC/OBC â ðàçìåðå äî 1500 âûäåëÿþòñÿ íà ïîëåâóþ ðàáîòó îðíèòîëîãàì, èçó÷àþùèì óãðîæàåìûå âèäû ïòèö. Ãðàíò OBCWildwings â ðàçìåðå 1000 âûäåëÿåòñÿ îðíèòîëîãàì, çàíèìàþùèìñÿ ïðîáëåìàìè îõðàíû óãðîæàåìûõ âèäîâ ïòèöû è èõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé. Çàÿâêè íà ýòè ãðàíòû ìîãóò áûòü ïîäàíû êàæäûé ãîä äî 1 ñåíòÿáðÿ. Ìàëûå ãðàíòû, â ðàçìåðå 500, âûäåëÿþòñÿ íà òåõ æå ïðèíöèïàõ, êàê âûøåóêàçàííûå, íî çàÿâêè íà íèõ ïðèíèìàþòñÿ äâàæäû â ãîä – äî 1 ìàðòà è äî 1 ñåíòÿáðÿ. Ðóêîâîäÿùèå ïðèíöèïû: Ïðèðîäîîõðàííûé ôîíä OBC îáû÷íî äàåò ãðàíòû ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿì àçèàòñêèõ ñòðàí, õîòÿ ãðàíòû âûäåëÿþòñÿ è ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿì åâðîïåéñêèõ ñòðàí, êîòîðûå ðàáîòàþò â Àçèè. Ïðåòåíäåíòû äîëæíû ñòðåìèòüñÿ âêëþ÷àòü â ñâîþ ðàáîòó ìåñòíûõ ñïåöèàëèñòîâ, è, ãäå âîçìîæíî, âíîñèòü âêëàä â ïðàâèòåëüñòâåííûå ðåøåíèÿ îòíîñèòåëüíî ìåð ïî îõðàíå ïòèö è ïîääåðæèâàòü íàöèîíàëüíûå íåïðàâèòåëüñòâåííûå îðãàíèçàöèè.  îäèí ìîìåíò âðåìåíè èíäèâèäóàëüíûå ïðåòåíäåíòû ìîãóò èìåòü òîëüêî îäèí ïðîåêò, ïîääåðæàííûé OBC, ïîýòîìó ìíîãîêðàòíûå çàÿâêè íåöåëåñîîáðàçíû. Çàÿâêà äîëæíà áûòü íàáðàíà íà êîìïüþòåðå èëè áûòü àêêóðàòíî íàïèñàíà, ïðåäïî÷òèòåëüíî ÷åðíûìè ÷åðíèëàìè. Îáúåì çàÿâêè íå äîëæåí ïðåâûøàòü 4 ñòðàíèöû. Çàÿâêà äîëæíà áûòü íàïèñàíà ïî ñëåäóþùåé ôîðìå: 1. Íàçâàíèå ïðîåêòà. 2. Ôàìèëèÿ è èìÿ ïðåòåíäåíòà, àäðåñ, òåëåôîí, ôàêñ, ýëåêòðîííàÿ ïî÷òà. 3. Òåìà ïðîåêòà. Íåîáõîäèìî âêëþ÷èòü èìåíà, âîçðàñò, ýêñïåðòíûå çíàíèÿ è ðîëè äðóãèõ ó÷àñòíèêîâ ïëàíèðóåìîãî ïðîåêòà.

http://www.orientalbirdclub.org/action/applygrant.html

Three major grants are awarded each year in conjunction with Leica, Asia Ecological Consultants and Wildwings respectively. The Forktail-Leica Award and the AEC/OBC Award are for ornithological fieldwork relating to a threatened species and for projects with a total budget not exceeding 1500. The OBC-Wildwings Award concerns projects attempting to raise conservation awareness about threatened bird species and their habitats and is for a maximum of 1000. Applications for these annual awards should arrive by 1 September each year. A number of smaller grants of around 500 are also available. Grants are offered on the same principles as for the three major awards. However, applications are considered twice a year. Deadlines for OBC small grants are 1 March and 1 September. Guidelines for OBC Conservation Award Proposals: OBC Conservation Fund grants are usually only available to Oriental nationals, although consideration will be given to nonoriental applicants who work in conjunction with local people. Projects should aim to involve local people, and where possible contribute to government decisions regarding conservation measures, and support national non-government organisations. Please note that individual applicants can only have one project funded by OBC at any one time, multiple applications are therefore inadvisable. Applications should be typed or neatly hand-written, preferably in black ink. Your project proposal should be kept to 2–4 sides of paper and should follow the following format: 1. PROJECT TITLE 2. APPLICANTS NAME, ADDRESS, TELEPHONE and FAX NUMBER, AND EMAIL 3. PROJECT TEAM (if applicable) Please include the names, ages, expertise and roles of the other members of your project team.


