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Raptors Conservation ÏÅÐÍÀÒÛÅ ÕÈÙÍÈÊÈ È ÈÕ ÎÕÐÀÍÀ 2005 ¹1

ISSN 1814–0076

Ðàáî÷èé áþëëåòåíü î ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêàõ Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè The Newsletter of the raptors of the East Europe and North Asia Áþëëåòåíü «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà» ó÷ðåæäåí ìåæðåãèîíàëüíîé áëàãîòâîðèòåëüíîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèåé «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð» (Íîâîñèáèðñê) è íàó÷íî-èññëåäîâàòåëüñêîé îáùåñòâåííîé îðãàíèçàöèåé «Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé» (Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä).

The Newsletter «Raptors Conservation» has been founded by the non-governmental organisations Siberian Environmental Center (Novosibirsk) and Center of Field Studies (Nizhniy Novgorod).

Ðåäàêòîðû íîìåðà: Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî è Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí

Editors: Elvira Nikolenko and Igor Karyakin

Ýòîò âûïóñê ãîòîâèëè: Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî (Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð, Íîâîñèáèðñê, Ðîññèÿ), Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ), Åâãåíèé Ïîòàïîâ (Èíñòèòóò èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ, Êàðìàðñåí, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ), Àííà Øåñòàêîâà (Íèæåãîðîäñêèé ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé óíèâåðñèòåò, Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ðîññèÿ).

This issue has made by: Elvira Nikolenko (Siberian Environmental Center, Novosibirsk, Russia), Igor Karyakin (Center of Field Studies, N.Novgorod, Russia), Eugene Potapov (Falcon Research Institute, Carmarthen, UK), Anna Shestakova (State University, N.Novgorod, Russia).

Ôîòîãðàôèÿ íà ëèöåâîé ñòîðîíå îáëîæêè: áîðîäàòàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix nebulosa), Êðàñíîÿðñêèé êðàé, èþíü 2004 ã. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà

Photo on the front cover: Great Grey Owl (Strix nebulosa), Krasnoyarsk Kray, June 2004. Photo by I. Karyakin

 èëëþñòðàöèè çàäíåé ñòîðîíû îáëîæêè èñïîëüçîâàíû ôîòîãðàôè È. Êàðÿêèíà, Å. Ïîòàïîâà, Ý. Íèêîëåíêî

Photos on the back cover by I. Karyakin, E. Potapov, E. Nikolenko

Äèçàéí: Ä. Ñåíîòðóñîâ, À. Êëåùåâ Âåðñòêà: À. Êëåùåâ

Design by D. Senotrusov, A. Kleschev Page-proofs by A. Kleschev

Àäðåñ ðåäàêöèè: 630090 Ðîññèÿ, Íîâîñèáèðñê, à/ÿ 547

Tel./Fax: (3832) 39 78 85

Editorial adress: P.O. Box 547, Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090

Ýëåêòðîííàÿ âåðñèÿ/RC online http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/RC

E-mail: rc_news@mail.ru ikar_research@mail.ru nikolenko@ecoclub.nsu.ru http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors

Ïðàâèëà äëÿ àâòîðîâ äîñòóïíû íà ñàéòå: Guidelines for Contributors available on website: http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/RC/guidelines/


Editorial ÎÒ ÐÅÄÀÊÖÈÈ

Äîðîãèå êîëëåãè! Âû äåðæèòå â ðóêàõ ïåðâûé âûïóñê áþëëåòåíÿ î ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêàõ Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè. Íà ñòðàíèöàõ ýòîãî èçäàíèÿ ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ïóáëèêîâàòü íîâîñòè, êàñàþùèåñÿ èçó÷åíèÿ è îõðàíû ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è ñîâîîáðàçíûõ íà òåððèòîðèè ïîñòñîâåòñêîãî ïðîñòðàíñòâà è ñîïðåäåëüíûõ ãîñóäàðñòâ. Èäåÿ ïîäîáíîãî èçäàíèÿ íå íîâà. Ïîïûòêè îáúåäèíèòü îðíèòîëîãîâ ðàñïàâøåãîñÿ Ñîâåòñêîãî Ñîþçà, èçó÷àþùèõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, ñïåöèàëèçèðîâàííûì áþëëåòåíåì ïðåäïðèíèìàëèñü íåîäíîêðàòíî. Ïèîíåðîì íà ýòîì ïîïðèùå ìîæíî ñ÷èòàòü RaptorLink, êîòîðûé âûõîäèë â ñâåò â íà÷àëå 90-õ ãã. ÕÕ ñòîëåòèÿ áëàãîäàðÿ óñèëèÿì Åâãåíèÿ Ðîàëüäîâè÷à Ïîòàïîâà. Âîïðîñ îá èçäàíèè áþëëåòåíÿ Ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû ïî ñîêîëîîáðàçíûì è ñîâàì Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè (ÐÃÑÑ) íåîäíîêðàòíî ïîäíèìàëñÿ íà êîíôåðåíöèÿõ ïî ïåðíàòûì õèùíèêàì, â òîì ÷èñëå è íà ïîñëåäíåé, ïðîõîäèâøåé 1-3 ôåâðàëÿ 2003 ã. â ã. Ïåíçå. Êàçàëîñü áû, äåëî ñäâèíóëîñü ñ ìåðòâîé òî÷êè – â Ðóíåòå ïîÿâèëñÿ ñàéò ÐÃÑÑ, çàðàáîòàëà òåëåêîíôåðåíöèÿ ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû, îäíàêî áþëëåòåíü òàê è íå âûøåë â ñâåò. Ñîêîëîîáðàçíûå – ñàìûå ìíîãî÷èñëåííûå ïðåäñòàâèòåëè íà ñòðàíèöàõ Êðàñíîé êíèãè Ðîññèè, à ÐÃÑÑ – îäíà èç ñàìûõ ìíîãî÷èñëåííûõ ðàáî÷èõ ãðóïï îðíèòîëîãîâ íà ïîñò-ñîâåòñêîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå è ïðàêòè÷åñêè åäèíñòâåííàÿ, íå èìåþùàÿ ñâîåãî èíôîðìàöèîííîãî áþëëåòåíÿ. Îòñþäà âîçíèêàåò çàêîíîìåðíûé âîïðîñ: à íóæåí ëè áþëëåòåíü î ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêàõ Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àçèè? Àíàëèç ïóáëèêàöèé ïîñëåäíèõ ëåò â ðàçëè÷íûõ ñáîðíèêàõ íàó÷íûõ òðóäîâ ïîêàçûâàåò, ÷òî, íåñìîòðÿ íà ìíîæåñòâî íî..., èíòåðåñ ê ïåðíàòûì õèùíèêàì åñòü, à çíà÷èò è íóæåí èíôîðìàöèîííûé áþëëåòåíü, êîòîðûé ñìîã áû îáúåäèíèòü ñïåöèàëèñòîâ è ñòàòü èõ ïå÷àòíûì èçäàíèåì. Èíôîðìàöèîííûé áþëëåòåíü «Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà» íå ÿâëÿåòñÿ èçäàíèåì ÐÃÑÑ, õîòÿ èìååò âñå øàíñû ñòàòü òàêîâûì. Îñíîâíûå çàäà÷è áþëëåòåíÿ: – ñòàòü îáúåäèíÿþùèì ôàêòîðîì äëÿ èññëåäîâàòåëåé ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ; – ñòèìóëèðîâàòü èññëåäîâàòåëåé íàïðàâëÿòü ìàêñèìóì óñèëèé äëÿ ðåøåíèÿ çàäà÷ ñîõðàíåíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ è ìåñò èõ îáèòàíèÿ; – ñòàòü öåíòðîì àêêóìóëÿöèè íîâåéøåé èíôîðìàöèè î ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè, äèíàìèêå ÷èñëåííîñòè è áèîëîãèè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, ìåòîäèêàõ èõ èçó÷åíèÿ è îõðàíû; – âëèÿòü íà ëèö, ãîòîâÿùèõ è ïðèíèìàþùèõ ðåøåíèÿ â èñïîëüçîâàíèè è îõðàíå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Ìû áëàãîäàðèì âñåõ, êòî îòêëèêíóëñÿ íà íàøó èíèöèàòèâó è ïðåäîñòàâèë ñâîè ìàòåðèàëû. Íàñêîëüêî æèçíåñïîñîáíûì è ïîëåçíûì áóäåò áþëëåòåíü, çàâèñèò îò Âàñ. Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí è Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî

Dear colleagues! This is the first issue of the newsletter of the raptors of East Europe and North Asia. We are planning to publish the news about the research and protection of raptors in the territory of Russia and the adjoining countries. The idea of such a newsletter is not new. Attempts to link up raptor biologists of the disintegrating Soviet Union were undertaken several times. The first one to be published was Raptor-Link, which distributed in the 90’s (Editor Eugene R. Potapov). The question of publishing a bulletin of East Europe and North Asia Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls (EENAWGBPO) was repeatedly raised at raptor conferences, including and latest, held 1-3 February 2003 in Penza. The newsletter «Raptors Conservation» is not run by EENAWGBPO, though it has all chances to become such. The primary goals of this newsletter are: – Encourage cooperation among Raptor Biologists; – Promote the conservation of raptors among Raptor Biologists; – Disseminate the latest information on spreading, dynamics of the number and biology of raptors, strategies of their studying and protection; – Help people with protection of raptors. We thank all who have responded to our initiative and sent their own material. We would greatly welcome your further cooperation. With thanks Igor Karyakin and Elvira Nikolenko


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Ñîáûòèÿ

Events ÑÎÁÛÒÈß 5-6 ôåâðàëÿ 2004 ãîäà íà êóðîðòå Ãîäàâàðè â Êàòìàíäó (Íåïàë) ñîñòîÿëîñü ñîâåùàíèå ñïåöèàëèñòîâ, ðàáîòàþùèõ ïî ïðîáëåìå êàòàñòðîôè÷åñêîãî ñîêðàùåíèÿ ñèïîâ â Þæíîé Àçèè, îðãàíèçîâàííîå Ôîíäîì ñàïñàíà ñîâìåñòíî ñ Îáùåñòâîì îõðàíû ïòèö Íåïàëà1. Íà ñîâåùàíèè ïðèñóòñòâîâàëè ïðåäñòàâèòåëè ïðàâèòåëüñòâ Èíäèè, Íåïàëà è Ïàêèñòàíà, ñîòðóäíèêè ãîñóäàðñòâåííûõ îðãàíîâ ïî îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû, ïðåäñòàâèòåëè ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ îðãàíèçàöèé èç Èíäèè, Íåïàëà, Ïàêèñòàíà, ÑØÀ, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè è Îáúåäèíåííûõ Àðàáñêèõ Ýìèðàòîâ (ÎÀÝ). Öåëè ñîâåùàíèÿ: – ïðåäñòàâèòü äîêàçàòåëüñòâà, ÷òî èñïîëüçîâàíèå ëåêàðñòâà äèêëîôåíàê â âåòåðèíàðíîé ïðàêòèêå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïåðâîé è îñíîâíîé ïðè÷èíîé ìàñøòàáíîé ãèáåëè ñèïîâ è, Ïàäàëüùèêè, ïîãèáøèå îò îòðàâëåíèÿ äèêëîôåíàêîì. Ôîòî Ï. Áýíñîíà / Ôîíä êàê ñëåäñòâèå, êàòàñòðîôèñàïñàíà ÷åñêîãî ïàäåíèÿ èõ ÷èñëåíThe drug diclofenac appears to be the íîñòè â Þæíîé Àçèè; cause of these vulture deaths. Photo by P. – ïðèâëå÷ü ãîñóäàðñòâåííûõ Benson/The Peregrine Fund ÷èíîâíèêîâ ê ðåøåíèþ äàííîé ïðîáëåìû.

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A Summit Meeting to present the evidence for the veterinary use of the drug diclofenac as a primary cause of large scale Gyps vulture mortalities and subsequent population declines in South Asia was jointly organized by The Peregrine Fund and Bird Conservation Nepal in Kathmandu at the Godavari Village Resort on 5–6 February 20041. Delegates were government officials from India, Nepal, and Pakistan in charge of wildlife and conservation issues from the Ministry of Environment or equivalent. Other delegates were representatives of conservation NGOs from India, Nepal, Pakistan, U.S.A., U.K., and United Arab Emirates. The main objectives of the meeting were to provide a briefing to government representatives on the scientific evidence of the role of the drug diclofenac in the catastrophic collapse of Gyps vulture populations in South Asia and to resolve what actions must to be taken to prevent the extinctions of three of these species which are now critically endangered. A facilitated workshop was organized on February 6 where delegates were given an opportunity to participate in a forum to develop a strategic response to this new environmental threat posed by diclofenac, and help restore these species.

Ïîïóëÿöèè òðåõ âèäîâ ðîäà Gyps â ïîñëåäíåå äåñÿòèëåòèå îêàçàëèñü ïîä óãðîçîé âûìèðàíèÿ. Ñ 1992 ïî 2003 ã. â Èíäèè ÷èñëåííîñòü Gyps bengalensis ñîêðàòèëàñü íà 99,7% è G. indicus/tenuirostis íà 97,4%. Ýòî ñîîòâåòñòâóåò ñïàäó â 34% è 27% â ãîä ñîîòâåòñòâåííî.  Ïàêèñòàíå ïàäåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè Gyps bengalensis â 2003 ã. ñîñòàâèëî 57%. Àíàëîãè÷íûì îáðàçîì âûãëÿäèò ñèòóàöèÿ â Íåïàëå.  ðåçóëüòàòå òàêîãî áûñòðîãî ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè âñå òðè âèäà ñèïîâ îòíåñåíû Ìåæäóíàðîäíûì ñîþçîì îõðàíû ïðèðîäû ê âûñøåé êàòåãîðèè óãðîæàåìîñòè ñ âûñîêîé äîëåé ðèñêà èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ â äèêîé ïðèðîäå â áëèæàéøåì áóäóùåì.

The minimum decline in Gyps bengalensis numbers in India during the period 1992–2003 was 99.7% and 97.4% for Gyps indicus/tenuirostris. This corresponds with a minimum estimated rate of decline of 34% per year for G. bengalensis and 27% per year for the G. indicus/tenuirostis group. Because of the evidence of widespread and rapid population decline, all three vulture species were listed by IUCN, The World Conservation Union, in 2000 as Critically Endangered (BirdLife 2000), which is the highest category of endangerment. This assessment indicates a high risk of global extinction in the wild in the near future.

Îò÷åò ñîâåùàíèÿ ïî ìåæäóíàðîäíîìó ïëàíó âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ ñèïîâ â Þæíîé Àçèè, 2004

Report of the international South Asian vulture recovery plan workshop, 2004

http://www.peregrinefund.org/conserv_vulture_kathmandu.asp


Events

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1

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6 ôåâðàëÿ áûë îðãàíèçîâàí ñåìèíàð, ãäå äåëåãàòàì áûëà ïðåäîñòàâëåíà âîçìîæíîñòü ïîó÷àñòâîâàòü â ôîðóìå ïî ðàçðàáîòêå ñòðàòåãèè ðåøåíèÿ óãðîçû çàðàæåíèÿ äèêëîDr. Rhys Green ôåíàêîì îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû University of è âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ âèäîâ, ïîCambridge, U.K. ñòðàäàâøèõ îò äèêëîôåíàêà. tel.: 01223 762840 Ñïåöèàëüíûìè çàäà÷àìè ñåreg29@hermes.cam.ac.uk ìèíàðà áûëè: Becky Allen Press Officer, British – ðàçðàáîòêà ïóòåé óìåíüøåEcological Society, U.K. íèÿ è, â ïåðñïåêòèâå, ïðåêðà- Ãðóïïà áåíãàëüñêèõ ñèïîâ Gyps bengalensis. Ôîòî À. Ðàìàíè tel.: 01223 570016 ùåíèÿ èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ äèêëî- Group of White-rumped Vultures Gyps bengalensis. Photo by A. Rahmani or 07949 804317 ôåíàêà â âåòåðèíàðíîé beckyallen@ntlworld.com ïðàêòèêå â Þæíîé Àçèè; Specific objectives of the workshop were – ïëàíèðîâàíèå ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïî ïðåäîòto: âðàùåíèþ äàëüíåéøåãî ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñ– Identify ways to reduce and eventually halt ëåííîñòè ñèïîâ â Þæíîé Àçèè è âîññòàthe use of veterinary diclofenac in South Asia; íîâëåíèþ èõ ïîïóëÿöèé; – Outline and implement a species restora– ïîäãîòîâêà ðåçîëþöèè ñîâåtion plan to prevent imminent extinction of ùàíèÿ è ðåêîìåíäàöèé ïî ïðèthree species of Gyps vultures in South Asia. íÿòèþ íåçàìåäëèòåëüíûõ äåéProduce a Kathmandu Summit Meeting ñòâèé äëÿ ïðåäîòâðàùåíèÿ Resolution, endorsed by South Asian goväàëüíåéøåãî ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñernments and NGOs, that recognizes the ëåííîñòè ñèïîâ â Þæíîé threat to vulture populations posed by diÀçèè è óòâåðæäåíèå ðåçîëþclofenac and urges immediate steps to preöèè è ðåêîìåíäàöèé íà óðîâvent the extinction of vultures in South Asia. íå ïðàâèòåëüñòâ ñòðàí Þæíîé Contact (1). Àçèè. Êîíòàêò (1). In more detail about the problem of Áîëåå ïîäðîáíî î ïðîáëådiclofenac application see R.Vatsona's press ìå ïðèìåíåíèÿ äèêëîôåíàêà release and Manifest BirdLife International Ìåðòâûé áåíãàëüñêèé ñèï Gyps bengalenñì. ïðåññ-ðåëèç Ð.Âàòñîíà è on the page 19. sis. Ôîòî Ì. Âèðàíè /Ôîíä ñàïñàíà Ìàíèôåñò BirdLife InternaA dead White-rumped Vulture Gyps tional íà ñòð. 19. bengalensis. Photo by M. Virani/The PerThe International South Asian vulture egrine Fund 12–14 ôåâðàëÿ 2004 ãîäà â (Gyps bengalensis, G. indicus and G. tenÏàðâàíó (Èíäèÿ) ïðîøëî ìåæäóíàðîä- uirostris) recovery plan workshop on the íîå ñîâåùàíèå, íà êîòîðîì îáñóæäàë- 12–14 February 20042. The participants agreed that immediate ñÿ ïëàí äåéñòâèé ïî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ ïîïóëÿöèé ñèïîâ (Gyps bengalensis, G. capture and holding of individuals of all indicus and G. tenuirostris) â Þæíîé three Gyps species is required urgently in order to avert their extinction. Àçèè2. (2) Contact: Ó÷àñòíèêè ñîâåùàíèÿ ðåøèëè ïðåäïðèBlackwell Publishing íèìàòü íåîòëîæíûå ìåðû äëÿ ðàçâåäåíèÿ The British OrnitholPO Box 1354, 9600 Garsington Road ýòèõ âèäîâ â íåâîëå. ogists’ Union (BOU) Oxford OX4 2ZG held the annual confertel.: +44 (0)1865 26–28 ìàðòà 2004 ãîäà â Óíèâåðñèòåòå ence «Lowland Farm778315 Ëåéñèñòåðà (Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ) ïðîøëà land Birds II: The Road customerservices@oxon. åæåãîäíàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ Ñîþçà áðèblackwellpublishing.com To Recovery» in the òàíñêèõ îðíèòîëîãîâ (BOU) ïî òåìå University of Leicester, (3) Contact: «Ïòèöû ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ ëàíä26–28 March 20043. Dan E. Chamberlain øàôòîâ II: ïóòè âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ»3. Order a printed copy British Trust for Ïå÷àòíóþ êîïèþ ìàòåðèàëîâ ìîæíî çàOrnithology Scotland of the proceedings ( 25) from (2). êàçàòü ( 25) ïî àäðåñó (2). School of Biological and Conference report has published in «Ibis» Environmental Sciences Îò÷åò î êîíôåðåíöèè îïóáëèêîâàí â æóð¹ 146, pp. 704-706. Contact (3). University of Stirling íàëå «Èáèñ» ¹146, ñ. 704-706. Êîíòàêò (3). (1) Contact: Dr. Rick Watson International Programs Director, The Peregrine Fund, USA 208/362-3716 rwatson@peregrinefund.org

FK9 4LA, UK 2 3

http://www.vulturedeclines.org/Vulture%20Recovery%20Workshop.pdf http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

(4) Contact: Donald E. Kroodsma Secretary, Association of Field Ornithologists Department of Biology University of Massachusetts Amherst MA 01003-0027 tel.: (413) 545-4361 fax: (413) 545-3243 kroodsma@bio.umass.edu

22–25 àïðåëÿ 2004 ãîäà ïðîøëà êîíôåðåíöèÿ, îðãàíèçîâàííàÿ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ëàáîðàòîðèåé Êîðíåëëà ñîâìåñòíî ñ Îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèì îáùåñòâîì Âèëñîíà4. Êîíôåðåíöèè ïðåäøåñòâîâàëè ñåìèíàðû ïî âîïðîñàì èçó÷åíèÿ áèîàêóñòèêè, äèãèñêîïèè è çâóêîçàïèñè ïòèö, îòðàçèâøèå íåêîòîðûå íàïðàâëåíèÿ èññëåäîâàíèé ëàáîðàòîðèè.  õîäå êîíôåðåíöèè Àññîöèàöèåé ïîëåâûõ îðíèòîëîãîâ ïðîâåäåí ðÿä âñòðå÷, â òîì ÷èñëå âñòðå÷à Êîìèòåòà îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîãî àòëàñà Ñåâåðíîé Àìåðèêè. Íà êîíôåðåíöèè áûëè ïðåäñòàâëåíû 60 ñîîáùåíèé è 47 ïîñòåðîâ. Êîíòàêò (4). 22–23 èþíÿ 2004 ãîäà â Áåðëèíå (Ãåðìàíèÿ) ñîñòîÿëàñü êîíôåðåíöèÿ «Âèäû-ìèãðàíòû: ñâÿçü ýêîñèñòåì è îáëàñòåé íàóêè» ïîñâÿùåííàÿ 25-é ãîäîâùèíå Áîííñêîé Êîíâåíöèè5. Íà êîíôåðåíöèè ïðîçâó÷àëî 18 äîêëàäîâ, â òîì ÷èñëå äîêëàä ïðîôåññîðà Á.Ó. Ìåéáóðãà «20 òûñ. êì îò Áðàíäåðáóðãà äî Þæíîé Àôðèêè: ìèãðàöèè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ïðîñëåæåííûå ñ ïîìîùüþ ñïóòíèêîâîé òåëåìåòðèè»6. Èòîãîâûé îò÷åò êîíôåðåíöèè â ôîðìàòå (*.pdf) äîñòóïåí íà ñàéòå GROMS7. Êîíòàêò (5).

(5) Contact: Dr. Klaus Riede Global Register of Migratory Species – GROMS (http://www.groms.de) c/o Alexander Koenig Research Institute and Museum of Zoology Adenauerallee 160 53113 Bonn, Germany fax: +49-(0)228-9122-219 groms@gmx.de

4 5 6 7 8

31 èþëÿ 2004 ãîäà Åâðîïåéñêàÿ ðàáî÷àÿ ãðóïïà ïî áåëîãîëîâîìó ñèïó (EGVWG) çàêîí÷èëà ïîäãîòîâêó Ïëàíà äåéñòâèé ïî åâðàçèéñêîìó áåëîãîëîâîìó ñèïó (Gyps fulvus fulvus) â Åâðîïå è Ñðåäèçåìíîìîðüå8.  ïîäãîòîâêå ïëàíà äåéñòâèé ó÷àñòâîâàëè ñïåöèàëèñòû ïî âèäó èç Àëáàíèè, Ñåðáèè (Bratislav Grubac), Àðìåíèè (Mamikon Ghasabian, Karen Aghababian), Àâñòðèè (Ralf Bogel), Áîëãàðèè (Hristo Hristov), Õîðâàòèè (Goran Susic), Êèïðà (Savvas Iezekiel), Ôðàíöèè (Francois Sarrazin), Ãðóçèè (Alexander Gavashelishvili), Ãðåöèè (Stratis Bourdakis), Èçðàèëÿ (Ohad Hatzofe, Ofer Bahat), Èòàëèè (Fulvio Genero, Fabio Perco), Èîðäàíèè (Fares Khoury), Ïîðòóãàëèè, Èñ-

http://www.afonet.org/english/meeting.html http://www.groms.de/groms/work25/vortrag.html http://www.groms.de/groms/work25/vortrag/meyburg.pdf http://www.groms.de/groms/work25/vortrag/endbericht.pdf http://www.gyps.org/download/Action_plan_Griffon_vulture.pdf

Ñîáûòèÿ The Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, newly housed in its spectacular Imogene Powers Johnson Center for Birds and Biodiversity, hosted our joint meeting with the Wilson Ornithological Society 22–25 April 20044. Preceding the paper sessions, the Lab treated us to four incredible workshops on Bioacoustics Research, Digiscoping and Sound Recording, reflecting only some of the Lab’s activities. And, in addition to the usual AFO business, AFO hosted meetings of the North American Ornithological Atlas Committee and the North American Banding Council. 60 papers and 47 posters were presented on the conference. Contact (4). The Workshop on behalf of the 25th anniversary of the Bonn Convention «Migratory Species: Linking Ecosystems and Disciplines» was held in Berlin in the 22–23 June 20045. 18 reports were sounded on the Workshop including the report by Prof. Dr. BerndUlrich Meyburg: «20.000 km from Mark Brandenburg to South Africa: Migrations of Raptors as revealed by satellite telemetry»6. Total report on conferences (*.pdf) available on site GROMS7. Contact (5). Action Plan for the Eurasian Griffon Vulture has now been completed 31 July 20048. The Specialists on Vultures from many European countries participated in develÁåëîãîëîâûé ñèï (Gyps fulvus fulvus). Ôîòî ïðåäîñòàâëåíî EGVWG Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus fulvus). Photo by EGVWG


Events

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1

(6) Êîíòàêò: Àëåêñàíäð Ìèùåíêî Êîîðäèíàòîð ïðîåêòîâ ïî ðåäêèì âèäàì â Ðîññèè Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè 111123, Ðîññèÿ Ìîñêâà, Øîññå Ýíòóçèàñòîâ, 60 – 1 òåë.: (095) 176 1063 ôàêñ: (095) 176 1063 lenaswan@rol.ru almos@redro.msk.ru

Òàáë.1 Äàííûå î ÷èñëåííîñòè áåëîãîëîâîãî ñèïà (Gyps fulvus fulvus) â ñòðàíàõ Åâðîïû è ÑÍà â 1986 è 2002 ãîäàõ. Table 1. Data of number of Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus fulvus) in Europe countries and former Soviet Union in 1986 and 2002. Country

(6) Contact: Dr. Alexander Mishenko Rare Species Projects Coordinator, Russian Bird Conservation Union Shosse Enthuziastov 60, bld.1, 111123 Moscow, Russia tel.: (095) 176 1063 fax: (095) 176 1063 lenaswan@rol.ru almos@redro.msk.ru Dr. Richard D. Gregory Chairman, European Bird Census Council Head of Monitoring & Survey, Conservation Science The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds The Lodge, Sandy Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL United Kingdom tel.: +44(0)1767680551 fax: +44(0)1767692365 richard.gregory@rspb.org.uk

9

7

Exp. Pop. Trend 2002

1986

2002

Albania Austria Bulgaria Cyprus France Greece Israel Italy Jordan Morocco Portugal Former Soviet Union Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Kazakhstan Russia Ukraina Uzbekistan Former Yugoslavia Croatia FYR Macedonia Serbia Spain Turkey

? 1 Few pairs 20 80 450 150 20–30 ? 10–100 Few pairs 150 ? ? ? ? ? ? 200–300 200 ? ? ? 3240 500–1000

<40 birds 2–4 30 6 549–599 175–192 132–140 55–60 12–30 0–10 267–272 ? <30 50–80 53 10–15 colonnies ~500 birds ~35 birds 400–600 birds

– = + – ++ – + + = – +

85–94 48–50 50 17332–18080 300–500

– +/= + + –

Total (excluding Spain) Total (including Spain)

1433–2032 4673–5272

1831–2163 19048–20119

+/– +

– – – – –

ïàíèè (Alvaro Camina Cardenal) è Òóðöèè (Edwin W.A.M. Vaaseen). Ñîîòâåòñòâåííî, äîñòàòî÷íî ïîäðîáíî èçëîæåíà ñèòóàöèÿ ïî âñåì âûøåóêàçàííûì ñòðàíàì, íî ïî Ðîññèè ïðèâîäÿòñÿ ëèøü ýêñïåðòíûå îöåíêè è îòðûâî÷íûå ëèòåðàòóðíûå äàííûå. Ïî îöåíêàì 2002 ã. â Åâðîïå è Ñðåäèçåìíîìîðüå îáèòàåò 19048–20119 ïàð áåëîãîëîâûõ ñèïîâ, 17332–18080 ïàð èç êîòîðûõ ãíåçäèòñÿ â Èñïàíèè. Äàííûå î ÷èñëåííîñòè áåëîãîëîâîãî ñèïà â ñòðàíàõ Åâðîïû è ÑÍà â 1986 è 2002 ãîäàõ ïðèâåäåíû â Òàáë.1.

opment of the Action Plan for the Eurasian Griffon Vulture. If we exclude the Iberian Peninsula, the populations seems stable in Europe during the last 16 years with about 1716– 2039 pairs. Including Spain the population equals about a magnitude of some 19048–20119 pairs. This means that only 10% of the population exist on about 90% of the species range. Data about number of Griffon Vulture in Europe countries and former Soviet Union in 1986 and 2002 are reported in the Table 1.

6–11 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2004 ãîäà â Óíèâåðñèòåòå Åðöèéåñ (Êàéçåðè, Òóðöèÿ) ïðîøëà 16-ÿ ìåæäóíàðîäíàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ Åâðîïåéñêîãî ñîâåòà ïî ó÷åòó ÷èñëåííîñòè ïòèö (EBCC): «×èñëåííîñòü ïòèö 2004: ìîíèòîðèíã è èçìåíåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè â Åâðîïå»9. Êîíôåðåíöèþ ïîñåòèëè 126 ñïåöèàëèñòîâ-îðíèòîëîãîâ èç 24 ñòðàí Åâðîïû. Êîíôåðåíöèÿ áûëà ïðèóðî÷åíà ê 25-é ãîäîâùèíå Äèðåêòèâû Åâðîñîþçà (EU) ïî ñîõðàíåíèþ äèêèõ ïòèö, à òàêæå 25-é ãî-

The 16th international conference of the EBCC was held from 6-11 September 2004 at Erciyes University (Kayseri, Turkey) and was attended by 126 specialists on bird survey and monitoring from 24 countries across Europe9. Recalling that 2004 is the 25th anniversary of the European Union’s (EU) Directive on the conservation of wild birds, that it is also the 25th anniversary of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), and the fifth anniversary of the Agreement on the conservation of African-Eurasian migratory

http://www.kustr.org/ebcc2004/


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Ñîáûòèÿ

Åâðîïåéñêèé ñîâåò ïî ó÷åòàì ïòèö (EBCC)

The European Birds Census Council (EBCC):

îáúåäèíÿåò îðíèòîëîãîâ, èçó÷àþùèõ ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå è ÷èñëåííîñòü ïòèö â Åâðîïå. EBCC: – ñïîñîáñòâóåò ìîíèòîðèíãîâûì èññëåäîâàíèÿì ïòèö (îñîáåííî ìîíèòîðèíãó îáû÷íûõ ïòèö è ïîäãîòîâêå àòëàñîâ), íàöåëåííûì íà óëó÷øåíèå îõðàíû è óïðàâëåíèå èõ ïîïóëÿöèÿìè; – îñóùåñòâëÿåò ïëàíîâûé ìîíèòîðèíã ïòèö; – îïðåäåëÿåò èíäèêàòîðû äëÿ îöåíêè èçìåíåíèé â ñïîñîáíîñòè Åâðîïåéñêèõ ëàíäøàôòîâ ïîääåðæèâàòü äèêóþ ïðèðîäó; – ñïîñîáñòâóåò ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâó ìåæäó ðàçëè÷íûìè îðãàíèçàöèÿìè, èíäèâèäóàëüíûìè îðíèòîëîãàìè è ëþáèòåëÿìè ïòèö, çàèíòåðåñîâàííûìè â èçó÷åíèè ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ è ÷èñëåííîñòè ïòèö; – ïóáëèêóåò èíôîðìàöèþ, èäåè è ýêñïåðòíûå îöåíêè ÷ëåíîâ EBCC â æóðíàëå «Bird Census News» è ìàòåðèàëàõ êîíôåðåíöèé è ñåìèíàðîâ; – òåñíî ðàáîòàåò ñ ìåæäóíàðîäíûìè ïðèðîäîîõðàííûìè îðãàíèçàöèÿìè è ñïîñîáñòâóåò ñâÿçÿì ìåæäó îðíèòîëîãàìè è ïîëèòèêàìè; – ðåàëèçóåò êðóïíûå ìåæäóíàðîäíûå ïðîåêòû, òàêèå êàê èçäàíèå Åâðîïåéñêîãî àòëàñà ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïòèö («European Breeding Bird Atlas»), à òàêæå «Ïðîåêò ïî ìîíèòîðèíãó ïòèö íà Ïàí-Åâðîïåéñêîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå». Íà ñåãîäíÿøíèé äåíü EBCC ïðîâåë ïÿòíàäöàòü ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ êîíôåðåíöèé â Åâðîïå (ñ ïåðèîäè÷íîñòüþ ðàç â 3–4 ãîäà) ñ ïóáëèêàöèåé âñåõ ìàòåðèàëîâ ýòèõ êîíôåðåíöèé. Òåêóùåå óïðàâëåíèå îðãàíèçàöèåé EBCC îñóùåñòâëÿåò èñïîëíèòåëüíûé êîìèòåò (ExCo), ñîñòîÿùèé èç äåñÿòè ÷åëîâåê, êîòîðûé ñîáèðàåòñÿ äâàæäû â ãîä, îáû÷íî âåñíîé è îñåíüþ, ÷òîáû îáñóäèòü ïëàíû è ñòðàòåãèþ EBCC. Íà ýòèõ ñîáðàíèÿõ ïðèñóòñòâóåò áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî íàáëþäàòåëåé EBCC, êîòîðûå èìåþò ïðàâî êîíñóëüòèðîâàòü ÷ëåíîâ êîìèòåòà, íî íå èìåþò ïðàâà ãîëîñà. Èñïîëíèòåëüíûé êîìèòåò èçáèðàåòñÿ Ïðàâëåíèåì, êîòîðîå ôîðìèðóåòñÿ èç äâóõ äåëåãàòîâ îò êàæäîé Åâðîïåéñêîé ñòðàíû. Êàæäûå 3–4 ãîäà â õîäå ðàáî÷èõ âñòðå÷ íà êîíôåðåíöèÿõ EBCC Èñïîëíèòåëüíûé êîìèòåò îò÷èòûâàåòñÿ ïåðåä Ïðàâëåíèåì î ïðîäåëàííîé ðàáîòå è ïîäíèìàåò äðóãèå âàæíûå âîïðîñû.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ EBCC íå èìååò øòàòíîãî ïåðñîíàëà, âñå ó÷àñòíèêè êîìèòåòà è ÷ëåíû Ïðàâëåíèÿ ÿâëÿþòñÿ äîáðîâîëüöàìè.

– brings together European ornithologists that are interested in monitoring bird populations and their distribution. – encourages bird monitoring studies (particularly common bird monitoring and atlases) aimed at better conservation and management of bird populations. – promotes monitoring that is rigorously planned with clear objectives. – promotes the development of indicators of the changing ability of European landscapes to support wildlife. – encourages communication and collaboration between organisations, institutions and individuals interested in monitoring bird populations and their distribution. – enables its members to exchange ideas and expertise through its journal (Bird Census News) and through its programme of conferences and workshops. – has hosted fifteen major international conferences, on a 3 to 4-year cycle across Europe, with published proceedings. – works closely with international conservation organisations and encourages links between ornithologists and policy makers. – runs major international projects, such as the European Breeding Bird Atlas, and the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring project. The day-to-day management of EBCC is undertaken by an Executive Committee (ExCo). ExCo is composed of ten people; a Chair, Vice-Chair, Secretary, Treasurer, Bird Census News Editor, Delegate Officer and four ordinary members. ExCo meets twice a year, usually in spring and autumn, to discuss EBCC affairs. A number of Observers, nominated by ExCo, also attend these meetings. These Observers act in an advisory capacity, though may not vote. ExCo is elected by a Board, which is itself composed of two delegates from each European country. Delegates are appointed by ExCo following recommendations from relevant national organisations. Board meets every three or four years, during EBCC conferences. At each Board meeting, ExCo presents a summary of its work since the last conference and a financial report, suggests and seeks venues for future conferences, and raises constitutional matters and any other relevant issues. EBCC currently has no staff, and all members of ExCo and Board act in a voluntary capacity.


Events (7) Contact: Gilles Nortier Chairman, IAF Advisory Committee 3 Route de Saint Nabor F-67530 Ottrott, France tel.: +(33) 388 95 80 03 tel.: +(33) 689 21 84 03 fax: +(33) 388 95 89 28 gilles.nortier@libertysurf.fr Dr Jevgeni Shergalin Information Advisor Sopruse pst. 175-58 Tallinn 13413 Estonia tel.: (3725) 090684 fax: (3726) 599351 zoolit@hotmail.com

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1 äîâùèíå Ñîãëàøåíèÿ î ìèãðèðóþùèõ âèäàõ (CMS) è 5-é ãîäîâùèíå Äîãîâîðà î ñîõðàíåíèè Àôðî-Åâðàçèéñêèõ ìèãðèðóþùèõ îêîëîâîäíûõ è âîäîïëàâàþùèõ ïòèö (AEWA) ðàçðàáîòàííîìó ïðè ñîäåéñòâèè CMS. Ðåçîëþöèÿ êîíôåðåíöèè äîñòóïíà íà ñàéòå EBCC10. Êîíòàêòû (6). 14–19 Ñåíòÿáðÿ 2004 ãîäà â Àáó Äàáè (ÎÀÝ) ñîñòîÿëîñü åæåãîäíîå ñîáðàíèå Ìåæäóíàðîäíîé àññîöèàöèè ñîêîëüíèêîâ è îõðàíû õèùíûõ ïòèö (IAF), ïðîâîäèìîå Êëóáîì ñîêîëüíèêîâ ÎÀÝ11. Íà ñîáðàíèè ïðèñóòñòâîâàëè äåëåãàòû îðãàíèçàöèé – ÷ëåíîâ IAF èç 29 ñòðàí è íàáëþäàòåëè èç 7 ñòðàí èç îðãàíèçàöèé íå ÿâëÿþùèõñÿ ÷ëåíàìè IAF. Òàêæå â êà÷åñòâå íàáëþäàòåëåé íà ñîáðàíèè ïðèñóòñòâîâàëè âûñîêîïîñòàâëåííûå ëèöà èç Áàõðåéíà, Ñàóäîâñêîé Àðàâèè, Êóâåéòà, Èðàíà, Èðàêà è ÎÀÝ. Êîíòàêò (7).

«Ìåæäóíàðîäíûå äíè íàáëþäåíèÿ ïòèö» â Ðîññèè. Ôîòî Ë. Íîâèêîâîé «World Birdwatch-2004» in Russia. Photo by L. Novikova (8) Êîíòàêò: Ëþäìèëà Íîâèêîâà Íèæåãîðîäñêîå îòäåëåíèå Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè 603000, Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, à/ÿ 631 Ýêîöåíòð «Äðîíò» òåë.: (8312) 34-46-79 sopr@dront.ru (8) Contact: Ludmila Novikova The N. Novgorod branch of RBCU, Russia 603000, Nizhniy Novgorod, p/b 631 ecocenter Dront tel.: (8312) 34-46-79 sopr@dront.ru

10 11 12

2–3 îêòÿáðÿ 2004 ãîäà â Ðîññèè ïðîøëè «Ìåæäóíàðîäíûå äíè íàáëþäåíèÿ ïòèö»12.  àêöèè ó÷àñòâîâàëî 12695 ÷åëîâåê èç 62 ðåãèîíîâ. Âñåãî áûëî ó÷òåíî 903586 îñîáåé 288 âèäîâ ïòèö, èç íèõ 3703 îñîáè 26 âèäîâ äíåâíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö â 51 ðåãèîíå. Ñàìûå ìíîãî÷èñëåííûå âèäû: êàíþê (1844 îñîáè), ÿñòðåá ïåðåïåëÿòíèê (243 îñîáè) è ïóñòåëüãà (130 îñîáåé). Òàêæå áûëè âñòðå÷åíû 7 ãëîáàëüíî ðåäêèõ âèäîâ: ãðèô ÷åðíûé (14 îñîáåé), ìîãèëüíèê (14 îñîáåé), ïîäîðëèê áîëüøîé (8 îñîáåé), îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò (83 îñîáè), ëóíü ñòåïíîé (8 îñîáåé), áàëîáàí (19 îñîáåé), ïóñòåëüãà ñòåïíàÿ (6 îñîáåé). Ñàìîå áîëüøîå êîëè-

http://www.ebcc.info/ http://www.i-a-f.org/nm/publish/news_8.html http://rbcu.ru/campaign/birddays

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waterbirds (AEWA) developed under the auspices of CMS; Resolution to conferences it is available on site EBCC10. Contact (6).