Grants

Raptors Conservation 2005, 2 4. Ìåñòî ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà. Íåîáõîäèìî ïðèâåñòè èíôîðìàöèþ îòíîñèòåëüíî ãåîãðàôè÷åñêîé ïîçèöèè ìåñòà ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà, âêëþ÷àÿ øèðîòó è äîëãîòó. 5. Äàòû íà÷àëà è îêîí÷àíèÿ ïîëåâûõ ðàáîò. 6. Âèä/Ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿ/Ìåñòíûå ïàðíåðû, âîâëå÷åííûå â ïðîåêò.  äàííîì ðàçäåëå íåîáõîäèìî ïðèâåñòè êðàòêóþ èíôîðìàöèþ î âèäå ïî êîòîðîìó ðåàëèçóåòñÿ ïðîåêò, åãî ìåñòîîáèòàíèÿõ, óãðîçàõ. Ñîîáùèòü î ìåñòíûõ îðãàíèçàöèÿõ è ñïåöèàëèñòàõ, êîòîðûõ ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ïðèâëå÷ü ê ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà è ìåðîïðèÿòèÿõ ïî îáùåñòâåííîé îñâåäîìëåííîñòè î ïðîåêòå. 7. Öåëè è çàäà÷è ïðîåêòà. 8. Îáîñíîâàíèå íåîáõîäèìîñòè ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà. 9. Ìåòîäû. Íåîáõîäèìî ïîäðîáíî èçëîæèòü ìåòîäû, à òàêæå îïèñàòü òåõíèêó, êîòîðàÿ áóäåò èñïîëüçîâàíà äëÿ äîñòèæåíèÿ öåëåé ïðîåêòà. 10. Ðåàëèçàöèÿ ïðîåêòà. Íåîáõîäèìî îïèñàòü, êàê ïðåäëàãàåòñÿ âûïîëíÿòü èññëåäîâàíèÿ? Êàêèå ðåñóðñû äëÿ ýòîãî òðåáóþòñÿ. Íóæíî ëè ñïåöèàëüíîå ðàçðåøåíèå ÷òîáû çàíèìàòüñÿ âûáðàííîé ðàáîòîé íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè. Íóæåí ëè îòïóñê èëè ñâîáîäíîå âðåìÿ îò îñíîâíîé ðàáîòû, èëè ïðîåêò ðåàëèçóåòñÿ â õîäå îñíîâíîé ðàáîòû? Òðåáóåòñÿ îïèñàòü äåòàëüíûé ìàðøðóò ýêñïåäèöèè. 11. Áþäæåò. Íåîáõîäèìî îïèñàòü âñå ïðåäëàãàåìûå ðàñõîäû, íàïðèìåð, òðàíñïîðòíûå, ïîëåâûå è ò.ï. è ñëåäóåò ïîäðîáíî ðàñïèñàòü êàêàÿ ÷àñòü ãðàíòà OBC áóäåò òðàòèòñÿ íà êàêèå ñòàòüè ðàñõîäîâ â òîì ñëó÷àå åñëè ãðàíò áóäåò ïðåäîñòàâëåí. Ñëåäóåò óêàçàòü äðóãèå èñòî÷íèêè ôèíàíñèðîâàíèÿ, âêëþ÷àÿ ïðåäïîëàãàåìûå. 12. Îöåíêà ðåçóëüòàòà.  äàííîì ðàçäåëå íåîáõîäèìî îïèñàòü îæèäàåìûå ðåçóëüòàòû ïðîåêòà, à òàêæå, êàêèå ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ îïóáëèêîâàòü äàííûå, íà êàêóþ àóäèòîðèþ îðèåíòèðîâàííûå, â êàêîì âèäå (ñòàòüè, êíèãè) è â êàêèõ æóðíàëàõ è ñáîðíèêàõ. 13. Êàêîé âèä ãðàíòà OBC âû ïðîñèòå: Forktail-Leica ãðàíò, OBC-Wildwings ãðàíò èëè ìàëûé ãðàíò? 14. Îáðàùàëèñü ëè âû ðàíüøå çà ïîääåðæêîé â Ôîíä OBC? Ñîîáùèòå ïîäðîáíîñòè ïðåäûäóùèõ çàÿâîê, êàê óñïåøíûõ, òàê è íåóäà÷íûõ. Ïîäãîòîâëåííóþ çàÿâêó ñëåäóåò îòîñëàòü íà èìÿ îôèöèàëüíîãî ïðåäñòàâèòåëÿ ãðàíòîâîé ïðîãðàììû OBC: Conservation Chairman, â ýëåêòðîííîì âèäå íà àäðåñ: mail@orientalbirdclub.org èëè ïî ïî÷òå: Oriental Bird Club, P.O. Box 324, Bedford, MK42 0WG, United Kingdom.

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4. LOCATION OF STUDY AREA Give information concerning the geographical location of the study area, including latitude and longitude. 5. PROJECT DATES Start and finish dates of fieldwork. 6. SPECIES/HABITAT/LOCAL COMMUNITY INVOLVED Summarise what you know about the study area and its important species. Are there threats or pressures on these habitats and/or species? For community awareness projects describe the location and provide details of the local community you intend to work with. 7. PROJECT AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 8. RATIONALE OR PROJECT JUSTIFICATION State briefly why the project’s objectives are important. 9. METHODOLOGY Describe in detail the methodology or techniques you intend to follow to achieve your objectives. 10. PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION How do you propose to carry out the study? State what resources are required. Do you need special permission to enter or study in your chosen area or to get time off from your place of work? Please provide an outline itinerary for the project period. 11. BUDGET Please break down proposed expenditure into groups, e.g. travel, accommodation etc. and indicate what the OBC grant would be spent on in the event of a successful application.. Please indicate any other funding sources already approached and any amounts already promised. 12. OUTPUT What do you hope to produce from the study in terms of reports, papers and articles. Who do you intend to circulate your report to. 13. WHICH OBC GRANT ARE YOU APPLYING FOR? Forktail-Leica Award, OBCWildwings Conservation Awareness Award or OBC Small Grant? 14. HAVE YOU APPLIED FOR OBC FUNDING BEFORE? Give details of previous successful and unsuccessful applications. Please post your completed proposal to Conservation Chairman: Oriental Bird Club, P.O.Box 324, Bedford, MK42 0WG, United Kingdom; or email your completed proposal to Conservation Chairman: mail@orientalbirdclub.org.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 2

Íîâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ôèëüìû

New Publications and Videos ÍÎÂÛÅ ÏÓÁËÈÊÀÖÈÈ È ÔÈËÜÌÛ Journals ÆÓÐÍÀËÛ

(14) Contact: Donald S. Heintzelman Editor and Publisher International Hawkwatcher Zionsville, PA USA donsh@enter.net

BirdingASIA28  èþíå 2004 ã. âûøåë â ñâåò íîâûé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèé æóðíàë – BirdingASIA. BirdingASIA – íîâûé Áþëëåòåíü Êëóáà ëþáèòåëåé âîñòî÷íûõ ïòèö (OBC) â êîòîðîì ïëàí èðóåòñÿ ïóáëèêîâàòü âñþ èíôîðìàöèþ îá àçèàòñêèõ ïòèöàõ. ×ëåíû OBC áóäóò ïîëó÷àòü æóðíàë äâàæäû â ãîä. Âòîðîé íîìåð æóðíàëà âûøåë â ôåâðàëå 2005 ã., à òðåòèé ïëàíèðóåòñÿ èçäàòü ê èþíþ. Äëÿ ïîäãîòîâêè ïóáëèêàöèé íåîáõîäèìî ñëåäîâàòü ïðàâèëàì ïîäà÷è ñòàòåé â Forktail29.

BirdingASIA28 New ornithological Journal – BirdingASIA has begun to be publish since June 2004. BirdingASIA is the new OBC Bulletin on asian birds and birding asia published by Oriental Bird Club. OBC members receive BirdingASIA twice a year. The second number has issued in February 2005, and the third is planned to issue in June. Guidelines for Contributors available on site for OBC29.