The 2004 Annual General Meeting of IAF was held from 14–19 September in Abu Dhabi, hosted by the Emirates Falconers’ Club11. Delegates attended from 29 of the 40 IAF member nations and observers from a further 7 non-IAF countries. VIP observers were welcomed from Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq and from the UAE itself. Contact (7). «World Birdwatch-2004» has been carried out in Russia during the 2 and 3 of October, 200412. A total of 12695 persons from 62 administrative District of Russia took part in the action. A total of 903586 individuals of 288 bird species were recorded, including 26 species of birds of prey (3703 individuals in 51 regions). The majority of the records belonged to the following species: Buzzard (1844 individuals), Sparrowhawk (243 individuals), and Kestrel (130 individuals). Also 7 globally threatened species were spotted: Black Vulture (14 individuals), Imperial Eagle (14 individuals), Spotted Eagle (8 individuals), White-tailed Eagle (83 individuals), Pallid Harrier (8 individuals), Saker Falcon (19 individuals), and Lesser Kestrel (6 individuals). The most records of birds (1235 individuals) were reported from the Voronezh District. The most species of birds of prey (19 species, 217 individuals) were scooped at the Dagestan Republic. Contact (8). The First International Symposium on the Black Vulture Aegypius monachus held at Cordoba, Spain, on the 21–23 October 2004. The 220 people attending the First International Symposium on the Black Vulture, as members of the conservation and research community working on this species throughout its area of distribution, state that: The overall population of Black Vulture is estimated to be 7204 – 9897 pairs. Data from large parts of eastern Europe and of


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Ñîáûòèÿ

÷åñòâî îñîáåé ó÷òåíî â Âîðîíåæñêîé îáëàñòè – 1235, à íàèáîëüøåå êîëè÷åñòâî âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö íàáëþäàëîñü â Ðåñïóáëèêå Äàãåñòàí – 19. Êîíòàêò (8).

×åðíûé ãðèô (Aegypius monachus) íà ãíåçäå. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Black Vulture (Aegypius monachus) on the nest. Photo by I. Karyakin

21–23 îêòÿáðÿ 2004 ãîäà â ã. Êîðäîáà (Èñïàíèÿ) ñîñòîÿëñÿ ïåðâûé ìåæäóíàðîäíûé ñèìïîçèóì ïî ÷åðíîìó ãðèôó (Aegypius monachus). Íà ñèìïîçèóìå ïðèñóòñòâîâàëè 220 ñïåöèàëèñòîâ-îðíèòîëîãîâ. ×èñëåííîñòü ãðèôîâ â ìèðå îïðåäåëåíà â 7204–9897 ïàð, èç êîòîðûõ 1704– 1897 ïàð ãíåçäèòñÿ â Åâðîïå è 5500–8000 ïàð–â Àçèè. Íàèáîëåå òî÷íûå îöåíêè ÷èñëåííîñòè ãðèôà ïîëó÷åíû èç Çàïàäíîé Åâðîïû. Äàííûå ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè â Âîñòî÷íîé Åâðîïå è Àçèè íåäîñòàòî÷íûå. Íàèáîëåå êðóïíàÿ åâðîïåéñêàÿ ïîïóëÿöèÿ ãðèôîâ ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ â Èñïàíèè, ãäå â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ íàñ÷èòûâàåòñÿ 1511 ïàð, è ýòî ó÷èòûâàÿ òî, ÷òî â 1984 ã. çäåñü ãíåçäèëîñü îêîëî 290 ïàð. Óãðîçû ãðèôàì ñóùåñòâóþò äàæå â áëàãîïîëó÷íîé Èñïàíèè. Çäåñü ñ 1990 ïî 2002 ãã. áûëè îáíàðóæå-

Áðèòàíñêèé ñîþç îðíèòîëîãîâ (BOU) îñíîâàí â 1858 ïðîôåññîðîì Àëüôðåäîì Íüþòîíîì è ÿâëÿåòñÿ îäíèì èç ñòàðåéøèõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ ñîîáùåñòâ ìèðà. Öåëü BOU – ñîäåéñòâîâàòü ðàçâèòèþ îðíèòîëîãèè, ëó÷øåìó ïîíèìàíèþ ïòèö è ñâÿçàííûõ ñ íèìè ïðîáëåì, âíóòðè ñîîáùåñòâ, îáúåäèíÿþùèõ êàê ñïåöèàëèñòîâ, òàê è ëþáèòåëåé ïòèö. Äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû äîñòè÷ü ñâîèõ öåëåé, BOU îðãàíèçóåò ðåãóëÿðíûå ñîáðàíèÿ, ñåìèíàðû è êîíôåðåíöèè, íà êîòîðûõ îðíèòîëîãè è äðóãèå ñïåöèàëèñòû ìîãóò îáñóæäàòü ðàçíûå òåìàòè÷åñêèå âîïðîñû, çíàêîìèòüñÿ ñ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîé ðàáîòîé, ïðîâîäèìîé â ìèðå.  òå÷åíèå áîëåå ñòà ëåò êîíôåðåíöèè è ñîáðàíèÿ, îðãàíèçóåìûå BOU, îáåñïå÷èâàþò âîçìîæíîñòü ëþäÿì ðàçíîé ïðîôåññèîíàëüíîé îðèåíòàöèè êîíòàêòèðîâàòü äðóã ñ äðóãîì ïî òåìå îáùåãî íàó÷íîãî èíòåðåñà. Òåìû ïîñëåäíèõ êîíôåðåíöèé: Ïòèöû ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ ëàíäøàôòîâ, Äîëãîñðî÷íûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïòèö, Ïòèöû è çäðàâîîõðàíåíèå. Êðîìå òîãî, ñîþç îðíèòîëîãîâ BOU èçäàåò åæåêâàðòàëüíûé ìåæäóíàðîäíûé îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèé æóðíàë «Ibis», ó÷ðåæäåííûé â 1859. «Ibis» ÿâëÿåòñÿ âåäóùèì ìåæäóíàðîäíûì îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèì æóðíàëîì.  íåì ïóáëèêóþòñÿ ðàáîòû, èäóùèå â àâàíãàðäå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ çíàíèé ìèðîâîãî ñîîáùåñòâà ïî ïîâåäåíèþ, äèíàìèêå ïîïóëÿöèé, ñèñòåìàòèêå, áèîëîãèè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ, òàêñîíîìèè, èñïîëüçîâàíèþ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé è ñîõðàíåíèþ ïòèö â ïðèðîäå. «Ibis» âûõîäèò â ïå÷àòíîì è ýëåêòðîííîì âèäå14.

central and eastern Asia are still deficient. The European population is estimated to be 1704 – 1897 pairs, while the Asian population is 5500 – 8000 pairs. The Spanish population has increased from an estimated 290 pairs in 1984 to a minimum of 1511 pairs at present. The use of poisoned baits for predator extermination is considered the most widespread threat to the Black Vulture, particularly in hunting and cattle areas. In Spain only, 454 black vultures were found dead of poisoning between 1990 and 2002. Considering this observed mortality might account for 6,25% of the true mortality, it can be expected that the number of poisoned birds annually may be equal to 50% or more of the total of young leaving the nest. Contact (9). The British Ornithologists’ Union scientific meeting Recent Avian Extinctions at the Linnean Society, 1 November 200413. Amongst a number of papers the report by Dr Michael Bunce has been the most interesting

The British Ornithologists’ Union (BOU), founded in 1858 by Professor Alfred Newton FRS, is one of the world’s oldest ornithological bodies. The BOU’s aim is to promote ornithology and a better understanding of ornithology, birds and related issues, within the scientific and birdwatching communities. To help achieve this aim, the BOU organizes regular meetings, seminars and conferences at which ornithologists and others can discuss and learn more about work being undertaken around the world and topical ornithological issues. The BOU has been organizing conferences and meetings for over 100 years, and they provide an opportunity for people, from widely differing professional backgrounds, to explore and relate to a discrete scientific theme of common interest. Recent topics have included Lowland Farmland Birds (in 1999 with follow up conference being held in March 2004), Long-term Studies of Birds and Birds & Public Health. The BOU further achieves its aim by the quarterly publication of our international journal – Ibis. Established in 1859, Ibis – the world’s leading ornithological journal – publishes work at the cutting edge of our understanding of the world’s birdlife, be it behaviour, population dynamics, systematics, breeding biology, taxonomy, habitat use or conservation. Ibis is available in print and online 14.


Events (9) Contact: Dr. Evelyn Tewes Hon. Secretary Black Vulture Conservation Foundation Finca Son Pons s/n Ctra Palma/Alcudia km 38,200 07310 Campanet Mallorca SPAIN tel.: 00 34 971 51 66 20 fax.: 00 34 971 50 95 41 evelyn.tewes@bvcf.org

(10) Contact: Rick Holderman 10191 Bluestone Court Spring Valley CA 91977, USA

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1 íû 454 ãðèôà, ïîãèáøèõ îò îòðàâëåíèÿ. Èñïîëüçîâàíèå îòðàâëåííûõ ïðèìàíîê ñ÷èòàåòñÿ îñíîâíîé óãðîçîé äëÿ âèäà. Ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ, ÷òî îò îòðàâëåíèÿ ãèáíåò äî 50% ìîëîäûõ ïòèö åæåãîäíî. Êîíòàêò (9). 1 íîÿáðÿ 2004 ãîäà â Ëîíäîíå ïðîøëî åæåãîäíîå íàó÷íîå ñîáðàíèå Ñîþçà áðèòàíñêèõ îðíèòîëîãîâ ïî òåìå «Ñîêðàùåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ïòèö â ïîñëåäíåå äåñÿòèëåòèå»13. Ñðåäè ðÿäà äîêëàäîâ îñîáûé èíòåðåñ âûçâàëî ñîîáùåíèå äîêòîðà Ìàéêëà Áàíñà (Îêñôîðäñêèé óíèâåðñèòåò, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ) «Àíàëèç äðåâíèõ ÄÍÊ äàåò ïðåäñòàâëåíèå îá ýâîëþöèîííîé èñòîðèè âûìåðøèõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ Íîâîé Çåëàíäèè». 10–13 íîÿáðÿ 2004 ãîäà â Êàëèôîðíèè (ÑØÀ) ïðîøëà åæåãîäíàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ Ôîíäà èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ (RRF) è 34-ÿ åæåãîäíàÿ ïîëåâàÿ âñòðå÷à ÷ëåíîâ Êàëèôîðíèéñêîãî ÿñòðåáèíîãî êëóáà (CHC). Íà êîíôåðåíöèè ïðèñóòñòâîâàëè 432 ÷åëîâåêà15. Êîíòàêò (10).

3–7 äåêàáðÿ 2004 ãîäà â ã. Ëëåéäà (Èñïàíèÿ) ïðîøåë Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé ñèìïîçèóì ïî ýêîëîãèè è îõðàíå ñòåïíûõ ïòèö16. Íà ñèìïîçèóìå ïðîçâó÷àëè 9 ñîîáùåíèé î ïðîáëåìàõ èçó÷åíèÿ è îõðàíû ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ: Ñàðà Ì. Ñòàòóñ è ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå ñòåïíîé ïóñòåëüãè â Ñèöèëèè. Ìèëëîí À. Áóäóùåå ëóãîâîãî ëóíÿ íà òåððèòîðèÿõ èíòåíñèâíîãî çåìëåäåëèÿ âî Ôðàíöèè ïî äàííûì íàöèîíàëüíûõ ó÷åòîâ. Ãâàéêñ Ä. Õàðàêòåðèñòèêà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, ðàçìåð ãíåçäîâûõ òåððèòîðèé, áèîòîïû è âûáîð æåðòâ ëóãîâûìè ëóíÿìè íà ñåâåðî-âîñòîêå Èñïàíèè. Óðñóà Å. Äåéñòâèòåëüíî ëè îðîøåíèå óìåíüøàåò ðàçìåð îõîòíè÷èõ òåððèòîðèé ðàçìíîæàþùèõñÿ ñòåïíûõ ïóñòåëüã? Âëèÿíèå ðàçíûõ òèïîâ ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ êóëüòóð. Õîðâàòñ Ì. Çàâèñèìîñòü óñïåõà ðàçìíîæåíèÿ îðëîâ-ìîãèëüíèêîâ îò òèïîâ ìåñòîîáèòàíèé. 13 14 15 16

http://www.bou.org.uk/RAE%20abstracts.pdf www.ibis.org.uk http://biology.boisestate.edu/raptor/abst.htm http://www.ctfc.es/symposium/eng/abst.htm

11

University of Oxford, UK «Ancient DNA reveals an interesting evolutionary history of New Zealand’s extinct raptors». The Annual Conference of the RRF and 34th Annual Field Meet of the California Hawking Club’s held at Bakersfield, California, on the 10–13 November 2004. A total of 432 people (175 for RRF and 257 for CHC) registered for the now completed meeting in Bakersfield15. Contact (10). The International Symposium on Ecology and Conservation of Steppe-land Birds held at Lleida, Spain, in the 3–7 December 200416. On symposium have sounded 9 reporting on ecology and conservation of raptors: Sara M. (Dipartamento di Biologia Animale, Italy), Status and distribution of the Lesser Kestrel in Sicily. Millon A. (CNRS, France), Assessing the future of Montagu's Harrier in intensive farming areas using nation-wide census data. Guixe D. (CTFC, Spain), Territory characteristics, home range size, habitat and prey selection of the Montagu's Harrier in NE Spain. Ursua E. (Estacion Biologica de Donana, CSIC, Spain), Does land irrigation actually reduce foraging habitat for breeding Lesser Kestrels? The role of crop types. Horvath M. (MMEBirdLife-Hungary, Hungary), Habitat-dependent breeding success of Imperial Eagles. Alcaide M. (CSIC, Spain), Patterns of dispersal and genetic differentiation in a spatially structured population of Lesser Kestrels: an analysis using microsatellite markers and capture-recapture data. Serrano D. (CSIC, Spain), The use of multistate capture-recapture models to estimate survival and dispersal within fragmented populations of steppe birds: the case of the Lesser Kestrel. Nagy S. (BirdLife International, European Division), A critical review of the implementation International Action Plans for Falco naumanni, Otis tarda, Clamydotis undulata in Europe. Katzner T. (Dept. of Environmental Science and Technology, UK), Using modelling to improve monitoring of raptors in foreststeppe: an example with Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca) in Kazakhstan. Full collection of thesises in pdf-format17. Contact (11).


12

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

(11) Êîíòàêò: Àëåêñàíäð Àíòîí÷èêîâ Ðåãèîíàëüíûé êîíñóëüòàíò Ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî ñèìïîçèóìà ïî ýêîëîãèè è îõðàíå ñòåïíûõ ïòèö Ñàðàòîâñêîå îòäåëåíèå ÑÎÏÐ 410017, Ðîññèÿ Ñàðàòîâ, à/ÿ 1385 òåë.: (8452) 52-34-24 ôàêñ: (8452) 52-34-24 rbcusb@overta.ru http://home.overta.ru/ users/rbcusb (11) Contact: Alexander Antonchikov Regional Advisors of the International Symposium on Ecology and Conservation of Steppe-land Birds The Saratov branch of RBCU Saratov, P.O. Box 1385 410017, Russia tel./fax: (8452)52-3424 rbcusb@overta.ru http://home.overta.ru/ users/rbcusb

17

Àëüêýéä Ì. Îöåíêà äèñïåðñèè è ãåíåòè÷åñêîé äèôôåðåíöèàöèè â ïðîñòðàíñòâåííîé ñòðóêòóðå ïîïóëÿöèè ñòåïíîé ïóñòåëüãè íà îñíîâå èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ àíàëèçà ìàðêåðîâ ìèêðîñàòåëëèòíîé ÄÍÊ è äàííûõ àíàëèçà «ïîèìêè-âûïóñêà». Ñåððàíî Ä. Èñïîëüçîâàíèå ìíîæåñòâåííîãî ìåòîäà «ïîèìêè-âûïóñêà» äëÿ îöåíêè âûæèâàåìîñòè è äèñïåðñèè ñòåïíûõ ïòèö â ôðàãìåíòèðîâàííûõ ïîïóëÿöèÿõ: íà ïðèìåðå ñòåïíîé ïóñòåëüãè. Íýéäæè Ñ. Êðèòè÷åñêèé îáçîð âûïîëíåíèÿ Ìåæäóíàðîäíûõ ïëàíîâ äåéñòâèé ïî ñòåïíîé ïóñòåëüãå, äðîôå è äæåêó â Åâðîïå. Êàòöíåð Ò. Èñïîëüçîâàíèå ìîäåëèðîâàíèÿ äëÿ óëó÷øåíèÿ ìîíèòîðèíãà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â ëåñîñòåïè íà ïðèìåðå îðëàìîãèëüíèêà â Êàçàõñòàíå. Ïîëíûé ñáîðíèê òåçèñîâ â pdf-ôîðìàòå17. Êîíòàêò (11). 9–10 äåêàáðÿ 2004 ã. â ã. Ýëèñòå (Ðåñïóáëèêà Êàëìûêèÿ) ñîñòîÿëîñü èòîãîâîå ñîâåùàíèå ïî ïðîåêòó ÐÎËË «Êîìïëåêñíàÿ îïòèìèçàöèÿ óñëîâèé îáèòàíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö Êàëìûêèè». Íà ñîâåùàíèè ïðèñóòñòâîâàëè 35 ñïåöèàëèñòîâ èç 8 ðåãèîíîâ Ðîññèè. Ïðîçâó÷àëî 12 äîêëàäîâ, â òîì ÷èñëå: Ìåäæèäîâ Ð.À. (Ýëèñòà), Êîìïëåêñíàÿ îïòèìèçàöèÿ óñëîâèé îáèòàíèÿ ïòèö â Êàëìûêèè. Ñàëòûêîâ À.Â. (Óëüÿíîâñê), Òðåáîâàíèÿ ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ â ðàìêàõ Öåëåâîé ðåñïóáëèêàíñêîé ïðîãðàììû Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ-2010. Õëóäíåâ À.Â. (Ëèìàí, Àñòðàõàíñêàÿ îáëàñòü), Ïðîâåäåíèå ìåðîïðèÿòèé â çàêàçíèêå «Ñòåïíîé» ïî îõðàíå õèùíûõ ïòèö. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. (Í.Íîâãîðîä), Ïðîåêò ïî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ ìåñò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òûâà. Ïåñòîâ Ì.Â. (Í.Íîâãîðîä), Âëèÿíèå áèîòåõíè÷åñêèõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé íà âîññòàíîâëåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ äíåâíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Áåëèê Â.Ï. (Ðîñòîâ), Ãíåçäîâàÿ ôàóíà õèùíûõ ïòèö Êàëìûêèè è å¸ äèíàìèêà â ÕÕ âåêå. Äæàìèðçîåâ Ã.Ñ. (Áóòêàçìàëÿð, Äàãåñòàí), Îïûò îïòèìèçàöèè óñëîâèé îáèòàíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö íà êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ Äàãåñòàíà. Ôåäîñîâ Â.Í. (Äèâíîå, Ñòàâðîïîëüñêèé êðàé), Àíàëèç ñîâðåìåííîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ ïîïóëÿöèè åâðîïåéñêîãî òþâèêà íà ñåâå-

http://www.ctfc.es/symposium/abstracts/Abstract%20book.pdf

Ñîáûòèÿ

Ðàáî÷èå ìîìåíòû ñîâåùàíèÿ: Âèêòîð Áåëèê (ñëåâà) è Ãàäæèáåê Äæàìèðçîåâ (ñïðàâà). Ôîòî È.Êàðÿêèíà The working moments on the meeting: Dr. Victor Belik (left) and Dr.Gadzhibek Dzhamirzoev (right). Photo by I.Karyakin

The final meeting of the (ROLL) project entitled «Complex optimization of conditions for the inhabitance of the Birds of Prey in the Republic of Kalmykia» took place in Elista (the Republic of Kalmykia) at the 9th and 10th of December, 2004. A total of 35 biologists from 8 Districts of Russia attended the meeting. Twelve reports were presented: Medzhidov R.A. (Elista), Complex optimization of habitat conditions for the Birds of Prey in the Republic of Kalmykia. Saltikov A.V. (Ulyanovsk), Contributions for preventing electrocution of birds within the target republican program Birds and Power Lines – 2010. Hludnev À.V. (Liman, Astrahan District), Undertaking the actions in the Nature Reserve «Stepnoy» for the protection of Birds of Prey. Karyakin I.V. (N.Novgorod), Project for restoration of nesting places of the Saker Falcon in the Tuva Republic. Pestov Ì.V. (N.Novgorod), Impact of setting artificial nests on recovery of rare species of raptors in the Nizhniy Novgorod region. Belic V.P. (Rostov), Breeding Birds of Prey and their numbers dynamics by records of the ÕÕ Century in the Republic of Kalmykia. Dzhamirzoev G.S. (Butkazmalyar, the Republic of Dagestan), Experience of optimization of habitat of the birds of prey in the Important Bird Areas of the Dagestan Republic. Fedosov V.N. (Divnoe, Stavropol region), Analysis of recent status of population of the Levant Sparrowhawk in the north of Stavropol District and the adjoining territories. It is planned to publish the presented papers.


Events

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1

13

ÐÅÇÎËÞÖÈß ÈÒÎÃÎÂÎÃÎ ÐÀÁÎ×ÅÃÎ ÑÎÂÅÙÀÍÈß ïî ïðîåêòó ÐÎËË «Êîìïëåêñíàÿ îïòèìèçàöèÿ óñëîâèé îáèòàíèÿ ïòèö â Êàëìûêèè» ã. Ýëèñòà 9-10 äåêàáðÿ 2004 ã.

The resolution of the final meeting on the project entitled «Complex Optimization of Conditions for the Inhabitance of the Birds of Prey in the Republic of Kalmikiya» Elista (the Republic of Kalmikiya, Russia), 9-10 December, 2004. Ðàññìîòðåâ è îáñóäèâ ìàòåðèàëû ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ ôàóíû è íàñåëåíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö Êàëìûêèè, ó÷àñòíèêè ðàáî÷åãî ñîâåùàíèÿ ñ òðåâîãîé êîíñòàòèðóþò ïðîÿâëåíèå íåãàòèâíûõ ñóêöåññèîííûõ ïðîöåññîâ â àðèäíîé çîíå Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè, âûçâàííûõ ðÿäîì àíòðîïîãåííûõ è ïðèðîäíûõ ôàêòîðîâ, îïðåäåëÿþùèõ îáùåå ñîñòîÿíèå åñòåñòâåííûõ ñòåïíûõ ýêîñèñòåì, â ÷àñòíîñòè èçìåíåíèåì êëèìàòà è ñíèæåíèåì ïàñòáèùíîé íàãðóçêè. Äàííûå ïðîöåññû ïðèâîäÿò ê ðåçêîìó ñíèæåíèþ ÷èñëåííîñòè ñóñëèêîâ, ÿâëÿþùèõñÿ îñíîâíûìè êîðìîâûìè îáúåêòàìè äëÿ ðÿäà âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö, ñîêðàùåíèþ ïëîùàäè íåçàêðåïë¸ííûõ ïåñêîâ, ÿâëÿþùèõñÿ ìåñòîì îáèòàíèÿ êîìïëåêñà ïñàììîôèëüíûõ âèäîâ è îáîñòðåíèþ ïðîáëåìû ñòåïíûõ ïîæàðîâ. Ó÷àñòíèêè ñîâåùàíèÿ ñ÷èòàþò íåîáõîäèìûì îáúåäèíåíèå óñèëèé ñïåöèàëèñòîâ ðàçëè÷íîãî ïðîôèëÿ â èçó÷åíèè óêàçàííûõ ïðîöåññîâ è ðàçðàáîòêå ìåð ïî ñíèæåíèþ íåãàòèâíûõ ïîñëåäñòâèé èõ âëèÿíèÿ. Íà ñìåíó äåéñòâèÿì ïî áîðüáå ñ îïóñòûíèâàíèåì äîëæíà ïðèéòè ïðîãðàììà ïî ìîíèòîðèíãó ñîñòîÿíèÿ è îõðàíå åñòåñòâåííûõ àðèäíûõ áèîöåíîçîâ. Íåîáõîäèìî âíåñòè äàííîå ïðåäëîæåíèå â ðåñïóáëèêàíñêóþ ïðîãðàììó «Ýêîëîãèÿ è ïðèðîäíûå ðåñóðñû».  ñôåðå îïòèìèçàöèè óñëîâèé ãíåçäîâàíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö: Ðåêîìåíäîâàòü ê ïðèìåíåíèþ íà íàðóøåííûõ ó÷àñòêàõ, ïîäëåæàùèõ ðåàáèëèòàöèè, ïîëîæèòåëüíûé îïûò ðåàëèçàöèè ñëåäóþùèõ ïðîåêòîâ: «Êîìïëåêñíàÿ îïòèìèçàöèÿ óñëîâèé îáèòàíèÿ ïòèö â Êàëìûêèè», ïðîåêò Êàëìûöêîãî öåíòðà ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðîåêòîâ; «Âîññòàíîâëåíèå ãíåçäîâèé áàëîáàíà â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òóâà», ïðîåêò Öåíòðà ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé; «Ïðèâëå÷åíèå õèùíûõ ïòèö íà èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ», ïðîåêò Ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ïðèðîäíîãî çàêàçíèêà «Ñòåïíîé» (Àñòðàõàíñêàÿ îáëàñòü).  ñôåðå èñêëþ÷åíèÿ ãèáåëè ïòèö îò ýëåêòðè÷åñêîãî òîêà íà ËÝÏ: 1. Ïðèçíàòü êîìïëåêñ ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ 6-10 êÂ, ðåàëèçóåìûé íà òåððèòîðèè Êàëìûêèè ñ íà÷àëà 70-õ ãîäîâ ïî íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ, ïîëåçíûì, íî íåäîñòàòî÷íî ýôôåêòèâíûì. Ñ÷èòàòü äàëüíåéøåå ïðèìåíåíèå ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ íà îñíîâå õîëîñòûõ èçîëÿòîðîâ íåöåëåñîîáðàçíûì. 2. Îáðàòèòüñÿ â Ïðàâèòåëüñòâî Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàëìûêèÿ ñ ïðåäëîæåíèåì óòâåðäèòü «Òðåáîâàíèÿ ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è» è öåëåâóþ ïðîãðàììó «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ – 2010», ó÷èòûâàþùèå ñîâðåìåííûé çàðóáåæíûé è îòå÷åñòâåííûé îïûò çàùèòû ïòèö íà òåõíîãåííûõ ñîîðóæåíèÿõ (ðàçðàáîò÷èê «Öåíòð ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðîåêòîâ»). 3. Îáðàòèòüñÿ â Ïðàâèòåëüñòâî Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè ñ ïðåäëîæåíèåì ñîâìåñòíî ñ Ìèíèñòåðñòâîì ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ ÐÔ, Ðîñòåõíàäçîðîì, ÐÀÎ «ÅÝÑ Ðîññèè», à òàêæå äðóãèìè çàèíòåðåñîâàííûìè âåäîìñòâàìè,

íåïðàâèòåëüñòâåííûìè îðãàíèçàöèÿìè è îòäåëüíûìè ñïåöèàëèñòàìè-áèîëîãàìè ñîîòâåòñòâóþùåãî ïðîôèëÿ, ðàçðàáîòàòü è ïðèíÿòü íîâûå ôåäåðàëüíûå íîðìàòèâíûå ïðàâîâûå àêòû â ñôåðå ïðåäîòâðàùåíèÿ ãèáåëè ïòèö, âêëþ÷àÿ: 3.1. òðåáîâàíèÿ ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ëèíèÿõ ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è; 3.2. íîðìàòèâû è ïîðÿäîê âçèìàíèÿ ïëàòû çà óíè÷òîæåíèå ïòèö ïðè ýêñïëóàòàöèè ËÝÏ (ñ öåëüþ ôîðìèðîâàíèÿ ôîíäà ñðåäñòâ äëÿ çàùèòû ïòèö îò ïîðàæåíèÿ ýëåêòðîòîêîì íà âîçäóøíûõ ËÝÏ); 3.3. íîâûå ïîâûøåííûå òàêñû äëÿ èñ÷èñëåíèÿ âçûñêàíèÿ çà óùåðá, ïðè÷èí¸ííûé íåçàêîííûì óíè÷òîæåíèåì ïòèö (ñ ó÷¸òîì èçìåíåíèÿ ïåðå÷íÿ ðåäêèõ è èñ÷åçàþùèõ âèäîâ, çàíåñ¸ííûõ â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó ÐÔ); 3.4. öåëåâóþ ïîäïðîãðàììó «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ» â ðàìêàõ ôåäåðàëüíîé ïðîãðàììû «Ýêîëîãèÿ è ïðèðîäíûå ðåñóðñû Ðîññèè» íà 2006 – 2010 ãîäû – ñ ó÷¸òîì îïûòà çàðóáåæíûõ ñòðàí è ðåêîìåíäàöèé Ôåäåðàëüíîãî îáúåäèíåíèÿ Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïðèðîäû Ãåðìàíèè (NABU), îäîáðåííûõ Ñåêðåòàðèàòîì ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî Áîííñêîãî ñúåçäà ïî îõðàíå ïåðåë¸òíûõ ïòèö. 4. Îáðàòèòüñÿ â Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè è Ìåæäóíàðîäíóþ íåïðàâèòåëüñòâåííóþ îðãàíèçàöèþ «BirdLife International» ñ ïðîñüáîé îêàçàòü Ðåñïóáëèêå Êàëìûêèÿ îðãàíèçàöèîííî-ìåòîäè÷åñêóþ, èíôîðìàöèîííóþ è ìàòåðèàëüíî-òåõíè÷åñêóþ ïîìîùü â ðåàëèçàöèè ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ. 5. Îáðàòèòüñÿ ê îðãàíèçàöèÿì – âëàäåëüöàì âîçäóøíûõ ËÝÏ 10 ê ñ ïðåäëîæåíèåì: 5.1. Ïðèíÿòü ó÷àñòèå â ðàçðàáîòêå ðåñïóáëèêàíñêîé öåëåâîé ïðîãðàììû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ 2010», ïðåäîñòàâèâ íåîáõîäèìûå èñõîäíûå äàííûå î òåððèòîðèàëüíîé ñòðóêòóðå ÂË 10 êÂ, òåõíè÷åñêèõ ïàðàìåòðàõ îïîð è òðàíñôîðìàòîðíûõ ïîäñòàíöèé, õàðàêòåðèñòèêå ïðîâîäèìûõ ïòèöåçàùèòíûõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé. 5.2. Ïðåäóñìîòðåòü ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïî îñíàùåíèþ ïîäâåäîìñòâåííûõ ËÝÏ íîâûìè ýôôåêòèâíûìè ïòèöåçàùèòíûìè óñòðîéñòâàìè, à òàêæå ïî çàìåíå íåýôôåêòèâíûõ ëèáî îïàñíûõ äëÿ ïòèö çàùèòíûõ óñòðîéñòâ, îïîð, òðàâåðñ è òðàíñôîðìàòîðíûõ ââîäîâ íà áåçîïàñíûå. 5.3. Íàçíà÷èòü â ñâîèõ ïîäðàçäåëåíèÿõ ëèö, îòâåòñòâåííûõ çà îáåñïå÷åíèå ñîáëþäåíèÿ òðåáîâàíèé ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ è âûïîëíåíèå ìåðîïðèÿòèé öåëåâîé ðåñïóáëèêàíñêîé ïðîãðàììû «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ». Ó÷àñòíèêè ñîâåùàíèÿ âûðàæàþò áëàãîäàðíîñòü Ðîññèéñêîìó ïðåäñòàâèòåëüñòâó Èíñòèòóòà Óñòîé÷èâûõ Ñîîáùåñòâ, Ðîññèéñêîìó êîìèòåòó ïî ïðîãðàììå ÞÍÅÑÊÎ «×åëîâåê è áèîñôåðà» (ÌÀÁ) è Ôîíäó «Äàðâèíñêàÿ èíèöèàòèâà» çà îêàçàííóþ ôèíàíñîâóþ ïîìîùü â ïðîâåäåíèè èòîãîâîãî ñîâåùàíèÿ ïî ïðîåêòó ÐÎËË «Êîìïëåêñíàÿ îïòèìèçàöèÿ óñëîâèé îáèòàíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö íà òåððèòîðèè Êàëìûêèè». Ïðèíÿòî åäèíîãëàñíî 10.12.2004 ã.


14

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

(12) Êîíòàêò: Ðóñëàí Ìåäæèäîâ êîîðäèíàòîð ïðîåêòà ÐÎËË ÊÐÎÎ «Öåíòð ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðîåêòîâ» 358004, Ðîññèÿ Ðåñïóáëèêà Êàëìûêèÿ Ýëèñòà, ïð.Àðøàíñêèé centercep@yandex.ru (12) Contact: Ruslan Medzhidov Project Leader NGO Environmental Project Centre Elista, pr. Arshanskiy Republic of Kalmikiya 358004, Russia centercep@yandex.ru

(13) Êîíòàêò: Íàäåæäà Êèñåëåâà è Ñåðãåé Áàêêà, Êîîðäèíàòîðû ìàññîâûõ àêöèé Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè Íèæåãîðîäñêîå îòäåëåíèå Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè. 603000, Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, à/ÿ 631, Ýêîöåíòð «Äðîíò» òåë.: (8312) 34-46-79 sopr@dront.ru (13) Contact: Nadezhda Kiseleva and Sergey Bakk Coordinators of mass actions of RBCU The N. Novgorod branch of RBCU Ecocenter Dront P.O. Box 631 N. Novgorod 603000, Russia tel.: (8312)34-46-79 sopr@dront.ru 18

ðå Ñòàâðîïîëüÿ è ñîïðåäåëüíûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ.  õîäå ïðîåêòà ïîäãîòîâëåíû «Òðåáîâàíèÿ ïî ïðåäîòâðàùåíèþ ãèáåëè ïòèö íà ËÝÏ» è öåëåâàÿ ïðîãðàììà «Ïòèöû è ËÝÏ – 2010». Ïî èòîãàì ïðîåêòà ïðåäïîëàãàåòñÿ èçäàòü ñáîðíèê äîêëàäîâ.  õîäå ñîâåùàíèÿ ïðèíÿòà ðåçîëþöèÿ, ïîëíûé òåêñò êîòîðîé îïóáëèêîâàí íà ñòð. 13. Êîíòàêò (12).  ñåðåäèíå ìàðòà 2005 ãîäà â ã. Ìîñêâå (Ðîññèÿ) ñîñòîèòñÿ IV îò÷åòíî-ïåðåâûáîðíàÿ êîíôåðåíöèÿ Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè.  õîäå êîíôåðåíöèè ïîìèìî ðÿäà îðãàíèçàöèîííûõ âîïðîñîâ ïëàíèðóåòñÿ îáñóäèòü ïëàí äåéñòâèé ïî ìàññîâûì àêöèÿì Ñîþçà, â òîì ÷èñëå è ïî àêöèè «Ïòèöà ãîäà». Àêöèÿ «Ïòèöà ãîäà»18 ïîñâÿùåíà èçó÷åíèþ è îõðàíå îäíîãî èç âèäîâ ïòèö – ñèìâîëîâ ïðèðîäû Ðîññèè. Öåëü àêöèè – ïðèâëå÷ü âíèìàíèå æèòåëåé íàøåé ñòðàíû ê îáùèì ïðîáëåìàì îõðàíû ïòèö. Ïòèöåé 2005 ãîäà â Ðîññèè âûáðàíà ñîâà. Ýòî çíà÷èò, ÷òî â íàñòóïàþùåì ãîäó æèòåëè Ðîññèè ñìîãóò ïîçíàêîìèòüñÿ ñî ìíîãèìè èç 17 âèäîâ ñîâ, æèâóùèìè íà òåððèòîðèè ñòðàíû è ïîìî÷ü ðåøèòü èõ ïðîáëåìû.  ñðåäíåé ïîëîñå Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè ìîæíî âñòðåòèòü 12 âèäîâ ñîâ, åùå 4 æèâóò íà Äàëüíåì Âîñòîêå, à ñèïóõà (Tyto alba) âñòðå÷àåòñÿ òîëüêî íà çàïàäå Ðîññèè. Ñàìàÿ ðåäêàÿ ñîâà íàøåé ñòðàíû – îáèòàþùèé íà Äàëüíåì Âîñòîêå, ðûáíûé ôèëèí (Ketupa blakistoni), çàíåñåííûé â Êðàñíûå êíèãè ÌÑÎÏ è ÐÔ.  Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðîññèè âêëþ÷åí è âòîðîé êðóïíåéøèé ïðåäñòàâèòåëü ñîâîîáðàçíûõ – ôèëèí (Bubo bubo). Ìíîãèå âèäû ñîâ ïîïàëè íà ñòðàíèöû ðåãèîíàëüíûõ Êðàñíûõ êíèã.  õîäå àêöèè áóäåò ðåøàòüñÿ êîìïëåêñ âçàèìîñâÿçàííûõ çàäà÷: – àãèòàöèîííî-ïðîïàãàíäèñòñêàÿ ðàáîòà, ïîñâÿùåííàÿ ñîâàì; – ñáîð ñâåäåíèé î ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèè è ÷èñëåííîñòè ýòèõ ïòèö â ðåãèîíàõ Ðîññèè; – êîìïëåêñ ïðàêòè÷åñêèõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé, íàïðàâëåííûé íà ðåøåíèå ïðîáëåì ïòèö ãîäà (óñòðîéñòâî èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé, îðãàíèçàöèÿ îõðàíû ìåñò îáèòàíèÿ è ò.ä.). Ñåé÷àñ ãîòîâÿòñÿ èíôîðìàöèîííî-ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ìàòåðèàëû äëÿ íàñåëåíèÿ. Ïëàíèðóåòñÿ èçäàòü ñåðèþ íàêëååê, êàëåíäà-

http://rbcu.ru/campaign/birdyear/

Ñîáûòèÿ In the due course of the meeting the resolution was adapted. The full text of the resolution (in Russian) is given on page 13. Contact (12). The 4th Conference of the Russian Bird Conservation Union (RBCU) will take place in the middle of March, 2005. The plan of action Bird of the Year is to be discussed at the conference. The action The Bird of the Year18 is focused on study and protection of one of the bird species of Russia. The objective of the action is to draw attention of Russian people to problems of the conservation of birds and their breeding areas. The bird of 2005 is suggested to be an owl. The objective can be achieved by providing information about the owls inhabiting our country and explaining ways of solving

Áîëîòíàÿ ñîâà (Asio flammeus). Ôîòî Å. Ïîòàïîâà Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus). Photo by E. Potapov

the conservational problems. In total 17 species of owls occur in Russia, twelve of which can be encountered in the middle part of European Russia, four – in Far East. The Tawny Owl lives only in the west part of Russia. The following problems will be tackled by the action: – The popularisation of owls amongst general public; – Enhancing of the research of the distribution and numbers of owls; – Conservation of owls (erecting artificial nests, providing conservation of breeding areas). Information and didactic materials are being prepared. Contact (13).


Events (14) Contact: Dr. Nick Fox Director of Falcon Research and Management ERWDA PO Box 19, Carmarthen SA33 5YL, Wales, UK office@falcons.co.uk

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1 ðåé, ïîñòåðîâ, ïîñâÿùåííûõ ñîâàì è ïðîáëåìàì èõ îõðàíû, à òàêæå ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ïîñîáèÿ ïî èçó÷åíèþ è îõðàíå ñîâ. Ê ó÷àñòèþ â àêöèè ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ïðèâëå÷ü øèðîêèé êðóã îðíèòîëîãîâ-ëþáèòåëåé èç ÷èñëà ïåäàãîãîâ, ðàáîòíèêîâ êóëüòóðû, ëåñíîãî è îõîòíè÷üåãî õîçÿéñòâà, ó÷àùåéñÿ ìîëîäåæè. Ïðèãëàøàåì âñåõ ê ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâó! Êîíòàêò (13). Òðåáóþòñÿ âîëîíòåðû! Íà ïîëåâîé ñåçîí 2005 ãîäà ñ ñåðåäèíû àïðåëÿ äî êîíöà èþíÿ Èíñòèòóò èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ (FRI, UK) ïëàíèðóåò íàáðàòü äëÿ ñâîèõ ñïåöèàëèñòîâ, ðàáîòàþùèõ â

Èíñòèòóò èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ 20 (FRI, UK) ÿâëÿåòñÿ ÷àñòüþ Ìåæäóíàðîäíîé êîíñóëüòàöèîííîé êîìïàíèè ïî îõðàíå äèêîé ïðèðîäû (IWC Ltd, UK) è âåäåò ïðîåêòû ïî ñîêîëàì âî âñåì ìèðå. Îñíîâíîé öåëüþ èíñòèòóòà ÿâëÿåòñÿ äîëãîâðåìåííîå ñîõðàíåíèå ñîêîëîâ â äèêîé ïðèðîäå, ïîëüçóþùèõñÿ ñïðîñîì ó àðàáñêèõ ñîêîëüíèêîâ. Èíñòèòóò èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ ðóêîâîäèò ïîëåâûìè èññëåäîâàíèÿìè ïî ñîêîëàì â Êàçàõñòàíå, Ìîíãîëèè, Ðîññèè è Êèòàå, âîçãëàâëÿåò èññëåäîâàòåëüñêóþ ãðóïïó ïî ñîêîëàì Ñðåäíåãî Âîñòîêà (MEFRG), èçäàåò æóðíàë «Falco». Íà áàçå èíñòèòóòà îñóùåñòâëÿåòñÿ ðóêîâîäñòâî íàó÷íûìè ðàáîòàìè ìàãèñòðîâ è àñïèðàíòîâ. Îñíîâíûì îáúåêòîì èçó÷åíèÿ Èíñòèòóòà èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug). Áàëîáàí – òðàäèöèîííàÿ ëîâ÷àÿ ïòèöà àðàáñêèõ ñîêîëüíèêîâ, â îãðîìíîì êîëè÷åñòâå åæåãîäíî ýêñïîðòèðóåìàÿ íà Ñðåäíèé Âîñòîê, ÷èñëåííîñòü è îáëàñòü ãíåçäîâàíèÿ êîòîðîé â ïîñëåäíåå âðåìÿ íåóêëîííî ñîêðàùàþòñÿ. Èíñòèòóò èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ ïðîäîëæàåò äåëàòü áîëüøóþ ðàáîòó ïî èçó÷åíèþ è ñîõðàíåíèþ áàëîáàíà, èíôîðìàöèþ î êîòîðîé ìîæíî óâèäåòü íà îôèöèàëüíîì ñàéòå ïðîåêòà ïî ñîêîëó-áàëîáàíó21. Áîëüøóþ ÷àñòü ïðîåêòîâ èíñòèòóòà ïî èçó÷åíèþ è îõðàíå ñîêîëà-áàëîáàíà ôèíàíñèðóåò Àãåíòñòâî ïî îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû Îáúåäèíåííûõ Àðàáñêèõ Ýìèðàòîâ (ERWDA, UAE)19. Ýòî ïðàâèòåëüñòâåííàÿ îðãàíèçàöèÿ, ãëàâíîé ôóíêöèåé êîòîðîé ÿâëÿåòñÿ îáåñïå÷åíèå óñòîé÷èâîãî ðàçâèòèÿ è çàùèòû îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû â ÎÀÝ. Ñâîè öåëè àãåíòñòâî äîñòèãàåò ïóòåì èññëåäîâàíèé, ïðèíÿòèÿ çàêîíîâ î çàùèòå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû ÎÀÝ. Êðîìå òîãî, àãåíòñòâî ïðîâîäèò ïðîïàãàíäèñòñêóþ è îáðàçîâàòåëüíóþ ðàáîòó ïî çàùèòå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû â ÎÀÝ.