International Hawkwatcher  2005 ã. Äîíàëüä Õåéíöçåëüìàí âîçîáíîâëÿåò èçäàíèå æóðíàëà International Hawkwatcher, íà÷èíàÿ ñ 10 íîìåðà. Äëÿ ïóáëèêàöèè â æóðíàëå ïðèíèìàþòñÿ ïðåæäå íå ïóáëèêîâàííûå ñòàòüè è êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ î ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêàõ, íîâîñòè â ìèðå õèùíûõ ïòèö, êíèæíûå îáçîðû, à òàêæå çàïèñêè â ïàìÿòü î âûäàþùèõñÿ èññëåäîâàòåëÿõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Ðóêîïèñè ìîãóò ñîäåðæàòü äàííûå èç ëþáûõ ðåãèîíîâ ìèðà, îäíàêî ïðåäïî÷èòàåòñÿ òîò ìàòåðèàë, êîòîðûé áûë ñîáðàí íà òåððèòîðèè Àìåðèêè èëè èìååò ê íåé ïðÿìîå îòíîøåíèå. Ïåðåä ïîäãîòîâêîé ðóêîïèñè íåîáõîäèìî ñâÿçàòüñÿ ñ ðåäàêòîðîì äëÿ îáñóæäåíèÿ ìàòåðèàëà. Íå ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ ïå÷àòü ôîòîãðàôèé ê ñòàòüÿì – òîëüêî òàáëèöû è ãðàôèêè, äëÿ ÷åãî îíè äîëæíû áûòü ïîäãîòîâëåíû â ýëåêòðîííîì âèäå. Ïî âñåì âîïðîñàì îáðàùàòüñÿ ê ðåäàêòîðó ïî ýëåêòðîííîé ïî÷òå. Êîíòàêò (14).

International Hawkwatcher Donald S. Heintzelman have decided to continue publication of International Hawkwatcher, starting with Issue No. 10, which publishes original, previously unpublished short raptor articles and notes as well as raptor news items, book reviews, and occasionally memorials to recently deceased prominent raptor biologists and hawkwatchers. He will consider articles and notes pertaining to raptors anywhere in the world, although he would prefer material from anywhere in the Americas. Please contact him before sending material by e-mail so he can discuss your ideas and material with you. All material must be written in English. He does not use photographs, but line art such as maps can be used provided you provide camera-ready art. Please feel free to contact him via e-mail using the e-mail address below. Contact (14).

ß. Áàðôèëä, Ô. Áîììåëü. Ïòèöû Åâðîïû: Îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè, òðåíäû è ïðèðîäîîõðàííûé ñòàòóñ. 2004. BirdLife International. 400 ñòð. Ïòèöû Åâðîïû (2004) – ýòî âòîðîé îáçîð ïðèðîäîîõðàííîãî ñòàòóñà âñåõ äèêèõ ïòèö â Åâðîïå. Ïðèâåäåíû äàííûå ïî îöåíêå ÷èñëåííîñòè 524 âèäîâ. 226 (43%) åâðîïåéñêîé îðíèòîôàóíû èìåþò â Åâðîïå íåáëàãîïðèÿòíûé ïðèðîäîîõðàííûé ñòàòóñ, èç íè

Birds in Europe: Population Estimates, Trends and Conservation Status. Compiled by I. Burfield and F. van Bommel. 2004. BirdLife International. 400 p. Birds in Europe (2004) or BiE2 is the second review of the conservation status of all wild birds in Europe. Some key messages: Of the 524 species assessed, 226 – or 43% of the European avifauna – have an Unfavourable Conservation Status in Europe. Of these, 40 species (7.6%) are classified as SPEC 1,45 (8.6%) as SPEC 2

Books ÊÍÈÃÈ

28 29

http://www.orientalbirdclub.org/publications/birdingasia/index.html http://www.orientalbirdclub.org/publications/forktail/guidelines.html


New Publications and Videos (15) Contact: BirdLife International Wellbrook Court Girton Road Cambridge CB3 0NA United Kingdom tel.: +44 (1223) 277318 fax: +44 (1223) 277200 birdlife@birdlife.org www.birdlife.org

(16) Êîíòàêò: Ñåðãåé Âîëêîâ Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè Ìîñêâà òåë.: (095) 343 85 55 owl_bird@mail.ru Àëåêñàíäð Øàðèêîâ Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè Ìîñêâà òåë.: (095) 431 65 45 russowls@mtu-net.ru (16) Contact: Sergei Volkov Russian Bird Conservation Union Moscow tel.: (095) 343 85 55 owl_bird@mail.ru Alexander Sharikov Russian Bird Conservation Union Moscow tel.: (095) 431 65 45 russowls@mtu-net.ru

(17) Êîíòàêò: Ðóñëàí Ìåäæèäîâ êîîðäèíàòîð ïðîåêòà ÐÎËË, ÊÐÎÎ «Öåíòð ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðîåêòîâ» 358004 Ðîññèÿ Ðåñïóáëèêà Êàëìûêèÿ ã. Ýëèñòà, ïð.Àðøàíñêèé centercep@yandex.ru (17) Contact: Ruslan Medzhidov Project Leader NGO Environmental Project Center 358004 Russia Republic of Kalmikiya Elista pr. Arshanskiy centercep@yandex.ru 30 31

40 âèäîâ (7,6%) îòíåñåíû ê êàòåãîðèè SPEC 1 (ãëîáàëüíî óãðîæàåìûå âèäû), 45 (8,6%) – ê êàòåãîðèè SPEC 2 (âèäû, ñîñòîÿíèå êîòîðûõ íåáëàãîïîëó÷íî â Åâðîïå, àðåàë êîòîðûõ íàõîäèòñÿ ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â Åâðîïå) è 141 (26,9%) – ê êàòåãîðèè SPEC 3 (âèäû, ñîñòîÿíèå êîòîðûõ íåáëàãîïîëó÷íî â Åâðîïå, àðåàë êîòîðûõ ëåæèò ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî çà ïðåäåëàìè Åâðîïû).  ïðåäûäóùåì èçäàíèè îáçîðà êîëè÷åñòâî âèäîâ ïòèö ñ íåáëàãîïîëó÷íûì ñòàòóñîì, îòíåñåííûõ ê êàòåãîðèÿì SPEC, áûëî 195 âèäà (38% èç 511 âèäîâ). Ñòîèìîñòü êíèãè 58 äîëëàðîâ ÑØÀ èëè 44 Åâðî ïî êóðñó íà êîíåö 2004 ã. Êíèãó ìîæíî çàêàçàòü íà ñàéòå NHBS30. Êîíòàêò (15). Ãîòîâèòñÿ ê âûõîäó ñáîðíèê «Ñîâðåìåííîå ñîñòîÿíèå ïîïóëÿöèé, ÷èñëåííîñòü è ðàçìåùåíèå ñîâ íà òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè», ïîäãîòîâëåííûé ê èçäàíèþ ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïîé ïî ñîêîëîîáðàçíûì è ñîâàì Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè ñîâìåñòíî ñ Ñîþçîì îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè.  ðåäàêöèþ ïîñòóïèëî 79 ñòàòåé î ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè è ÷èñëåííîñòè ñîâ â Àðêòèêå, Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè, Ñèáèðè è Äàëüíåì Âîñòîêå. Êîíòàêò (16). Êàðÿêèí È.Â., Ìåäæèäîâ Ð.À., Ïåñòîâ Ì.Â., Ñàëòûêîâ À.Â. Èçó÷åíèå è îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ Êàëìûêèè (ìåòîäè÷åñêîå ïîñîáèå). – Ýëèñòà: Öåíòð ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðîåêòîâ, 2004. 72 ñ. (*.pdf)31 Ìåòîäè÷åñêîå ïîñîáèå ðàçðàáîòàíî â ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà «Êîìïëåêñíàÿ îïòèìèçàöèÿ óñëîâèé îáèòàíèÿ ïòèö â Êàëìûêèè». Îñíîâíóþ ÷àñòü ïîñîáèÿ çàíèìàþò î÷åðêè îáî âñåõ âèäàõ õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ, âñòðå÷àþùèõñÿ íà òåððèòîðèè Êàëìûêèè, ñîäåðæàùèå îïèñàíèÿ êàê âíåøíåãî âèäà, ãîëîñà è ðàçìåðîâ ïòèö, òàê è èõ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé, ãíåçä, õàðàêòåðà ïðåáûâàíèÿ ïòèö íà òåððèòîðèè ðåñïóáëèêè è ôàêòîðîâ, ëèìèòèðóþùèõ èõ ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå è ÷èñëåííîñòü.  ïîñîáèè èçëàãàþòñÿ ìåòîäû èçó÷åíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö è èõ îõðàíû (ó÷åò ïòèö è îïèñàíèå èõ ãíåçä). Ðàññìàòðèâàþòñÿ ïðîáëåìû ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ, ñïîñîáû ñîõðàíåíèÿ è âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ óñëîâèé áåçîïàñíîãî îáèòàíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö â óñëîâèÿõ ïðåîáðàçîâàííîé ÷åëîâåêîì ñðåäû. Èçäàíèå ïðîôèíàíñèðîâàíî Èíñòèòóòîì óñòîé÷èâûõ ñîîáùåñòâ (ISC) â ðàìêàõ ïðî-

http://www.nhbs.com/xbscripts/bkfsrch?search=150394 http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/methods/kalmyk.pdf