19 20 21

http://www.erwda.gov.ae http://www.falcons.co.uk http://www.savethesaker.com

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Need volunteers! In 2005 The Falcon Research Institute plan to provide our field scientists in Siberia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and China with western seasonal field assistants (totaling 6). There will be an induction workshop in UK at the 27 February – 5 March, together with our field biologists. The fieldwork will extend approximately from mid-April until the end of June 2005. We will fund flights to UK for the training workshop, and to Asia for the field season, plus living costs etc. Applications with CV, photo and two referees, should be made to Director of Falcon Research and Management. Contact (14).

The Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency United Arab Emirates19 (ERWDA, UAE) is a governmental agency whose overall function is to promote sustainable development and to protect and conserve the environment in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. This to be done through concerted scientific research, establishment of laws and by-laws to protect Abu Dhabi’s environment and putting forth appropriate permits, regulations and policies. In addition, ERWDA aims to raise the level of environmental awareness and education in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. ERWDA runs falcon research programmes via the Falcon Research Institute20 (FRI, UK), which is a part of the International Wildlife Consultants Ltd (UK). The mission of the Falcon Research Institute is the longterm conservation of falcon species affected by Arab falconry based on principles of sustainable use. Falcon Research Institute direct field research on falcons in Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, China and run the Middle East Falcon Research Group and Journal Falco . Previous studies include research in Mauritius, New Zealand, Kirghistan and Pakistan. We supervise post-graduate students on some of these projects to MSc or PhD levels. The Saker (Falco cherrug) is a desert falcon breeding from Eastern Europe across to China. It was traditionally used in Arabian falconry and large numbers are still exported each year to the Middle East, primarily Saudi Arabia. Overall the species is declining in both range and numbers and is of increasing conservation concern. Falcon Research Institute continue to do a lot of work on this species, so much so that we have given it its own website21.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

(15) Contact: James D. Rising The Chair of the Scientific Program Committee Department of Zoology Ramsey Wright Zoological Labs University of Toronto Toronto ON M5S 3G5 Canada rising@zoo.utoronto.ca Richard C. Banks The Chair of the Committee on Arrangements USGS-PWRC– MRC 111 National Museum of Natural History P. O. Box 37012 Washington DC 20013-7012 tel.: 202-357-1970 banksr@si.edu

(16) Contact: Tadeusz Mizera, Ph.D. Local coordinator Agricultural University Zoology Department Wojska Polskiego 71C 60-625 Poznan POLAND tel.: +48 61 848-76-50 fax: +48 61 848-71-46 tmizera@au.poznan.pl

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Ðîññèè, Ìîíãîëèè, Êàçàõñòàíå è Êèòàå, âîëîíòåðîâ. Èìååòñÿ øåñòü âàêàíñèé.  Âåëèêîáðèòàíèè 27 ôåâðàëÿ – 5 ìàðòà ñïåöèàëèñòàìè FRI äëÿ âîëîíòåðîâ áóäåò ïðîâîäèòüñÿ ðàáî÷èé ñåìèíàð. Âîëîíòåðàì áóäóò îïëà÷åíû òðàíñïîðòíûå ðàñõîäû è ïðîæèâàíèå êàê â õîäå ñåìèíàðà, òàê è â õîäå ýêñïåäèöèé çà ñ÷åò ñðåäñòâ Àãåíòñòâà ïî îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû Îáúåäèíåííûõ Àðàáñêèõ Ýìèðàòîâ (ERWDA, UAE). Ïðèîðèòåò îòäàåòñÿ íà÷èíàþùèì ñïåöèàëèñòàì ñ õîðîøèì çíàíèåì ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Æåëàþùèì ïðèíÿòü ó÷àñòèå â ðàáîòå â êà÷åñòâå âîëîíòåðîâ íåîáõîäèìî ïîñëàòü CV, ôîòîãðàôèþ è äâå ðåêîìåíäàöèè íà àäðåñ ðóêîâîäèòåëÿ ïðîåêòà. Êîíòàêò (14). 21–24 àïðåëÿ 2005 ãîäà Àññîöèàöèÿ ïîëåâûõ îðíèòîëîãîâ è Îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêîå îáùåñòâî Âèëñîíà â Âàøèíãòîíå (îêðóã Êîëóìáèÿ, ÑØÀ) ïðîâîäÿò ñîâìåñòíóþ åæåãîäíóþ êîíôåðåíöèþ22. Êîíôåðåíöèÿ áóäåò ïðîõîäèòü â ïàðêå Øåðàòîí-Êîëëåäæà, Áåëòñâèëë. Ïðåäëîæåíèÿ ïî ïðîâåäåíèþ êîíôåðåíöèè íàïðàâëÿòü íà èìÿ Ïðåäñåäàòåëÿ íàó÷íîãî êîìèòåòà – Äæåéìñà Ðàéçèíãà (Òîðîíòî). Ïî âñåì îðãàíèçàöèîííûì âîïðîñàì îáðàùàòüñÿ ê Ïðåäñåäàòåëþ îðãàíèçàöèîííîãî êîìèòåòà – Ðè÷àðäó Áàíêñó (Âàøèíãòîí). Ïîëíûé àíîíñ êîíôåðåíöèè áóäåò ðàçîñëàí â òå÷åíèå ÿíâàðÿ 2005 ã. Êîíòàêò (15). 13–17 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2005 ã. ïëàíèðóåòñÿ ïðîâåäåíèå V Åâðàçèéñêîé êîíôåðåíöèè Ôîíäà èçó÷åíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ (RRF) â ã. Ïîçíàíè (Ïîëüøà)23. Ïðåäâàðèòåëüíàÿ ïðîãðàììà: 13 ñåíòÿáðÿ – 2–3 ðàáî÷èå ãðóïïû (ñåññèè, ôèëüìû) 14 ñåíòÿáðÿ – îòêðûòîå çàñåäàíèå, 2– 3 ðàáî÷èå ãðóïïû (ïîñòåðíàÿ ñåññèÿ è ïðèåì) 15 ñåíòÿáðÿ – îäíîäíåâíàÿ ýêñêóðñèÿ 16 ñåíòÿáðÿ – ïëåíàðíîå çàñåäàíèå (ñåññèè) 17 ñåíòÿáðÿ – ïëåíàðíîå çàñåäàíèå, ïðèíÿòèå ðåçîëþöèè, çàêðûòèå êîíôåðåíöèè. Êîíòàêò (16).

http://www.afonet.org/english/meeting.html http://biology.boisestate.edu/raptor/conferences.htm http://www.uwgb.edu/biodiversity

Ñîáûòèÿ The Association of Field Ornithologists and The Wilson Ornithological Society will hold joint annual meetings 21–24 April 2005 in the Washington, DC, area, at the invitation of the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and the Maryland Ornithological Society22. Housing and meetings will be at the Sheraton-College Park, Beltsville, MD. The Chair of the Scientific Program Committee, James D. Rising. The Chair of the Committee on Arrangements is Richard C. Banks. A full announcement of the meeting will be mailed in January 2005. Contact (15). The 5th Eurasian RRF Conference is planned for 13-17 September 2005 In Poznan, Poland23. Preliminary Program: 13 Sept. – 2-3 working groups (sessions, films) 14 Sept. – opening session, 2-3 working groups (poster session plus ice-breaker reception) 15 Sept. – 1-day excursion 16 Sept. – plenary session, 2-3 working groups (sessions, evening social event) 17 Sept. – plenary session, resolutions voting, closing session. Contact (16). The Annual RRF Conference is planned for 12–16 October 2005 in Green Bay, Wisconsin (USA)24. The organizer of conference is the Cofrin Center for Biodiversity (University of Wisconsin – Green Bay). Information on conference is available on site of RRF25. Contact (17). The Asian Raptor Research and Conservation Network (ARRCN) will hold the 4th Asian Raptor Symposium from 28–31 October 2005, in Taiping, Malaysia. The symposium will be held over four days, and will include workshops on different topics. There will also be poster presentations. Excursions will be held to observe migration during this time. English is the official language of the Symposium. The Symposium will be held at Taiping Resort, located at the foothills of the Bintang Range in Taiping, Perak state, on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Taiping is one of the most important raptor migration sites in Malaysia.


Events (17) Contact: Daniel Varland Rayonier Inc., 3033 Ingram str. Hoquiam WA 98550 USA tel.: 360-538-4582 fax: 360-532-5426 daniel.varland@ rayonier.com

(18) Contact: ARRCN v Information Center c/o 208 Jalan H-8 Taman Melawati 53100 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia mikechn@pc.jaring.my

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1 12 – 16 îêòÿáðÿ 2005 ãîäà íàìå÷åíî ïðîâåäåíèå åæåãîäíîé êîíôåðåíöèè Ôîíäà èçó÷åíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ (RRF) â øòàòå Âèñêîíñèí (ÑØÀ)24. Îðãàíèçàòîð êîíôåðåíöèè: Êîðôèíñêèé öåíòð áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ (CCB) ïðè Óíèâåðñèòåòå Âèñêîíñèíà â Çåëåíîé Áóõòå. Èíôîðìàöèÿ î êîíôåðåíöèè äîñòóïíà íà ñàéòå Ôîíäà èçó÷åíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ25. Ñòóäåíòû, ó÷àñòâóþùèå â êîíôåðåíöèè â êà÷åñòâå àâòîðîâ äîêëàäîâ è ïîñòåðíûõ ñîîáùåíèé, ìîãóò îáðàòèòüñÿ â Ôîíä Äæåéìñà Ð. Êîïëèíà çà ìàòåðèàëüíîé ïîääåðæêîé äëÿ îïëàòû ðàñõîäîâ, ñâÿçàííûõ ñ ó÷àñòèåì â êîíôåðåíöèè. Ïîäðîáíîñòè ïîëó÷åíèÿ ãðàíòà ñìîòðè íà ñòð. 59. Êîíòàêò (17). 28–31 îêòÿáðÿ 2005 ãîäà â ã. Òàéïèíå (Ìàëàéçèÿ) Ñåòü èçó÷åíèÿ è îõðàíû õèùíèêîâ Àçèè (ARRCN) ïðîâîäèò IV Àçèàòñêèé ñèìïîçèóì ïî õèùíèêàì. Ñèìïîçèóìû äàííîé ñåðèè ïðîâîäÿòñÿ êàæäûå äâà ãîäà. Ïðåäûäóùèå ñèìïîçèóìû ïðîõîäèëè â ã. Øèãå (ßïîíèÿ) â 1998 ãîäó, Áàíäóíãå (Èíäîíåçèÿ) â 2000 è â ã. Êåíòèíå (Òàéâàíü) â 2003 ãîäàõ. Ñèìïîçèóì áóäåò ïðîõîäèòü ÷åòûðå äíÿ â êóðîðòíîì ãîðîäå Òàéïèíü, ðàñïîëîæåííîì â ïðåäãîðüÿõ õðåáòà Áèíòàíã (øòàò Ïåðàê), íà çàïàäíîì ïîáåðåæüå Ìàëàéçèéñêîãî ïîëóîñòðîâà. Òàéïèíü – îäíî èç ìåñò, ãäå ïðîõîäÿò âàæíåéøèå ìèãðàöèîííûå ïóòè â Ìàëàéçèè. Ñèìïîçèóì áóäåò âêëþ÷àòü ðàáî÷èå ñîâåùàíèÿ ïî ðàçëè÷íûì òåìàì, ïîñòåðíûå ïðåçåíòàöèè, ýêñêóðñèè ïî íàáëþäåíèþ ïðîëåòîâ. Îôèöèàëüíûé ÿçûê ñèìïîçèóìà – àíãëèéñêèé. Ïðîãðàììà ñèìïîçèóìà: 28 îêòÿáðÿ 2005 ãîäà, ïÿòíèöà. Óòðî – íàáëþäåíèå ìèãðàöèè õèùíèêîâ, äåíü – ðåãèñòðàöèÿ, âå÷åð – îòêðûòèå ñèìïîçèóìà è ïðèâåòñòâåííûé ïðèåì. 29 îêòÿáðÿ 2005 ãîäà, ñóááîòà. Âåñü äåíü ïîñâÿùåí íàó÷íîé ïðîãðàììå: óòðî – óñòíûå è ïîñòåðíûå äîêëàäû, ðàáî÷åå ñîâåùàíèå ïî ìåòîäèêàì èçó÷åíèÿ ìèãðàöèé, äåíü – ðàáî÷åå ñîâåùàíèå ïî ìèãðàöèÿì è ðàäèîòåëåìåòðèè. 30 îêòÿáðÿ 2005 ãîäà, âîñêðåñåíüå. Óòðî – óñòíûå è ïîñòåðíûå äîêëàäû, äåíü – ðàáî÷åå ñîâåùàíèå ïî ìåòîäèêàì âûÿâëåíèÿ ìåñò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, èçó÷åíèÿ èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ ïåðíàòûìè õèùíèêàìè ìåñòîáèòàíèé, àíàëèç äàííûõ äëÿ èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ èõ â îõðàíå.

http://biology.boisestate.edu/raptor/2005%20meeting/ 2005%20meeting.htm 25

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Tentative Programme 28 October 2005, Friday: Morning: Raptor migration watch. Afternoon: Registration. Evening: Opening of Symposium and welcome reception. 29 October 2005, Saturday: Full day Scientific Programme. Morning: Oral and posters presentation, Workshop on Raptor Migration Study Techniques. Afternoon: Workshop on migration and radio telemetry tracking. 30 October 2005, Sunday: Full day Scientific Programme. Morning: Oral and posters presentation. Afternoon: Workshop: Determining raptors home range and habitat-use and data analysis for conservation applications. 31 October 2005 Monday: Excursion to observe raptors and raptor migration The Deadline for submission of Abstracts is: 31 March 2005, of Full papers is: 30 June 2005. Full papers (including an abstract) must be submitted by e-mail, (or air mail) on an IBM-compatible 3.5" floppy disk, together with one hard-copy printout. Papers must be in MS Word, WordPerfect or other compatible word processing software. Use the first author-s full name for the disk label and the file name. An Abstract Submission Form must be appended or included in each case. Full Papers and poster presentations will be reviewed by the Scientific Committee, and author(s) will be notified of the review results by August 2005. The decision of the Scientific Committee is final. If necessary, abstracts may be edited by members of the Scientific Committee. Send the abstract and full manuscript with the Abstract Submission Form to the Symposium Scientific Committee at: E-mail: jalila@vet.upm.edu.my Fax No: +603 8948 6722 (Attention to: Dr. Jalila Abu) and E-mail: mikechn@pc.jaring.my For more information and to get a copy of the Abstract and full paper submission form please visit the ARRCN website26. Contact (18).


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1 31 îêòÿáðÿ 2005 ãîäà, ïîíåäåëüíèê. Ýêñêóðñèÿ ïî íàáëþäåíèþ õèùíûõ ïòèö è èõ ìèãðàöèè. Òðåáîâàíèÿ ê äîêëàäàì Ó÷àñòíèêè ìîãóò ïðåäñòàâëÿòü êàê óñòíûå, òàê è ïîñòåðíûå äîêëàäû. Äîêëàäû äîëæíû ïðåäñòàâëÿòü íåîïóáëèêîâàííûå ðåçóëüòàòû ñîáñòâåííûõ èññëåäîâàíèé èëè íîâûé îáçîð, èíòåðïðåòèðîâàííûé â ñâåòå ñîâðåìåííûõ òåîðèé. Ñòàòüè óæå îïóáëèêîâàííûå èëè ñäàííûå â ïå÷àòü íå ïðèíèìàþòñÿ, çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì ïðåäøåñòâóþùèõ ïóáëèêàöèé íà íåìåæäóíàðîäíîì ÿçûêå. Ïîñòåðíûå äîêëàäû äîëæíû ïðåäñòàâëÿòü ðåçóëüòàòû çàâåðøåííûõ èëè ïðîâîäèìûõ èññëåäîâàíèé. Îíè ìîãóò áûòü òàêæå ïðåçåíòàöèåé íåîïóáëèêîâàííûõ ñîîáùåíèé. Êàæäûé ïîñòåðíûé äîêëàä ìîæåò áûòü ðàçìåùåí òîëüêî íà îäíîì ñòåíäå è åãî ðàçìåð íå äîëæåí ïðåâûøàòü 90õ100 ñì. Ïîñòåðíûå äîêëàäû íå áóäóò âêëþ÷åíû â ìàòåðèàëû êîíôåðåíöèè, íî èõ òåçèñû áóäóò îïóáëèêîâàíû. Ïîëíûé äîêëàä (âêëþ÷àÿ òåçèñû) äîëæåí áûòü îòïðàâëåí ïî ýëåêòðîííîé ïî÷òå èëè íà äèñêåòå 3.5" âìåñòå ñ ðàñïå÷àòêîé. Ñòàòüè ïðèíèìàþòñÿ â ôîðìàòàõ MS Word, WordPerfect èëè äðóãèõ ñîâìåñòèìûõ ôîðìàòàõ. Äëÿ íàçâàíèÿ ôàéëà íåîáõîäèìî èñïîëüçîâàòü ïîëíîå èìÿ ïåðâîãî àâòîðà. Ïðåäîñòàâëåííûé äèñê íå âîçâðàùàåòñÿ. Ðåãèñòðàöèîííàÿ ôîðìà äîëæíà áûòü âêëþ÷åíà â ôàéë èëè ïðèëîæåíà îòäåëüíî. Ïîëíûå òåêñòû óñòíûõ è ïîñòåðíûõ äîêëàäîâ áóäóò ðàññìàòðèâàòüñÿ íàó÷íûì êîìèòåòîì, è àâòîð(û) áóäåò èçâåùåí(û) î ðåçóëüòàòàõ ðàññìîòðåíèÿ ê àâãóñòó 2005 ãîäà. Ðåøåíèå íàó÷íîãî êîìèòåòà îêîí÷àòåëüíîå. Ïðè íåîáõîäèìîñòè òåçèñû ìîãóò ðåäàêòèðîâàòüñÿ ÷ëåíàìè íàó÷íîãî êîìèòåòà. Ôîðìàò è ñîäåðæàíèå òåçèñîâ  îòñûëàåìûõ òåçèñàõ íåîáõîäèìî îòìåòèòü ôîðìó äîêëàäà (óñòíûé èëè ïîñòåðíûé). Êàæäûé òåçèñ íå äîëæåí ïðåâûøàòü 400 ñëîâ (ìèíèìóì 170 ñëîâ), âêëþ÷àÿ íàçâàíèå. Íàçâàíèå (íå áîëåå 15 ñëîâ è íå áîëåå ÷åì 130 ñèìâîëîâ, âêëþ÷àÿ ïðîáåëû) äîëæíî áûòü íàïèñàíî ñòðî÷íûìè áóêâàìè è æèðíûì øðèôòîì (14 êåãëü Times New Roman), äàëåå äîëæíû ñëåäîâàòü ïîëíûå èìåíà âñåõ àâòîðîâ, èõ àäðåñà, òåëåôîíû è ôàêñû (12 êåãëü Times New Roman). Èìÿ è àäðåñ àâòîðà, êîìó îòïðàâëÿòü êîððåñïîíäåíöèþ, äîëæíû áûòü ïîä÷åðêíóòû. Òåêñò òåçèñîâ äîëæåí ñîäåðæàòü

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http://www5b.biglobe.ne.jp/~raptor/index.htm

Ñîáûòèÿ Abstract Submission Form Author responsible for manuscript: Name: Address: Tel: Fax: E-mail: T ick in circle for preference for presentation (final decision will be made by the Organizing Committee): O Poster Session O Oral Session O Oral or Poster I hereby confirm that this paper has not been either published nor submitted elsewhere for publication, that all its authors agree to its contents, and that the full text will be available for publication in the Conference Proceedings. Signature [all authors]: ÷åòêèå óòâåðæäåíèÿ, îïèñàíèå ìåòîäèêè, ðåçóëüòàòû è âûâîäû. Òåçèñû äîëæíû ñîäåðæàòü äîñòàòî÷íóþ èíôîðìàöèþ äëÿ ïîíèìàíèÿ ó÷àñòíèêàìè êîíôåðåíöèè îñíîâíûõ èäåé ñîîáùåíèÿ. Ðåãèñòðàöèîííàÿ ôîðìà äëÿ òåçèñîâ (ñì. âñòàâêó). Ôîðìà äîëæíà áûòü ïîäïèñàíà âñåìè àâòîðàìè, ÷òî ïðåäñòàâëÿåìûå òåçèñû áàçèðóþòñÿ íà ñîáñòâåííûõ èññëåäîâàíèÿõ, êîòîðûå ðàíåå íèãäå íå ïóáëèêîâàëèñü è íå ïîäàâàëèñü ãäå-íèáóäü åùå äëÿ ïóáëèêàöèè, ÷òî âñå àâòîðû ñîãëàñíû ñ ñîäåðæàíèåì òåçèñîâ è, ÷òî ïîëíûé òåêñò ñîîáùåíèÿ ìîæåò áûòü îïóáëèêîâàí â ìàòåðèàëàõ êîíôåðåíöèè. Ïðè ïðèíÿòèè òåçèñîâ íåîáõîäèìî îäíèì èç àâòîðîâ óñòíîãî èëè ïîñòåðíîãî ñîîáùåíèÿ, çàðåãèñòðèðîâàííîãî êàê ó÷àñòíèê êîíôåðåíöèè, îïëàòèòü ðåãèñòðàöèîííûé âçíîñ. Òåçèñû è ïîëíûå ðóêîïèñè ñ ðåãèñòðàöèîííîé ôîðìîé îòñûëàþòñÿ â íàó÷íûé êîìèòåò ñèìïîçèóìà ïî àäðåñàì: E-mail: jalila@vet.upm.edu.my mikechn@pc.jaring.my Fax No: +603 8948 6722 (Attention to: Dr. Jalila Abu). Ïîñëåäíèé ñðîê ïðèåìà òåçèñîâ: 31 ìàðòà 2005 ã., äîêëàäîâ: 30 èþíÿ 2005 ã. Çà äîïîëíèòåëüíîé èíôîðìàöèåé è äëÿ ïîëó÷åíèÿ êîïèé òåçèñîâ è ïîëíîé ðåãèñòðàöèîííîé ôîðìû îáðàùàéòåñü íà ñàéò ARRCN26. Êîíòàêò (18).


Problem of Number

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1

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Problem of Number ÏÐÎÁËÅÌÀ ÍÎÌÅÐÀ Time is Running Out for Asian Vulture (Press Release)27 ÂÐÅÌß ÀÇÈÀÒÑÊÈÕ ÑÈÏΠÏÐÎÕÎÄÈÒ (ÏÐÅÑÑ-ÐÅËÈÇ)27 R. Watson (The Peregrine Fund, USA) R. Green (University of Cambridge, U.K.) B. Allen (British Ecological Society, U.K.) Ð. Âàòñîí (Ôîíä Ñàïñàíà, ÑØÀ) Ð. Ãðèí (Êåìáðèäæñêèé óíèâåðñèòåò, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ) Á. Àëåí (Áðèòàíñêîå ýêîëîãè÷åñêîå îáùåñòâî, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ) Contact: Dr. Rick Watson International Programs Director The Peregrine Fund USA 208/362-3716 rwatson@peregrinefund.org Dr. Rhys Green University of Cambridge, U.K. tel.: 01223 762840 reg29@hermes.cam.ac.uk Becky Allen Press Officer, British Ecological Society, U.K. tel.: 01223 570016 tel.: 07949 804317 beckyallen@ntlworld.com

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Ýêîëîãè èçâåñòèëè ïðàâèòåëüñòâà ñòðàí Þæíîé Àçèè î íåîáõîäèìîñòè çàïðåòà èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ äèêëîôåíàêà â âåòåðèíàðèè â êà÷åñòâå àíòèâîñïàëèòåëüíîãî ñðåäñòâà. Åñëè íå çàïðåòèòü èñïîëüçîâàíèå ýòîãî ïðåïàðàòà äëÿ äîìàøíåãî ñêîòà, êîòîðûé ïîåäàåòñÿ ïàäàëüùèêàìè, òðè âèäà ñèïîâ íà Èíäèéñêîì ñóáêîíòèíåíòå ñêîðåå âñåãî ïðåêðàòÿò ñâîå ñóùåñòâîâàíèå â áëèæàéøåì áóäóùåì. Íîâåéøèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ, îïóáëèêîâàííûå â æóðíàëå ïðèêëàäíîé ýêîëîãèè (Journal of Applied Ecology), ïîêàçàëè, ÷òî ïîåäàíèå ñèïàìè òóø äîìàøíåãî ñêîòà, çàðàæåííûõ äèêëîôåíàêîì äàæå ìåíåå ÷åì íà 1%, äîñòàòî÷íî, ÷òîáû âûçâàòü áûñòðîå ñîêðàùåíèå èõ ÷èñëåííîñòè, êîòîðîå íàáëþäàåòñÿ â Èíäèè, Ïàêèñòàíå è Íåïàëå ïîñëåäíåå äåñÿòèëåòèå. Ýòî – ãëàâíàÿ è, âîçìîæíî, åäèíñòâåííàÿ ïðè÷èíà ýòîãî ñîêðàùåíèÿ. Âðåìÿ óõîäèò, è íåîáõîäèìî ïðèíèìàòü ñðî÷íûå ìåðû äëÿ ñîõðàíåíèÿ òðåõ âèäîâ ñèïîâ. Ïðàâèòåëüñòâà, ôàðìàöåâòè÷åñêèå êîìïàíèè, âåòåðèíàðû, âëàäåëüöû äîìàøíåãî ñêîòà è ïðèðîäîîõðàííûå îðãàíèçàöèè äîëæíû äåéñòâîâàòü âìåñòå, ÷òîáû ðåøèòü ýòó ïðîáëåìó. Èññëåäîâàíèÿ äîêòîðà Ëèíäñýé Îàêñ ñ êîëëåãàìè èç Ôîíäà ñàïñàíà, îïóáëèêîâàííûå â ÿíâàðå 2004 ã. â æóðíàëå «Nature», ïîêàçàëè, ÷òî â ìÿñå äîìàøíåãî ñêîòà, ïîëó÷èâøåãî íåçàäîëãî äî ñìåðòè ñòàíäàðòíóþ â âåòåðèíàðíîé ïðàêòèêå äîçó äèêëîôåíàêà, ñîäåðæèòñÿ ñìåðòåëüíîå äëÿ ñèïîâ êîëè÷åñòâî ÿäà. Áîëüøèíñòâî ñèïîâ, îáíàðóæåííûõ ìåðòâûìè â Ïàêèñòàíå, èìåëè

http://www.peregrinefund.org/conserv_vulture_kathmandu.asp

Ecologists are calling on South Asian governments to ban veterinary use of the antiinflammatory drug diclofenac. Without banning use of the drug in livestock likely to be eaten by vultures, mainly cattle and buffalo, three species of vulture in the Indian subcontinent are likely to become extinct in the near future. New research, published in the Journal of Applied Ecology, shows that exposure of vulture populations to a surprisingly small proportion of livestock carcasses contaminated with the drug, less than 1%, is sufficient to cause the rapid declines in vulture populations observed in India, Pakistan and Nepal over the past ten years. Significantly, the study also showed that the proportion of dead vultures with symptoms of diclofenac poisoning in the wild is close to that expected if this was the sole cause of the declines. Our study indicates that diclofenac poisoning is the main cause, possibly the only cause, of these vulture declines, which are among the most rapid ever recorded for any wild bird. Time is running out if we are to save these species. Governments, drug companies, vets, livestock owners and conservationists should act together now to solve this problem. The research builds upon a study by Dr. Lindsay Oaks and colleagues at The Peregrine Fund, published in Nature in January 2004, which showed that tissues of livestock treated with the standard veterinary dose of diclofenac shortly before death were lethal to captive vultures and that the majority of wild vultures found dead in Pakistan were contaminated with diclofenac and had the same symptoms as the poisoned birds in their experiments.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1 òå æå ñèìïòîìû ÷òî è ïòèöû, îòðàâëåííûå äèêëîôåíàêîì â õîäå ýêñïåðèìåíòà. Ñî ñíèæåíèåì ÷èñëåííîñòè ïîïóëÿöèé ñèïîâ òåðÿåòñÿ èõ êóëüòóðíîå è ýêîëîãè÷åñêîå çíà÷åíèå. Ïðåäñòàâèòåëè îáùèíû Ïàðñè â Èíäèè è Ïàêèñòàíå òðàäèöèîííî îñòàâëÿþò òåëà óìåðøèõ ëþäåé íà ñúåäåíèå ñèïàì, îäíàêî ñèïû ñòàëè ñëèøêîì ðåäêè è íå âûïîëíÿþò òîé ðîëè, êîòîðàÿ îòâåäåíà èì â ýòîì îáðÿäå.  áîëüøèíñòâå ðàéîíîâ Èíäèè, ãäå ñêîò íå ïîåäàåòñÿ ëþäüìè, ñèïû èãðàëè âàæíåéøóþ ðîëü â óòèëèçàöèè òóø ïîãèáøåãî äîìàøíåãî ñêîòà. Èõ îòñóòñòâèå óæå ïðèâåëî ê óâåëè÷åíèþ ñòàé îäè÷àâøèõ ñîáàê, ïîåäàþùèõ òðóïû, è óâåëè÷åíèþ ðèñêà ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ îïàñíûõ çàáîëåâàíèé. Ïî ðåçóëüòàòàì èññëåäîâàíèé 2003 ã. Îáùåñòâà åñòåñòâåííîé èñòîðèè Áîìáåÿ, ÷èñëî áåíãàëüñêèõ ñèïîâ (Gyps bengalensis) ñîêðàòèëîñü áîëåå ÷åì íà 99% ñ íà÷àëà 90-õ ãîäîâ, à èíäèéñêèõ ñèïîâ (Gyps indicus) – íà 97%. Ïàäåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ïðîäîëæàåòñÿ áûñòðûìè òåìïàìè: ïî äàííûì Ôîíäà ñàïñàíà â Èíäèè è Ïàêèñòàíå ñ 2000 ïî 2003 ãã. ÷èñëåííîñòü Gyps bengalensis ñîêðàùàëàñü â ñðåäíåì íà 50% â ãîä, à Gyps indicus – íà 22% â ãîä. Òàêæå î÷åíü áûñòðî ñîêðàùàåòñÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ðåäêîãî Gyps tenuirostris. Âñå òðè âèäà âíåñåíû â Ñïèñîê Ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî ñîþçà îõðàíû ïðèðîäû (IUCN) êàê «êðèòè÷åñêè óãðîæàåìûå». Èñïîëüçîâàíèå äèêëîôåíàêà â ëå÷åíèè äîìàøíåãî ñêîòà øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàíåíî â âåòåðèíàðíîé ïðàêòèêå Èíäèè è Ïàêèñòàíà, è, âåðîÿòíî, íåîáõîäèìî äëèòåëüíîå âðåìÿ äëÿ ïðåêðàùåíèÿ åãî èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ è, êàê ñëåäñòâèå, èñêëþ÷åíèÿ èç ðàöèîíà ïàäàëüùèêîâ. Ñîãëàñíî ìíåíèþ äîêòîðà Àñàäà Ðàìàíè, äèðåêòîðà îáùåñòâà åñòåñòâåííîé èñòîðèè Áîìáåÿ: «Áóäåò òðóäíî èñêëþ÷èòü äèêëîôåíàê èç îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû, òàê êàê îí íàêàïëèâàåòñÿ è ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ â æèâîì îðãàíèçìå äîñòàòî÷íî äîëãî, à çíà÷èò áóäåò åùå íåñêîëüêî ëåò îáíàðóæèâàòüñÿ â ïàäàëüùèêàõ. Ïîýòîìó íåîáõîäèìî áåçîòëàãàòåëüíî íà÷àòü ðàçâåäåíèå ñèïîâ â íåâîëå, â êà÷åñòâå ìåðû ïðåäîòâðàùåíèÿ èõ èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ, äî òåõ ïîð, ïîêà ïåðåñòàíåò ñóùåñòâîâàòü óãðîçà îòðàâëåíèÿ äèêëîôåíàêîì â äèêîé ïðèðîäå». Íàèáîëåå ïîëíàÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ î ñèòóàöèè ñ ñèïàìè â Þæíîé Àçèè èìååòñÿ íà ñàéòàõ BirdLife International28 è Ôîíäà ñàïñàíà29.

http://www.birdlife.org/action/science/species/asia_vulture_crisis/index.html http://www.peregrinefund.org/conserve_category.asp?category= Asian%20Vulture%20Crisis 28

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Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà Vultures have considerable cultural and ecological importance which is being lost as their populations decline. The Parsi communities of India and Pakistan relied on vultures to consume the bodies of their dead, but vultures are now too rare for this to occur. In most parts of India, where cattle are not eaten by people, vultures played an important role by consuming the carcasses of dead livestock. Their virtual absence appears to have led to an increase in feral dog populations and has necessitated alternative methods of carcass disposal to reduce public health risks from disease spread and non-avian scavenger population increases. The most recent vulture population surveys in India, carried out by the Bombay Natural History Society in 2003, show the number of oriental white-backed vultures (Gyps bengalensis) has fallen by more than 99% since the early 1990s and the number of long-billed vultures (Gyps indicus) has fallen by more than 97%. These declines continue at drastic rates: white-backed vulture populations declined by an average of 50% in each year between 2000 and 2003 in both India and Pakistan (The Peregrine Fund’s studies) and long-billed vultures in India declined by 22% per year during the same period. The rare slender-billed vulture (Gyps tenuirostris) is also declining rapidly. All three species have been listed as Critically Endangered, the highest level of extinction risk, by IUCN – The World Conservation Union. Diclofenac is widely used and distributed for livestock treatment in India and Pakistan, and is likely to take considerable time to remove it from the vultures’ food supply. According to Dr. Asad Rahmani, Director of Bombay Natural History Society: “It will be difficult to remove diclofenac from the environment until drugs that are safe for vultures have been identified, so we urgently need captive breeding of vultures as a precaution until that has been achieved”. The most full information on situations with Vulture in South Asia there is on website BirdLife International28 and Peregrine Fund29.


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Raptors Conservation 2005, 1

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Manifesto on Diclofenac and Vulture Conservation30 ÌÀÍÈÔÅÑÒ Î ÇÀÏÐÅÒÅ ÏÐÈÌÅÍÅÍÈß ÄÈÊËÎÔÅÍÀÊÀ È ÎÕÐÀÍÅ ÑÈÏÎÂ30

Áåíãàëüñêèé ñèï íà ãíåçäå (Gyps bengalensis). Ôîòî Ì. Âèðàíè/BNHS White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis on the nest. Photo by M. Virani/BNHS

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•  ïîñëåäíåå äåñÿòèëåòèå êàòàñòðîôè÷åñêè ñîêðàòèëàñü ÷èñëåííîñòü òðåõ âèäîâ ïðåäñòàâèòåëåé ðîäà Gyps (G. bengalensis, G. tenuirostris, G. indicus) â Èíäèè, Ïàêèñòàíå è Íåïàëå. Åñëè ñðàâíèâàòü ñîâðåìåííûå äàííûå ñ ïóáëèêàöèÿìè äåñÿòèëåòíåé äàâíîñòè, èõ ÷èñëåííîñòü íà îáñëåäîâàííûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ óïàëà áîëåå ÷åì íà 95%. Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé ñîþç îõðàíû ïðèðîäû (IUCN) â 2000 ã. âíåñ â ñïèñîê êðèòè÷åñêè óãðîæàåìûõ âèäîâ G. bengalensis è G. indicus (ïîñëåäíèé âèä íåäàâíî áûë ðàçäåëåí íà äâà: G. indicus è G. tenuirostris). Òåêóùèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïðîäîëæàþò êîíñòàòèðîâàòü ôàêò, ÷òî ÷èñëåííîñòü ýòèõ òðåõ âèäîâ ïàäàëüùèêîâ ïðîäîëæàåò ñîêðàùàòüñÿ áûñòðûìè òåìïàìè. • Ïîñëåäíèå íàó÷íûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïîäòâåðäèëè, ÷òî îñíîâíîé ïðè÷èíîé ðåçêîãî ïàäåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ñèïîâ ÿâëÿåòñÿ îòðàâëåíèå äèêëîôåíàêîì. • Äèêëîôåíàê – àíòèâîñïàëèòåëüíûé ïðåïàðàò, èñïîëüçóåìûé â âåòåðèíàðèè â ñòðàíàõ Þæíîé Àçèè. Îí íàêàïëèâàåòñÿ â ìûøå÷íûõ òêàíÿõ äîìàøíåãî ñêîòà ïî ìåðå åãî ïðèìåíåíèÿ. Ýêñïåðèìåíòû ïîêàçûâàþò, ÷òî ñèïû î÷åíü ÷óâñòâèòåëüíû ê äèêëîôåíàêó è ãèáíóò îò îòðàâëåíèÿ â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîåäàíèÿ òóø æèâîòíûõ, êîòîðûì ââîäèëèñü ñòàíäàðòíûå äîçû ïðåïàðàòà. Äðóãèå ïðè÷èíû òàêæå ìîãóò âëèÿòü íà ñîêðàùåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ñèïîâ, îäíàêî, â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ íè îäíà èç íèõ íåîïðîâåðæèìî íå äîêàçàíà. Ìû âåðèì, ÷òî ñòàáèëèçàöèÿ è âîññòàíîâëåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ñèïîâ âîçìîæíî, åñëè ïðåêðàòèòü ïðèìåíåíèå äèêëîôåíàêà. • Îáñòîÿòåëüñòâà óêàçûâàþò íà òî, ÷òî âûìèðàíèå òðåõ âèäîâ ñèïîâ íåìèíóåìî. Ñîõðàíèâøèåñÿ ê íàñòîÿùåìó âðåìåíè ïîïóëÿöèè íå æèçíåñïîñîáíû, ïîýòîìó íåîáõîäèìî áåçîòëàãàòåëüíî ïðèíèìàòü ìåðû ïî ðàçâåäåíèþ ýòèõ âèäîâ â íåâîëå, äî òåõ ïîð, ïîêà ïðèìåíåíèå äèêëîôåíàêà íå áóäåò ïðåêðàùåíî ïîëíîñòüþ. Âîçìîæíî, ÷òî ÷èñëåííîñòü ýòèõ âèäîâ â ïðèðîäå áóäåò íåäîñòàòî÷íà äëÿ âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ èõ æèçíåñïîñîáíûõ ïîïóëÿöèé, åñëè ýòà ðåêîìåíäàöèÿ íå áóäåò ðåàëèçîâàíà óæå â 2004 ã. • Ñèïû ÿâëÿþòñÿ êëþ÷åâûìè âèäàìè, è êàòàñòðîôè÷åñêîå ñîêðàùåíèå èõ ÷èñëåí-

• Three species of Gyps vultures (G. bengalensis, G. tenuirostris, G. indicus) have declined at an alarming rate across India, Pakistan and Nepal in the last decade. In survey areas numbers have declined by more than 95% of former levels. Declines are well documented from survey data published in the peer-reviewed literature. In 2000, G. bengalensis and G. indicus (recently split into G. indicus and G. tenuirostris) were listed by IUCN as Critically Endangered, which is their highest category of endangerment and indicates that there is a high risk that they will become extinct in the near future. Current evidence suggests that populations of these species continue to fall very rapidly. • Recent scientific evidence indicates that diclofenac (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) is a major cause of the observed vulture declines. • Exposure of vultures to diclofenac arises through its veterinary use to treat domestic livestock. Experiments show that vultures are highly susceptible to diclofenac and are killed by feeding on the carcass of an animal soon after it has been treated with the normal veterinary dose. Modelling shows that only a very small proportion of livestock carcasses need to contain a level of diclofenac lethal to vultures to result in vulture population declines at the observed rates. Whilst other factors may influence Gyps populations, there is currently no conclusive evidence that any other cause is involved. We believe that recovery from the declines will be possible only if exposure of wild vultures to diclofenac is prevented. • Evidence suggests that extinction of the three Gyps vulture species is imminent. Current captive populations are not viable, so immediate action is needed to obtain, hold, and possibly breed, these species in captivity, until sources of diclofenac exposure have been effectively removed from the vultures’ environment. It is possible that wild stocks of some of the threatened vulture species will be insufficient for the establishment of a viable captive population if this recommendation is not acted upon in 2004.

http://www.birdlife.org/action/science/species/asia_vulture_crisis/vulture_manifesto.html


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1 íîñòè èìååò íåáëàãîïðèÿòíûé ýôôåêò êàê â äèêîé ïðèðîäå, òàê è â ÷åëîâå÷åñêîì îáùåñòâå. Èìååòñÿ ðèñê óâåëè÷åíèÿ áîëåçíåé, êîòîðûå óãðîæàþò ÷åëîâå÷åñêèì æèçíÿì è áëàãîïîëó÷èþ ñåëüñêîãî íàñåëåíèÿ â ñòðàíàõ Þæíîé Àçèè. • Ïðåäîòâðàùåíèå ïàäåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè þæíîàçèàòñêèõ ñèïî⠖ îäèí èç âñåìèðíî âàæíûõ ïðèîðèòåòîâ îõðàíû äèêîé ïðèðîäû. Ðåøåíèå ýòîé ïðîáëåìû òðåáóåò áåçîòëàãàòåëüíûõ ðåøåíèé ñî ñòîðîíû ïðàâèòåëüñòâ è ôàðìàöåâòè÷åñêîé ïðîìûøëåííîñòè. • Ìû ïðèçûâàåì ïðàâèòåëüñòâà âñåõ ñòðàí Àçèè, Àôðèêè, Åâðîïû è Ñðåäíåãî Âîñòîêà, ãäå îáèòàþò ïðåäñòàâèòåëè ðîäà Gyps, à òàêæå èçãîòîâèòåëåé äèêëîôåíàêà, çàïðåòèòü èñïîëüçîâàíèå ýòîãî ïðåïàðàòà â âåòåðèíàðíîé ïðàêòèêå íà âñåé ñîâðåìåííîé è ïðîøëîé òåððèòîðèè îáèòàíèÿ ñèïîâ (G. bengalensis, G. tenuirostris, G. indicus). Îñîáåííî àêòóàëüíî ýòî â ñòðàíàõ, ãäå ñîñðåäîòî÷åí îñíîâíîé çàïàñ ýòèõ âèäîâ: Áàíãëàäåø, Áóòàí, Êàìáîäæè, Èíäèÿ, Ìüÿíìà (Áèðìà), Íåïàë è Ïàêèñòàí. • Î÷åíü ìàëåíüêèå ðåëèêòîâûå ñîêðàùàþùèåñÿ ïîïóëÿöèè G. bengalensis è G. Indicus ñóùåñòâóþò òàêæå â Èíäîêèòàå, â ÷àñòíîñòè, â Êàìáîäæè, êîòîðûå, âèäèìî, íå ïîäâåðãàþòñÿ âîçäåéñòâèþ äèêëîôåíàêà. Èõ áëàãîïîëó÷íîìó ñóùåñòâîâàíèþ äîëæåí áûòü äàí âûñîêèé ïðèîðèòåò. Ýòîò Ìàíèôåñò ïîäãîòîâëåí è óòâåðæäåí â ÿíâàðå 2004 ã. BirdLife International è äðóãèìè îðãàíèçàöèÿìè, âåäóùèìè ðàáîòó ïî îõðàíå ïòèö.

 ïîñëåäíèõ íîìåðàõ «Falco» 31 (¹24) è «Nature» (Vol. 427) 32 (Ñòàòüÿ â «Nature» äîñòóïíà â ðåæèìå îíëàéí ïî ïîäïèñêå33) îïóáëèêîâàíû ñòàòüè êîëëåêòèâîâ àâòîðîâ (ñì. ïîäðîáíûå ññûëêè â àíãëèéñêîì òåêñòå), ðàáîòàþùèõ ïî ïðîáëåìå ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ñèïîâ â Þæíîé Àçèè, â êîòîðûõ äîêàçûâàåòñÿ, ÷òî àíòèâîñïàëèòåëüíîå ñðåäñòâî äèêëîôåíàê âûçûâàåò âèñöåðàëüíóþ ïîäàãðó ó ñèïîâ, è èìåííî ýòà ïðè÷èíà ëåæèò â îñíîâå êðàõà ïîïóëÿöèé ñèïîâ.

31 32 33

Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà • Vultures are keystone species and their declines are having adverse effects upon other wildlife, domestic animals and humans. In particular, there is a risk of increases in diseases that threaten human life and welfare. • Halting and reversing the vulture declines is one of the most urgent conservation priorities worldwide. Resolution of this problem requires considerable commitment by governments and the pharmaceutical industry. • We call upon governments of all Gyps vulture range states in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Middle East, and manufacturers of diclofenac, to ban the use of this drug for veterinary medicine, throughout the range or former range of Gyps vultures. The need for this action is especially urgent in the main range states of the three currently threatened species, namely Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan. • Very small relict and declining populations of G. bengalensis and G. indicus exist in Southeast Asia, particularly Cambodia, and are thought not to be exposed to diclofenac. High priority should be given to improving the status of these populations. This Manifesto has been agreed and endorsed by BirdLife International and the following organisations (Jan 2004).

In Falco 2431 and Nature 42732 the articles by groups of authors have published on the problem of significant Vulture population declines due to high mortality rates associated with the clinical syndrome of visceral gout as result of using anti-inflammatory drug Diclofenac in veterinary: J. Lindsay Oaks, Carol U. Meteyer, Bruce A. Rideout, H.L. Shivaprasad, Martin Gilbert, Munir Z. Virani, Richard T. Watson and Aleem Ahmed Khan. Diagnostic Investigation of Vulture Mortality: The Anti-inflammatory Drug Diclofenac is Associated with Visceral Gout. – Falco 24. 2004. – P.13-14. J.L. Oaks, M. Gilbert, M.Z. Virani, R.T. Watson, C.U. Meteyer, B.A. Rideout, H.L. Shivaprasad, S. Ahmed, M.J.I. Chaudhry, M. Arshad, S.Mahmood, A. Ali, & A.A. Khan. Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature Vol. 427, 6975. 2004. – P.630-633. Article in Nature is available on website through a subscription33.

http://www.falcons.co.uk/images/falco24.pdf http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/jour nal/v427/n6975/index.html http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/jour nal/v427/n6975/full/nature02317_fs.html


Raptors Conservation

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1

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Raptors Conservation ÎÕÐÀÍÀ ÏÅÐÍÀÒÛÕ ÕÈÙÍÈÊÎÂ ERWDA Artificial Nest Project in Mongolia: Latest Results ÏÎÑËÅÄÍÈÅ ÐÅÇÓËÜÒÀÒÛ ÏÐÎÅÊÒÀ ÏÎ ÓÑÒÀÍÎÂÊÅ ÈÑÊÓÑÑÒÂÅÍÍÛÕ ÃÍÅÇÄÎÂÈÉ Â ÌÎÍÃÎËÈÈ E.R. Potapov (The Falcon Research Institute IWC Ltd., Carmarthen, UK) Å.Ð. Ïîòàïîâ (Èíñòèòóò èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ, Êàðìàðñåí, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ)

Contact: Eugene Potapov Leader ERWDA Artificial Nest Project The Falcon Research Institute P.O. Box 19 Carmarthen SA33 5YL UK office@falcons.co.uk eugene_potapov@ compuserve.com

Åâãåíèé Ïîòàïîâ ïîä ãíåçäîì ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà (Buteo hemilasius) íà èñêóññòâåííîì ãíåçäîâüå. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Eugene Potapov under the nest by the Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius). Photo by I. Karyakin

 þæíûõ ðàéîíàõ Ìîíãîëèè äîìèíèðóþò ðîâíûå ñòåïíûå ïðîñòðàíñòâà, ãäå ìåñòà, ïðèãîäíûå äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö îãðàíè÷åíû. Áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug) è ìîõíîíîãèé êóðãàííèê (Buteo hemilasius) èíîãäà óñòðàèâàþò ãíåçäà íà çåìëå, îäíàêî ýôôåêòèâíîñòü ðàçìíîæåíèÿ êðàéíå íèçêà. Ñàìûì ìàññîâûì ãðûçóíîì, ñîñòàâëÿþùèì îñíîâó ðàöèîíà ìíîãèõ õèùíûõ ïòèö â ðîâíûõ ñòåïÿõ Ìîíãîëèè, ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïîëåâêà Áðàíäòà (Microtus brandtii).  ïåðèîä âñïûøêè ÷èñëåííîñòè ïîëåâêè ïîëíîñòüþ âûåäàþò íàçåìíóþ ðàñòèòåëüíîñòü, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî åå íå õâàòàåò äîìàøíåìó ñêîòó â çèìíèé ïåðèîä, ÷òî âûçûâàåò íåäîâîëüñòâî íàñåëåíèÿ.  ðåçóëüòàòå Ìèíèñòåðñòâîì ñåëüñêîãî õîçÿéñòâà Ìîíãîëèè áûë èíèöèèðîâàí ïðîöåññ áîðüáû ñ ïîëåâêîé Áðàíäòà ñ ïîìîùüþ íîâåéøèõ ðîäåíòèöèäîâ.  êà÷åñòâå ðîäåíòèöèäà èñïîëüçîâàëñÿ 0,5% áðîìäèàëîí, ðàñòâîðîì êîòîðîãî îáðàáàòûâàëîñü çåðíî, ðàññûïàåìîå êàê ñ àâèàöèè, òàê è âðó÷íóþ â ìåñòàõ êîíöåíòðàöèè ïîëåâêè íà ïàñòáèùàõ (èç äîêëàäà Ìèíèñòåðñòâà ñåëüñêîãî õîçÿéñòâà). Íàèáîëåå ìàññîâî ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïî áîðüáå ñ ïîëåâêîé âåëèñü â 2002–2003 ãîäàõ.  ðåçóëüòàòå ÷èñëåííîñòü ìîíãîëüñêîé ïîïóëÿöèè áàëîáàíà ñîêðàòèëàñü ïðàêòè÷åñêè âäâîå èç-çà îòðàâëåíèÿ ïòèö (Ôîêñ è äð., 2003), òàêæå ñèëüíî ïîñòðàäàëè ïîïóëÿöèè ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà, áåðêóòà (Aquila chrysaetos) è ìíîãèõ äðóãèõ âèäîâ.  2002 ñ ðàçðåøåíèÿ àäìèíèñòðàöèè ñîìîíîâ Äàðõàí è Áàÿíìóíõ ñîòðóäíèêàìè Èíñòèòóòà èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ (FRI,

Our project is a collaborative study between the Mongolian State University and the Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency, United Arab Emirates (the UAE Scientific Authority). It is carried out under permits from the administrations of the relevant somons (counties). We made a preliminary report on it in Falco last year 37 and a report on 2003 is in Issue 22, July 2003 Falco 35. In spring 2002 on an experimental basis, we to put up 97 artificial nest sites in a highdensity vole area in the areas of of Khentei aimaq (province). The choice of the area was predetermined by the distribution of vole peak areas and the landscape. We wanted an area with no existing potential nest sites, such as cliffs, pylons or buildings. The study area is a polygon 20 x 23 km. The nests were made of twigs, skins, bones on scrapiron tripods, and approximately 2 metres high, at 2 km spacing. You have to travel 300 km by car to check all nest structures. Later it was discovered that camels managed to destroy some of the nest platforms as they use them for scratching. Therefore all nest platforms were fitted with barbed wire thus turning them into fortified structures! The nests on the platform was made usually of bits taken from old Upland Buzzard nests, or sometimes bits of wire, sheepskins, buckets and even a tray filled with sand. After erecting all the nests, we left the area for a week, and then returned to check the occupancy. The check-up was made in June (2 times) and in October (once). The vole density was estimated by counting all vole colonies in 50 m radius around the nest structures which were located evenly across the study area. The counts were repeated in May, June (3 times) and October (once). The counts thus represent the number of colonies in the area of 0.785 ha. Assuming


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1 UK) è Ìîíãîëüñêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà â ðàìêàõ ïðîãðàììû Àãåíòñòâà ïî îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû Îáúåäèíåííûõ Àðàáñêèõ Ýìèðàòîâ (ERWDA, UAE) áûë âûáðàí ïîëèãîí 20 õ 23 êì äëÿ ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà ïî óñòàíîâêå èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé. Ïðîåêò ïðåñëåäîâàë äâå öåëè: ïðèâëå÷ü íà ãíåçäîâàíèå â ðîâíóþ ñòåïü õèùíûõ ïòèö, â îñîáåííîñòè áàëîáàíà, è îïðåäåëèòü èõ âëèÿíèå íà äèíàìèêó ÷èñëåííîñòè ïîëåâêè. Íà òåððèòîðèè ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà ïî äîãîâîðåííîñòè ñ ãëàâàìè ñîìîíîâ íå ïðèìåíÿëè ðîäåíòèöèäîâ äëÿ áîðüáû ñ ïîëåâêîé, ÷òî ïîçâîëÿëî ñîïîñòàâèòü äèíàìèêó ÷èñëåííîñòè ïîëåâêè

Ïðîöåññ óñòàíîâêè èñêóññòâåííîãî ãíåçäîâüÿ. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The process of erecting the artificial nest. Photo by I. Karyakin

ñ äèíàìèêîé çàñåëåíèÿ èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé õèùíûìè ïòèöàìè.  ìàðòå – àïðåëå 2002 ãîäà íà âûáðàííîì ïîëèãîíå áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî 97 èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé â ñòåïè, ïëîòíî íàñåëåííîé ïîëåâêîé Áðàíäòà (Sumya et al. 2003). Èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ óñòðàèâàëèñü íà ìåòàëëè÷åñêèõ òðåíîãàõ îêîëî 2 ì âûñîòîé íà ðàññòîÿíèè 2 êì äðóã îò äðóãà. Ïîäðîáíî êîíñòðóêöèè èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé îïèñàíû â ñòàòüÿõ Sumya et all., 200334, Potapov et all., 200335, à òàêæå íà îôèöèàëüíîì ñàéòå ïðîåêòà ïî ñîêîëó-áàëîáàíó36. Ïëîòíîñòü ïîëåâêè Áðàíäòà îöåíèâàëàñü ïóòåì ó÷åòà êîëîíèé â ðàäèóñå 50 ì âîêðóã èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé. Ó÷åò ïîâòîðÿëñÿ â 2002 ãîäó 1 ðàç â ìàå, 3 ðàçà â èþíå è 1 ðàç â îêòÿáðå, è òàêæå â 2003 ãîäó. Îáùåå êîëè÷åñòâî ïîëåâîê îïðåäåëÿëîñü èñõîäÿ èç ÷èñëåííîñòè â 5,3 îñîáåé â îäíîé æèëîé êîëîíèè. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ïîëåâêè íà ïîëèãîíå 19 èþíÿ 2002 ãîäà ïîêàçàíî íà ðèñ. 1. 34 35 36 37

http://www.savethesaker.com/images/falco21.pdf http://www.savethesaker.com/images/falco22.pdf http://www.savethesaker.com/index.asp?id=27 http://www.falcons.co.uk/mefrg/

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ that there are 5.3 individual voles living in an average colony, one can easily recalculate the vole density as ind/ha. The total density of voles in the study was very high in 2002 and reaches approx. 150 individuals per ha, but crashed in 2003. The voles spread to this study area from the south in mid-March 2002, and were still arriving and establishing new colonies in May 2002. As we forecasted in 2002 the summer 2003 turned to be dramatically different in the vole numbers. The summer 2002 was a pivotal in the practices of the Pest Control Agency at the Ministry of Agriculture of Mongolia. Contaminated voles barely move and are oblivious to the outer world, thus making an easy prey. The PCA has abandoned zinc-based chemicals to control the Brandts Vole, and started to apply poisoned grain both manually and from airplanes. The grain was treated with 0.5% Bromdialone (Report to the Ministry of Agriculture 2001). The treated grain proved to be an effective rodenticide, but it accumulates in the trophic chain and gets passed on to raptors. The latter die almost instantly on the spot. The contaminated grain was distributed amongst the neighbouring somons at different times, and this virtually saved the experiment. One neighbouring somon was spreading the poison in summer and autumn of 2002 in the western part of the artificial nest study area, i.e. mostly after the breeding season, whereas another somon started to apply the rodenticide in small patches around the eastern side of the area. There were only a few casualties: we recovered corpses of a Golden Eagle and two Upland Buzzards. In general, due to the application of the rodenticide and to the natural cyclical decline, the vole numbers crashed to almost zero in the year 2003. Only a few colonies survived, forcing most resident raptors to feed on birds. Later a firm agreement with the administration let us secure the study area from further spreading of poison. In general it appears that the vole spatial density was moving across the study area in 2002 and fading away in 2003. We managed to erect the nests by 20 April 2002, too late for the Saker Falcons to start breeding on the nest platforms in 2002, but the occupancy of the pioneering species such as Ravens and Upland Buzzards was surprisingly high. Almost all the nests were used as perches by Upland Buzzards, Saker Falcons, Ravens and Steppe Eagles.


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Ðåçóëüòàòû ïðîåêòà ïðåâçîøëè âñå îæèäàíèÿ.  ãîä ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà ÷èñëåííîñòü ïîëåâêè îêàçàëàñü âûñîêîé è ñîñòàâèëà 150 îñ/ãà. Íåñìîòðÿ íà ïîçäíèå ñðîêè ñòðîèòåëüñòâà èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé, 7 ïëàòôîðì áûëè çàíÿÒàáë. 1. Èçìåíåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ïîëåâêè Áðàíäòà (1) è ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö (2) íà òåððèòîðèè ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà ïî èñêóññòâåííûì ãíåçäîâüÿì òû ìîõíîíîãèìè êóðãàííèêàìè, íà ÷åòûðåõ èç Table 1. Changing a number of vole (1) and breeding the Birds of Prey (2) on the polygon of realization of ERWDA Artificial Nest Project íèõ ïòèöû óñïåøíî âûâåëè ïòåíöîâ.  2003 ãîäó ÷èñëåííîñòü ïîëåâêè ñîêðàòèëàñü áîIn the season of 2003 there were 4 Saker ëåå ÷åì â 6 ðàç, îäíàêî çàñåëÿåìîñòü ïëàò- pairs breeding on the artificial nest platôîðì ïåðíàòûìè õèùíèêàìè îêàçàëàñü forms, thus forming a density of 8.6 pairs î÷åíü âûñîêîé: 25 ïàð ìîõíîíîãèõ êóð- per 1000 km2. They produced a total of 10 ãàííèêîâ óñïåøíî âûâåëè 41 ïòåíöà è 4 chicks (3 pairs with 3 chicks and one pair ïàðû áàëîáàíî⠖ 10 ïòåíöîâ. Ïëîòíîñòü with one chick). This is an unprecedented íàñåëåíèÿ ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà è áà- figure in terms of density. No such density ëîáàíà íà êîíòðîëüíîé ïëîùàäè ñîñòàâè- was ever reported before in un-managed ëà 54,4 ïàð è 8,6 ïàð íà 1000 êâ.êì ñîîò- habitat. âåòñòâåííî (Potapov et all., 2003), ÷òî â 3-4 However it was the Upland Buzzard who ðàçà áîëüøå, ÷åì â îêðóæàþùèõ ñòåïíûõ dominated the scene. A total of 25 buzzards ëàíäøàôòàõ Ìîíãîëèè (Shagdarsuren et successfully bred in the area producing 41 all., 2001).  2004 ã. êîëè÷åñòâî ìîõíîíî- chicks. The density of the Buzzards breedãèõ êóðãàííèêîâ è áàëîáàíîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõ- ing in the artificial nests reached 54.4 pairs ñÿ íà ïëàòôîðìàõ, óâåëè÷èëîñü äî 27 è 5 per 1000 km2. There were no Steppe Eaïàð ñîîòâåòñòâåííî (òàáë. 1), íåñìîòðÿ íà gles breeding in the area in 2003, in conîáùåå ñîêðàùåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ýòèõ âè- trast to the situation of the 2002. Thus the numbers of the Upland Buzzards increased from 4 pairs in 2002 to 25 pairs in 2003, and Sakers from 0 pairs in 2002 to 4 in 2003. Breeding rate per unit area in 2003 was 21.7 chicks per 1000 km2 for Sakers and 89.1 chicks per 1000 km2 for Upland Buzzards. In 2004, so far five pairs of Sakers and 27 pairs of Upland Buzzards have laid eggs, an occupancy of 32%. The idea of attracting birds of prey to artificial nest platforms is not new. There are known designs of artificial nest platforms for a variety of species. In Mongolia, the Saker was known to occupy artificial nest sites erected on existing nesting structures, e.g. electric poles (Ellis, 2000, Ellis.D., Unpublished report to the EPA, Ministry of Nature and Environment of Mongolia). The fundamental difference of this study is that we provided not only the nests themselves, but also nest structures in habitat which is completely flat and has no suitable places for raptors. In our previous correspondence (Sumya et al. 2003) we predicted that some 15-20 Ðèñ. 1. Ñõåìà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé (èçîëèíèÿìè of the nest platforms might be occupied by ïîêàçàíà ÷èñëåííîñòü ïîëåâêè Áðàíäòà 19 èþíÿ 2002 ã.) raptors. The reality exceeded our expectaFig. 1. Map of location the artificial nest (lines is demonstrated a number tions: a total of 29 pairs of raptors bred in of voles, 19 June 2002).


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äîâ íà ïðèëåãàþùèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ èç-çà îòðàâëåíèÿ ðîäåíòèöèäàìè. Èäåÿ ïðèâëåêàòü õèùíûõ ïòèö íà èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâûå ïëàòôîðìû íå íîâà (Dewar, Shawyer, 1996, Ãðèùåíêî, 1997). Åñòü ìàññà ðàçðàáîòîê â ýòîì íàïðàâëåíèè, îäíàêî â õîäå ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà â Ìîíãîëèè (ERWDA Artificial Nest Project) âïåðâûå áûë ïðåäëîæåí ìåòîä óñòðîéñòâà íå òîëüêî ñàìèõ ãíåçä, íî è êîíñòðóêöèé, ïîääåðæèâàþùèõ èõ, â àáñîëþòíî ðîâíîé ñòåïè, ïðàêòè÷åñêè íå ïðèãîäíîé äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ òàêèõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ êàê ìîõíîíîãèé êóðãàííèê è áàëîáàí. Ñåòü èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçä áûëà äîñòàòî÷íî ïëîòíîé, ÷òîáû âìåñòèòü ìàêñèìàëüíî âîçìîæíîå êîëè÷åñòâî òåððèòîðèàëüíûõ ïàð êóðãàííèêîâ è áàëîáàíîâ. Ïðè ýòîì äàæå â íåáëàãîïðèÿòíûå ïî êîðìîâûì óñëîâèÿì ñåçîíû çàíÿòîñòü ïëàòôîðì ïðåâûñèëà îæèäàåìûå ðåçóëüòàòû áîëåå ÷åì â 1,5 ðàçà (Sumya et all., 2003, Potapov et all., 2003). Ïðîåêò â Ìîíãîëèè ïîêàçàë, ÷òî ïóòåì óñòàíîâêè èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé â àáñîëþòíî ðîâíîé ñòåïè ìîæíî ñîçäàâàòü ïîëíîöåííûå ãíåçäîâûå ãðóïïèðîâêè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, â òîì ÷èñëå è òàêèõ ðåäêèõ êàê áàëîáàí. Ñ îäíîé ñòîðîíû, ýòèì ìåòîäîì ìîæíî óâåëè÷èòü ÷èñëåííîñòü õèùíûõ ïòèö, ñ äðóãîé ñòîðîíû, áèîëîãè÷åñêèìè ñðåäñòâàìè ðåãóëèðîâàòü ÷èñëåííîñòü ïîëåâêè.  ïëàíå ñîõðàíåíèÿ áàëîáàíà â ñòåïíûõ ðàéîíàõ Ìîíãîëèè è Þæíîé Ñèáèðè ìåòîä óñòðîéñòâà èñêóññòâåííûõ Ñàìêà áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) â èñêóñãíåçäîâèé èìååò îãðîìíûé ñòâåííîì ãíåçäå (Öåíòðàëüíàÿ Ìîíãîëèÿ, ïîòåíöèàë.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ìàé 2004 ã.). Ôîòî Å. Ïîòàïîâà ÷èñëåííîñòü âñåé âîñòî÷íîé Female Saker (Falco cherrug) on artificial ïîïóëÿöèè áàëîáàíà, íàñåëÿnest (Central Mongolia, May 2004). Photo by E. Potapov þùåé Ìîíãîëèþ è Þæíóþ Ñèáèðü, îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 16202020 óñïåøíûõ ïàð (Ôîêñ è äð., 2003, Êàðÿêèí, 2003, Karyakin et all., 2004).  òî æå âðåìÿ àíàëèç ïîêàçûâàåò, ÷òî ñòåïíûå òåððèòîðèè Ìîíãîëèè è Þæíîé Ñèáèðè ñïîñîáíû âìåñòèòü äî 35000 ïàð áàëîáàíîâ. Òàê èëè èíà÷å, áàëîáàí ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñàìûì ðåäêèì èç êðóïíûõ ñîêîëîâ Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè, ÷èñëåííîñòü êîòîðîãî ñîêðàùàåòñÿ áûñòðûìè òåìïàìè (Ôîêñ è äð., 2003), è ðåàëèçàöèÿ ïðîãðàììû ïî óñòðîéñòâó äëÿ íåãî èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé â ðîâíûõ ñòåïÿõ Ìîíãîëèè ïîìîæåò èñïðàâèòü ñèòóàöèþ ñ ýòèì âèäîì â ëó÷øóþ ñòîðîíó.

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Ðèñ. 2. Ãðàôèêè, îòîáðàæàþùèå êîëè÷åñòâî íîð ïîëåâîê â ðàäèóñå 100 ì îò ïëàòôîðì, ÷èñëåííîñòü áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug) è ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà (Buteo hemilasius) íà òåððèòîðèè ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà (1) è óñïåõ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ áàëîáàíà è ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà è êîëè÷åñòâî íîð ïîëåâîê â ðàäèóñå 100 ì îò ïëàòôîðì â ãîäû èññëåäîâàíèé (2). Fig. 2. Number of vole burrows in 100 m circle, number of breeding Sakers (Falco cherrug) and Upland Buzzards (Buteo hemilasius) in the study area (1) and Breeding success of Sakers and Upland Buzzards and the number of active vole burrows in 100 m circle across the years (2).

the area despite the dramatic decline in the numbers of voles. The density of Sakers of 8.6 pairs per 1000 km2 in the trial area in 2003 by far exceeds the figure 2.5 pairs per 1000 km2 – the average density for Mongolian typical steppes measured in several study areas monitored in 1998-2000 (Shagdarsuren et al. 2001). It is also surprisingly higher than the density recorded in an adjoining study area in 2003 – below 1.3 pairs per 1000 km2. It thus seems possible to successfully manage the Saker population and create natural farms in wild areas that are nest site limited for breeding falcons. Such ‘farming’ on one hand could increase the overall falcon breeding rate per unit area, and on the other hand can create a biological means of control of the vole numbers, provided, of course, that there are no harmful chemicals involved. Until the environment is clean of contaminants we cannot tell what the ultimate density of raptors could be, nor can we assess the potential impact of such a population on vole numbers. But clearly the


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Ëèòåðàòóðà: List of Literature: Ãðèùåíêî Â.Í. Áèîòåõíè÷åñêèå ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïî îõðàíå ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïòèö. ×åðíîâöû. 1997. 143 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Áàëîáàí â Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîì ðåãèîíå – èòîãè 2003 ãîäà. – Ñòåïíîé áþëëåòåíü. 2003. ¹ 14. Ñ.34-35. Ôîêñ Í., Áàðòîí Í., Ïîòàïîâ Å. Îõðàíà ñîêîëà-áàëîáàíà è ñîêîëèíàÿ îõîòà. – Ñòåïíîé áþëëåòåíü. 2003. ¹ 14. Ñàìêà áàëîáàíà ãðååò ïòåíöîâ â èñêóññòâåííîì ãíåçäå (Öåíòðàëüíàÿ Ìîíãîëèÿ, ìàé 2004 ã.). Ôîòî Å. Ïîòàïîâà Ñ.28-33. Female Saker brooding her chick at an artificial nest (Central Mongolia, Dewar S., Shawyer C. Boxes, May 2004). Photo by E. Potapov Baskets and Platforms: Artificial Nest Sites for Owls and other Birds of Prey. potential is there and the local human population has been co-operative in not disturbHawk and Owl Trust. 1996. 40 pp.1. ing the nests. Karyakin I., Konovalov L., Moshkin A., Trials will continue on optimal spacing, Pazhenkov A., Smelyanskiy I., Rybenko A. cost-efficiency and impact on the vole popSaker Falcon (Falco cherrug) in Russia. – ulations, but clearly the method has great Falco. 2004. ¹ 23. P.3-9. potential. In theory at least, there is suffiPotapov E., Sumya D., Shagdarsuren O., cient nest site-limited steppe in Mongolia Gombobaatar S., Karyakin I., Fox N. Saker to accommodate up to 30,000 extra pairs farming in wild habitats: progress to date. – of Sakers. If only a fraction of this was unFalco. 2003. ¹ 22. P.5-7. dertaken on a management system, the loShagdarsuren O., Sumya D., Gombobaatar cal communities could produce their own S., Potapov E., Fox N. Saker Falcon in resource and, combined with a government Mongolia: numbers and distribution. – Saker marking scheme, could market and derive Falcon in Mongolia: Research and financial benefit for their local area. The Conservation. Proceedings of the 2nd Inter- Mongolian Saker permit is currently costnational Conference of the Middle East ing $4,700 and this income for some local Falcon Research Group. 2001. P.25-33. communities could well exceed the income Sumya D., Gombobaatar S., Shagdarsuren derived from conventional stock grazing. It O., Potapov E. ERWDA Artificial Nest would also enable the Mongolian government to comply with the no-detriment reProject. – Falco. 2003. ¹21. P.10. quirement of CITES in providing a monitored sustainable resource. Ýêñïåäèöèîííàÿ ãðóïïà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Group of project executors. Photo by I. Karyakin


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Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Project for Restoration of the Nesting Places of the Saker Falcon in the Tuva Republic, Russia ÏÐÎÅÊÒ ÏÎ ÂÎÑÑÒÀÍÎÂËÅÍÈÞ ÌÅÑÒ ÃÍÅÇÄÎÂÀÍÈß ÁÀËÎÁÀÍÀ  ÐÅÑÏÓÁËÈÊÅ ÒÛÂÀ, ÐÎÑÑÈß I.V. Karyakin (Center for Field Studies) È.Â. Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé) Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë.Êîðîëåíêî, 17à–17 òåë.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Leader by Center for Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a–17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000, Russia tel.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru

 ïåðèîä îñâîåíèÿ ÷åëîâåêîì àðèäíîé çîíû þãà Àçèàòñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè è Ìîíãîëèè ñòàëà àêòèâíî ðàçâèâàòüñÿ èíôðàñòðóêòóðà ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è (ËÝÏ) ðàçíûõ êîíñòðóêöèé.  60-70-õ ãîäàõ ÕÕ ñòîëåòèÿ ïîÿâèëèñü ïåðâûå ËÝÏ ñ äåðåâÿííûìè îïîðàìè, à ê 80-ì ãîäàì êîëè÷åñòâî ËÝÏ ðåçêî âîçðîñëî, ïðè÷åì êîíñòðóêöèÿ îïîð ñóùåñòâåííî èçìåíèëàñü, òåì ñàìûì óâåëè÷èâ èõ ïðèãîäíîñòü äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãíåçä êðóïíûìè ïòèöàìè. Èìåííî ýòîò ïåðèîä ìîæíî ñ÷èòàòü íà÷àëîì îñâîåíèÿ ËÝÏ ìîõíîíîãèì êóðãàííèêîì (Buteo hemilasius) è âîðîíîì (Corvus cornix), êîòîðûå ðàíåå ãíåçäèëèñü ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî íà

Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà íàõîäèòñÿ â öåíòðå Àçèè. Ãåîãðàôè÷åñêèå êîîðäèíàòû: N 50,30 E 94,65. Ïðèðîäà Òûâû êðàéíå ðàçíîîáðàçíà. Çäåñü èìåþòñÿ ãîðíûå òóíäðû, òàéãà, ñòåïè è ëåñîñòåïè. Ñòåïè íàèáîëåå øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàíåíû â ìåæãîðíûõ êîòëîâèíàõ. Èìåííî â ñòåïÿõ ñîñðåäîòî÷åíû ìåñòà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ìíîãèõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ.

However, before colonizing the steppe by human raptors breed only on cliffs. In the Tuva Republic since the end of 1980 s (XX century) the main provider of nests for the Sakers (Falco cherrug) the Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius) has started to use electric poles. The Saker Falcon in turn started to inhabit electric poles in flat steppe too, has built taking over the Upland Buzzard nests. Since 90 s the number of electric poles in the Tuva Republic has rapidly decreased in the very quickly. Only occasional poles remained by 2000. Practice all the remaining electric poles were occupied by the birds of prey. The factor of electrocution has dis-

The Republic of Tuva is located in the geographical centre of Asia. Geographical coordinates: N 50,30 E 94,65. The nature of Tuva is very variable. It has the mountain tundra, taiga, forest-steppe and steppe habitats. Steppe depressions in-between the mountains. Most of the breeding sites of raptors are located in the steppe.

ñêàëàõ è îäèíî÷íûõ äåðåâüÿõ. Âñëåä çà ìîõíîíîãèì êóðãàííèêîì, ËÝÏ ñòàë îñâàèâàòü è áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug), çàíèìàÿ åãî ïîñòðîéêè.  èòîãå íà òåððèòîðèè Ìîíãîëèè ê êîíöó 90-õ ãîäîâ êîëè÷åñòâî áàëîáàíîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà ËÝÏ, ïðàêòè÷åñêè ñðàâíÿëîñü ñ êîëè÷åñòâîì ïòèö, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà åñòåñòâåííûõ ñóáñòðàòàõ (ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ñêàëàõ). Ýòîò ïðîöåññ çàòðîíóë è þã Ðîññèè, íî ñ íåêîòîðûì îïîçäàíèåì.  êîíöå 90-õ ãîäîâ â ñòåïíûõ êîòëîâèíàõ Àëòàå-Ñÿíñêîãî ðåãèîíà, ïðèëåãàþùèõ ê Ìîíãîëèè, òîëüêî íà÷àëè ôîðìèðîâàòüñÿ ãíåçäîâûå ãðóïïèðîâêè áàëîáàíîâ íà ËÝÏ, îäíàêî ïðîöåññ èõ ôîðìèðîâàíèÿ çàêîí÷èëñÿ íà ðàííåì ýòàïå. Êðèòè÷åñêàÿ ýêîíîìè÷åñêàÿ ñèòóàöèÿ â Ðîññèè ïðèâåëà ê êðàõó ñåëüñêîãî õîçÿéñòâà. Èíôðàñòðóêòóðà ñîâõîçîâ è êîëõîçîâ, áðîøåííàÿ íà ïðîèçâîë ñóäüáû, ñòàëà ðàçâîðîâûâàòüñÿ è óíè÷òîæàòüñÿ ìåñòíûìè æèòåëÿìè.  èòîãå ê 2001 ãîäó

Ìîõíîíîãèé êóðãàííèê (Buteo hemilasius) è áàëîáàí (Falco cherrug), ãíåçäÿùèåñÿ íà çåìëå. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Upland Buzzard (Buteo hemilasius) and the Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) nest on a ground. Photo by I. Karyakin


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Îñòàòêè ñðóáëåííûõ îïîð ËÝÏ ñ ãíåçäîâûìè ïîñòðîéêàìè õèùíûõ ïòèö. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Remains of destroyed electric poles with nests by Birds of Prey. Photo by I. Karyakin

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â Ðåñïóáëèêàõ Àëòàé, Õàêàñèÿ è Òûâà áûëè óíè÷òîæåíû áîëåå 8000 êì ËÝÏ. Áîëüøå âñåõ â ýòîì îòíîøåíèè ïîñòðàäàëà Ðåñïóáëèêà Òûâà, ãäå àðàòàìè áûëè ñïèëåíû äåðåâÿííûå îïîðû ËÝÏ íà ïðîòÿæåíèè 4000 êì. Ê 2001 ãîäó â þæíîé Òûâå ïðåêðàòèëè ñóùåñòâîâàíèå 26 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, ãíåçäà êîòîðûõ ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà ËÝÏ, à ê 2003 ãîäó òîëüêî â ëåâîáåðåæüå ð.Òåñ-Õåì (þæíàÿ Òûâà) áûëî óíè÷òîæåíî 9 Áàëîáàí â ãíåçäå íà îïîðå ËÝÏ. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà ãíåçä áàëîáàíà è áîëåå 20 The Saker Falcon nests on the electric pole. ãíåçä ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííè- Photo by I. Karyakin êà, ðàñïîëàãàâøèõñÿ íà îïîðàõ ËÝÏ, ò.å. âñå èçâåñòíûå ê òîìó ìîìåí- appeared, however a new negative factor òó. Ñ 2001 ãîäà ñîõðàíèâøèåñÿ îïîðû ËÝÏ has emerged: the poles started to be cut òóâèíñêèå àðàòû ñòàëè ïèëèòü íå òîëüêî çè- down for firewood. All 26 nesting places of ìîé, íî è ëåòîì, â ðàçãàð ãíåçäîâîãî ïå- birds of prey located on electric poles disðèîäà ó õèùíûõ ïòèö.  ðåçóëüòàòå ïîãèá- appeared by the year 2001. Herders started ëî ìíîãî âûâîäêîâ. Òûâèíñêèìè àðàòàìè, to cut down saw the remaining electric poles ïèëèâøèìè ñòîëáû íà äðîâà è äëÿ ñòðîè- not only during winter but and summer duròåëüñòâà êîøàð, âñåãî çà 3 ãîäà áûëè ïðàê- ing the breeding period for raptors in 2001 year. By the year 2002 the electric power lines suitable for raptors breeding ceased to exist. The electric poles disappeared in the flat steppe and the Upland Buzzard nested on the poles tried to nest on a ground. Some birds found used ñar tyres or small hillocks for nesting. After the Upland Buzzard the other species of birds, such as the Raven (Corvus corax), the Saker, tried nest on the ground. In the most cases predators have destroyed the nests with clutches or nestòè÷åñêè ïîëíîñòüþ óíè÷òîæåíû îäíè èç ñà- lings and killed adult birds. ìûõ êðóïíûõ â Òûâå ãíåçäîâûå ãðóïïèðîâThe pilot project has been initiated to erect êè áàëîáàíà è ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà. artificial nests on geodetic triangles in orÏðè ïîëíîì îòñóòñòâèè ËÝÏ â ðîâíûõ der to increase breeding success of the Upñòåïÿõ ìîõíîíîãèå êóðãàííèêè, óñòðàèâàâ- land Buzzard and the Saker Falcon. As a reøèå ãíåçäà íà îïîðàõ, ñòàëè ïûòàòüñÿ ãíåç- sult the Sakers has occupied several artificial äèòüñÿ ãäå ïðèäåòñÿ. ×àñòü ïòèö íàøëà äëÿ nests. After the successful pilot project the óñòðîéñòâà ãíåçä áðîøåííûå â ñòåïè àâòî- next practical project of erecting the artifiïîêðûøêè, à ÷àñòü ïòèö ñòàëà óñòðàèâàòü cial nests by new design (as a triangle) on a ãíåçäà ïðÿìî íà çåìëå. Âñëåä çà ìîõíîíî- flat steppe has been carried out in Mongoãèì êóðãàííèêîì ïîïûòêè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ íà lia in April 2002 by ornithologists from çåìëå îòìå÷åíû è ó äðóãèõ ïòèö, â ÷àñòíî- Mongolian State University within the proñòè âîðîíà è, êîíå÷íî æå, áàëîáàíà.  grams of ERWDA (UAE) and FRI (IWC, Ltd, áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ ãíåçäîâàíèå íà çåì- UK) (project leader E.Potapov) with particiëå îêàçûâàåòñÿ íåóäà÷íûì ïî âèíå ÷åòâå- pation of the author (Potapov et all., 2003), ðîíîãèõ õèùíèêîâ, êîòîðûå ðàçîðÿþò (Sumya et all., 2003). The first 7 pairs of the ãíåçäà ñ êëàäêàìè è ïòåíöàìè è óáèâàþò Upland Buzzards had occupied the nests by íàñåäîê. 7-th day after setting up the platforms. The ×òîáû ïîâûñèòü óñïåõ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ number of Upland Buzzards then increased ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ è, â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü , to 25 pairs in 2003 and to 27 in 2004. Seváàëîáàíà, áûë ðåàëèçîâàí ïèëîòíûé ïðî- eral nests were occupied by the Saker Falåêò ïî óñòðîéñòâó èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäî- cons which successful breding 4 nests in


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âèé íà ãåîäåçè÷åñêèõ âûøêàõ.  ðåçóëüòàòå ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà áàëîáàíû çàñåëèëè íåñêîëüêî ïîñòðîåê. Îñíîâûâàÿñü íà óñïåøíîñòè ïèëîòíîãî ïðîåêòà, â Ìîíãîëèè â ðàìêàõ ïðîãðàìì Àãåíòñòâà ïî îõðàíå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû Îáúåäèíåííûõ Àðàáñêèõ Ýìèðàòîâ (ERWDA, UAE) è Èíñòèòóòà èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ (FRI, UK) ñîâìåñòíî ñ îðíèòîëîãàìè Ìîíãîëüñêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà â àïðåëå 2002 ãîäà ïðè ó÷àñòèè àâòîðà ðåàëèçîâàí ïîëíîìàñøòàáíûé ïðîåêò ïî óñòàíîâêå èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé îðèãèíàëüíîé êîíñòðóêöèè (â âèäå òðåíîã) â ðîâíîé ñòåïè (Potapov et all., 2003, Sumya et all., 2003). Ïîäðîáíàÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ î ðåçóëüòàòàõ Ìîíãîëüñêîãî ïðîåêòà ïðèâåäåíà â ýòîì Èñêóññòâåííîå ãíåçäîíîìåðå â ñòàòüå Å.Ð. Ïîòàïîâüå â âèäå òðåíîãè ñ ïåâà «Ïîñëåäíèå ðåçóëüòàòû ðåíåñåííûì íà íåãî ïðîåêòà ïî óñòàíîâêå èñêóñãíåçäîì ìîõíîíîãîãî ñòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé â Ìîíãî- Ïòåíöû ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà (ââåðõó) è áàëîáàíà (âíèçó) â èñêóñêóðãàííèêà, ðàñïîëàãàâñòâåííûõ ãíåçäàõ. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà øèìñÿ íà çåìëå. Ôîòî È. ëèè» (ñòð. 23). Êàðÿêèíà Ïî àíàëîãèè ñ Ìîíãîëüñêèì Chicks of the Upland Buzzard (at the top) and the Saker Falcon (at the foot) on the artificial nests. Photo by I. Karyakin The artificial nest as a triïðîåêòîì Öåíòðîì ïîëåâûõ angle with building by the èññëåäîâàíèé íà þãå Òûâû â Upland Buzzard removed 2002 ãîäó óñòàíîâëåíû 7, à â 2003 ãîäó – 2003 and in 5 – in 2004. For details of this from a ground. Photo by I. Karyakin 10 ãíåçäîâèé. Áîëüøèíñòâî èñêóññòâåííûõ project see the Saker’s website36. Center for Field Studies managed to set ãíåçäîâèé óñòàíîâëåíî áëèç åñòåñòâåííûõ up 7 artificial nests in 2002 and 10 – in 2003 ãíåçä, ðàñïîëàãàâøèõ- in the south of Tuva of the design similar to ñÿ íà çåìëå, óñïåõ ðàç- the one used in Mongolian project. The ìíîæåíèÿ â êîòîðûõ majority of artificial nests (2) were erected áûë êðàéíå íèçîê èëè next to known ground nests (1) and had low îòñóòñòâîâàë. Óæå â or none the breeding success. In 2003 the 2003 ãîäó ïåðâûå 2 first 2 pairs of the Upland Buzzard and 3 ïàðû ìîõíîíîãèõ pairs of the Saker have inhabited artificial êóðãàííèêîâ è 3 ïàðû nests. In the year 2004 the number of the áàëîáàíîâ ïîñåëè- Sakers breeding on the artificial nests have ëèñü â èñêóññòâåííûõ increased to 5 pairs. During September-November 2004 47 ãíåçäîâüÿõ.  2004 ãîäó ÷èñëåííîñòü áàëîáàíîâ, çàíèìàþùèõ èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåç- artificial nests have been erected on the south a total of Tuva within the project «Sakäîâüÿ, âûðîñëà äî 5 ïàð.  îêòÿáðå 2004 ãîäà â ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà er farming in wild habitats», financed by the «Saker farming in wild habitats», ôèíàíñè- grant by the Oriental Bird Club (UK). 16 arðóåìîãî çà ñ÷åò ãðàíòà Oriental Bird Club tificial nests have been erected on cut of tips (UK), íà þãå Òûâû áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî 47 èñ- of electric poles, where the Upland Buzzards êóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé. 16 èñêóññòâåííûõ and the Sakers were nesting. 11 artificial nests have erected on the topes of electric transformers which destroyed by herders 38 during “The war against the electric poles”. http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/expedit/OBC% 202004.files/frame.htm


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ãíåçäîâèé óñòàíîâëåíî íà ñïèëàõ âåðõíèõ ÷àñòåé òðåíîãèõ îïîð ËÝÏ, áðîøåííûõ â ñòåïè, íà ìåñòàõ áûëîãî ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãíåçä ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà è áàëîáàíà. 11 èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé óñòàíîâëåíî íà âåðøèíàõ âîññòàíîâëåííûõ òðàíñôîðìàòîðîâ, êîòîðûå áûëè îïðîêèíóòû òóâèíñêèìè àðàòàìè â ïåðèîä «âîéíû ñ ËÝÏ». 20 èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé óñòàíîâëåíî íà áåòîííûõ îïîðàõ óíè÷òîæåííûõ òðàíñôîðìàòîðîâ íà ìåñòàõ áûâøèõ ëåòíèõ ëàãåðåé ñêîòà. Ïîäðîáíåå î ïðîåêòå ìîæíî óçíàòü íà ñàéòå «Ïðèðîäà Þæíîé Ñèáèðè è åå çàùèòíèêè»38. Ïðîâåäåííàÿ ðàáîòà è óñïåõ ïðåäûäóùèõ ïðîåêòîâ ïîçâîëÿþò íàäåÿòüñÿ íà âîññòàíîâëåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â ñòåïÿõ þãà Òóâû äî óðîâíÿ êîíöà 90-õ ãîäîâ. Ïîìèìî àâòîðà â ïðîåêòå ó÷àñòâîâàëè: Ýëüâèðà Íèêîëåíêî, Ìèõàèë Êîæåâíèêîâ, Àííà Øåñòàêîâà.