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and 141 (26.9%) as SPEC 3. All these percentages exceed those in BiE1, when 195 species (38% of the 511 assessed) were classified as SPECs. Price $58 (eur 44). You can buy Birds in Europe securely online from NHBS30. Contact (15). Proceedings on the Owls «Modern condition of populations, number and distribution of Owls in Russia» prepared to output by the East Europe and North Asia Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls and Russian Bird Conservation Union. 79 papers on distribution and number of owls in Arctic, European part of Russia, Siberia and Far East have entered to editorial. Contact (16). Karyakin I.V., Medzhidov R.A., Pestov M.V., Saltikov A.V. Research and protection of raptors in the Republic of Kalmikiya (methodical allowance). – Elista: Environmental Project Centre, 2004. 72 p. (*.pdf)31 Methodical recommendations are designed within the project «Complex optimization of conditions for the inhabitance of the Birds of Prey in the Republic of Kalmikiya». Recommendations contents descriptions of plumage, call notes, size for adult and juvenile, habitats, nests for all Birds of Prey and Owls occurred in the Republic of Kalmikiya. The status of birds on the territory of the republic and limiting factors for their distribution and number are stressed. Recommendations contents also methods of studying Birds of Prey and Owls and their protection (census of birds and their nest description). Problems of electrocutions of Birds of Prey and Owls are considered, methods of conservation and recovering the conditions of safe dwelling the Birds of Prey and Owls in conditions of urbanization. This publication was made possible with the generous support from the Institute of Sustainable Communities (ISC) within the project of ROLL and USAID. This publication is distributed free of charge. Contact (17).


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(18) Êîíòàêò: Ôëåðà Ñàëèìõàíîâíà Ïåñòîâà Êîìèòåò îõðàíû ïðèðîäû è óïðàâëåíèÿ ïðèðîäîïîëüçîâàíèåì Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè Ðîññèÿ 603006 Í.Íîâãîðîä ïë. Ñâîáîäû, 1 òåë.: (8312) 39 13 03 postmaster@kop.nnov.ru Àíæåëèíà Áàêêà Ëàáîðàòîðèÿ îõðàíû áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ ïðè Ýêîöåíòðå «Äðîíò» Ðîññèÿ 603000 ã. Í.Íîâãîðîä à/ÿ 631 òåë.: (8312) 30 25 07 ôàêñ: (8312) 30 28 81 bat@dront.ru (18) Contact: Flera S. Pestova State Committee of Nature Conservation and Management of the N.Novgorod District Svoboda pl., 1 N.Novgorod 603006 Russia tel.: (8312) 39 13 03 postmaster@kop.nnov.ru Angelina Bakka Laboratory of Biodiversity Conservation under Ecocenter Dront P.O. Box 631 N.Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 30 25 07 fax: (8312) 30 28 81 bat@dront.ru (19) Êîíòàêò: ÃÓÏ «Ãîñóäàðñòâåííîå ðåñïóáëèêàíñêîå èçäàòåëüñòâî «Áàøêîðòîñòàí» 450079 Ðîññèÿ Ðåñïóáëèêà Áàøêîðòîñòàí Óôà, óë. 50-òè ëåòèÿ Îêòÿáðÿ, 13 (19) Contact: The State Republican Publishing house «Bashkortostan» The 50-th anniversary of October str., 13 Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan 450079 Russia