Ëèòåðàòóðà: List of Literature: Ãíåçäî ìîõíîíîãîãî êóðãàííèêà ïåðåíåñåííîå ñ çåìëè íà âåðõóøêó ñðóáëåííîé îïîðû ËÝÏ, áðîøåííóþ â ñòåïè. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nest by the Upland Buzzard removed from the ground to the top of a cutting down electric pole remained at a steppe Photo by I. Karyakin

Ïòåíöû áàëîáàíà îêîëî ðàçðóøåííîãî ãíåçäà. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Chicks of the Saker Falcon near the destroyed nest. Photo by I. Karyakin

Potapov E., Sumya D., Shagdarsuren O., Gombobaatar S., Karyakin I., Fox N. Saker farming in wild habitats: progress to date. – Falco. 2003. ¹ 22. P.5-7. Sumya D., Gombobaatar S., Shagdarsuren O., Potapov E. ERWDA Artificial Nest Project. – Falco. 2003. ¹ 21. P.10.

20 artificial nests were erected on concrete poles of destroyed electric transformers. The conducted work and the success of preceding projects allows us to hope for successful recovery of the number of the breeding Saker Falcons in flat steppes on the Southern Tuva to the level of 1990 s. Have taken part in the project: El’vira Nikolenko, Michail Kozhevnikov, Anna Shestakova.


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Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Results of Work on Attraction of Birds of Prey to Artificial Nests in the Republic of Kalmykia, Russia ÈÒÎÃÈ ÐÀÁÎÒÛ ÏÎ ÏÐÈÂËÅ×ÅÍÈÞ ÕÈÙÍÛÕ ÏÒÈÖ ÍÀ ÈÑÊÓÑÑÒÂÅÍÍÛÅ ÃÍÅÇÄÀ  ÊÀËÌÛÊÈÈ, ÐÎÑÑÈß M.V. Pestov (Amphibian and Reptiles Protection Society within the Ecocenter Dront, N. Novgorod) R.A. Medzhidov (Center of Ecological Projects, Elista, Republic of Kalmykia, Russia) A.V. Saltykov (Municipality of Ulyanovsk) V.B. Badmaev (State Natural Reserve «Chernye Zemli», Elista, Republic of Kalmykia) Ì.Â. Ïåñòîâ (Îáùåñòâî îõðàíû àìôèáèé è ðåïòèëèé ïðè Ýêîöåíòðå «Äðîíò», Í.Íîâãîðîä) Ð.À. Ìåäæèäîâ (Öåíòð ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðîåêòîâ, Ýëèñòà, Ðåñïóáëèêà Êàëìûêèÿ) À.Â. Ñàëòûêîâ (Êîìèòåò ÆÊÕ è ýíåðãåòèêè àäìèíèñòðàöèè ã. Óëüÿíîâñêà) Â.Á. Áàäìàåâ (Ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé ïðèðîäíûé çàïîâåäíèê «×åðíûå çåìëè», Ýëèñòà, Ðåñïóáëèêà Êàëìûêèÿ)  2004 ãîäó íà òåððèòîðèè Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàëìûêèÿ (Ðîññèÿ) Öåíòðîì ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðîåêòîâ ïðè ïîääåðæêå Èíñòèòóòà óñòîé÷èâûõ ñîîáùåñòâ (ISC) è Àãåíòñòâà ÑØÀ ïî ìåæäóíàðîäíîìó ðàçâèòèþ (USAID) â ðàìêàõ ïðîãðàììû ÐÎËË ðåàëèçîâàí ïðîåêò «Êîìïëåêñíàÿ îïòèìèçàöèÿ óñëîâèé îáèòàíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö â Êàëìûêèè».  õîäå ïðîåêòà áûëè ïðîâåäåíû ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ, íàïðàâëåííûå íà óëó÷øåíèå óñëîâèé ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ðÿäà âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö. Ïðè ýòîì ìû èñõîäèëè èç òîãî, ÷òî îäíèì èç îñíîâíûõ ôàêòîðîâ, ëèìèòèðóþùèõ èõ ÷èñëåííîñòü â ñòåïíîé è ïîëóïóñòûííîé çîíàõ, ÿâëÿåòñÿ äåôèöèò ìåñò, ïðèãîäíûõ äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãíåçä. Ìíîãèå õèùíûå ïòèöû, â îñîáåííîñòè êóðãàííèê (Buteo rufinus), ñòåïíîé îðåë (Aquila nipalensis), ìîãèëüíèê (Aqila heliaca) è îðëàí-áåëîÌàðê Ïåñòîâ íà ãíåçäå êóðãàííèêà (Buteo õâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla) â rufinus) ñ ïòåíöàìè, óñòðîåííîì íà ïëàòôîðìå â âåðõíåé ÷àñòè ãåîäåçè÷åñêîé áåçëåñíûõ ðàéîíàõ âûíóæâûøêè. Ôîòî Â. Áàäìàåâà äåííî èñïîëüçóþò äëÿ óñòðîéMark Pestov on the nest of the Long-Legñòâà ãíåçä ðàçëè÷íûå òåõíîged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) with chicks on ãåííûå ñîîðóæåíèÿ – îïîðû a platform in the upper part of a geodetic ëèíèé ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è, ãåîtriangle . Photo by V. Badmaev äåçè÷åñêèå âûøêè, çàáðîøåííûå ïîñòðîéêè è èõ ðàçâàëèíû.  áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ âñå ýòè ñîîðóæåíèÿ ìàëî ïðèãîäíû äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ. Íà ãåîäåçè÷åñêèõ âûøêàõ, ê ïðèìåðó, â ñèëó èõ êîíñòðóêòèâíûõ îñîáåííîñòåé, ïòèöàì êðàéíå ñëîæíî ïîñòðîèòü ãíåçäî. Äàæå áóäó÷è ïî-

A total of 48 platforms (30 on top and 18 in the middle of tripods) were erected on 30 geodetic triangulation signs within the territory of the Republic of Kalmykia (Russia) in 2004. A total of 22 out of 30 triangulation signs were equipped in January – February 2004, and 8 in April 2004. Almost all triangulation signs equipped with artificial nest sites were used as perches by LongLegged Buzzards (Buteo rufinus) and the Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis). The LongLegged Buzzards (the species is in the Red Data Book of Russia) attempted to nest on 9 triangulation towers equipped with artificial nests in January – February. In 7 cases the nests were built by birds on upper platforms, in 2 cases – on lower platfroms. A total of 5 pairs of buzzards bred successfully on the artificial nest platforms producing 3 chicks in 3 nests, 4 and 6 chicks – in single occasions. In the future we are planning to expand this work in the territory of Kalmykia and the adjoining regions. Ãíåçäî êóðãàííèêà ñ êëàäêîé íà ïëàòôîðìå â ñðåäíåé ÷àñòè ãåîäåçè÷åñêîé âûøêè. Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà The nest of the Long-Legged Buzzard with clutch on a platform in the middle part of a geodetic triangle. Photo by M. Pestov


Raptors Conservation Êîíòàêò: Ìàðê Ïåñòîâ Îáùåñòâî îõðàíû àìôèáèé è ðåïòèëèé ïðè Ýêîöåíòðå «Äðîíò» 603000, Ðîññèÿ Í.Íîâãîðîä, à/ÿ 631 òåë.: (8312) 30-25-07 vipera@dront.ru

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1 Ïóõîâîé è îïåðÿþùèéñÿ ïòåíöû êóðãàííèêà â ãíåçäå íà ïëàòôîðìå. Ôîòî Ì. Ïåñòîâà Chicks of the Long-Legged Buzzard in the nest on a platform. Photo by M. Pestov

Ðóñëàí Ìåäæèäîâ ÊÐÎÎ «Öåíòð ýêîëîãè÷åñêèõ ïðîåêòîâ» 358004, Ðîññèÿ Ðåñïóáëèêà Êàëìûêèÿ ã. Ýëèñòà ïð. Àðøàíñêèé centercep@yandex.ru Àíäðåé Ñàëòûêîâ Êîìèòåò ÆÊÕ è ýíåðãåòèêè Àäìèíèñòðàöèè ã. Óëüÿíîâñêà 432600 Ðîññèÿ ã. Óëüÿíîâñê óë. Êóçíåöîâà, 7 -118 òåë.: (8422)41-41-53 aves-pl@mail.ru Âèêòîð Áàäìàåâ ÃÏÁÇ «×åðíûå çåìëè» 359240 Ðîññèÿ ã. Ýëèñòà ï. Êîìñîìîëüñêèé óë. Íåêðàñîâà, 31 Contact: Mark Pestov Amphibian and Reptiles Protection Society under Ecocenter Dront P.O. Box 631 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000, Russia tel.: (8312)30-25-07 vipera@dront.ru Ruslan Medzhidov NGO Environmental Project Center Elista, pr. Arshanskiy Republic of Kalmikiya 358004, Russia centercep@yandex.ru Andrey Saltykov Municipality of Ulyanovsk Kuznetsova str., 7–18 Ulyanovsk, 432600 Russia tel.: (8422)41-41-53 aves-pl@mail.ru Viktor Badmaev State Natural Reserve «Chernye Zemli» Nekrasova str., 31 v. Komsomolsky, Elista 359240 Russia

ñòðîåííûì, îíî îêàçûâàåòñÿ âåñüìà íåïðî÷íûì è íåðåäêî ðàçðóøàåòñÿ îò ñèëüíîãî âåòðà, ÷òî âåäåò ê ãèáåëè êëàäîê è ïòåíöîâ. Ëèíèè ýëåêòðîïåðåäà÷è â áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ îïàñíû äëÿ æèçíè âçðîñëûõ ïòèö. Ïåðåä íà÷àëîì ðàáîò ìû ïîëó÷èëè ïèñüìåííîå ðàçðåøåíèå îò Ñåâåðî-Êàâêàçñêîé òåððèòîðèàëüíîé èíñïåêöèè ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî ãåîëîãè÷åñêîãî íàäçîðà (ã.Ïÿòèãîðñê, Ðîññèÿ), â âåäåíèè êîòîðîé íàõîäÿòñÿ òðèàíãóëÿöèîííûå âûøêè íà òåððèòîðèè Ðåñïóáëèêè Êàëìûêèÿ, íà óñòàíîâêó íà íèõ ãíåçäîâûõ ïëàòôîðì, ÷òî ñóùåñòâåííî ñîêðàòèëî âðåìåííûå è ôèíàíñîâûå çàòðàòû íà âûïîëíåíèå äàííîé ðàáîòû. Âñåãî íàìè áûëî îáîðóäîâàíî 30 âûøåê, ðàñïîëîæåííûõ ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â ßøêóëüñêîì è ×åðíîçåìåëüñêîì ðàéîíàõ ðåñïóáëèêè. Íà ýòèõ 30 âûøêàõ áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî 48 ãíåçäîâûõ ïëàòôîðì, òàê êàê â 18 ñëó÷àÿõ ïîìèìî îáÿçàòåëüíîé âåðõíåé ïëàòôîðìû óñòàíàâëèâàëàñü äîïîëíèòåëüíàÿ ïëàòôîðìà â íèæíåì ïîëîæåíèè. Ïëàòôîðìû ïðåäñòàâëÿþò ñîáîé êâàäðàòíûå ðåøåòêè ñ äëèíîé ñòîðîíû îêîëî 1 ì, èçãîòîâëåííûå èç ìåòàëëè÷åñêîé àðìàòóðû. Èç 30 âûøåê 22 áûëè îáîðóäîâàíû â ÿíâàðå – ôåâðàëå 2004 ãîäà, ò.å. äî íà÷àëà ïåðèîäà ãíåçäîâàíèÿ, åùå 8 âûøåê áûëè îáîðóäîâàíû â àïðåëå 2004 ãîäà. Ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå îáîðóäîâàííûå ïëàòôîðìàìè âûøêè èñïîëüçîâàëèñü ïåðíàòûìè õèùíèêàìè (ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî êóðãàííèêàìè) â êà÷åñòâå ïðèñàä, íà 9 âûøêàõ èç ÷èñëà óñòàíîâëåííûõ â ÿíâàðå – ôåâðàëå áûëè îòìå÷åíû ïîïûòêè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ êóðãàííèêà (âèä çàíåñåí â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðîññèè).  7 ñëó÷àÿõ ãíåçäà áûëè ïîñòðîåíû

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ïòèöàìè íà âåðõíèõ ïëàòôîðìàõ, â 2 ñëó÷àÿõ – íà íèæíèõ.  5 ñëó÷àÿõ ãíåçäîâàíèå îêàçàëîñü óñïåøíûì: â 3 ãíåçäàõ âûðîñëè ïî 3 ïòåíöà, â îäíîì – 4 ïòåíöà è â îäíîì – 6 ïòåíöîâ.  îäíîì ñëó÷àå, êîãäà ïëàòôîðìà áûëà íåäîñòàòî÷íî ïðî÷íî óêðåïëåíà è ñëåãêà íàêðåíèëàñü, ãíåçäî ÷àñòè÷íî ðàçðóøèëîñü, à ïòåíöû óïàëè íà çåìëþ. Îäíàêî è â ýòîì ñëó÷àå ðîäèòåëÿì óäàëîñü âûêîðìèòü îäíîãî ïòåíöà íà çåìëå. Åùå â òðåõ ñëó÷àÿõ ïðè ïðîâåðêå â ìàå 2004 ãîäà ìû îáíàðóæèëè ïóñòûå ãíåçäà.  îäíîì èç íèõ íåïîäàëåêó îò ãíåçäà áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ìóìèôèöèðîâàííûå îñòàíêè ïóõîâîãî ïòåíöà â âîçðàñòå íåñêîëüêèõ äíåé, âåðîÿòíî, ïîãèáøåãî ïî åñòåñòâåííûì ïðè÷èíàì. Åùå â äâóõ ñëó÷àÿõ ðÿäîì ñ ïóñòûìè ãíåçäàìè áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ñâåæèå ñëåäû àâòîìîáèëÿ (âîçìîæíî, â äàííîì ñëó÷àå èìåëî ìåñòî íåçàêîííîå èçúÿòèå ñîäåðæèìîãî ãíåçä ÷åëîâåêîì, õîòÿ ïòèöû ìîãëè íå ðàçìíîæàòüñÿ è ïî ïðè÷èíå áåñïîêîéñòâà ëþäüìè â ïåðèîä ãíåçäîñòðîåíèÿ). Òàêèì îáðàçîì, íàøà ïåðâàÿ ïîïûòêà ïðîâåäåíèÿ áèîòåõíè÷åñêèõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïî îïòèìèçàöèè óñëîâèé ãíåçäîâàíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö â Êàëìûêèè îêàçàëàñü, íà íàø âçãëÿä, âïîëíå óñïåøíîé.  áóäóùåì ñ ó÷åòîì ïîëó÷åííîãî îïûòà ìû ïëàíèðóåì ïðîäîëæèòü äàííóþ ðàáîòó íà òåððèòîðèè Êàëìûêèè è â ñîïðåäåëüíûõ ðåãèîíàõ. Ìû ãîòîâû ê ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâó ñî âñåìè, êîãî çàèíòåðåñóåò íàø ïðîåêò. Ìîëîäûå êóðãàííèêè â ãíåçäå íà ïëàòôîðìå. Ôîòî Ð. Ìåäæèäîâà Juveniles of the Long-Legged Buzzard in the nest on a platform. Photo by R. Medzhidov


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Impact of the Actions for Optimisation of Nesting Conditions on Recovery of Rare Raptor Species in the N. Novgorod District, Russia ÂËÈßÍÈÅ ÁÈÎÒÅÕÍÈ×ÅÑÊÈÕ ÌÅÐÎÏÐÈßÒÈÉ ÍÀ ÂÎÑÑÒÀÍÎÂËÅÍÈÅ ÎÏÒÈÌÀËÜÍÎÃÎ ÓÐÎÂÍß ×ÈÑËÅÍÍÎÑÒÈ ÐÅÄÊÈÕ ÂÈÄΠÄÍÅÂÍÛÕ ÕÈÙÍÛÕ ÏÒÈÖ Â ÍÈÆÅÃÎÐÎÄÑÊÎÉ ÎÁËÀÑÒÈ, ÐÎÑÑÈß S.V. Bakka, L.M. Novikova (The N. Novgorod branch of RBCU) Ñ.Â.Áàêêà, Ë.Ì.Íîâèêîâà (Íèæåãîðîäñêîå îòäåëåíèå Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè, Í.Íîâãîðîä)

Êîíòàêò: Ñåðãåé Áàêêà Ëþäìèëà Íîâèêîâà Íèæåãîðîäñêîå îòäåëåíèå ÑÎÏÐ 603000, Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä, à/ÿ 631 Ýêîöåíòð «Äðîíò» òåë.: (8312) 34-46-79 sopr@dront.ru Contact: Sergey Bakka Ludmila Novikova The N. Novgorod branch of RBCU P.O. Box 631 Ecocenter Dront Nizhniy Novgorod 603000 Russia tel.: (8312) 34-46-79 sopr@dront.ru

Ðèñ.1. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ïëàòôîðì äëÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè Fig. 1. Map of location of artificial nests for Birds of Prey in the N.Novgorod District

 Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè (Ðîññèÿ) (ïëîùàäü – 76,9 òûñ. êì2) èäåò êðóïíîìàñøòàáíàÿ ðàáîòà ïî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ ÷èñëåííîñòè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ äíåâíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö ïóòåì îïòèìèçàöèè óñëîâèé èõ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ (Áàêêà, Áàêêà, Ïåñòîâ, 2001). Äëÿ ýòîãî â 1998 è 2000-2004 ãîäàõ ëàáîðàòîðèåé îõðàíû áèîðàçíîîáðàçèÿ ïðè ýêîöåíòðå «Äðîíò» è Íèæåãîðîäñêèì îòäåëåíèåì Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè (ÑÎÏÐ) áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî 266 èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçä äëÿ êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö. Èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäà óñòàíîâëåíû íà âûñîêèõ äåðåâüÿõ, îáû÷íî ðàñïîëîæåííûõ íà ãðàíèöå ëåñà è îòêðûòûõ ïðîñòðàíñòâ, âäàëåêå îò ÷àñòî èñïîëüçóåìûõ äîðîã, â îñíîâíîì íà îñîáî îõðàíÿåìûõ ïðèðîäíûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ (ïàìÿòíèêè ïðèðîäû, çàêàçíèêè è çàïîâåäíèêè), ÷òî äîëæíî îáåñïå÷èòü èõ ñîõðàííîñòü ïðè ïðîâåäåíèè ëåñíûõ ðóáîê (Ðèñ.1). Íèæåãîðîäñêîå îòäåëåíèå Ñîþçà îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè åæåãîäíî ïðîâîäèò ïðîâåðêè ñîñòîÿíèÿ è èñïîëüçîâàíèÿ ïòèöà-

Ñëåòîê ñêîïû (Pandion haliaetus), âûðîñøèé â ãíåçäå íà ïëàòôîðìå. Ôîòî Ë. Íîâèêîâîé Fledgling of the Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) from the nest on a platform. Photo by L. Novikova

A lot of actions have been carried out for recovery of rare raptor species by optimization of conditions for their nesting (Bakka, Bakka, Pestov, 2001). The Laboratory of conservation of biodiversity within the Eco center Dront and the N. Novgorod branch of RBCU erected 266 artificial nests for the birds of prey in 1998, 2000-2004 (Fig. 1). A total of 232 artificial nests were checked in June-July 2004. Raptors occupied 28 artificial nest (12%) in 2004. The Golden Eagles used 8 artificial nests, the Ospreys – 8; the White-tailed Eagles – 1; the Black Kites – 2; the Buzzard – 1; the Honey Buzzard – 1; the Goshawk – 1; the Hobbies – 2; and the un-identified species – 4. At least 4 chicks were produced by the Golden Eagles; and not less than 13 by the Ospreys; 1 by the Black Kites; and not less than 4 by the Hobbies. Due to these actions the numbers of the Golden Eagle and the Osprey have recovered (Table. 1).


Raptors Conservation

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1

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Òàáë. 1. Âëèÿíèå áèîòåõíè÷åñêèõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé íà âîññòàíîâëåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè Table 1. Recovering a number of rare the Birds of Prey as result the action on erecting artificial nests in the N.Novgorod district

Âèäû ïòèö Birds species

×èñëåííîñòü â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè, ïàð Number in the Nizhniy Novgorod district, pairs 1995–97 *

1999 **

2001 **

2003***

10–12

10–14

13–17

19–23

21–28

11–14

2–3

3–4

6–7

11–13

12–15

9–11

4–7

6–8

6–8

6–8

6–8

1–2

Ñêîïà Osprey Áåðêóò Golden Eagle Îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò White-tailed Eagle *

Áàêêà, Áàêêà, 1997

Ñåìüÿ áåðêóòîâ (Aquila chrysaetos) â ãíåçäå íà ïëàòôîðìå. Ôîòî Ë. Íîâèêîâîé Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the nest on a platform. Photo by L. Novikova

×èñëî ïàð, èñïîëüçóþùèõ ãíåçäîâûå ïëàòôîðìû Number of pairs using 2004 artificial nests

**

Áàêêà, Êèñåëåâà, Íîâèêîâà, 2003

***

Íîâèêîâà, 2003

ìè ãíåçäîâûõ ïëàòôîðì.  èþíå-èþëå 2004 ãîäà áûëà ïðîâåäåíà î÷åðåäíàÿ ïðîâåðêà: îáñëåäîâàíî 232 èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäà. Âñåãî õèùíûìè ïòèöàìè â 2004 ãîäó èñïîëüçîâàëèñü 28 èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçä (12% âñåõ ãíåçäîâûõ ïëàòôîðì); èç íèõ áåðêóòîì (Aquila chrysaetos) – 8, ñêîïîé (Pandion haliaetus) – 8, îðëàíîì-áåëîõâîñòîì (Haliaeetus albicilla) – 1, ÷åðíûì êîðøóíîì (Milvus migrans) – 2, êàíþêîì (Buteo buteo) – 1, îñîåäîì (Pernis apivorus) – 1, ÿñòðåáîì òåòåðåâÿòíèêîì (Acipiter gentilis) – 1, ÷åãëîêîì (Falco subbuteo) – 2, íå èäåíòèôèöèðîâàííûìè õèùíûìè ïòèöàìè – 4.  2004 ãîäó â èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäàõ áåðêóòàìè áûëî âûâåäåíî êàê ìèíèìóì 4 ïòåíöà, ñêîïàìè – íå ìåíåå 13, êîðøóíàìè – 1, ÷åãëîêàìè – íå ìåíåå 4. Âïåðâûå çà âñå ãîäû íàáëþäåíèé íà ãíåçäîâûõ ïëàòôîðìàõ îáðàçîâàëîñü ïîñåëåíèå íåñêîëüêèõ ïàð ñêîï íà îòíîñèòåëüíî áëèçêîì ðàññòîÿíèè äðóã îò äðóãà. Òðè ïëàòôîðìû, íà êîòîðûõ ãíåçäèëèñü ñêîïû, îáðàçóþò òðåóãîëüíèê ñî ñòîðîíàìè 3,0 êì, 2,5 êì è 1,5 êì. Ýòî ïîñåëåíèå íàõîäèòñÿ â 10 êì îò áåðåãà Óíæåíñêîãî îòðîãà Ãîðüêîâñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà. Êàæäàÿ ïàðà ñêîï çäåñü âûâåëà ïî äâà ïòåíöà.  òîì ÷èñëå áûëè ïðîâåðåíû 10 ïëàòôîðì, ïîñòðîåííûõ íà Êàìñêî-Áàêàëäèíñêèõ áîëîòàõ â 2003 ãîäó. Âîñåìü èç íèõ áûëè ïîñòðîåíû íà íàèáîëåå âåðîÿòíûõ ìåñòàõ ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ äîïîëíèòåëüíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áåðêóòîâ, êîòîðûå áûëè îïðåäåëåíû È.Â.Êàðÿêèíûì ïîñðåäñòâîì ÃÈÑ-àíàëèçà

ëàíäøàôòíîé êàðòû, ñîçäàííîé íà îñíîâå ñíèìêîâ Landsat-7 ETM â ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà ïî èçó÷åíèþ áåðêóòà â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå, è èìåþùåéñÿ èíôîðìàöèè î çàñåëåííîñòè ïîñòðîåííûõ ðàíåå ãíåçäîâûõ ïëàòôîðì. Âî âðåìÿ ñîîðóæåíèÿ ãíåçä íà äâóõ èç íèõ íàáëþäàëèñü âçðîñëûå áåðêóòû; íà òðåòüåì ó÷àñòêå áûëè îáíàðóæåíû ïðèñàäû áåðêóòà íà äâóõ ñîñíàõ – íà îäíîé èç íèõ áûëà óñòàíîâëåíà ïëàòôîðìà.  2004 ãîäó íà îäíîì èç ýòèõ ó÷àñòêîâ ïàðà áåðêóòîâ çàíÿëà èñêóññòâåííîå ãíåçäî è âûâåëà ïòåíöîâ. Áëàãîäàðÿ ïðîâåäåííûì áèîòåõíè÷åñêèì ìåðîïðèÿòèÿì â îáëàñòè èäåò âîññòàíîâëåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ äíåâíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö – áåðêóòà è ñêîïû (Òàáë. 1). Ëèòåðàòóðà: List of Literature: Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Áàêêà À.È. Ñîñòîÿíèå è îõðàíà íåêîòîðûõ ðåäêèõ âèäîâ ïòèö â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. – Ôàóíà, ýêîëîãèÿ è îõðàíà ðåäêèõ ïòèö Ñðåäíåãî Ïîâîëæüÿ: Ñá. ñòàòåé ïî ìàòåð. Âñåðîñ. íàó÷íî-ïðàêò. êîíô. «Ðåäêèå ïòèöû Ñðåäíåãî Ïîâîëæüÿ». Ñàðàíñê, 1997. Ñ. 13-16. Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Êèñåëåâà Í.Þ., Íîâèêîâà Ë.Ì. Âëèÿíèå áèîòåõíè÷åñêèõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé íà ÷èñëåííîñòü ðåäêèõ âèäîâ äíåâíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. – Ìàòåðèàëû IV êîíôåðåíöèè ïî õèùíûì ïòèöàì Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè (Ïåíçà, 1-3 ôåâðàëÿ 2003 ã.). Ïåíçà, 2003. Ñ. 24-26. Áàêêà À.È., Áàêêà Ñ.Â., Ïåñòîâ Ì.Â. Îðãàíèçàöèÿ è ïðîâåäåíèå áèîòåõíè÷åñêèõ ðàáîò ïî îõðàíå ðåäêèõ âèäîâ æèâîòíûõ. Ìåòîäè÷åñêîå ïîñîáèå. Ïîä. ðåä. À.À.Êàþìîâà. Í.Íîâãîðîä, Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé Ñîöèàëüíî-ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé ñîþç, Ýêîöåíòð «Äðîíò», 2001. 39 ñ. Íîâèêîâà Ë.Ì. Âëèÿíèå áèîòåõíè÷åñêèõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé íà ïîâûøåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè êðóïíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö íà êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. – Êëþ÷åâûå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèå òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè. Èíôîðìàöèîííûé áþëëåòåíü. Ìîñêâà, 2003. ¹ 2 (18). Ñ. 48-50.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Actions for Attraction of Eagles to Artificial Nests in the Territory of the Important Bird Areas in the Republic of Bashkiria, Russia ÌÅÐÎÏÐÈßÒÈß ÏÎ ÏÐÈÂËÅ×ÅÍÈÞ ÊÐÓÏÍÛÕ ÏÅÐÍÀÒÛÕ ÕÈÙÍÈÊΠÍÀ ÈÑÊÓÑÑÒÂÅÍÍÛÅ ÃÍÅÇÄÀ ÍÀ ÊËÞ×ÅÂÛÕ ÎÐÍÈÒÎËÎÃÈ×ÅÑÊÈÕ ÒÅÐÐÈÒÎÐÈßÕ ÌÅÆÄÓÍÀÐÎÄÍÎÃÎ ÇÍÀ×ÅÍÈß Â ÐÅÑÏÓÁËÈÊÅ ÁÀØÊÈÐÈß, ÐÎÑÑÈß I.V. Karyakin (Center for Field Studies, N.Novgorod) A.S. Pazhenkov (The Volga-Ural ECONET Assistance Center, Samara) È.Â. Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Í.Íîâãîðîä) À.Ñ. Ïàæåíêîâ (Öåíòð ñîäåéñòâèÿ Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòè, Ñàìàðà)

Íà÷àëüíûé ýòàï óñòàíîâêè ãíåçäîâîé ïëàòôîðìû äëÿ áåðêóòà (Aquila chrysaetos). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The beginning of erecting a nest platform for the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). Photo by I. Karyakin

Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí 603000, Ðîññèÿ Í.Íîâãîðîä, óë.Êîðîëåíêî, 17a, êâ.17 òåë.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru Àëåêñåé Ïàæåíêîâ Ðîññèÿ, ã. Ñàìàðà óë. Ãàãàðèíà, 69, êâ.39 òåë.: 8 9272-15-39-60 f_lynx@hotbox.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Korolenko str., 17a – 17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000, Russia tel.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru Aleksey Pazhenkov Gagarina str., 69 – 39 Samara, Russia tel.: 8 9272-15-39-60 f_lynx@hotbox.ru

1 àâãóñòà – 1 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2004 ã. â Áàøêèðñêîì Ïðèáåëüå íà òåððèòîðèÿõ ÊÎÒÐ ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ è â èõ îêðåñòíîñòÿõ ðåàëèçîâàí ïðîåêò ïî óñòðîéñòâó èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçä äëÿ îðëîâ. Òåððèòîðèÿ Ïðèáåëüÿ ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñîáîé õîëìèñòî-óâàëèñòóþ ëåñîñòåïü ñ äîìèíèðîâàíèåì âòîðè÷íûõ øèðîêîëèñòâåííûõ ëåñîâ. Íåñìîòðÿ íà ñèëüíóþ àíòðîïîãåííóþ òðàíñôîðìàöèþ, òåððèòîðèÿ îñòàåòñÿ ïðèâëåêàòåëüíîé äëÿ ðÿäà îðëîâ, òàêèõ êàê áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê (Aquila clanga), îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò (Haliaeetus albicilla) è áåðêóò (Aquila chrysaetos), ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè êîòîðûõ ñîõðàíèëèñü â íàèìåíåå íàðóøåííûõ îñòðîâíûõ ëåñàõ. Áåðêóò è îðëàí çäåñü èñïûòûâàþò îñòðûé äåôèöèò ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ äåðåâüåâ.  êðàò÷àéøèå ñðîêè ïîâûñèòü âîçðàñò äåðåâüåâ äëÿ èõ óñïåøíîãî çàñåëåíèÿ íåâîçìîæíî, îäíàêî âîçìîæíî ñîçäàòü áëàãîïðèÿòíûå óñëîâèÿ äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãíåçä íà ìîëîäûõ äåðåâüÿõ. Èìåííî ýòî è ÿâèëîñü öåëüþ ïðîåêòà. Ñ ïîìîùüþ ÃÈÑ-àíàëèçà áûëè âûäåëåíû òåððèòîðèè, ïåðñïåêòèâíûå äëÿ ôîðìèðîâàíèÿ íîâûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ áåðêóòà è îðëàíà. Âûäåëåííûå òåððèòîðèè îáñëåäîâàëèñü íà ïðåäìåò íàëè÷èÿ äåðåâüåâ, íà êîòîðûõ óñòðàèâàëèñü ïëàòôîðìû.  õîäå ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî 98 ïëàòôîðì: 49 ïëàòôîðì äëÿ áåðêóòà è 49 äëÿ îðëàíà-áåëîõâîñòà. Äàëüíåéøàÿ ïðîâåðêà ïëàòôîðì ïîêàæåò èõ çàñåëÿåìîñòü, îäíàêî, ó÷èòûâàÿ îïûò ïðîøëîãîäíèõ ïðîåêòîâ â Ïåðìñêîé îáëàñòè, ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü, ÷òî íå ìåíåå ÷åì íà òðåòè èç íèõ áóäóò ãíåçäèòñÿ õèùíûå ïòèöû.

The northwest of Bashkiria was visited during the period of 1 August – 1 September 2004. This is a forest-steppe habitat, with some patches of young broadleaved forests. The Great Spotted Eagles, the Golden Eagles and the White-Tailed Eagles breed here. However their number is low due to lack of the old-grown trees. In order to increase the number of eagles in the Important Bird Areas artificial nests for the Golden Eagle (49) and the White-Tailed Eagle (49) have been erected. The results of this attempt will be known in 2005. Ðèñ.1. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ îðëàíà (Haliaeetus albicilla) è ãíåçäîâûõ ïëàòôîðì äëÿ áåðêóòà (1) è îðëàíà (2) íà òåððèòîðèè ÊÎÒÐ «Áåëüñêàÿ ïîéìà» (ÁÑ-006) è â åå îêðåñòíîñòÿõ Fig. 1. Map of location breeding area of the White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the artificial nest for the Golden Eagle (1) and the White-Tailed Eagle (2) in IBA Belskaya flood-plain (RU209) and next territories


Raptors Conservation

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1

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The Review of the Projects Directed to Attracting of Owls on Artificial Nests ÎÁÇÎÐ ÏÐÎÅÊÒÎÂ, ÍÀÏÐÀÂËÅÍÍÛÕ ÍÀ ÏÐÈÂËÅ×ÅÍÈÅ ÑΠÍÀ ÈÑÊÓÑÑÒÂÅÍÍÛÅ ÃÍÅÇÄÎÂÜß E.G. Nikolenko (NGO Siberian Enviromental Center, Novosibirsk) Ý.Ã. Íèêîëåíêî (ÌÁÎÎ «Ñèáèðñêèé ýêîëîãè÷åñêèé öåíòð», Íîâîñèáèðñê)

Äëèíîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix uralensis). Ôîòî Å. Êîðøóíîâà Ural Owl (Strix uralensis). Photo by E. Korshunov

Êàê èçâåñòíî, ÷èñëåííîñòü ìíîãèõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ñîêðàùàåòñÿ â ðåçóëüòàòå ðàçðóøåíèÿ èõ ñðåäû îáèòàíèÿ. Íå ÿâëÿþòñÿ èñêëþ÷åíèåì ïðàêòè÷åñêè âñå âèäû ñîâ. Äàæå åñëè ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ îõîòíè÷èé ó÷àñòîê ñ äîñòàòî÷íûì êîëè÷åñòâîì äîáû÷è, íåäîñòàòîê ãíåçäîâûõ áèîòîïîâ è ìåñò äëÿ óñòðîéñòâà ãíåçä ìîæåò ñòàòü ãëàâíîé ïðè÷èíîé îòñóòñòâèÿ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ó ñîâ, ÷òî âåäåò ê ïàäåíèþ óñïåõà ðàçìíîæåíèÿ, ñîêðàùåíèþ ÷èñëåííîñòè è, â êîíå÷íîì ñ÷åòå, èñ÷åçíîâåíèþ íà ãíåçäîâàíèè. Áîëüøèíñòâî ñî⠖ äóïëîãíåçäíèêè. Äàæå òàêàÿ êðóïíàÿ ñîâà, êàê äëèíîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix uralensis), íå ÿâëÿþùàÿñÿ êëàññè÷åñêèì äóïëîãíåçäíèêîì, ïðåäïî÷èòàåò çàñåëÿòü äóïëà. Îäíàêî ñòàðûå äóïëèñòûå äåðåâüÿ – ýòî ïåðâûé îáúåêò ñàíèòàðíûõ ðóáîê â íàøèõ ëåñàõ, áîëåå òîãî, çíà÷èòåëüíàÿ ÷àñòü ëåñîâ â öåëîì îìîëîæåíà ðóáêàìè, ÷òî ñèëüíî ñíèæàåò ÷èñëåííîñòü âñåõ äóïëîãíåçäíèêîâ. Ëåñîñòåïü – îäèí èç ïðèîðèòåòíûõ äëÿ ñîâ ëàíäøàôòîâ. Ïî ñâîåìó êîðìîâîìó ïîòåíöèàëó ëåñîñòåïíàÿ çîíà ñïîñîáíà âìåñòèòü â ñåáÿ áîëüøîå êîëè÷åñòâî íî÷íûõ õèùíèêîâ, íî, èç-çà âûñîêîé îñâîåííîñòè ÷åëîâåêîì, èõ ÷èñëåííîñòü çäåñü òàêæå ëèìèòèðóåòñÿ ìàëûì ÷èñëîì ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ ìåñò.  ðåçóëüòàòå ñîâû (çà èñêëþ÷åíèåì íåêîòîðûõ âèäîâ) – êðàéíå ðåäêèå îáèòàòåëè îáæèòûõ ÷åëîâåêîì ëàíäøàôòîâ, è â ïðåäñòàâëåíèè áîëüøèíñòâà îñòàþòñÿ ïòèöàìè äàëåêèìè îò ÷åëîâåêà. Ìíîãèå âèäû ñîâ âíåñåíû â Êðàñíûå êíèãè ðåñïóáëèê è îáëàñòåé Ðîññèè, ÷èñëåííîñòü íåêîòîðûõ èç íèõ âî ìíîãèõ ðåãèîíàõ íèçêà è ïðîäîëæàåò ñîêðàùàòüñÿ, è äëÿ ñîõðàíåíèÿ ýòèõ âèäîâ òðåáóþòñÿ ñïåöèàëüíûå óñèëèÿ.  òî æå âðåìÿ, ñîâû ìîãóò æèòü â áëèçêîì ñîñåäñòâå ñ æèëüåì, è ïðèíîñèòü áîëü-

Owls rarely inhabit urban territories. The numbers of owls depend on the availability of places suitable for breeding. Therefore, erecting artificial nests is a simple way to increase their numbers. The experiences of many ornithologists show that the owls are a good biological method for reducing the number of pest species. Owls are also interesting species for observation. Many environmental organizations in Europe and America manage raptorial artificial nest projects. The Raptor Trust40 is now recognized as a national leader in the fields of raptor conservation and avian rehabilitation. Douglas E. Trapp’s page has been noted worldwide as the most informative barn owl related web site, which presents the International Barn Owl Restoration Project41. As one of the most effective methods of recovering the owl population, Douglas considers the erection of nest boxes as more effective than a releasing of captive bred young. The website Barn Owl Headquarters43, run by the company Bio-Diversity Products, has a special focus on agriculture. For the environmentally conscious farmer, BOH offers a natural method for controlling rodents, birds, and some species of flying insects. This method encourages the presence of natural predators by restoring their once abundant nesting. Dr. Randy F. Lauff (St. Francis Xavier University, Nova Scotia) has a slide show on his website about erecting nest boxes for Northern Saw-whet and Tengmalm’s (Boreal) Owls45. There are more intact forests in Russia than in Western Europe, and because of that some owls which are considered to be rare elsewhere are more or less common in Russia. The projects on erecting nesting boxes can increase the number of owls in young forests, farmlands and populated areas. Only two Russian Internet sources have the designs of owl nest boxes. The first is the book «Sputnik yunogo zashitnika prirody» (Assistant for young nature conserva-


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1 øóþ ïîëüçó. Äåëî â òîì, ÷òî áîëüøèíñòâî ñî⠖ ìèîôàãè, èõ îñíîâíîé ðàöèîí – ìûøåâèäíûå ãðûçóíû, à ìåëêèå âèäû ñîâ ïèòàþòñÿ òàêæå íàñåêîìûìè, áîëüøèíñòâî èç êîòîðûõ – âðåäèòåëè ëåñíîãî è ñåëüñêîãî õîçÿéñòâà. Ñîâû ìîáèëüíû è ìîãóò ãíåçäèòüñÿ êîíöåíòðèðîâàíî â ìåñòàõ îáèëèÿ ïèùè, à çíà÷èò, îíè î÷åíü ïåðñïåêòèâíû â êà÷åñòâå áèîëîãè÷åñêîãî ìåòîäà áîðüáû ñ âðåäèòåëÿìè íà ïîëÿõ è â ëåñîïîñàäêàõ.  ãîðîäàõ òàêæå èìååòñÿ îãðîìíàÿ íèøà, êîòîðóþ ìîãóò çàñåëèòü ñîâû. Æèâóùàÿ ïîáëèçîñòè ñîâà ñïðàâëÿåòñÿ ñ ìûøàìè è êðûñàìè ãîðàçäî áîëåå ýôôåêòèâíî, ÷åì ëþáîé êîò, ïðè ýòîì îíà íå òðåáóåò íèêàêîãî óõîäà è êîðìëåíèÿ ñî ñòîðîíû ÷åëîâåêà. Êðîìå òîãî, ñîâû – ýòî èíòåðåñíåéøèé îáúåêò äëÿ íàáëþäåíèÿ. Ñîâû íå ñòðîÿò ñîáñòâåííûõ ãíåçä, à ïîëàãàþòñÿ íà åñòåñòâåííûå óêðûòèÿ (äóïëà è íèøè) èëè çàíèìàþò ãíåçäà õèùíûõ ïòèö. Áëàãîäàðÿ òàêèì ãíåçäîâûì ñòåðåîòèïàì ñîâû ëåãêî çàíèìàþò èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ – ÿùèêè è ïëàòôîðìû. Åñëè ãíåçäîâüå õîðîøî ñäåëàíî è ïðàâèëüíî óñòàíîâëåíî, ñîâà ñ ãîòîâíîñòüþ åãî çàéìåò è áóäåò ðåãóëÿðíî èñïîëüçîâàòü. Ýòî äîêàçûâàåò îïûò ìíîãèõ çàðóáåæíûõ ñïåöèàëèñòîâ è ëþáèòåëåé ïòèö, à òàêæå ôåðìåðîâ, êîòîðûå ìíîãèå ãîäû ðåøàþò ïðîáëåìó áîðüáû ñ âðåäèòåëÿìè ñåëüñêîãî õîçÿéñòâà ïðèâëå÷åíèåì ñîâ íà ñâîè ïîëÿ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, óñòàíîâêà èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé äëÿ ñî⠖ ñàìûé ïðîñòîé ñïîñîá ïîääåðæàíèÿ è äàæå óâåëè÷åíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè èõ ïîïóëÿöèé. Ñàìîé ïðèâëåêàåìîé ñîâîé â Åâðîïå è Ñåâåðíîé Àìåðèêå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñèïóõà îáûêíîâåííàÿ (Tuto alba), ïîòîìó ÷òî ýòî äîñòàòî÷íî ðàñïðîñòðàíåííûé âèä, êîòîðûé ñ

Íàèáîëåå ïîëíûé èñòî÷íèê ïî êîíñòðóêöèÿì èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâüèé äëÿ ñî⠖ êíèãà Susan Dewar, Colin Shawyer, Colin Shanter. «Boxes, Baskets and Platforms: Artificial Nest Sites for Owls and Other Birds of Prey», êîòîðóþ ìîæíî çàêàçàòü ÷åðåç èíòðåíåò-ìàãàçèí ñàéòà «The Owl Pages»39 ïî öåíå 5.75.

http://shops.owlpages.net/uk/amazon-item_id-0950318760-search_ type-AsinSearch-locale-uk.html 39

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

Ñïëþøêà (Otus scops) â ãíåçäîâîì ÿùèêå. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The Scops Owl (Otus scops) in the nestbox. Photo by I. Karyakin

tionalist) by V.E. Boreyko and V.N. Grishenko, full text is available on website by Siberian Environmental Center Nature of Southern Siberia and its Conservators47. Another website with similar information is «Apus.ru» 48 by environmentalist Lev Filin. This website contents other interesting information on wildlife. The full database on owls is presented on the Australian website The Owl Pages51. The single Russian website dedicated only to owls is «Zapovednik dlya Sovenki» (Nature Reserve for little owl)49, is for birdwatchers and children. Comprehensive characteristics of owls inhabited the territory of Russia and methods of their observing are also available on the website of Russian Raptors Research Club50.

The book «Boxes, Baskets and Platforms: Artificial Nest Sites for Owls and Other Birds of Prey» by Susan Dewar, Colin Shawyer, Colin Shanter contains comprehensive information about constructions of owl’s nest-boxes. It can be bought through website The Owl Pages39 for 5.75. ISBN/ASIN: 0950318760 Sales Rank: 262,301 Release Date: March, 1996 Media: Paperback


Raptors Conservation

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1 ëåãêîñòüþ ãíåçäèòñÿ â íàñåëåííûõ ïóíêòàõ. Äëÿ îõîòû åé òðåáóþòñÿ îòêðûòûå ó÷àñòêè – ïîëÿ è ëóãà.  åñòåñòâåííîé ñðåäå îáèòàíèÿ îíà ñåëèòñÿ â íåáîëüøèõ êîëêàõ è æèâûõ èçãîðîäÿõ ó îáî÷èí äîðîã. Ñèïóõè, ê òîìó æå, ëåãêî óæèâàþòñÿ ðÿäîì äðóã ñ äðóãîì, ïðè äîñòàòî÷íîì êîëè÷åñòâå äîáû÷è ñîçäàâàÿ öåëûå êîíöåíòðèðîâàííûå ïîñåëåíèÿ. Âñå ýòè êà÷åñòâà äåëàþò ñèïóõ óäîáíûì âèäîì äëÿ ïðèâëå÷åíèÿ ê æèëüþ è â àãðîöåíîçû. Ìíîãèå ýêîëîãè÷åñêèå è ïðèðîäîîõðàííûå îðãàíèçàöèè â Åâðîïå è Àìåðèêå îñóùåñòâëÿþò ïðîåêòû ïî ïðèâëå÷åíèþ õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ íà èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ. Îäíèì èç ïåðâûõ öåíòðîâ ïî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ ïòèö â Ñîåäèíåííûõ Øòàòàõ (ÍüþÄæåðñè) ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñòàðåéøàÿ îðãàíèçàöèÿ The Raptor Trust40, ñóùåñòâóþùàÿ áîëåå òðèäöàòè ëåò. The Raptor Trust ñ÷èòàåòñÿ íàöèîíàëüíûì ëèäåðîì â îáëàñòè ñîõðàíåíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, èõ ðåàáèëèòàöèè è âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè â ïðèðîäå. «Raptor Nest Box Plans» – îäèí èç ïðîåêòîâ, ïîääåðæèâàåìûõ ýòîé îðãàíèçàöèåé. Íà ñòðàíèöå, ïîñâÿùåííîé ýòîìó ïðîåêòó, ïðèâîäÿòñÿ ïîäðîáíûå èíñòðóêöèè, ãäå è êàê äîëæíû áûòü âûâåøåíû ÿùèêè äëÿ ãíåçä, èñ÷åðïûâàþùàÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ î áèîëîãèè è ïðîñòûå êîíñòðóêöèè äîìèêîâ äëÿ ñàìûõ ðàñïðîñòðàíåííûõ âèäîâ õèùíûõ ïòèö øòàòà Íüþ-Äæåðñè – ñèïóõè, àìåðèêàíñêîé ïóñòåëüãè (Falco sparverius), êðèêëèâîé ñîâêè (Otus asio) è ïîëîñàòîé íåÿñûòè (Strix varia). Ñàìûì èíôîðìàòèâíûì ñàéòîì î ñèïóõàõ âñåãî ìèðà ïðèçíàí ñàéò Äóãëàñà Òðàïïà (Douglas E. Trapp), êîòîðûé ïðåäñòàâëÿåò Ìåæäóíàðîäíûé Ïðîåêò Âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ Ñèïóõè (International Barn Owl Restoration Project)41. Äóãëàñ Òðàïï – áèîëîã, èññëåäîâàòåëü íî÷íûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö, ìíîãî ëåò èçó÷àþùèé ñèïóõ âî âñåì ìèðå. Íà ñàéòå ñîäåðæèòñÿ íåñêîëüêî áîëüøèõ ñòàòåé î ñåìåéñòâå ñèïóõ è îòäåëüíûõ âèäàõ, èõ áëèçêîì ñîñåäñòâå ñ ÷åëîâåêîì è î ìåòîäàõ âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ èõ ÷èñëåííîñòè. Îäíèì èç ñàìûõ äåéñòâåííûõ ìåòîäîâ Äóãëàñ ñ÷èòàåò óñòàíîâêó ãíåçäîâûõ ÿùèêîâ, ãîðàçäî áîëåå äåéñòâåííûì, ÷åì âûïóñê ìîëîäíÿêà, âûðàùåííîãî â íåâîëå. Îí ïðèâîäèò äàííûå, ÷òî èç 1000 âûïóùåííûõ â ïðèðîäó ïòèö â 1980-õ ãîäàõ òîëüêî îäíà ïàðà

40 41 42 43 44

http://www.theraptortrust.org http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/DTrapp/bar nowli.htm http://store.yahoo.com/shawcreekfarms2/birdhouses.html http://members.tripod.com/~Tommy51/index.html http://www.theowlbox.co.uk

39

óäà÷íî çàãíåçäèëàñü, è òîëüêî 10 ïòèö äåðæàëîñü âáëèçè ìåñò âûïóñêà ÷åðåç ãîä. Áîëåå 95% âûïóùåííûõ ïòèö, ðàçëåòåâøèñü íà íåñêîëüêî ñîòåí ìèëü, ïîãèáëè ïðàêòè÷åñêè ñðàçó ïîñëå âûïóñêà. Ïðîâîäèìûå æå ïðîåêòû ïî óñòàíîâêå ãíåçäîâèé áûëè î÷åíü óñïåøíû: èç 100 ÿùèêîâ, óñòàíîâëåííûõ â Öåíòðàëüíîé Êàëèôîðíèè, 60 áûëè çàíÿòû ñèïóõàìè óæå íà âòîðîé ãîä! Íà ñàéòå ïðèâîäÿòñÿ ïðîñòûå êîíñòðóêöèè ÿùèêîâ äëÿ ñèïóõ è îïèñûâàþòñÿ ñïîñîáû èõ óñòàíîâêè. Òàì æå åñòü ññûëêà íà ñàéò «Shaw Creek Bird Supply»42, ãäå ìîæíî êóïèòü ãîòîâûé ÿùèê äëÿ ñèïóõè çà 89,95$; 5$ ñ êàæäîãî ÿùèêà, êóïëåííîãî ÷åðåç ýòîò èíòåðíåò-ìàãàçèí, áóäåò íàïðàâëåíî íà ðàáîòó ïðîåêòà ïî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ ÷èñëåííîñòè ñèïóõ. Ñàéò «Shaw Creek Bird Supply»42 ïðèçûâàåò íàñåëåíèå ðàçâåøèâàòü ÿùèêè äëÿ ãíåçä íà çàäíèõ äâîðàõ ïîäñîáíûõ õîçÿéñòâ è ïðåäëàãàåò ãîòîâûå äîìèêè äëÿ ðàçíûõ âèäîâ ïòèö, â òîì ÷èñëå äëÿ êðèêëèâûõ ñîâîê è íîâîøîòëàíäñêèõ ìîõíîíîãèõ ñû÷åé (Aegolius acadicus) ïî öåíå 32,95$, äëÿ ñèïóõ è ïîëîñàòûõ íåÿñûòåé ïî öåíå 89,95$. Ñàéò «Barn Owl Headquarters»43 – «Øòàá ñèïóõè» – ñîçäàííûé êîìïàíèåé BioDiversity Products, îðèåíòèðóåòñÿ â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü íà ñåëüñêîå õîçÿéñòâî. Äëÿ ýêîëîãè÷åñêè ñîçíàòåëüíûõ ôåðìåðîâ ïðåäëàãàåòñÿ åñòåñòâåííûé ìåòîä êîíòðîëÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ãðûçóíîâ, ïòèö è íåêîòîðûõ âèäîâ ëåòàþùèõ íàñåêîìûõ, çàêëþ÷àþùèéñÿ â ïðèâëå÷åíèè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Ïðèâîäÿòñÿ ñòàòüè, ïîñâÿùåííûå ìåòîäàì ðåãóëèðîâàíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ãðûçóíîâ íà ïîëÿõ, êàòàëîã ÿùèêîâ äëÿ ãíåçä, êîòîðûå èçãîòàâëèâàåò è ïðîäàåò êîìïàíèÿ, à òàêæå èìåþòñÿ ïðîñòûå ìîäåëè ãíåçäîâèé äëÿ ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíîãî èçãîòîâëåíèÿ. Òàêæå îïèñûâàþòñÿ ìåòîäû ïðèâëå÷åíèÿ äðóãèõ õèùíèêîâ (â òîì ÷èñëå ÿñòðåáîâ è êîðøóíîâ) íà ïîëÿ óñòàíîâêîé øåñòîâ-íàñåñòîâ äëÿ îõîòû.  ìèðîâîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå èíòåðíåò øèðîêî ïðåäñòàâëåíà èíôîðìàöèÿ, ïîçâîëÿþùàÿ õîðîøî èçó÷èòü ñîâ, èõ ïîâàäêè, ìåñòà îáèòàíèÿ è îñîáåííîñòè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ è ñàìîñòîÿòåëüíî ðåàëèçîâàòü ïðîåêò ïî óñòàíîâêå ãíåçäîâèé äëÿ ñîâû, îáèòàþùåé â êîíêðåòíîì ðåãèîíå.  ñòðàíàõ Åâðîïû è Àìåðèêè òàêèå ïðîåêòû ñòàëè íîðìîé, è ïðîèçâîäèòåëè (äà è ïðîñòî ýíòóçèàñòûëþáèòåëè ïòèö) øèðîêî ïðåäëàãàþò ñâîé òîâàð – ãîòîâûå ÿùèêè äëÿ ãíåçä – â èíòåðíåò-ìàãàçèíàõ.


40

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Ìîõíîíîãèé ñû÷ (Aegolius funereus) â ñîâÿòíèêå. Ôîòî Ð. Ëàóôôà Tengmalm’s (Boreal) Owl (Aegolius funereus) in the nest box. Photo by R. Lauff

Ìîõíîíîãèé ñû÷ â ñîâÿòíèêå. Ôîòî Ð. Ëàóôôà Tengmalm’s (Boreal) Owl in the nest box. Photo by R. Lauff

45 46 47

Òàê, ìàãàçèí Ðîáèíà Ëîìîñà44 – ïðîäàåò äîìèêè äëÿ ñîâ è ëåòó÷èõ ìûøåé îðèãèíàëüíîé òðåóãîëüíîé êîíñòðóêöèè; âñÿ ïðèáûëü èäåò íà ðåàáèëèòàöèþ òðàâìèðîâàííûõ ïòèö è âîññòàíîâëåíèå äèêîé ïðèðîäû. Íà ñàéòå ïðåäëàãàþòñÿ 4 ìîäåëè äëÿ ñèïóõè, 1 ÿùèê äëÿ ñåðîé íåÿñûòè, 1 äëÿ äîìîâîãî ñû÷à ïî öåíå îò 30 è 35 ôóíòîâ ñòåðëèíãîâ, ïîäàðî÷íûå âàðèàíòû äîìèêîâ äëÿ ñèïóõè – ïî 45 è 49 ôóíòîâ; äîìèêè äëÿ ëåòó÷èõ ìûøåé ïî 9,5 ôóíòîâ. Ïðîåêòû ïî ïðèâëå÷åíèþ ñîâ øèðîêî îñóùåñòâëÿþòñÿ è îòäåëüíûìè îðíèòîëîãàìè – ýíòóçèàñòàìè ñâîåãî äåëà. Òàê, Ðýíäè Ëàóôô (Randy F. Lauff), ïðåïîäàâàòåëü Êàíàäñêîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà St. Francis Xavier University (Íîâàÿ Øîòëàíäèÿ / Nova Scotia), ÷ëåí îáùåñòâà «Nova Scotia Bird Society» íà ëè÷íîì ñàéòå ïðåäñòàâëÿåò ñëàéä-øîó î ñâîåé ðàáîòå ïî óñòàíîâêå ÿùèêîâ äëÿ ìîõíîíîãèõ ñû÷åé45. Êðîìå ðàññêàçà î âûïîëíåííîé ðàáîòå, Ðýíäè Ëàóô ïðèâîäèò êîíñòðóêöèþ ÿùèêà è äàåò ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî èñïîëüçóåìîìó ñíàðÿæåíèþ.  åãî êîðîá-

êàõ îõîòíî ãíåçäÿòñÿ îáûêíîâåííûé (Aegolius funereus) è íîâîøîòëàíäñêèé ìîõíîíîãèå ñû÷è. Èñòîðè÷åñêè ñèòóàöèÿ ñ ñîâàìè â Ðîññèè ñëîæèëàñü äðóãàÿ.  Ñîâåòñêîì Ñîþçå äîëãîå âðåìÿ ñ÷èòàëîñü, ÷òî õèùíûå ïòèöû è ñîâû óíè÷òîæàþò ïðîìûñëîâóþ îõîòíè÷üþ äè÷ü è íàïàäàþò íà äîìàøíþþ ïòèöó, ïîýòîìó íà ãîñóäàðñòâåííîì óðîíå

http://www.stfx.ca/people/rlauff/research/nestboxes_files/NestBox1.html http://www.raptors.ru/library/methods_89/Voronetsky_etal_3.htm http://www.raptors.ru/

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ïîîùðÿëîñü èñòðåáëåíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ: äî 1964 ãîäà çà êàæäóþ óáèòóþ ïòèöó âûïëà÷èâàëàñü ïðåìèÿ.  ðåçóëüòàòå â îõîòíè÷üèõ óãîäüÿõ, ãäå âûáèëè õèùíèêîâ, êîëè÷åñòâî äè÷è ñíà÷àëà ðåçêî âîçðàñòàëî, à çàòåì ïàäàëî èç-çà íåäîñòàòêà êîðìîâ è áîëåçíåé. Íà ïîëÿõ óâåëè÷èëèñü ïîòåðè óðîæàÿ èç-çà áåñêîíòðîëüíîãî ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ãðûçóíîâ. È ãëàâíûé èòî㠖 ìíîãèå âèäû õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ îêàçàëèñü íà ãðàíè èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ.  ðåçóëüòàòå ìíîãîëåòíåãî èñòðåáëåíèÿ äîâåð÷èâûõ ñîâ, îñòàâøèåñÿ â æèâûõ ñòàëè áîëåå ñêðûòíûìè, èáî â ýòîé âîéíå âûæèëè òå ïòèöû, êîòîðûå îáèòàëè â ãëóøè, âäàëè îò æèëüÿ ÷åëîâåêà è ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ ïîëåé. Íà ñåãîäíÿøíèé äåíü ðîññèéñêàÿ ñèòóàöèÿ îòëè÷àåòñÿ îò åâðîïåéñêîé òåì, ÷òî â Ðîññèè áîëüøå ñîõðàíèâøèõñÿ ëåñîâ, à çíà÷èò áîëüøå ñîâ ÷óâñòâóåò ñåáÿ áëàãîïîëó÷íî, íî ýòî íå çíà÷èò, ÷òî ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïî èõ ïðèâëå÷åíèþ íå èìåþò ñìûñëà.  ëåñàõ, îìîëîæåííûõ ðóáêàìè, àãðîöåíîçàõ è íàñåëåííûõ ïóíêòàõ, îñîáåííî ñåëüñêîãî òèïà, ïðîåêòû ïî óñòàíîâêå èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé ìîãóò ñïîñîáñòâîâàòü çíà÷èòåëüíîìó ðîñòó ÷èñëåííîñòè ñîâ ìíîãèõ âèäîâ. Íàïðèìåð, â Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè ïî ðàçíûì ïðè÷èíàì, â òîì ÷èñëå è ïî åñòåñòâåííûì, ñîêðàùàåòñÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ñåðîé íåÿñûòè (Strix aluco) è äîìîâîãî ñû÷à (Athene noctua), êîòîðûå ïðåêðàñíî àäàïòèðóþòñÿ ê îáèòàíèþ ðÿäîì ñ ÷åëîâåêîì. Îäèí èç ðåàëüíûõ ñïîñîáîâ ñîõðàíèòü èõ â ýòîì ðåãèîíå – ïðèâëåêàòü â ãîðîäà è ñåëà. Ðîññèéñêèå ïðîåêòû ïî ïðèâëå÷åíèþ ñîâ íåìíîãî÷èñëåííû, è èíôîðìàöèÿ î íèõ â îáùåäîñòóïíûõ èñòî÷íèêàõ ïðàêòè÷åñêè îòñóòñòâóåò. Îáøèðíûé îáçîð «Èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ äëÿ ñîâ»46 Â.È. Âîðîíåöêîãî è Â.Ò. Äåìÿí÷èêà îïóáëèêîâàí â êíèãå «Ìåòîäû èçó÷åíèÿ è îõðàíû õèùíûõ ïòèö» (Ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè). / Ïîä ðåä. Ñ. Ã. Ïðèêëîíñêîãî, Â. Ì. Ãàëóøèíà, Â. Ã. Êðåâåðà. Ì., 1989. Ïîëíûé òåêñò Ìåòîäè÷åñêèõ ðåêîìåíäàöèé âûëîæåí íà ñàéòå «Ðàáî÷åé ãðóïïû ïî ñîêîëàì è ñîâàì Ñåâåðíîé Åâðàçèè»47 â ðàçäåëå «Áèáëèîòåêà».  ýòîé ïóáëèêàöèè ñîáðàíà èíôîðìàöèÿ î ïðîâîäèâøèõñÿ äî 90-õ ãîäîâ XX âåêà ìåðîïðèÿòèÿõ ïî ïðèâëå÷åíèþ è èçó÷åíèþ ñîâ â Ñîâåòñêîì Ñîþçå, à òàêæå ñòðàíàõ Åâðîïû è Àìåðèêè.  íåé êîðîòêî ïðåäñòàâëåí îáøèðíûé ñîâåòñêèé è çàðóáåæíûé îïûò, è äàþòñÿ ïðàêòè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî ïðèâëå÷åíèþ âèäîâ,


Raptors Conservation

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1

Èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ äëÿ ñåðîé íåÿñûòè (Strix aluco): à – ÿùè÷íîå; á – äóïëÿíêà; ⠖ îòêðûòûé ãíåçäîâîé ÿùèê; 㠖 ñõåìà ãíåçäîâüÿ èç äîñîê (ðàçìåðû â ñì); ä – ñòÿãèâàíèå ãíåçäîâüÿ ñ ïîìîùüþ ìåòàëëè÷åñêîé ëåíòû; å – òî æå ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ïðîâîëîêè. Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) Houses: a – nest-box; á – hollow-box; ⠖ open nest-box; 㠖 plan of a wooden nest-box (size is in cm); ä – joining a nest-box by metallic belt; å – joining by wire. Äóïëÿíêà äëÿ âîðîáüèíîãî ñû÷à (Glaucidium passerinum). Ðàçìåðû óêàçàíû â ìì.

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Ñåðàÿ íåÿñûòü (Strix aluco). Ýòîò âåñüìà íåïðèõîòëèâûé âèä çàíèìàåò ãíåçäîâüÿ ðàçëè÷íîé êîíñòðóêöèè. Îíè äîëæíû èìèòèðîâàòü åñòåñòâåííûå äóïëà èëè âñÿ÷åñêèå ïîëîñòè è óêðûòèÿ. Ñäåëàòü ñîâÿòíèê ìîæíî èç ñòâîëà äåðåâà ñ ïîëîñòüþ âíóòðè èëè ñáèòü èç äîñîê. Ëó÷øå ñîâÿòíèê ñòÿíóòü ïî ïåðèìåòðó ìåòàëëè÷åñêîé ëåíòîé èëè ïðîâîëîêîé. Ðåêîìåíäóþòñÿ ðàçíûå ðàçìåðû ãíåçäîâèé äëÿ ñåðîé íåÿñûòè: âûñîòà îò 50 äî 70 ñì, âíóòðåííèå ðàçìåðû äíà îò 20–22 ñì äî 30-40 ñì, ëåòîê îò 12–15 äî 20 ñì. Áåëüãèéñêèå îðíèòîëîãè ñ÷èòàþò îïòèìàëüíûì ðàçìåð äíà 22õ22 ñì. Âìåñòî êðóãëîãî èëè êâàäðàòíîãî ëåòêà ìîæíî ïðîñòî ïåðåäíþþ ñòåíêó ñäåëàòü êîðî÷å ñàíòèìåòðîâ íà 15, îáðàçóåòñÿ øèðîêèé âõîä â ãíåçäîâüå êàê â ïîëóäóïëÿíêå. Íà äíî â ãíåçäîâüå îáÿçàòåëüíî ñëåäóåò ïîëîæèòü ñëîé îïèëîê, ñòðóæêè, äðåâåñíîé òðóõè, ñóõîãî òîðôà è ò.ï. îêîëî 5 ñì òîëùèíîé. Ðàçâåøèâàþò ãíåçäîâüÿ äëÿ íåÿñûòè â ñàäàõ, ïàðêàõ, íàñåëåííûõ ïóíêòàõ, íà îïóøêàõ, âîçëå áîëüøèõ ïîëÿí, ëóãîâ, ïîëåé.  ãëóáèíå ëåñà ýòè ïòèöû ñåëèòüñÿ íå áóäóò. Çàêðåïëÿþò ñîâÿòíèêè íà òåíèñòûõ äåðåâüÿõ ëåòêîì íà þãî-çàïàä – çàïàä. Ê ëåòêó äîëæåí áûòü ñâîáîäíûé ïîäëåò. Ìîæíî óñòðîèòü îòêðûòûé ãíåçäîâîé ÿùèê íà ÷åðäàêå ñàðàÿ, ïðèáèâ åãî ê îäíîé èç áîêîâûõ ñòåíîê. Âûñîòà ðàçâåøèâàíèÿ ãíåçäîâèé – 3–10 ì.

Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium passerinum) hollow-box. Size is in mm.

Âîðîáüèíûé ñû÷èê (Glaucidium passerinum) æèâåò â ñòàðûõ õâîéíûõ è ñìåøàííûõ ëåñàõ. Äëÿ íåãî ñòðîÿò äóïëÿíêó 50-60 ñì âûñîòîé, äíîì 15-20 ñì, ëåòêîì 5 ñì. Âíóòðåííèé äèàìåòð óâåëè÷èâàåòñÿ îò âåðõóøêè êî äíó. Óêðåïëÿþò äóïëÿíêó ê åëîâîìó ñòâîëó ñðåäè âåòîê.

ßùè÷íîå ãíåçäîâüå äëÿ ìîõíîíîãîãî ñû÷à (Aegolius funereus). Ðàçìåðû óêàçàíû â ìì. Tengmalm’s (Boreal) Owl (Aegolius funereus) nest-box. Size is in mm.

Ìàòåðèàë âçÿò èç êíèãè Áîðåéêî Â.Å. è Ãðèùåíêî B.H. «Ñïóòíèê þíîãî çàùèòíèêà ïðèðîäû»50


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Óñòàíîâêà èñêóññòâåííîãî ãíåçäîâüÿ. Ôîòî Â. Âàíäûøåâîé Erection the nest box. Photo by V. Vandysheva

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îáèòàþùèõ íà òåððèòîðèè áûâøåãî ÑÑÑÐ. Îñîáåííî ïîäðîáíî ðàññìàòðèâàþòñÿ êðóïíûå âèäû, òàêèå êàê ôèëèí (Bubo bubo), áîðîäàòàÿ (Strix nebulosa), ñåðàÿ è äëèííîõâîñòàÿ íåÿñûòè, ñèïóõà è óøàñòàÿ ñîâà (Asio otus), áîëåå êîðîòêî îñâåùåíû ìåëêè âèäû ñîâèíûõ. Äëÿ ýòèõ âèäîâ ïðèâåäåíû íåñêîëüêî êîíñòðóêöèé ãíåçäîâèé è îñîáåííîñòè èõ ðàçìåùåíèÿ â ïðèðîäå è àíòðîïîãåííûõ ëàíäøàôòàõ. Ïî äàííûì ýòîãî îáçîðà, íàèáîëåå àêòèâíàÿ ðàáîòà ïî ïðèâëå÷åíèþ è èçó÷åíèþ ñîâ íà èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ âåëàñü â Ôèíëÿíäèè, ãäå áûëî ðàçìåùåíî áîëåå 12,5 òûñ. ñîâèíûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ÿùèêîâ, è òîëüêî â 1986 ãîäó áûëî çàêîëüöîâàíî ïî÷òè 11 òûñ. ñîâ. Òðàäèöèîííî â ñòðàíàõ áûâøåãî ÑÑÑÐ óñòàíîâêîé ñêâîðå÷íèêîâ è êîðìóøåê çàíèìàëèñü äåòè â îáùåîáðàçîâàòåëüíûõ øêîëàõ. Ê ñîæàëåíèþ, èíôîðìàöèÿ î ïîäîáíûõ ïðîåêòàõ, ïðîâîäèìûõ â ïîñëåäíèå ãîäû, î÷åíü ðåäêî ïîïàäàåò íà âåá-ñòðàíèöû. Îäíàêî ìû íàøëè òàêèå ñâåäåíèÿ â ýëåêòðîííîé âåðñèè ãàçåòû «Ìèð æèâîòíûõ»48. Òàì ïðèâîäèòñÿ ñòàòüÿ èç Áåëîðóññêîãî èíôîðìàöèîííîãî áþëëåòåíÿ «Àõîâà ïòóøàê íà Ïàëåññi» (¹ 3, 2004 ã.) îá àêöèè øêîëüíîãî îáúåäèíåíèÿ «Ïîëåñüå» Ñåìèãîñòè÷ñêîé ñðåäíåé øêîëû, Ñòîëèíñêîãî ðàéîíà (Áåëàðóñü) ïî ïðèâëå÷åíèþ óøàñòûõ ñîâ â èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ. Ñ 2001 ãîäà ÷ëåíû îáúåäèíåíèÿ ñäåëàëè áîëåå 20 ãíåçäîâèé è óñòàíîâèëè èõ íà âñåé òåððèòîðèè ïîëüäåðà. Áîëüøèíñòâî ãíåçäîâèé áûëî ðàçâåøåíî â ìîíîêóëüòóðå ñîñíû âäîëü äîðîã íà âûñîòå îò 3 äî 6 ì â íàèáîëåå ñîåäèíåííîé ÷àñòè êðîíû. Íà âòîðîì ìåñòå ïî êîëè÷åñòâó ïðèêðåïëåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé — îëüõà. Âûâåøèâàëèñü ãíåçäîâüÿ òàêæå íà ìîëîäûõ äóáàõ, áåðåçàõ, â èâíÿêå. 5 èç íèõ áûëî ïðèêðåïëåíî íà ïëîäîâûõ äåðåâüÿõ íà òåððèòîðèè äåðåâíè.  2002 ã. â îäíîì èç íèõ óñïåøíî

http://fauna.iatp.by/ http://www.forest.ru/rus/publications/boreyko/2.html http://www.ecoclub.nsu.ru/books/boreyko/2.htm http://www.apus.ru/site.xp/057049052124124.html http://www.sovenka.newmail.ru/les/index_mse.htm http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/ http://www.owlpages.com http://owlpages.com/owlboxes.html

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ âûâåëèñü 5 ïòåíöîâ.  2001 ã. èç 18 èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé çàíÿòûìè îêàçàëèñü 4, ÷òî ñîñòàâèëî 20%.  2003 ã. óøàñòàÿ ñîâà çàíÿëà 5 èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé.  ðóññêî-ÿçû÷íîì ïðîñòðàíñòâå èíòåðíåò ìîäåëè ñîâèíûõ äîìèêîâ íàìè áûëè íàéäåíû ëèøü â äâóõ èñòî÷íèêàõ. Ïåðâûé – ýòî êíèãà Áîðåéêî Â.Å. è Ãðèùåíêî B.H. «Ñïóòíèê þíîãî çàùèòíèêà ïðèðîäû», òåêñò êîòîðîé äîñòóïåí íà ñàéòàõ «Ëåñíîãî êëóáà ðîññèéñêèõ ÍÏλ49 è «Ïðèðîäà þæíîé Ñèáèðè è åå çàùèòíèêè»50.  êíèãå ïðèâîäÿòñÿ ñõåìû êîíñòðóêöèé ñîâÿòíèêà äëÿ ñåðîé íåÿñûòè è ïëàòôîðìû äëÿ áîðîäàòîé íåÿñûòè, âàðèàíòû ãíåçäîâèé äëÿ äîìîâîãî ñû÷à è ñèïóõè, äóïëÿíêà äëÿ âîðîáüèíîãî ñû÷èêà (Glaucidium passerinum), ÿùèê äëÿ ìîõíîíîãîãî ñû÷à, âàðèàíòû ãíåçäîâèé äëÿ ñïëþøêè (Otus scops) è óøàñòîé ñîâû. Òàêæå â íåé êîðîòêî îïèñàíû ìåñòà îáèòàíèÿ ýòèõ íî÷íûõ õèùíèêîâ, óêàçûâàåòñÿ êàê è ãäå èìååò ñìûñë óñòàíàâëèâàòü èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ. Äðóãîé ñàéò ñ ïîäîáíîé èíôîðìàöèåé – ýòî ñàéò íàòóðàëèñòà Ëüâà Ôèëèíà «Apus.ru»51 – âñåîáúåìëþùèé ñïðàâî÷íèê æèâîé ïðèðîäû. Íà íåì ïðèâîäÿòñÿ äîìèêè äëÿ ñîâ, ðàçðàáîòàííûå è ïðåäñòàâëåííûå íà çàðóáåæíûõ ñàéòàõ: ýòî ãíåçäîâüå äëÿ ìåëêèõ ñî⠖ ïðîåêò êîìïàíèè «Birdfood», äîì-ðàêåòà äëÿ îáûêíîâåííîé ñèïóõè – ïðîåêò «Kaweahoaks», ãíåçäîâüå äëÿ ñèïóõè, äîìèê äëÿ êðóïíûõ äÿòëîâ è ñî⠖ ïðîåêò «Songbird Cedar». Åäèíñòâåííûé ðóññêî-ÿçû÷íûé ñàéò, ïîñâÿùåííûé èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî ñîâàì – ýòî «Çàïîâåäíèê äëÿ Ñîâ¸íêè»52, ðàññ÷èòàííûé íà äåòåé è ëþáèòåëåé ïòèö, â ïîýòè÷åñêîé ìàíåðå ðàññêàçûâàþùèé î íî÷íûõ õèùíèêàõ. Ðÿäîì ñ ðàññêàçàìè î ñîâàõ â ýòíè÷åñêèõ ìèôàõ è îá èñïîëüçîâàíèè ñîâ â ñèìâîëèêå è ãåðàëüäèêå, íà ýòîì ñàéòå èìååòñÿ ïîëíûé ñèñòåìàòèçèðîâàííûé ñïðàâî÷íèê, â êîòîðîì ïðèâîäÿòñÿ íàçâàíèÿ âñåõ âèäîâ è ïîäâèäîâ ñîâ íà ëàòûíè, ðóññêîì è àíãëèéñêîì ÿçûêàõ, à òàêæå âèäîâûå î÷åðêè ê íåêîòîðûì èç íèõ. Ïîäðîáíûå âèäîâûå î÷åðêè î ñîâàõ, æèâóùèõ íà òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèè, è ìåòîäàõ èõ îáíàðóæåíèÿ òàêæå ìîæíî íàéòè íà ñàéòå Êëóáà èññëåäîâàòåëåé ðóññêèõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ53. Äîñòàòî÷íî ïîëíàÿ áàçà ïî ñîâèíûì èìååòñÿ íà àâñòðàëèéñêîì ñàéòå «The Owl Pages»54. Êðîìå îïèñàíèé âèäîâ, íà íåì ñîáðàíû ññûëêè íà ñàéòû, íà êîòîðûõ åñòü èíôîðìàöèÿ îá èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâüÿõ äëÿ ñîâ55.


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Raptors Conservation 2005, 1

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Raptors Research ÈÇÓ×ÅÍÈÅ ÏÅÐÍÀÒÛÕ ÕÈÙÍÈÊΠPeregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in the Volga-Ural Region, Russia ÑÀÏÑÀÍ (FALCO PEREGRINUS)  ÂÎËÃÎ-ÓÐÀËÜÑÊÎÌ ÐÅÃÈÎÍÅ, ÐÎÑÑÈß I.V. Karyakin (Center for Field Studies, N.Novgorod) È.Â. Êàðÿêèí (Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Í.Íîâãîðîä)

Ñàìêà ñàïñàíà (Falco peregrinus) íà ãíåçäå ñ ïòåíöàìè. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Adult female of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in the nest with chicks. Photo by I. Karyakin

Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí 603000, Ðîññèÿ Í.Íîâãîðîä, óë.Êîðîëåíêî, 17a – 17 òåë.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Korolenko str., 17a – 17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000, Russia tel.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru

Ñàïñàí (Falco peregrinus) âíåñåí â Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè, ñèòóàöèÿ ñ íèì â Ðîññèè, îñîáåííî â Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè, îïèñàíà êàê êðèòè÷åñêàÿ, à îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü â ñòðàíå îöåíåíà â 2000-3000 ïàð (Ãàíóñåâè÷, 2001). Ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ íà 1985 ã. ÷èñëåííîñòü ñàïñàíà â Çàïàäíîé Åâðîïå îöåíèâàëàñü â 4000 ïàð (Newton, 1988), â ñåðåäèíå 90-õ ãã. – â 6200-10000 ïàð, èç êîòîðûõ â Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Ðîññèè ïðåäïîëàãàëîñü ãíåçäîâàíèå 400-800 ïàð (Tucker, Heath, 1994), â êîíöå 90-õ ãã. – 7600-11000 ïàð è 1000 ïàð ñîîòâåòñòâåííî (BirdLife…, 2000).  áîëüøèíñòâå ñòðàí Çàïàäíîé Åâðîïû è Ñåâåðíîé Àìåðèêå ó÷åòû ñàïñàíîâ ïðîèçâîäèëèñü íà áîëüøèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ è ïðè ãîñóäàðñòâåííîé ïîääåðæêå. Àíàëîãè÷íûõ ó÷åòîâ íà òåððèòîðèè Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè ïðîèçâåäåíî íå áûëî, à ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè ïî ñêóäíûì è ôðàãìåíòàðíûì äàííûì, ïî îáúåêòèâíûì è âïîëíå ïîíÿòíûì ïðè÷èíàì, ÿâëÿþòñÿ, ñêîðåå âñåãî, çàíèæåííûìè. Òîëüêî ïî ãðóáîé ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè äàííûõ, ïðèâåäåííûõ â ýòîé ñòàòüå, è ìàòåðèàëàì àâòîðà ïî Àëòàå-Ñàÿíñêîìó ðå-

The territory of the European part of the Volga-Ural Region (918462.32 km2) has been surveyed by the author and colleagues in 1988-2002. A total of 452 nesting territories of the Peregrines were found, projecting a total of 900-1000 pairs for the region. Biologically the territory of the region is divided into 4 zones: the Ural Mountains forested plains, forest-steppe and steppe. The largest part of the breeding territories (72.1%) is located in the mountains and in foothills of the Urals, where the Peregrines are breeding exclusively on cliffs along rivers and lakes. A total of 37 nests (22.7%) were found in the taiga forest plains west of the Urals. There, 54.1% of the nests were located on the moss tussocks and raised humps amongst bogs, 27% in other raptor species nests on trees and on triangulation towers and 8.1% on river precipices. The remaining 4.4% of known nest sites were found in the forest-steppe east from the Urals. Cliff breeding (72.7% of the nests) dominates in this part of the region. The remaining nests were found mostly in the other raptor species nests. In general cliff breeding dominates in the surveyed region – 85.7% (N=295). There the Ðèñ. 1. Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêèé ðåãèîí íà êàðòå Ðîññèè Fig. 1. Map of the Volgo-Ural region in Russia


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Ðèñ. 2. Ñòåïåíü îáñëåäîâàííîñòè Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà. a – ìåñòà ñòàöèîíàðíûõ íàáëþäåíèé, b – ìàðøðóòû ýêñïåäèöèé, c – ãðàíèöû îáëàñòåé (íîìåðà ñîîòâåòñòâóþò òàêîâûì â òàáë.1) Fig. 2. Map of researching the Volgo-Ural region. a – observing stations, b – expedition routes, c – borders of regions (numbers are similar ones in the table.1)

ãèîíó è Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè, â Ðîññèè ãíåçäèòñÿ íèêàê íå ìåíåå 20000 ïàð ñàïñàíîâ. Ìàòåðèàë, ðàññìîòðåííûé â äàííîé ñòàòüå, ïðîëèâàåò ñâåò íà ñîñòîÿíèå ïîïóëÿöèé ñàïñàíà â Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè ÂîëãîÓðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà, ãäå ñîñðåäîòî÷åí îñíîâíîé çàïàñ âèäà íà âîñòîêå Åâðîïû.