åêòà ROLL íà ñðåäñòâà USAID è ðàñïðîñòðàíÿåòñÿ áåñïëàòíî. Êîíòàêò (17).  êîíöå ÿíâàðÿ 2005 ã. â ïðîäàæó ïîñòóïèë CD: Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Ò.1. Æèâîòíûå. Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, 2003. Êíèãà ïðåêðàñíî èëëþñòðèðîâàíà îðèãèíàëüíûìè ðèñóíêàìè õóäîæíèêà Ñ.Á. Øóñòîâà, à òàêæå ðàíåå íå ïóáëèêîâàâøèìèñÿ öâåòíûìè è ÷åðíî-áåëûìè ðèñóíêàìè À.Í. Ôîðìîçîâà.  Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè âíåñåíû 16 âèäîâ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ (11 âèäîâ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è 5 âèäîâ ñîâîîáðàçíûõ): ñêîïà (Pandion haliaetus), áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos), ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca), áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga), îðåë-êàðëèê (Hieraaetus pennatus), çìååÿä (Circaetus gallicus), îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla), ñòåïíîé ëóíü (Circus macrourus), ñàïñàí (Falco peregrinus), äåðáíèê (Falco columbarius), êîá÷èê (Falco vespertinus), ôèëèí (Bubo bubo), áîðîäàòàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix nebulosa), ÿñòðåáèíàÿ ñîâà (Surnia ulula), ñïëþøêà (Otus scops), äîìîâûé ñû÷ (Athene noctua). Êîíòàêò (18).  2004 ã. èçäàíà Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Ðåñïóáëèêè Áàøêîðòîñòàí. Ò.3. Æèâîòíûå/ Ïîä ðåä. Ì.Ã. Áàÿíîâà. – Óôà: Áàøêîðòîñòàí, 2004. – 180 ñ.; èë.  íåå âêëþ÷åíû 14 âèäîâ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è 2 âèäà ñîâîîáðàçíûõ, èç íèõ 15 âèäîâ èìåþò ðåãèîíàëüíûé ñòàòóñ «âèä, íàõîäÿùèéñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ» – 1 êàòåãîðèÿ: ñêîïà (Pandion haliaetus), îñîåä (Pernis apivoris), ñòåïíîé ëóíü (Circus macrourus), çìååÿä (Circaetus gallicus), ñòåïíîé îðåë (Aquila rapax), áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga), ìîãèëüíèê (Aquila heliaca), áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos), îðëàíáåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla), êðå÷åò (Falñî rusticolus), áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug), ñàïñàí (Falco peregrinus), ñòåïíàÿ ïóñòåëüãà (Falco naumanni), ôèëèí (Bubo bubo), áîðîäàòàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix nebulosa). Êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus) îòíåñåí ê 3-åé êàòåãîðèè «ðåäêèé âèä íà ñåâåðíîé ãðàíèöå àðåàëà». Êîíòàêò (19).

Ïòåíöû îðëà-êàðëèêà (Hieraaetus pennatus). Ôîòî Ý. Íîêîëåíêî Chicks of Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus). Photo by E. Nikolenko

Íîâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ôèëüìû The CD Red Data Book of the N. Novgorod District. V.1. Animal. N. Novgorod, 2003. In the Red Data Book of the N. Novgorod there are sections on 17 species of raptors (11 – Birds of Prey and 5 – Owl): Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga), Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus), Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus), White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), Merlin (Falco columbarius), Red-Footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus), Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo), Great Grey Owl (Strix nebulosa), Hawk Owl (Surnia ulula), Scops Owl (Otus scops), Little Owl (Athene noctua). Contact (18). The Red Data Book of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Vol.3, Animals) was published in 2004. There were 14 species of Falconiformes and 2 species of Strigiformes, 15 species from them had a regional status «critical endangered» – 1 category: Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Honey Buzzard (Pernis apivoris), Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus), Short-Toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus), Steppe Eagle (Aquila rapax), Great Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), Gyrfalcon (Falñî rusticolus), Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni), Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo), Great Grey Owl (Strix nebulosa). The Long-Legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) had 3-d category «rare species on the northern border of range». Contact (19).


Contents

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Ñîäåðæàíèå

Contents

Ñîáûòèÿ ................................................................. 3

Events ...................................................................... 3

Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà ............................................... 12

Problem of Number .............................................. 12

Áàëîáàí â Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïå – äî òðàãåäèè îäèí øàã. È.Â. Êàðÿêèí ................... 12

Saker Falcon in East Europe – stay in one step to tragedy. I.V. Karyakin ...................................... 12

Èòîãîâîå çàêëþ÷åíèå Êîíñóëüòàöèîííîé âñòðå÷è ÑÈÒÅÑ ïî òîðãîâëå ñîêîëàìè äëÿ íóæä ñîêîëèíîé îõîòû Àáó Äàáè, 16–19 ìàÿ 2004 ......................... 16

Summary record of CITES Consultative meeting on trade in falcons for falconry Abu Dhabi, 16–19 May 2004 ................................................................... 16

×òî îæèäàåò ñàïñàíà â äîëèíå ð. Çèëèì? Áàøêèðèÿ, Ðîññèÿ. À.Ñ. Ïàæåíêîâ ..................... 21

What will Peregrine Falcon expected on the Zilim River? Bashkiria, Russia. A.S. Pazhenkov ............. 21

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ .............................. 25