Ââåäåíèå Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêèé ðåãèîí çàíèìàåò âîñòîê Ðóññêîé ðàâíèíû (âñå Ñðåäíåå Ïîâîëæüå), Óðàëüñêèå ãîðû è ïðèëåãàþùóþ ÷àñòü Çàïàäíîé Ñèáèðè.  íàñòîÿùåé ñòàòüå ðàññìàòðèâàåòñÿ ëèøü çàïàäíàÿ ÷àñòü ðåãèîíà (òåððèòîðèÿ Ïðèâîëæñêîãî ôåäåðàëüíîãî îêðóãà), ëåæàùàÿ â Åâðîïå (ðèñ. 1). Âîñòî÷íàÿ ãðàíèöà ïðîâåäåíà ïî ãåîãðàôè÷åñêîé ãðàíèöå Åâðîïû è Àçèè (îñåâûå õðåáòû Ñåâåðíîãî è Ñðåäíåãî Óðàëà è äîëèíà ð. Óðàë), þæíàÿ, çàïàäíàÿ è ñåâåðíàÿ – ïî àäìèíèñòðàòèâíûì ãðàíèöàì îáëàñòåé è ðåñïóáëèê. Òåððèòîðèÿ èìååò ïëîùàäü 918462,32 êì2.

Ìåòîäèêà  îñíîâó ðàáîòû ëåãëè ìàòåðèàëû ýêñïåäèöèé àâòîðà ñ êîëëåãàìè â 1988-2002 ãã. Îáùàÿ ïðîòÿæåííîñòü ýêñïåäèöèîííûõ ìàðøðóòîâ ñîñòàâèëà 47465,00 êì, èç íèõ íà äîëþ àâòîìàðøðóòîâ ïðèøëîñü 25319,67 êì, âåëîìàðøðóòî⠖ 499,76 êì, âîäíûõ ìàðøðóòî⠖ 17120,83 êì, ïåøèõ ìàðøðóòî⠖ 4524,74. Ñðåäíÿÿ ïðîòÿæåííîñòü àâòîìàðøðóòîâ (n=304) ñîñòàâèëà 83,29 êì â äåíü, âåëîìàðøðóòîâ (n=27) – 18,51 êì, âîäíûõ ìàðøðóòîâ (n=704) – 24,32 êì, ïåøèõ ìàðøðóòîâ (n=327) – 13,84 êì. Àâòî– è

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ falcons use niches (86.6%), or ledges open from above (9.9%) or ledges with overhung (2.0%), or, rarely on the top of the cliff (1.6%). Often the peregrines occupy niches used as breeding sites by Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) – 30.4%. Egg laying starts from 1 April to 26 May. Chicks hatch from 4 May to 28 June, most commonly from 8 to 28 May and fledge from 13 June to 7 Augusts (most commonly 17 June to 7 July). In the Ural Mountains a total of 57.9% of chicks fledge by 57.9%, most of them fledge after 20 June. Clutch size (N=17) varies between 1 and 4, making an average 2.94. Brood size (N=58) varies from 1 to 4, or 2.69 on average. Breeding rate is 2. 38 fledglings per successful eyrie (N=221). Literature suggests sharp decline of the Peregrine numbers in 1950-70s and its recovery from 80s. It appears that the cause of the decline was contamination by organochlorines. Since 1994 we stopped recording crashed eggs, common in the region in the earlier seasons. In the past 10 years the numbers of the peregrine increased at least 3-4 times and still increasing. It is predicted that in the future decade the numbers will increase 1.5 times. Ðèñ. 3. Ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ñàïñàíà â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå. Ãíåçäîâûå ãðóïïèðîâêè: 1 –ÂîëæñêîÊàìñêàÿ òàåæíàÿ, 2 – Óðàëüñêàÿ ãîðíàÿ, 3 – ÂîëãîÓðàëüñêàÿ ëåñîñòåïíàÿ, 4 – Çàóðàëüñêàÿ ñòåïíàÿ; a – ïðåäïîëàãàåìàÿ þæíàÿ ãðàíèöà àðåàëà â êîíöå XIX – íà÷àëå XX âåêîâ, á – ñîâðåìåííàÿ ãðàíèöà ñïëîøíîãî ãíåçäîâîãî àðåàëà è þæíûõ èçîëÿòîâ, ñ – ãðàíèöû ãíåçäîâûõ ãðóïïèðîâîê Fig. 3. Map of breeding areas of the Peregrin Falcon in the Volgo-Ural region. The breeding populations locations: 1 – Volgo-Kama taiga, 2 – Ural mountains, 3 – Volgo-Ural forest-steppe, 4 – Steppe region behind Ural mountains; Borders of the Peregrine range: a – historic range of the Peregrine, á – recent range of the Peregrine, ñ – borders of the Peregrine breeding populations


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1

Òàáë. 1. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñàñïàíà ïî îáëàñòÿì Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà. Ãíåçäîâûå ãðóïïèðîâêè: 1 –Âîëæñêî-Êàìñêàÿ òàåæíàÿ, 2 – Óðàëüñêàÿ ãîðíàÿ, 3 – Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêàÿ ëåñîñòåïíàÿ, 4 – Çàóðàëüñêàÿ ñòåïíàÿ Table 1. Distribution of the Peregrine breeding areas in the Volgo-Ural region. The breeding populations locations: 1 – Volgo-Kama taiga, 2 – Ural mountains, 3 – Volgo-Ural forest-steppe, 4 – Steppe region behind Ural mountains

Ðàéîíû ñ õàðàêòåðíûìè ãíåçäîâûìè ãðóïïèðîâêàìè The breeding populations locations

¹¹ Ðåãèîí / District

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Ðåñïóáëèêà Êîìè Republic of Komi Êèðîâñêàÿ îáëàñòü Kirov district Ïåðìñêàÿ îáëàñòü Perm district Ñâåðäëîâñêàÿ îáëàñòü Sverdlovsk district ×åëÿáèíñêàÿ îáëàñòü Chelyabinsk district Îðåíáóðãñêàÿ îáëàñòü Orenburg district Ðåñïóáëèêà Áàøêîðòîñòàí Republic of Bashkortostan Óäìóðòñêàÿ ðåñïóáëèêà Republic of Udmurtia Ðåñïóáëèêà Òàòàðñòàí Republic of Tatarstan Ðåñïóáëèêà Ìàðèé-Ýë Republic of Mari-L ×óâàøñêàÿ ðåñïóáëèêà Republic of Chuvashia Ìîðäîâñêàÿ ðåñïóáëèêà Republic of Mordovskaya Íèæåãîðîäñêàÿ îáëàñòü N.Novgorod district Óëüÿíîâñêàÿ îáëàñòü Ulyanovsk district Ñàìàðñêàÿ îáëàñòü Samara district

Âñåãî ãí. Ó÷àñòêîâ Total number of breeding areas %%

2

4

3

Âñåãî Total

7

7

23

23

47

1

42

89

34

34

24

1

25

1

2

3

225

1

16

12

239

1

17

3

3 0 0 0

8

8 0 4

4

102

326

4

20

452

22,57

72,12

0,88

4,42

100

âåëîìàðøðóòû èñïîëüçîâàëèñü, â îñíîâíîì, êàê ñðåäñòâî çàáðîñêè íà íåäîñÿãàåìûå ñ ðåê ìàññèâû áîëîò è îçåðà. Ìàðøðóòû çàáðîñêè â âåðõîâüÿ ðåê, äëÿ ïîñëåäóþùåãî ñïëàâà, â ðàñ÷åò ðàáî÷åãî êèëîìåòðàæà íå âîøëè. Áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü òåððèòîðèé ïîñåùàëàñü îäíîêðàòíî, ëèøü íà 3-õ âîäíûõ ìàðøðóòàõ (ðåêè Âèøåðà, ×óñîâàÿ è Áåëàÿ â ïðåäåëàõ Ñâåðäëîâñêîé, Ïåðìñêîé îáëàñòåé è Ðåñïóáëèêè Áàøêîðòîñòàí) âåëñÿ ïîñòîÿííûé ìîíèòîðèíã ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ. Òàêæå ðàáîòà âåëàñü íà 5 ìîäåëüíûõ òåððèòîðèÿõ, îáùåé ïëîùàäüþ 1027 êì2, êîòîðûå ïîñåùàëèñü ïðàêòè÷åñêè åæåãîäíî (ðèñ. 2). Ïîìèìî àâòîðñêèõ íàáëþäåíèé â ðàáîòå ïî àíàëèçó ðàñïðåäåëåíèÿ è ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà â ðåãèîíå èñïîëüçîâàíû ìàòåðèàëû Ñ.Â. Áàêêà ïî Íèæåãîðîäñêîé,

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Êèðîâñêîé îáëàñòÿì, ðåñïóáëèêàì ÌàðèéÝë, ×óâàøèÿ è Ìîðäîâèÿ è Î.Â. Áîðîäèíà ïî Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè, ïðåäîñòàâëåííûå äëÿ áàçû äàííûõ ÃÈÑ Öåíòðà ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé. Ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ñàïñàíà âûÿâëÿëèñü áîëüøåé ÷àñòüþ â õîäå ñïëàâà ïî ðåêàì è â ìåíüøåé ñòåïåíè â õîäå ïåøèõ ìàðøðóòîâ. Ïîä ãíåçäîâûìè ó÷àñòêàìè ïîäðàçóìåâàþòñÿ òåððèòîðèè, íà êîòîðûõ îáíàðóæåíû ãíåçäà ñàïñàíà (ëèáî æèëûå, ëèáî ïóñòóþùèå, íî àáîíèðóåìûå ïòèöàìè), âñòðå÷åíû íåðàñïàâøèåñÿ âûâîäêè è âçðîñëûå ïòèöû, íåîäíîêðàòíî ïðîÿâëÿâøèå ïðèçíàêè áåñïîêîéñòâà êàê ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê ÷åëîâåêó, òàê è ïî îòíîøåíèþ ê äðóãèì õèùíûì ïòèöàì. Ê âîçìîæíûì ãíåçäîâûì ó÷àñòêàì ìû ïðèðàâíèâàåì èþíüñêèå âñòðå÷è âçðîñëûõ ïòèö ñ äîáû÷åé, íåîäíîêðàòíî ðåãèñòðèðîâàâøèõñÿ íà îäíîé è òîé æå òåððèòîðèè. Âûÿâëÿåìûå ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ñàïñàíà êàðòèðîâàëèñü, äàííûå âíîñèëèñü â ñðåäó ÃÈÑ (ArcView 3.2a, ESRI, CA, USA), ãäå è ïðîèçâîäèëñÿ ðàñ÷åò îáùåé ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà (Êàðÿêèí, 1996; 2000). Íà îñíîâå ïîëåâûõ äàííûõ ìîäåëèðîâàëèñü òèïè÷íûå ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûå äëÿ ñàïñàíà áèîòîïû, ïî êîñìîñíèìêàì Ðåñóðñ-ÌÑÓ-Å, Landsat-7 è âåêòîðíûì êàðòàì Ì 1:200000, îïðåäåëÿëàñü ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ, íà êîòîðóþ ïðÿìî ýêñòðàïîëèðîâàëèñü äàííûå ñ ó÷åòíûõ ïëîùàäåé.

Ðåçóëüòàòû Ãåîãðàôèÿ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ, ÷èñëåííîñòü è ãíåçäîâûå áèîòîïû. Ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ íà 2002 ã. â Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà èçâåñòíî 452 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêà ñàïñàíà (ðèñ. 3, òàáë. 1). ×èñëåííîñòü ñàïñàíà â Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà (918462,32 êì2) îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 900-1000 ïàð ñ ó÷åòîì ðîñòà ÷èñëåííîñòè, ïðîèñõîäÿùåãî â ïîñëåäíåå äåñÿòèëåòèå (òàáë. 2). Ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå ñàïñàíà â ðåãèîíå íåðàâíîìåðíî, îäíàêî ïîä÷èíÿåòñÿ îïðåäåëåííûì çàêîíîìåðíîñòÿì. Ñóùåñòâóåò äâà òèïà ãíåçäîâûõ áèîòîïîâ ñàïñàíà: ïåðâûé – ñêàëüíûå îáíàæåíèÿ ïî áåðåãàì ðåê è îçåð, âòîðîé – êðóïíûå áîëîòà, ðàñïîëîæåííûå ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî â íåïîñðåäñòâåííîé áëèçîñòè îò ðå÷íûõ äîëèí. Âíå ýòèõ áèîòîïîâ ãíåçäîâàíèå ñàïñàíà ìîæíî ðàñöåíèâàòü êàê èñêëþ÷åíèå. Ìàêñèìàëüíîå êîëè÷åñòâî ãíåçäîâûõ òåððèòîðèé âèäà çàðåãèñòðèðîâàíî â ëåñíîé çîíå, ïðè-


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1 1

2

3

Ãíåçäîâûå Ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè ó÷àñòêè óñòàíîâëåííûå âîçìîæíûå Ðåãèîí Real breeding Possible Region areas breeding areas

Âñåãî Total

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Ñðåäíåå ïî ìîäåëüíûì ðåãèîíàì Average on the model regions



4

Âñå ãíåçäîâûå ó÷àñòêè Total breeding areas

1 4 87 25 20 1 237 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 4

6 19 2 9 5 2 2 15 3 0 0 0 6 0 0

7 23 89 34 25 3 239 17 3 0 0 0 8 0 4

383

69

452

375

52

427

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ 5

Ó÷åòíàÿ ïëîùàäü (â êì2) Observing areas (km2)

6

7

8

9

Ïëîòíîñòü Ïëîòíîñòü (ïàð/1000 êì2 Ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäó÷åòíîé (ïàð/1000 êì2 ïëîùàäè) îáùåé íûõ áèîòîïîâ ïëîùàäè) (â êì2) Îáùàÿ ïëîùàäü Density (pairs 2 2 Density (pairs Areas for (â êì ) per 1000 km inhabit-using Total areas observing per 1000 km2 (km2) (km2) areas) total areas)

18120,00 21168,92 4196,54 3061,40

25885,71 42337,84 6994,23 4373,43

25886,31 6315,00

43143,85 9021,43

23864,76 120800,00 160600,00 29975,29 20409,34 75712,93 143600,00 42100,00 68000,00 23200,00 18300,00 26200,00 74800,00 37300,00 53600,00

1,269 4,204 8,102 8,166

0,272 1,108 1,890 1,750

9,233 2,692

2,774 0,577

5,422

1,403

918462,32

78748,17

131756,49

517484,63

* – îöåíêà áëèçêàÿ ê àáñîëþòíîé / the highly reliable estimate ** – ýêñïåðòíàÿ îöåíêà (ïîëåâîãî ìàòåðèàëà íåäîñòàòî÷íî äëÿ ïîëíîöåííîé ýêñòðàïîëÿöèè äàííûõ) / estimates by the experts *** – îöåíêà ÷èñëåííîñòè ïî ìîäåëüíûì ðåãèîíàì (ðàñ÷åò â ÃÈÑ) / an extrapolation based on the 'model' study areas was performed using GIS

Ãíåçäîâàÿ íèøà, çàíÿòàÿ ñàïñàíàìè íà ð.×óñîâàÿ (Ñâåðäëîâñêàÿ îáëàñòü). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nesting niche occupied by Peregrine Falcons on the Chusovaya River (Sverdlovsc District). Photo by I. Karyakin

÷åì â ïîëîñå õâîéíî-øèðîêîëèñòâåííûõ ëåñîâ, þæíîé è ñðåäíåé òàéãè.  ñåâåðî-òàåæíûõ ó÷àñòêàõ è ëåñîñòåïíîé ÷àñòè ðåãèîíà ÷èñëåííîñòü ñàïñàíà çàìåòíî ïàäàåò, ÷òî â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ñâÿçàíî ñ ñîêðàùåíèåì ïëîùàäè ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ. Îòäåëüíûå ïàðû ñàïñàíîâ ãíåçäÿòñÿ â ñòåïíîé çîíå, ãäå ïðèóðî÷åíû ê ñêàëüíûì îáíàæåíèÿì ïî áåðåãàì âîäîõðàíèëèù. Þæíàÿ ãðàíèöà ñïëîøíîãî àðåàëà â Ïîâîëæüå èäåò ïî äîëèíå ð. Âîëãè äî óñòüÿ Êàìû, äàëåå ïî íèæíåìó òå÷åíèþ Êàìû è Áåëîé, òî åñòü ìåæäó 55 è 56 ñ.ø., çàòåì â îáëàñòè Óðàëüñêèõ ãîð ñïóñêàåòñÿ êðóòî ê þãó äî 51,50 ñ.ø., â Çàóðàëüå – ïî ãðàíèöå þæíîé è ñåâåðíîé ëåñîñòåïè ìåæäó 54 è 55 ñ.ø. Þæíåå î÷åð÷åííîé ãðàíèöû èçâåñòíû ñëó÷àè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ îòäåëüíûõ ïàð è èçîëÿòû íà Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêå (Ñàìàðñêàÿ îáëàñòü) è Èðèêëèíñêîì âîäîõðàíèëèùå (Îðåíáóðãñêàÿ îáëàñòü). Çîíó ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ðåãèîíàëüíîé ïîïóëÿöèè ìîæíî óñëîâíî ðàçäåëèòü íà 4 ÷à-

ñòè – òàåæíóþ Âîëæñêî-Êàìñêóþ, Óðàëüñêóþ ãîðíóþ, Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêóþ ëåñîñòåïíóþ è Çàóðàëüñêóþ ñòåïíóþ. Íåñîìíåííî, ÿäðî ðåãèîíàëüíîé ïîïóëÿöèè âèäà ñîñðåäîòî÷åíî â ãîðíîé ÷àñòè Óðàëà, ãäå â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ èçâåñòíî 72,12% ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñàïñàíîâ. Çäåñü ñàïñàíû ãíåçäÿòñÿ èñêëþ÷èòåëüíî íà ñêàëàõ ïî áåðåãàì ðåê, ïðîðåçàþùèõ çàïàäíûé ìàêðîñêëîí Óðàëüñêèõ ãîð, ïðåäãîðíûå ïëàòî (Çèëàèðñêîå, Óôèìñêîå) è êðÿæè (Ñûëâèíñêèé). Íà âîñòî÷íîì ìàêðîñêëîíå Þæíîãî Óðàëà îòäåëüíûå ïàðû ãíåçäÿòñÿ ïî áåðåãàì îçåð, îïÿòü òàêè íà ñêàëàõ. Ê ýòîé æå ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêå ìû îòíîñèì ñàïñàíîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà ñêàëàõ ïî áåðåãàì ðåê îñòðîâíîé ëåñîñòåïè âîñòî÷íîãî Ïðåäóðàëüÿ. Óðàëüñêàÿ ãîðíàÿ ãíåçäîâàÿ ãðóïïèðîâêà ñàïñàíîâ â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ÿâëÿåòñÿ íàèáîëåå ïðîöâåòàþùåé.  ïîñëåäíèå 10 ëåò çäåñü èäåò èíòåíñèâíûé ðîñò ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè, êîòîðûé ïðèâåë êàê ìèíèìóì ê 4-õ êðàòíîìó åå óâåëè÷åíèþ.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó ãíåçäàìè ðàçíûõ ïàð (n=323) âàðüèðóåò îò 0,7 äî 69,2 êì, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì 9,07 êì (òàáë. 3). Ëåñîñòåïíàÿ Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêàÿ ãíåçäîâàÿ ãðóïïèðîâêà, ïî-âèäèìîìó, ñèëüíî ïîñò-


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1

10

11

Òàáë. 2. ×èñëåííîñòü ñàïñàíà â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå. Íóìåðàöèÿ ðåãèîíîâ ñîîòâåòñòâóåò òàêîâîé â òàáëèöå1 (íîìåðà ìîäåëüíûõ ðåãèîíîâ âûäåëåíû æèðíûì øðèôòîì). Äàííûå àâòîðîâ îáîçíà÷åíû áóêâàìè: Ñ.Â. Áàêêà – ÁÑÂ, Î.Â.Áîðîäèí – ÁÎÂ, Å.Â. Âàñèëüå⠖ ÂÅÂ, È.Â. Êàðÿêèí – ÊÈÂ, À.Ñ.Ïàæåíêî⠖ ÏÀÑ.

12

Îöåíêà Àâòîðû ÷èñëåííîñòè ñ Îöåíêà êàäàñòðîâîãî ÷èñëåííîñòè ó÷åòîì åå ðîñòà ìàòåðèàëà ïî (â ïàðàõ) (â ïàðàõ) ãíåçäîâûì Estimated Estimated numbers with ó÷àñòêàì ñàïñàíà numbers with out increasing increasing number Authors of (pairs) scientific materials number (pairs)

12** 33*** 178*** 57*** 36*** 5** 398*** 24*** 6**

12** 5*

47

Table 2. Number of the Peregrine in the Volgo-Ural region. Numbers are similar ones in the table.1 (numbers of the model regions are bold). Autors: S.V. Bakka – ÁÑÂ, O.V. Borodin – ÁÎÂ, E.V. Vasiliev – ÂÅÂ, I.V. Karyakin – ÊÈÂ, A.S. Pazhenkov – ÏÀÑ.

12** ÊÈÂ 43*** ÂÅÂ, ÊÈÂ, ÁÑÂ 249*** ÊÈÂ 85*** ÊÈÂ 43*** ÊÈÂ 5** ÊÈÂ 478*** ÊÈÂ 27*** ÂÅÂ, ÊÈÂ 6** ÊÈÂ Äàííûõ íåò Äàííûõ íåò Äàííûõ íåò 12** ÁÑÂ ÁÎÂ 5* ÊÈÂ, ÏÀÑ

766

964 Ïòåíöû ñàïñàíà â ãíåçäå íà ð.Óðþê (Áàøêèðèÿ). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà

726

Chicks of the Peregrine Falcon in the nest on the Uryuk River (Republic of Bashkortostan). Photo by I. Karyakin

924



ðàäàëà â ïåðèîä ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè âèäà è äî ñèõ ïîð íå îïðàâèëàñü. Çäåñü èçâåñòíî 4,42% ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñàïñàíîâ, ñèëüíî ðàññðåäîòî÷åííûõ ïî òåððèòîðèè. Áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü èçâåñòíûõ ïàð (72,7% ïðè n=11) ãíåçäèòñÿ ïî ñêàëüíûì îáíàæåíèÿì. Íà ñêàëàõ ð. Áåëîé ñàïñàíû ãíåçäÿòñÿ ñ ïëîòíîñòüþ, àíàëîãè÷íîé óðàëüñêîé. Îäíàêî, ïî ìåðå ïðîäâèæåíèÿ âíèç ïî ðåêå ÷èñëåííîñòü ñîêîëà ïàäàåò, è â íèæíåì òå÷åíèè íàáëþäàþòñÿ åäèíè÷íûå ïàðû.  ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ýòî ñâÿçàíî ñ èñ÷åçíîâåíèåì ïðèðå÷íûõ ñêàë. Ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîâûõ áèîòîïîâ â íèæíåì òå÷åíèè

Áåëîé ñîêðàùàåòñÿ, õîòÿ ïëîùàäü îõîòíè÷üèõ áèîòîïîâ, çà ñ÷åò ðàñøèðåíèÿ ïîéìû, óâåëè÷èâàåòñÿ.  óñòüåâîì ó÷àñòêå Áåëîé ãíåçäîâàíèå 1 ïàðû ñàïñàíîâ áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî â ïîñòðîéêå îðëàíà (Haliaeetus albicilla) íà òîïîëå ñðåäè çàòîïëåííîãî ëåñà â Áåëüñêîì îòðîãå Íèæíåêàìñêîãî âîäîõðàíèëèùà. Ïîñëå òîãî êàê, ïî ìåðå ïîäúåìà óðîâíÿ âîäîõðàíèëèùà, äåðåâüÿ ïîäãíèëè è óïàëè, âêëþ÷àÿ ãíåçäîâîå äåðåâî, è âñïëûëè çàòîïëåííûå òîðôÿíèêè, îáðàçîâàâ ñïëàâèíû, ñàïñàíû (ñêîðåå âñåãî ýòà æå ïàðà) çàãíåçäèëèñü íà òîðôÿíîì îñòðîâå â 2-õ

Òàáë. 3. Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó áëèæàéøèìè ñîñåäíèìè ãíåçäàìè ñàïñàíîâ â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå. Íóìåðàöèÿ ðåãèîíîâ ñîîòâåòñòâóåò òàêîâîé â òàáëèöå1. Table 3. Distance between neighbors (km) of the Peregrine in the Volgo-Ural region. Numbers are similar ones in the table.1. Ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó áëèæàéøèìè ñîñåäÿìè (â êì) Distance between neighbors (km)

Âîëæñêî-Êàìñêàÿ òàéãà Volgo-Kama taiga 1

2

8

Âñåãî 3 Total

Óðàëüñêèå ãîðû Ural mountains 3

4

5

Âñåãî 7 Total

Ëåñîñòåïíîå Ïðåäóðàëüå Volgo-Ural forest-steppe 7

9

Ñòåïíîå Ðåãèîí Çàóðàëüå â öåëîì Steppe region Total Âñåãî behind Ural in region 15 Total mountains

Ìèíèìàëüíîå Minimum 3,85 10,40 7,91 5,42 3,85 2,33 3,40 1,75 0,70 0,70 6,54 20,09 6,16 6,16 Ìàêñèìàëüíîå 67,10 127,02 63,88 94,86 127,02 69,25 23,19 58,41 47,50 69,25 86,05 90,07 26,12 90,07 Maximum Ñðåäíåå Median 25,64 41,12 31,59 26,85 30,57 23,20 10,80 11,90 5,53 9,07 34,05 48,52 15,27 33,33 Êîëè÷åñòâî ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ Known breeding territories 4 21 14 58 97 48 28 23 224 323 12 3 3 18



18,16

0,70

37,71

127,02

26,12

14,90

3

441


48

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1 êì îò ïðåäûäóùåãî ãíåçäà. Èçâåñòåí òàêæå ñëó÷àé íàõîæäåíèÿ ãíåçäà ñàïñàíîâ â ïîñòðîéêå ñåðîé öàïëè (Ardea cinerea) íà òîïîëå â çîíå ïîäòîïëåíèÿ (ñîêîëû ãíåçäèëèñü ñðåäè êðóïíîé êîëîíèè öàïåëü). Ïî äîëèíå Êàìû, êàê çàðåãóëèðîâàííîé Íèæíåêàìñêèì âîäîõðàíèëèùåì, òàê è â íåçàðåãóëèðîâàííîé ÷àñòè ðåêè, ñàïñàíû íàáëþäàëèñü â àíàëîãè÷íûõ Áåëüñêèì óñëîâèÿõ, íî íàéòè ãíåçäà íå óäàëîñü. Íà þãå Òàòàðèè è â Óëüÿíîâñêîé îáëàñòè èìåþòñÿ êàê çàòîïëåííûå ó÷àñòêè ëåñà è çàòàïëèâàåìûå òàëûìè âîäàìè îñòðîâà, òàê è áåðåãîâûå îáíàæåíèÿ ìàòåðèíñêèõ ïîðîä, îäíàêî ñàïñàí çäåñü íå îáíàðóæåí. Âîçìîæíî, ÷òî ýòî ñâÿçàíî ñ íèçêèì óðîâíåì îáñëåäîâàííîñòè äàííîé òåððèòîðèè íà ïðåäìåò âûÿâëåíèÿ ñàïñàíà. Þæíåå, â Ñàìàðñêîé îáëàñòè, èìååòñÿ èçîëÿò âèäà íà Ñàìàðñêîé Ëóêå, ãäå ñîêîëû ãíåçäÿòñÿ íà ñêàëàõ Æèãóëåâñêèõ ãîð, ïðè÷åì êðàéíå íåðåãóëÿðíî íà 4-õ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ. Âîçìîæíî, ÷òî íà äàííîé

Ñëåòêè ñàïñàíà áëèç ãíåçäà íà ð.Óðþê (Áàøêèðèÿ). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Fledglings of the Peregrine Falcon near the nest on the Uryuk River (Republic of Bashkortostan). Photo by I. Karyakin

òåððèòîðèè ñàïñàí èñ÷åçàë íà âðåìÿ äåïðåññèè, î ÷åì ñâèäåòåëüñòâóþò ìíîãî÷èñëåííûå ñëîè ñòàðûõ ãíåçä, à â 90-õ ãã. ÕÕ ñòîëåòèÿ ñíîâà ïîÿâèëñÿ, è ñåé÷àñ ýòà ãðóïïèðîâêà âîññòàíàâëèâàåòñÿ. Ñ 90-õ ãã. ñàïñàíû ðåãóëÿðíî ðåãèñòðèðóþòñÿ íà îç. Àñëèêóëü â Áàøêèðñêîì Ïðåäóðàëüå, îäíàêî ãíåçäà ñîêîëîâ çäåñü äî ñèõ ïîð íå îáíàðóæåíî, õîòÿ âåñüìà âåðîÿòíî åãî íàõîæäåíèå íà ñêàëàõ þæíîãî ïîáåðåæüÿ. Ñâîåîáðàçíûì èçîëÿòîì âèäà ÿâëÿåòñÿ ãðóïïèðîâêà ñàïñàíîâ íà Èðèêëèíñêîì âîäîõðàíèëèùå â Ñòåïíîì Çàóðàëüå. Íèã-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ äå áîëåå â ñòåïíûõ ðàéîíàõ ýòîò ñîêîë íàìè íå âñòðå÷åí íà ãíåçäîâàíèè. Íà íàø âçãëÿä, ïîÿâëåíèå ñàïñàíà â ñòåïíîé çîíå èìåííî â äàííîì ðàéîíå ÿâëåíèå íîâîå, ñâÿçàííîå ñ äâóìÿ ïðîöåññàìè – îáðàçîâàíèåì âîäîõðàíèëèùà è ðàññåëåíèåì âèäà èç ãîðíûõ ðàéîíîâ, ëåæàùèõ â 60-70 êì ê ñåâåðî-çàïàäó. Âîäîõðàíèëèùå ïðèâåëî ê ïåðåñòðîéêå ôàóíèñòè÷åñêîãî êîìïëåêñà ñòåïíîé äîëèíû ð. Óðàë. Çäåñü ïîÿâèëèñü â áîëüøîì êîëè÷åñòâå óòêè è êóëèêè, ÷òî ñóùåñòâåííî óëó÷øèëî êîðìîâóþ áàçó ñàïñàíà. Íàëè÷èå ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé ñïîñîáñòâîâàëî ðàññåëåíèþ ïòèö èç ãîðíûõ ðàéîíîâ, ãäå ñîêîëû ãíåçäÿòñÿ â áëèçêèõ ïî ñâîèì õàðàêòåðèñòèêàì óñëîâèÿõ. Íà Èðèêëèíñêîì âîäîõðàíèëèùå áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî ãíåçäîâàíèå 4-õ ïàð. Îäíàêî, ïðîöåññ âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ áàëîáàíà (Falco cherrug), êîòîðûé íà÷àëñÿ 10-þ ãîäàìè ïîçæå ïðîöåññà âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ ñàïñàíà è ïðèøåëñÿ íà íà÷àëî ÕÕI ñòîëåòèÿ, óæå ÿâèëñÿ ïðè÷èíîé âûòåñíåíèÿ 2-õ ïàð ñàïñàíîâ ñ ïðåæíèõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ.  2002 ã. íà äàííîé òåððèòîðèè èç ÷åòûðåõ ïàð ñàïñàíîâ óñïåøíî ðàçìíîæàëèñü ëèøü 2 ïàðû, à íà ó÷àñòêàõ äâóõ äðóãèõ ïàð íàáëþäàëèñü îäèíî÷íûå áàëîáàíû. Âòîðîé ïî ÷èñëåííîñòè ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêîé ñàïñàíîâ ÿâëÿåòñÿ òàê íàçûâàåìàÿ òàåæíàÿ Âîëæñêî-Êàìñêàÿ. Äàííàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ íàèáîëåå îáøèðíàÿ â ðåãèîíå.  òî æå âðåìÿ çäåñü èçâåñòíî ëèøü 22,57% ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, ïðè÷åì áîëüøàÿ èõ ÷àñòü íå ïîäêðåïëåíà íàõîäêàìè ãíåçä. Îñíîâíàÿ ìàññà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ äàííîé ãðóïïèðîâêè ëîêàëèçîâàíà ïî áåñïîêîÿùèìñÿ âçðîñëûì ïòèöàì è ñëåòêàì.  ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ýòî ñâÿçàíî ñ òðóäíîñòüþ ïîèñêà ãíåçä, òàê êàê ó÷àñòêè ïðèóðî÷åíû ê îáøèðíûì ìàññèâàì áîëîò ðàçëè÷íîãî òèïà, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ñôàãíîâûõ âåðõîâûõ ñåâåðíîãî òèïà. Èç èçâåñòíûõ ãíåçä (n=37) 54,1% ðàñïîëàãàëèñü íà ìîõîâûõ êî÷êàõ è ãðèâàõ ñðåäè áîëîò, 27,0% â ïîñòðîéêàõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íà ñîñíàõ (3 – â ïîñòðîéêàõ êîðøóíà (Milvus migrans) è 2 – â ïîñòðîéêàõ îðëàíà-áåëîõâîñòà) è ãåîäåçè÷åñêèõ âûøêàõ (2 – â ïîñòðîéêàõ âîðîíà (Corvus corax) è 1 – â ïîñòðîéêå áåðêóòà (Aquila chrysaetos)) è 8,1% – íà ðå÷íûõ îáðûâàõ. Èçâåñòíû îäèíî÷íûå ñëó÷àè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ íà âåðøèíå äàìáû ñðåäè ñòàðîé òîðôîðàçðàáîòêè, âûâîðî÷åííîì êîìëå äåðåâà ñðåäè çàáîëî÷åííîé âûðóáêè, êó÷å ïëàâíèêà íà ñïëàâèííîì áåðåãó âîäîõðàíèëèùà, çàäåðíîâàííîé êðûøå ñòàðîãî ëàáàçà. Âñå ñëó÷àè íåòèïè÷íîãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ñîñòàâëÿþò


Raptors Research

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1

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Òàáë. 4. Ìåñòà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãíåçä ñàïñàíà â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå Table 4. Locations of nests by the Peregrine in the Volgo-Ural region

Ðåãèîí The breeding populations locations Âîëæñêî-Êàìñêàÿ òàéãà Volgo-Kama taiga Óðàëüñêèå ãîðû Ural mountains Ñòåïíîå Çàóðàëüå Steppe region behind Ural mountains Ëåñîñòåïíîå Ïðåäóðàëüå Volgo-Ural forest-steppe Âñåãî Total Äîëÿ (â %) Proportion (%)

Áîëîòà Ðå÷íûå îáðûâû  ïîñòðîéêàõ ïòèö íà: Bogs Cliffs In nests of birds on:

Âåðõíÿÿ òðåòü Upper part Öåíòð Center Íèæíÿÿ òðåòü Lower part Âåðøèíà Top Âñåãî Total Êî÷êà Hummock Ãðèâà Range Âñåãî Total Âåðøèíà Top Íèøà Niche Âñåãî Total Äåðåâüÿ Trees Âûøêè Geodetic triangles Ñêàëû Rocks Âñåãî Total

Ñêàëû Rocks

0 193

39

2

1

5

2

200

42

7

3

20

2

1

3

7

3 242

0

0

3

0

0

8

0

0

2

3

9

1 7

17

4 253 85,76

17

3

20

2

6,78

1

3 2

1,02

3

2

Äîëÿ Èíîé (â %) Proporòèï Other Âñåãî tion type Total (%)

10

4

37 12,54

2

0

244 82,71

0

0

3

1,02

2

1

11

3,73

14

5

295

100

4,75

1,69

100

 10,8%. Âîçìîæíî, íà äåðåâüÿõ â ïîñòðîéêàõ õèùíèêîâ ãíåçäèòñÿ áîëüøåå êîëè÷åñòâî ïàð, íî èõ ãíåçäà âûÿâëÿþòñÿ òðóäíåå, ïîýòîìó èõ ïðîöåíò â îáùåé âûáîðêå íåâûñîê. ×èñëåííîñòü ñàïñàíà äàííîé ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè ðàñòåò, îäíàêî, ñ ìåíüøåé èíòåíñèâíîñòüþ, ÷åì â ãîðíûõ ðàéîíàõ Óðàëà. Ìîæíî ïðåäïîëàãàòü óâåëè÷åíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè çà ïîñëåäíèå 10 ëåò â 2 ðàçà.  öåëîì ïî ðåãèîíó àáñîëþòíî äîìèíèðóåò ñòåðåîòèï ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ñàïñàíà íà ïðèðå÷íûõ ñêàëàõ (n=295) – 85,76% (òàáë. 4). Äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëû èñïîëüçóþò (n=253) ÷àùå âñåãî íèøè – 86,6%, ðåæå ïîëêè, îòêðûòûå ñâåðõó, – 9,9% è ïîëóíèøû (óñòóïû, çàùèùåííûå ñâåðõó íàâåñàìè) – 2,0% è åùå ðåæå ãíåçäÿòñÿ íà âåðøèíàõ ñêàë – 1,6%. ×àñòî äëÿ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ âûáèðàþòñÿ íèøè, èñïîëüçîâàâøèåñÿ ðàíåå ôèëèíàìè (Bubo bubo) – 30,4%. Äâàæäû íàáëþäàëîñü ãíåçäîâàíèå â ïîñòðîéêàõ âîðîíà íà óñòóïàõ ñêàë, íî â îáîèõ ñëó÷àÿõ ïîñòðîéêè áûëè ñòàðûå, ñèëüíî ðàçðóøåííûå è ïîêðûòû ñëîåì îñûïàâøåãîñÿ ãðóíòà. Ïðè ãíåçäîâàíèè íà äåðåâüÿõ (n=9) âûñîòà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãíåçä âàðüèðóåò îò 10 äî 25 ì , ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì 17,6 ì, ïðè ãíåçäîâàíèè íà ñêàëàõ (n=255) – îò 3 äî 170 ì, ñîñòàâëÿÿ â ñðåäíåì 51,0 ì. Áîëüøèíñòâî ãíåçä (79,21%) ðàñïîëàãàþòñÿ â âåðõíåé òðåòè ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé.

Ôåíîëîãèÿ Ñàïñàí â ðàññìàòðèâàåìîì ðåãèîíå ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïåðåëåòíûì, õîòÿ îòäåëüíûå ïòèöû âñòðå÷àþòñÿ è â çèìíèé ïåðèîä, ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî áëèç íàñåëåííûõ ïóíêòîâ. Îäíàêî ýòî ÿâëåíèå íîñèò ñëó÷àéíûé õàðàêòåð. Íà þãå ðåãèîíà ïåðâûå ïòèöû ïîÿâëÿþòñÿ óæå â íà÷àëå ìàðòà. Ñ 20 ìàðòà ïî 10 àïðåëÿ íàáëþäàåòñÿ ìàññîâîå ïîÿâëåíèå ñîêîëîâ íà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ. Ïðîëåò èäåò âïëîòü äî ñåðåäèíû ìàÿ, îäíàêî íå íîñèò ìàññîâîãî õàðàêòåðà.  ýòî âðåìÿ ðåãèñòðèðóþòñÿ îäèíî÷íûå ïòèöû òóíäðîâîãî ïîäâèäà (F. p. calidus), ïðèäåðæèâàþùèåñÿ êðóïíûõ âîäíî-áîëîòíûõ êîìïëåêñîâ. Îòêëàäêà ÿèö íàáëþäàåòñÿ ñ 1 àïðåëÿ ïî 26 ìàÿ. Åå ñðîêè ðàñòÿíóòû áîëåå ÷åì íà 1,5 ìåñÿöà, îäíàêî, ìàññîâîå ïîÿâëåíèå êëàäîê â ðåãèîíå ïðîèñõîäèò â äîâîëüíî ñæàòûå ñðîêè – ñ 5 ïî 25 àïðåëÿ (òàáë. 5, ðèñ. 4). Âîçâðàò õîëîäîâ è ìàéñêèå ñíåãîïàäû ìîãóò ñäâèíóòü íà 5-10 äíåé îáùèå ñðîêè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ. Îäíàêî, êàê ïðàâèëî, îíè óâåëè÷èâàþò ðàçðûâ ìåæäó ñðîêàìè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ðàçíûõ ïàð. Çàìåòíî îòñòàâàíèå íà 1-2 íåäåëè â ñðîêàõ ÿéöåêëàäêè ó ïòèö, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â ðàâíèííûõ ðàéîíàõ íà áîëîòàõ, îò ñîêîëîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ íà ñêàëàõ, íåñìîòðÿ íà òî, ÷òî ïîñëåäíèå ðàçìíîæàþòñÿ â áîëåå ñóðîâûõ óñëîâèÿõ. Õîä âåñíû âëèÿåò íà ñðîêè ðàç-


50

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

ìíîæåíèÿ ñàïñàíîâ, îäíàêî â öåëîì ïî ðåãèîíó îíè ìàëî âàðüèðóþò ïî ãîäàì. Ïòåíöû âûëóïëÿþòñÿ ñ 4 ìàÿ ïî 28 èþíÿ, â ìàññå – 8 – 28 ìàÿ, à âñòàþò íà êðûëî 13 èþíÿ – 7 àâãóñòà, â ìàññå – 17 èþíÿ – 7 èþëÿ.  ãîðíûõ ðàéîíàõ Óðàëà ê 25 èþíÿ âûëåòàåò 57,89% ìîëîäûõ, ïðè÷åì áîëüøàÿ ÷àñòü ïîñëå 20 èþíÿ.