Raptors Conservation ........................................... 25

Õèùíûå ïòèöû è ËÝÏ – èòîãè ïðîåêòà â Êàëìûêèè, Ðîññèÿ. Ð.À. Ìåäæèäîâ, Ì.Â. Ïåñòîâ, À.Â. Ñàëòûêîâ ................................ 25

Birds of Prey and PowerLines – results of project in the Republic of Kalmykia, Russia. R.A. Medzhidov, M.V. Pestov, A.V. Saltykov ....... 25

Ãèáåëü õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Ïðèàðàëüå, Êàçàõñòàí. È.Â. Êàðÿêèí, Ë.Ì. Íîâèêîâà, À.Ñ. Ïàæåíêîâ ................................................... 31

Electrocutions of birds of prey on power lines in the Aral Sea region, Kazakhstan. I.V. Karyakin, L.M. Novikova, A.S. Pazhenkov ..... 31

Îöåíêà è ïðîãíîçèðîâàíèå ìàñøòàáîâ ãèáåëè õèùíûõ ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (ëåñíàÿ è ëåñîñòåïíàÿ çîíà åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè). À.È. Ìàöûíà ......... 33

The estimation and prediction of killed raptors by electrocutions on the power lines in the Nizhniy Novgorod District (forest and foreststeppe zones of the Center of the European Part of Russia). A.I. Matsina ................................. 33

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ .......................... 42 Áàëîáàí â Çàïàäíîì Êàçàõñòàíå: ðåçóëüòàòû èññëåäîâàíèé 2003–2004 ãã. È.Â. Êàðÿêèí, À.Ñ. Ëåâèí, Ë.Ì. Íîâèêîâà, À.Ñ. Ïàæåíêîâ ...... 42 Ïðåäâàðèòåëüíûå ðåçóëüòàòû ïðîåêòà ïî èçó÷åíèþ ìèãðàöèè áàëîáàíà â Ðîññèè. È.Â. Êàðÿêèí, Ý.Ã. Íèêîëåíêî, Å.Ð. Ïîòàïîâ, Í. Ôîêñ .............................................................. 56

Raptors Research .................................................. 42 Saker in the North-Western Kazakhstan: results of the 2003–2004 surveys. I.V. Karyakin, A.S. Levin, L.M. Novikova, A.S. Pazhenkov ........ 42 Preliminary results of the project on migration studies of the Saker Falcon in Russia. I.V. Karyakin, E.G. Nikolenko, E.R. Potapov, N. Fox .................. 56

Êðàòêèå ñîîáùåíèÿ ............................................ 60

Short reports ......................................................... 60

Ïåðâûé ñëó÷àé ãíåçäîâàíèÿ äëèííîõâîñòîé íåÿñûòè â Íèæíåì Íîâãîðîäå. À. Ëåâàøêèí ..... 60

The first record of breeding of the Ural Owl in the territory of N. Novgorod city. A. Levashkin ....................................................... 60

Íàáëþäåíèå çà îñåííèì ïðîëåòîì êàíþêîâ ïîä Âîðîíåæåì. Î.Ã. Êèñåëåâ ............................ 60 Àíîìàëüíî ïîçäíèé ñëó÷àé ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ïóñòåëüãè â Âîëãîãðàäñêîé îáëàñòè. È.Â. Êàðÿêèí ...................................................... 61

Observation for autumn migration of Buzzards near Voronezh. O.G. Kiselev ................................ 60 Anomalous late event of breeding the Kestrel in Volgograd District. I.V. Karyakin ....................... 61

Ãðàíòû .................................................................. 62

Grants .................................................................... 62

Ïðèðîäîîõðàííûé ôîíä Êëóáà ëþáèòåëåé âîñòî÷íûõ ïòèö (OBC) ........................................ 62

OBC Conservation Fund ......................................... 62

Íîâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ôèëüìû ........................... 64

Journals .................................................................. 64

Æóðíàëû ................................................................ 64 Êíèãè ..................................................................... 64

New Publications and Videos .............................. 64 Books ..................................................................... 64

Îòïå÷àòàíî â òèïîãðàôèè ÍÍÃÓ ñ ãîòîâîãî îðèãèíàë-ìàêåòà Ëèö. ÏÄ ¹ 18-0099 îò 04.05.01 ã. 603000, ã. Í. Íîâîãîðîä, óë. Á. Ïîêðîâñêàÿ, 37


Raptors Conservation 2/2005  

Pernatye khishniki i ikh okhrana / Raptors Conservation is the unique peer-reviewed periodical journal in the countries of the former USSR,...

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