Ðàçìíîæåíèå  êëàäêå ñàïñàíà (n=17) 1-4 ÿéöà, â ñðåäíåì 2,94 ÿéöà.  âûâîäêå (n=58) – 1-4 ïòåíöà, â ñðåäíåì 2,69. Íà êðûëî âñòàþò (n=221) òàêæå îò 1 äî 4-õ ìîëîäûõ, â ñðåäíåì 2,38 ñëåòêà íà óñïåøíîå ãíåçäî (òàáë. 6). Âîçìîæíî, ñðåäíèå ïîêàçàòåëè êëàäêè è ëåòíîãî âûâîäêà çàíèæåíû, òàê êàê â àíàëèçå ôèãóðèðóþò ïîãèáøèå êëàäêè è ïîçäíèå âûâîäêè, èç êîòîðûõ íåêîòîðûå ïòåíöû óæå ïîêèíóëè ó÷àñòêè.  ÷àñòíîñòè íà Êàìñêîì ñòàöèîíàðå, ãäå çà äâóìÿ ïàðàìè ñàïñàíîâ íàáëþäåíèÿ âåëèñü ðåãóëÿðíî, âûëåòàëî (n=23) â ñðåäíåì 2,83 ñëåòêà íà óñïåøíîå ãíåçäî (òàáë. 7). Ðèñ. 4. Ñðîêè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ñàïñàíà â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå Fig. 4. Times of breeding the Peregrine in the Volgo-Ural region

Ïîñëå âûëåòà ñàïñàíû â òå÷åíèè 2-õ íåäåëü äîêàðìëèâàþò ìîëîäûõ íà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ, çàòåì ñòðàòåãèÿ ðàçíûõ ïàð ìåíÿåòñÿ. Ñîêîëû, ãíåçäÿùèåñÿ â ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâàõ íåáîëüøèõ ðåê Þæíîãî Óðàëà, ïåðåìåùàþòñÿ íà âîäíî-áîëîòíûå êîìïëåêñû â ñòåïíûå è ëåñîñòåïíûå ðàéîíû. Ñâÿçàíî ýòî, â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü, ñ èñ÷åçíîâåíèåì êîðìîâîé áàçû (óòêè ïåðåìåùàþòñÿ íà êðóïíûå ðàâíèííûå âîäîåìû, âðàíîâûå è ãîëóáè – ê ôåðìàì â ïîëîñå ïðåäãîðèé). Ñ ïåðâûõ ÷èñåë àâãóñòà ÷èñëåííîñòü ñîêîëîâ íà ìåñòàõ ãíåçäîâàíèÿ çäåñü íåóêëîííî ïàäàåò, è ê êîíöó ìåñÿöà îñòàþòñÿ ëèøü îòäåëüíûå îñîáè, â îñíîâíîì â ñêàëüíûõ ìàññèâàõ êðóïíûõ ðåê. Äðóãàÿ ñèòóàöèÿ ñêëàäûâàåòñÿ íà êðóïíûõ ðåêàõ – çäåñü ñàïñàíû äåðæàòñÿ íà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ âïëîòü äî îòëåòà. Ñîêîëû, ãíåçäÿùèåñÿ íà áîëîòàõ, ïîñëå âûëåòà ìîëîäûõ â áîëüøèíñòâå ñëó÷àåâ äåðæàòñÿ â ïðåäåëàõ ó÷àñòêà, îäíàêî ïëîùàäü, íà êîòîðîé îíè îõîòÿòñÿ, çíà÷èòåëüíî âîçðàñòàåò. Çäåñü îïðåäåëÿþùèì ôàêòîðîì ÿâëÿåòñÿ íàëè÷èå óòîê è ÷àåê íà îòêðûòûõ âîäîåìàõ ñðåäè áîëîò. Ïðè èõ îòñóòñòâèè ñîêîëû ïåðåìåùàþòñÿ â áëèæàéøèå ïîéìû êðóïíûõ ðåê. Îòëåò ïðîèñõîäèò ïîñòåïåííî ñ êîíöà àâãóñòà. Ê êîíöó ñåíòÿáðÿ ìåñòíûå ïòèöû ïîêèäàþò ïðåäåëû ðåãèîíà. Îêòÿáðüñêèå âñòðå÷è ðåäêè è îòíîñÿòñÿ â îñíîâíîì ê òóíäðîâûì ñàïñàíàì.

Îáñóæäåíèå Î ñàïñàíå â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå èçâåñòíî äàâíî. Ý. Ýâåðñìàí (1866) ïèñàë î òîì, ÷òî ñàïñàí âñòðå÷àåòñÿ â ðåãèîíå Òàáë. 5. Ñðîêè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ñàïñàíà â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå Table 5. Times of breeding the Peregrine in the Volgo-Ural region

Äàòû ðàçìíîæåíèÿ / Times of breeding Ðåãèîí The breeding populations locations Âîëæñêî-Êàìñêàÿ òàéãà Volgo-Kama taiga Óðàëüñêèå ãîðû Ural mountains Ñòåïíîå Çàóðàëüå Steppe region behind Ural mountains Ëåñîñòåïíîå Ïðåäóðàëüå Volgo-Ural forest-steppe Âñåãî ïî ðåãèîíó Total



Îòêëàäêà ÿèö Clutching eggs

Âûëóïëåíèå ïòåíöîâ Hatching chicks

Âûëåò ïòåíöîâ Âñåãî ñëó÷àåâ Fledging juveniles ðàçìíîæåíèÿ Total number of Ðàííèå Ïîçäíèå Ñðåäíèå Ðàííèå Ïîçäíèå Ñðåäíèå Ðàííèå Ïîçäíèå Ñðåäíèå registered Earliest Latest Average Earliest Latest Average Earliest Latest Average breeding 09.04

20.05

28.04

12.05

22.06

31.05

21.06

01.08

10.07

35

01.04

26.05

15.04

04.05

28.06

18.05

13.06

07.08

27.07

209

01.04

04.04

02.04

04.05

07.05

05.05

13.06

16.06

14.06

7

02.04

05.05

09.04

05.05

07.06

12.05

14.06

17.07

21.06

12

01.04

26.05

16.04

04.05

28.06

19.05

13.06

07.08

28.06

263


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51

Òàáë. 6. Äàííûå ïî ðàçìíîæåíèþ ñàïñàíà â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå

Âîëæñêî-Êàìñêàÿ òàéãà Volgo-Kama taiga Óðàëüñêèå ãîðû Ural mountains Ñòåïíîå Çàóðàëüå Steppe region behind Ural mountains Ëåñîñòåïíîå Ïðåäóðàëüå Steppe region behind Ural mountains Âñåãî ïî ðåãèîíó Total in the region Ñðåäíåå ± ñòàíä. îòêë. Average ± SD



1*

2*

3*

2

2

3

4

4

4

1

4

1 5

1

2

15

44

1

1

4

7

17

50

2,94±1,09

7

7

2

3

4

1

2

1

10

25

5

2

2

1

2

12

31

1** 2**

4

8

3

4

Âñåãî ñëó÷àåâ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ Number of all registered breeding Äîëÿ (â %) Proportion (%)

Âñåãî ëåòíûõ âûâîäêîâ Number of all fledgling broods Âñåãî ñëåòêîâ Number of all fledglings

Ó÷àñòêè ñî ñëåòêàìè (ïî êîë-âó ñëåòêîâ) Number of fledglings in an breeding area

Âñåãî âûâîäêîâ Number of all broods Âñåãî ïòåíöîâ Number of all chicks

Ãíåçäà ñ ïòåíöàìè (ïî êîë-âó ïòåíöîâ) Number of chicks in a nest

Âñåãî êëàäîê Number of all clutches Âñåãî ÿèö Number of all eggs

Ïðèðîäíûé ðàéîí The breeding populations locations

Ãíåçäà ñ êëàäêàìè (ïî êîë-âó ÿèö) Number of eggs in a clutch

Table 6. The data on breeding of the Peregrine in the Volga-Ural region

12

3

5

17

8

33

96

38 12,84

47 122

37

71

53

16

177

402

239 80,74

2

1

3

10

7

2,36

4

14

3

8

2

3

2

1

8

18

12

4,05

58 156

42

79

74

26

221

526

296

100

2,69±0,86

2,38±0,92

100

* – âêëþ÷àÿ ãíåçäà ñ ïîãèáøèìè êëàäêàìè / with nests with dead clutches ** – âêëþ÷àÿ ïîçäíèå âûâîäêè / with late broods

ïîâñåìåñòíî, ãíåçäèòñÿ íà èçâåñòêîâûõ îáíàæåíèÿõ ïî Êàìå è Âîëãå. Ì. Áîãäàíîâ (1871) ñ÷èòàë ýòîãî ñîêîëà íåðåäêèì â Êàçàíñêîé è Ñèìáèðñêîé ãóáåðíèÿõ, ãíåçäÿùèìñÿ ïî êàìåíèñòûì îáðûâàì ðåê. Ë.Ï. Ñàáàíååâ (1874) ïèñàë, ÷òî ñàïñàí ðàñïðîñòðàíåí ïî âñåé òåððèòîðèè Ïåðìñêîé îáëàñòè, íî íà ñåâåðå âñòðå÷àåòñÿ çàìåòíî ðåæå. Ì.Ä. Ðóçñêèé (1893) îòíåñ ñàïñàíà ê ÷èñëó ðåäêèõ ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïòèö Êàçàíñêîé ãóáåðíèè; ãíåçäà ýòîãî ñîêîëà àâòîðó áûëè èçâåñòíû ëèøü â ëåñàõ ×èñòîïîëüñêîãî è Ìàìàäûøñêîãî óåçäîâ. Ï.Ï. Ñóøêèí (1897) íàáëþäàë ñàïñàíà â Áàøêèðèè ïîâñþäó, ãäå èìåëèñü ñêàëüíûå îáíàæåíèÿ, à ìàêñèìàëüíîé ÷èñëåííîñòè, ïî åãî äàííûì, ýòîò ñîêîë äîñòèãàë â âîñòî÷íîé ÷àñòè Áàøêèðèè â ãîðàõ Þæíîãî Óðàëà. Ñ.Ë. Óøêîâ (1927) îòìå÷àë ñàïñàíà, êàê âèä, øèðîêî ðàñïðîñòðàíåííûé è íåðåäêèé â Ïðèêàìüå, íàáëþäàë ãíåçäîâàíèå íà ðåêàõ Êàìå, Óñüâå, Âèëüâå è ×óñîâîé.  20-õ ãã. ãíåçäîâàíèå ñàïñàíà îòìå÷àëîñü â òå÷åíèå ðÿäà ëåò íà Áîãîÿâëåíñêîé êîëîêîëüíå â öåíòðå ã. Êàçàíè, à òàêæå â Ðàèôñêîì ëåñó, ãäå ñîêîëû ãíåçäèëèñü â ïîñòðîéêàõ âîðîíà íà ñîñíàõ (Ïåðøàêîâ, 1929). Å.Ì. Âîðîíöîâ (1949) íàøåë ñàïñàíà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè âåçäå, ãäå åñòü ñêàëû ïî ðåêàì ×óñîâàÿ, Ñûëâà, Óñüâà â Ïåðìñêîé îáëàñòè. Îí æå (1967) îòíåñ ñàïñàíà

ê ÷èñëó äîâîëüíî ðåäêèõ ïòèö Ãîðüêîâñêîé îáëàñòè, ãíåçäîâàíèå êîòîðîãî áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî ëèøü ó áèîñòàíöèè Ãîðüêîâñêîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà â 1951 è 1953 ãã. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, êàðòèíà ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ ñàïñàíà â ðåãèîíå â êîíöå ÕIX – íà÷àëå ÕÕ ñòîëåòèé èäåíòè÷íà òîé, êîòîðàÿ îïèñàíà â äàííîé ðàáîòå – âèä âñòðå÷àåòñÿ ïîâñåìåñòíî â ãîðíûõ ðàéîíàõ, ãäå äîñòàòî÷íî îáû÷åí, è ñïîðàäè÷íî â ðàâíèííûõ ðàéîíàõ, ãäå íåìíîãî÷èñëåí è ïðèäåðæèâàåòñÿ êðóïíûõ ðå÷íûõ äîëèí è áîëîòíûõ ìàññèâîâ. Ñèòóàöèÿ ðàäèêàëüíî ïðîòèâîïîëîæíà ïðåæíåé è íàñòîÿùåé ïî äàííûì èññëåäîâàòåëåé 70-80-õ ãã. Í.Ä. Ãðèãîðüåâ ñ ñîàâòîðàìè (1977) íå íàøëè ñàïñàíà â ðåãèîíå, êîíñòàòèðóÿ ôàêò áîëüøîé ðåäêîñòè âèäà. Â.Ä. Èëüè÷åâ è Â.Å. Ôîìèí (1988) îáíàðóæèëè ñàïñàíà êðàéíå ðåäêèì â Áàøêèðèè, ïðåäïîëàãàÿ, ÷òî çäåñü ñîõðàíèëîñü 10 ïàð â ãîðíûõ ðàéîíàõ. À.È. Øåïåëü (1992) íàøåë ëèøü îäíó ãíåçäÿùóþñÿ ïàðó ñàïñàíîâ íà òåððèòîðèè Ïåðìñêîé îáëàñòè â äîëèíå ð. Ñûëâû, à îáùóþ ÷èñëåííîñòü ñîêîëà íà ãíåçäîâàíèè îöåíèë â 13 ïàð, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ñ ïëîòíîñòüþ 0,10 ïàð íà 1000 êì2. Îäíàêî, óæå â íà÷àëå 90-õ ãã. ÕÕ ñòîëåòèÿ â Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå àâòîðîì óñòàíîâëåíî ãíåçäîâàíèå 332 ïàð ñàïñàíà, à îáùàÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü îöåíåíà â 500 ïàð


52

Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Ðèñ. 5. Ðåãèñòðàöèÿ ãíåçä ñ ðàçäàâëåííûìè êëàäêàìè ïî ãîäàì â ÂîëãîÓðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå Fig. 5. Registration of nests with destructed eggs in the Volga-Ural region during 1988-1996

(Êàðÿêèí, 1998). Äàííûå ìàòåðèàëû ñâèäåòåëüñòâóþò î òîòàëüíîì ñîêðàùåíèè ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà â ðåãèîíå â 50-70-õ ãã. ÕÕ ñòîëåòèÿ. Àíàëîãè÷íûé ïðîöåññ íàáëþäàëñÿ è â Çàïàäíîé Åâðîïå (Bauer, 1977; Dyck et al., 1977; Garzon, 1977; Willgons, 1977; Ratcliffe, 1990). Êðàõ ïîïóëÿöèé ñàïñàíà ïðèøåëñÿ, ïî-âèäèìîìó, íà 50-60-å ãîäû, à ñ 70-õ ãã. â Çàïàäíîé Åâðîïå íà÷àëñÿ ïðîöåññ ñòàáèëèçàöèè è âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè (Cade et al., 1988), äîêàòèâøèéñÿ äî Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà ñ ïî÷òè äåñÿòèëåòíèì îïîçäàíèåì. Íåñîìíåííî, îñíîâíîé ïðè÷èíîé ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà â ìàñøòàáàõ âñåãî àðåàëà ÿâèëîñü îòðàâëåíèå îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû õëîðîðãàíè÷åñêèìè ñîåäèíåíèÿìè, â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü ÄÄÒ. Èìåííî ïîñëå çàïðåòà ÄÄÒ ÷èñëåííîñòü ñàïñàíà ñòàëà âîññòàíàâëèâàòüñÿ â Åâðîïå (Ratcliffe, 1990; Cade et al., 1988).  Ðîññèè âûñîêîå ñîäåðæàíèå õëîðîðãàíè÷åñêèõ ñîåäèíåíèé áûëî îáíàðóæåíî â ÿéöàõ ñàïñàíîâ ñ Êîëüñêîãî ïîëóîñòðîâà (Henny, 1994 öèò. ïî Ïîòàïîâ, 1996) è ñ Êîëûìñêîé òóíäðû (Potapov, 1994; Ïîòàïîâ, 1996). Ïðèìå÷àòåëüíî, ÷òî â îáîèõ ñëó÷àÿõ çàðàæåíèå ïåñòèöèäîì èìåëî ìåñòî ñêîðåå âñåãî íà ìåñòàõ çèìîâîê.  Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå ÄÄÒ ïðèìåíÿëîñü ìàññîâî (â òîì ÷èñëå ðàñïûëåíèåì ñ âîçäóõà) â öåëÿõ áîðüáû ñ òàåæíûì êëåùîì – ïåðåíîñ÷èêîì ýíöåôàëèòà, çàáîëåâàíèå êîòîðûì â ðÿäå ðàéîíîâ äîñòèãàëî õàðàêòåðà ýïèäåìèè. Ñîäåðæàíèå ÄÄÒ áûëî óñòàíîâëåíî Ñ.Â. Âàñèëüåâûì (ëè÷íîå ñîîáùåíèå) â ïîãèáøèõ ÿéöàõ ñàïñàíà èç êëàäîê ñ ð. Ñûëâû è ð. ×óñîâîé â ïðåäåëàõ Ïåðìñêîé îáëàñòè. Îáùåèçâåñòíî, ÷òî êðèòåðèåì ïîðàæåíèÿ ÿèö ñîêîëîâ õëîðîðãàíè÷åñêèìè ñîåäèíåíèÿìè ÿâëÿåòñÿ óòîí÷åíèå ñêîðëóïû, â ðåçóëüòàòå ÷åãî ìíîãèå êëàäêè ãèáíóò, áóäó÷è ðàçäàâëåííûìè ñàìêàìè â ïåðèîä èíêóáàöèè.  Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå ãíåç-

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ äà ñàïñàíà ñ ðàçäàâëåííûìè ÿéöàìè íàáëþäàëèñü àâòîðîì ëèøü äî 1994 ã., ïðè÷åì êîëè÷åñòâî èõ ðåãèñòðàöèé çà 7-ëåòíèé ïåðèîä ñîêðàòèëîñü â 6 ðàç (ðèñ. 5), ÷òî êîñâåííî ìîæåò ñëóæèòü î ðåçêîì ñîêðàùåíèè îñîáåé ñ ïðèçíàêàìè îòðàâëåíèÿ õëîðîðãàíè÷åñêèìè ñîåäèíåíèÿìè â ðåãèîíàëüíîé ïîïóëÿöèè. Ðîññèÿ îòêàçàëàñü îò ÄÄÒ ïîçæå, ÷åì Åâðîïà, ÷òî, âåðîÿòíî, è ñêàçàëîñü íà çàïîçäàíèè òåìïîâ âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ ðîññèéñêèõ ïîïóëÿöèé ñàïñàíà. Îäíàêî ïðîöåññ ðîñòà ÷èñëåííîñòè ýòîãî ñîêîëà íà÷àëñÿ è çäåñü, ñîâïàâ ñ êðàõîì ñåëüñêîãî õîçÿéñòâà è õèìè÷åñêîé ïðîìûøëåííîñòè â êîíöå 80-õ – íà÷àëå 90-õ ãã., ÷òî ëèøü óñêîðèëî òåìïû ðîñòà ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà. Íà îñíîâàíèè èçó÷åííûõ äàííûõ ìîæíî ïðîñëåäèòü ñëåäóþùåå ðàçâèòèå ñîáûòèé ïðè âîññòàíîâëåíèè ïîïóëÿöèè â ðåãèîíå. Ñîõðàíèâøèåñÿ â ãîðíûõ ðàéîíàõ Þæíîãî Óðàëà è ìàññèâàõ áîëîò Âîëæñêî-êàìñêîé òàéãè åäèíè÷íûå ïàðû ñàïñàíîâ â 80-õ ãã. äàþò òîë÷îê ðîñòó ÷èñëåííîñòè. Íà÷èíàåòñÿ ðàçðàñòàíèå 2-õ íàèáîëåå êðóïíûõ ðåçåðâàòîâ âèäà â ðåãèîíå – Þæíîóðàëüñêîãî è Âåðõíåêàìñêîãî. Èç ïåðâîãî î÷àãà íà÷èíàþò ðàññåëÿòüñÿ íàñêàëüíîãíåçäÿùèåñÿ ïòèöû, ïîâòîðíî îñâàèâàÿ ïðèðå÷íûå ñêàëüíûå îáíàæåíèÿ Þæíîãî, à çàòåì Ñðåäíåãî è Ñåâåðíîãî Óðàëà. Ó ïòèö ñîõðàíÿåòñÿ æåñòêèé ñòåðåîòèï – ãíåçäîâàíèå íà êðóïíûõ îòâåñíûõ ñêàëàõ, çàêðûòûõ îò ðóñëà ëèáî îáëåñåííûìè îñòðîâàìè, ëèáî ñòàðè÷íûìè óðåìàìè. Ëèøü ñïóñòÿ íåñêîëüêî ëåò ñòåðåîòèï ïîñòåïåííî «ëîìàåòñÿ», è ïòèöû íà÷èíàþò ãíåçäèòüñÿ íà ëþáûõ ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèÿõ. Ïðè óâåëè÷åíèè ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà â åãî ðàñïðåäåëåíèè íà÷èíàåò èãðàòü ñóùåñòâåííóþ ðîëü íàëè÷èå íà ñêàëàõ ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð ôèëèíîâ.  90-õ ãã. èìåííî ôèëèí ñòàíîâèòñÿ îñíîâíûì ôàêòîðîì, ñäåðæèâàþùèì ðîñò ÷èñëåííîñòè íàñêàëüíîãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ñàïñàíîâ.  êîíöå 90-õ ãã. ñàïñàíû íà÷èíàþò îñâàèâàòü ñêàëüíûå îáíàæåíèÿ ïî îáëåñåííûì ëîãàì è íåáîëüøèå âûõîäû ìàòåðèíñêèõ ïîðîä ïî îñòåïíåííûì ñêëîíàì äîëèí â ïîëîñå ïðåäãîðèé, ðàñøèðèâ òåì ñàìûì âäâîå ïëîùàäü ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ áèîòîïîâ. Âîçìîæíî, â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ â ðÿäå ìåñòîîáèòàíèé ÷èñëåííîñòü ñàïñàíîâ ïðåâûñèëà òå ïîðîãè, êîòîðûå áûëè õàðàêòåðíû äëÿ ïîïóëÿöèè â ÕIÕ âåêå. Îäíàêî, ñàïñàí òàê è íå ñòàë ãíåçäèòüñÿ â ãîðîäàõ, õîòÿ ãíåçäèòñÿ íà ïðèðå÷íûõ ñêàëàõ â ãîðîäñêîé ÷åðòå ã. Óôû è ðÿäà äðóãèõ ãîðîäîâ ðåñïóáëèêè Áàøêîðòîñòàí, îõîòÿñü íà ãîëóáåé (Columba livia) è ãàëîê


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Òàáë. 7. Äàííûå ïî ðàçìíîæåíèþ ñàïñàíà íà Êàìñêîì ñòàöèîíàðå (Ïåðìñêàÿ îáëàñòü) Table 7. The data on breeding of the Peregrine in the Kama station (Perm district)

Ïàðà ¹ 16 Pair ¹ 16 Ãîä Year 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Ñðåäíåå ïî óñïåøíûì ãíåçäàì Average on successful nests Ñðåäíåå ïî âñåì ãíåçäàì Average on all nests



Êîë-âî ÿèö * Number of eggs

Ãèáåëü ÿèö (â %) Death of eggs (%)

Ïàðà ¹ 17 Pair ¹ 17

Êîë-âî Ãèáåëü ïòåíïòåíöîâ öîâ (â %) Number of Death of chicks chicks (%)

Êîë-âî Óñïåõ ñëåòêîâ ðàçìíîæåíèÿ Number of Breeding success fledglings

Êîë-âî ñëåòêîâ Number of fledglings

33,33 0 100

2 3

0 0

2 3

66,67 100 0

75 0 0 0 25 0 0 25

1 4 3 4 3 4 4 3

0 25 0 0 0 25 0 0

1 3 3 4 3 3 4 3

25 75 100 100 75 75 100 75

2 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3

3,73

16,83

3,10

6,45

2,90

77,80

2,77

3,42

24,39

2,58

6,45

2,42

70,73

2,77

3 3 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4

Ðàçìíîæåíèå íå íàáëþäàëîñü Pair wasn’t breeding

Ïîãèáëà ñàìêà Female is dead Ïàðà íå ïðèñòóïàëà ê ðàçìíîæåíèþPair wasn’t breeding

* – â ðÿäå ñëó÷àåâ, êîë-âî ÿèö â êëàäêå îñíîâàíî íà êîëè÷åñòâå ïóõîâûõ ïòåíöîâ â ðàííåì âîçðàñòå / in the events when number of eggs were determined on the number of young chicks

Êëàäêà ñàïñàíà â íèøå, ìíîãî ëåò çàíèìàâøåéñÿ ôèëèíîì (Bubo bubo) íà ð. Áåëàÿ (Áàøêèðèÿ). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà Clutch of the Peregrine Falcon in the niche occupied by the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) for many years before (Republic of Bashkortostan). Photo by I. Karyakin

(Corvus monedula) â ãîðîäñêîé ÷åðòå. Èçâåñòíû ïîïûòêè ãíåçäîâàíèÿ ñîêîëîâ â íèøàõ áåòîííûõ ñîîðóæåíèé íà ×àéêîâñêîì ÇÑÊ è Êàìñêîé ÃÝÑ â Ïåðìñêîé îáëàñòè è íà ìåëüçàâîäå â ïðèãîðîäå ã. Åêàòåðèíáóðãà, îäíàêî ïàðû áûëè ðàñôîðìèðîâàíû ïî ïðè÷èíå ãèáåëè îäíîãî èç ïàðòíåðîâ.  äîëèíå ð. ×óñîâîé, ãäå âåëñÿ ìîíèòîðèíã ãíåçäîâèé, ÷èñëåííîñòü ñàïñàíà âûðîñëà áîëåå ÷åì â 10 ðàç.  1987 ã. çäåñü ãíåçäèëàñü 1 ïàðà, â 1993 ã. – óæå 3, â 1995 ã. – 8, â 1997 ã. – 10, â 2000 ã. – 13 ïàð. Ïðè ýòîì ïòèöû â ïåðâóþ î÷åðåäü çàíèìàëè ñêàëû, êîòîðûå ñ èñòîðè÷åñêèõ âðå-

ìåí çàíèìàþòñÿ ñàïñàíàìè, ìíîãèå èç êîòîðûõ íîñÿò íàçâàíèÿ â ÷åñòü ñîêîëîâ (Ñîêîë, Êëèêóí÷èê, Êðèêóí, Áàëàáàí è ò.ä.). Ñïóñòÿ 20-òèëåòèå ïîñëå èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ, ñîêîëû íà ãíåçäîâàíèè ïîÿâèëèñü íà Ñûëâèíñêèõ ðèôàõ, ãäå åùå â êîíöå 30-õ ãã. èõ äîáûâàë Å. Ì. Âîðîíöîâ (1949). Ñ 1985 ã. ïî ñåé äåíü ñàïñàíû çäåñü ãíåçäÿòñÿ ðåãóëÿðíî. Òàêæå ðåãóëÿðíîå ãíåçäîâàíèå ñàïñàíîâ íàáëþäàåòñÿ ñ 1987 ã. â Îáâèíñêîì çàëèâå áëèç ñ. Èëüèíñêîå, ãäå ñîêîëîâ äîáûâàë åùå Ô.À. Òåïëîóõîâ â 1889 è 1893 ãã. (òóøêè ïòèö äî ñèõ ïîð õðàíÿòñÿ â êîëëåêöèè Ïåðìñêîãî êðàåâåä÷åñêîãî ìóçåÿ).  îòëè÷èå îò ãîðíûõ ðàéîíîâ Óðàëà, ïðîöåññ âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíîâ â ðàâíèííîé ÷àñòè îáëàñòè èäåò áîëåå ìåäëåííî. Íà Êàìñêîì ñòàöèîíàðå íà ïëîùàäè 1000 êì2 â 1987 ã. ãíåçäèëîñü 3 ïàðû ñàïñàíîâ. Îäíà ïàðà ñîêîëîâ çàíèìàëà ïîñòðîéêè êîðøóíîâ íà áåðåãîâîì îáðûâå âîäîõðàíèëèùà, äðóãàÿ – ïîñòðîéêó âîðîíà íà ãåîäåçè÷åñêîé âûøêå, òðåòüÿ åæåãîäíî óñòðàèâàëà ãíåçäà íà ó÷àñòêå ñôàãíîâîãî âåðõîâîãî áîëîòà áëèç êîëîíèè ÷àéêîâûõ.  1994 ã. çäåñü ãíåçäèëîñü óæå 6 ïàð, à ê 1999 ã. – 8 ïàð.  ïðîöåññå ðîñòà ÷èñëåííîñòè ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ ïàð ñàïñàíîâ ñìåíèëñÿ èõ ñòåðåîòèï ãíåçäîâàíèÿ – âñå íîâûå ïàðû óñòðàèâàëè ãíåçäà íà êî÷êàõ è


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Ãíåçäîâàÿ ñêàëà ñàïñàíîâ íà ð.×óñîâàÿ (Ñâåðäëîâñêàÿ îáëàñòü). Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The nesting cliff for the Peregrine Falcon on the Chusovaya River (Sverdlovsc District). Photo by I. Karyakin

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

ãðèâàõ ñðåäè áîëîò. Ïàðà, ãíåçäèâøàÿñÿ íà âûøêå, ïîñëå ñìåíû ïàðòíåðà ñòàëà ãíåçäèòüñÿ ñðåäè áîëîòà, à ïàðà, ðåãóëÿðíî âûâîäèâøàÿ ïòåíöîâ â ïîñòðîéêàõ êîðøóíà, ïîñëå ñìåíû ïàðòíåðà ñòàëà ãíåçäèòüñÿ íà âåðøèíå ðå÷íîãî îáðûâà, ïî àíàëîãèè ñ òóíäðîâûìè ñàïñàíàìè. Íàðÿäó ñ ðîñòîì ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà, â ðåãèîíå ïðîèçîøëî çàìåùåíèå ïòèö, ãíåçäèâøèõñÿ íà äåðåâüÿõ, íàçåìíîãíåçäÿùèìèñÿ ïòèöàìè. Èìåííî ýòèì îáóñëîâëåíà æåñòêàÿ ñâÿçü áîëüøèíñòâà ïàð, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â ðàâíèííîé ÷àñòè ðåãèîíà, ñ êðóïíûìè ìàññèâàìè áîëîò. Îäíàêî, åñëè â íà÷àëå 90-õ ãã. ñàïñàíû äàííîé ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè îñâàèâàëè òîëüêî åñòåñòâåííûå áîëîòà, ê êîíöó 90-õ ãã. ýòîò ïðîöåññ ïåðåøåë â ôàçó çàñåëåíèÿ òðàíñôîðìèðîâàííûõ òîðôîðàçðàáîòêàìè áîëîò, áîëîòîïîäîáíûõ ëàíäøàôòîâ ïî îòðîãàì âîäîõðàíèëèù è çàáîëà÷èâàåìûõ âûðóáîê.  ïîñëåäíåì ñëó÷àå ïàðà ðàçìíîæàëàñü íà âûâîðîòíå åëè ñðåäè âûðóáêè ïëîùàäüþ ìåíå 1 êì2. Èíôîðìàöèÿ î ðàçìíîæåíèè ñàïñàíîâ íà ìíîãîëåòíåì ãíåçäîâîì ó÷àñòêå ïðèâåäåíà â òàáë. 7. Ïàðà ¹ 1232/167/16 ðàç-

ìíîæàëàñü ïðàêòè÷åñêè åæåãîäíî ñ 1987 ã. Ñ 1989 ã. çà íåé âåëèñü áîëåå èëè ìåíåå ðåãóëÿðíûå íàáëþäåíèÿ, â ñâÿçè ñ äîñòóïíîñòüþ ãíåçäîâîãî ó÷àñòêà ñ âîäû. Ñ 1988 ïî 1991 ãã. ñîêîëû çàíèìàëè ñòàðóþ ïîñòðîéêó êîðøóíîâ, ðàñïîëîæåííóþ íà ñîñíå íà êðàþ áåðåãîâîãî îáðûâà.  1991 ã. ñàìêà èñ÷åçëà, ñêîðåå âñåãî, îíà áûëà ñúåäåíà ôèëèíîì, à â ãíåçäå îñòàëàñü ïîãèáøàÿ êëàäêà.  1992 ã. íà ó÷àñòêå äåðæàëàñü, íå ïðèñòóïàÿ ê ðàçìíîæåíèþ, ïàðà ñàïñàíîâ, ñàìêà â êîòîðîé áûëà ìîëîäîé.  1993 ã. ñàïñàíû çàãíåçäèëèñü â 2-õ êì îò ïðåæíåãî ãíåçäà â ïîñòðîéêå êîðøóíà íà ñîñíå íà âåðøèíå 30-òèìåòðîâîãî îáðûâà.  1994 ã. ñîêîëû ñíîâà ñìåíèëè ãíåçäî, çàãíåçäèâøèñü â 1 êì îò ïðåäûäóùåãî â àíàëîãè÷íîé ïî ðàñïîëîæåíèþ ïîñòðîéêå êîðøóíà, â êîòîðîé ðàçìíîæàëèñü äî 1996 ã. âêëþ÷èòåëüíî.  1997 ã. â ïàðå ïîìåíÿëñÿ ñàìåö, ñîêîëû çàãíåçäèëèñü íà 2 íåäåëè ïîçæå îáû÷íîãî íà âåðøèíå îáðûâà â 1,5 êì îò ïðåäûäóùåãî ãíåçäà, ãäå ðàçìíîæàëèñü âïëîòü äî 2000 ã. âêëþ÷èòåëüíî. Ïîñëåäíèå äâà ãîäà ó÷àñòîê íå ïðîâåðÿëñÿ. Òàêèì îáðàçîì, çà 12 ëåò íà ãíåçäîâîì ó÷àñòêå ñàïñàíîâ âñòàëî íà êðûëî 29 ìîëîäûõ (â ñðåäíåì 2,42 ïòåíöà â ãîä èëè 2,90 ïòåíöà íà óñïåøíîå ãíåçäî). Ó ñîñåäíåé ïàðû, ãíåçäèâøåéñÿ åæåãîäíî ñ 1988 ã. íà ñôàãíîâîì áîëîòå, âûëåòåëî 36 ìîëîäûõ (â ñðåäíåì 2,77 ïòåíöà â ãîä), ïðè÷åì ïîñëåäíèå 6 ëåò ðåãóëÿðíî âûëåòàëî ïî 3 ïòåíöà, à 4-õ ïòåíöîâ â âûâîäêå íå áûëî íè ðàçó çà âåñü 13-òèëåòíèé ïåðèîä íàáëþäåíèé.  öåëîì ïî ðåãèîíó

Òàáë. 8. Ðåãèñòðàöèÿ ãíåçä ñ ðàçäàâëåííûìè êëàäêàìè ïî ãîäàì â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå çà ïåðèîä 1998-1999 ãã. Table 8. Registration of nests with destructed eggs in the Volga-Ural region during 1988-1998

Ãîä Year 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Èòîã çà 11 ëåò Total Äîëÿ (â %) Proportion (%)



Âñåãî ãíåçä Total number of nests

Ãíåçäà óñïåøíûå ëèáî Ãíåçäà ñ ïóñòóþùèå ïî èíûì ðàçäàâëåííûìè ïðè÷èíàì* ÿéöàìè Nests with Successful nests or empty on different reasons destructed eggs

Äîëÿ ãíåçä ñ ðàçäàâëåííûìè êëàäêàìè îò îáùåãî êîë-âà ãíåçä (â %) Proportion of nests with destructed eggs (%)

8 9 5 15 4 11 12 64 86 30 16

4 4 3 3 1 2 1 0 0 0 0

4 5 2 12 3 9 11 64 86 30 16

50 44,44 60 20 25 18,18 8,33 0 0 0 0

260

18

242

6,92

100

6,92

93,08


Raptors Research

Ìîëîäîé ñàïñàí. Ôîòî È. Êàðÿêèíà The young Peregrine Falcon. Photo by I. Karyakin

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1 íàëèöî ôàêò óâåëè÷åíèÿ ÷èñëà ïòåíöîâ â ëåòíûõ âûâîäêàõ ñ 1-2 äî 3-4 â ïîñëåäíèå 6 ëåò.  ïîñëåäíèå 4 ãîäà íà ôîíå ðîñòà ÷èñëåííîñòè â öåëîì ïî Þæíîìó Óðàëó, íà þæíîé åãî îêîíå÷íîñòè ñòðóêòóðà ñëîæèâøèõñÿ ãíåçäîâûõ ãðóïïèðîâîê ñàïñàíà ñòàëà ìåíÿòüñÿ ïî ïðè÷èíå âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè áàëîáàíà.  ÷àñòíîñòè, ïîñëå ïîÿâëåíèÿ è óñïåøíîãî ðàçìíîæåíèÿ ïàðû áàëîáàíîâ íà ð. Çèëàèð, äâå ïàðû ñàïñàíîâ, ãíåçäèâøèåñÿ ðåãóëÿðíî â 3-5 êì ïàðà îò ïàðû, ïåðåìåñòèëèñü, è ðàññòîÿíèå ìåæäó íèìè óâåëè÷èëîñü äî 7 êì è ñîñòàâèëî 5,5 è 1,5 êì ñîîòâåòñòâåííî äî ãíåçäà áàëîáàíà. Àíàëîãè÷íûå ïðîöåññû ïðîèçîøëè íà Èðèêëèíñêîì âîäîõðàíèëèùå. Çäåñü, â ðåçóëüòàòå ïîÿâëåíèÿ áàëîáàíà íà ñêàëàõ, îáæèòûõ ñàïñàíàìè, ïîñëåäíèå ïåðåìåñòèëèñü íà áîëåå ìåëêèå îáíàæåíèÿ, óäàëåííûå íà íåñêîëüêî êèëîìåòðîâ, è íå ðàçìíîæàëèñü. Ýòîò ïðîöåññ âðÿä ëè ïîâëèÿåò íà ñíèæåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà, îäíàêî, çàòîðìîçèò ïðîöåññ ðàññåëåíèÿ â ñòåïíûå è ëåñîñòåïíûå ðàéîíû.  íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ ÷èñëåííîñòü ñàïñàíà äîñòèãëà ñâîåãî ïðåäåëà íà Þæíîì Óðàëå è áëèçêà ê òàêîâîìó íà Ñðåäíåì Óðàëå.  òî æå âðåìÿ åùå èìåþòñÿ øèðîêèå âîçìîæíîñòè äëÿ îñâîåíèÿ ñàïñàíîì ðàâíèííîé ÷àñòè ðåãèîíà è ãîðîäñêèõ ëàíäøàôòîâ. Äî ñèõ ïîð ñàïñàí íå ïîÿâèëñÿ íà ãíåçäîâàíèè â ëåñîñòåïíîé ÷àñòè Âûñîêîãî Çàâîëæüÿ, õîòÿ çäåñü äëÿ åãî ãíåçäîâàíèÿ èìåþòñÿ ïîäõîäÿùèå óñëîâèÿ, áîãàòàÿ êîðìîâàÿ áàçà è ïðàêòè÷åñêè íåò õèùíèêîâ, ëèìèòèðóþùèõ åãî ðàññåëåíèå – ôèëèíà è áàëîáàíà.

55

Çàêëþ÷åíèå Êàê óæå îòìå÷àëîñü âûøå, ÷èñëåííîñòü ñàïñàíà â Åâðîïåéñêîé ÷àñòè Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà íà ïëîùàäè 918462,32 êì2 îöåíèâàåòñÿ â 900-1000 ïàð ñ óñòîé÷èâîé òåíäåíöèåé ðîñòà, ñîõðàíÿþùåéñÿ â ïîñëåäíåå äåñÿòèëåòèå.  Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå â öåëîì, âêëþ÷àÿ åãî àçèàòñêóþ ÷àñòü (Ñâåðäëîâñêàÿ, ×åëÿáèíñêàÿ îáëàñòè), ãíåçäèòñÿ 1100-1200 ïàð ñàïñàíîâ. Ó÷èòûâàÿ òåíäåíöèè ðîñòà ïîïóëÿöèè ìîæíî ïðåäïîëîæèòü óâåëè÷åíèå åå ÷èñëåííîñòè â 1,5 ðàçà â ïîñëåäóþùèå 10 ëåò çà ñ÷åò ðàññåëåíèÿ ñîêîëîâ â ðàâíèííîé ÷àñòè ðåãèîíà.

Ïîñëåñëîâèå Íåñìîòðÿ íà âîññòàíîâëåíèå ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà, íåêîòîðûì ëîêàëüíûì ãíåçäîâûì ãðóïïèðîâêàì óãðîæàåò ðåàëüíàÿ ïåðñïåêòèâà áûòü óíè÷òîæåííûìè. Ãîñóäàðñòâåííàÿ ïîëèòèêà Ðîññèè â íàñòîÿùåå âðåìÿ íàïðàâëåíà íå íà îõðàíó ïðèðîäû, à íà ýêñïëóàòàöèþ ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ. Ïî ýòîé ïðè÷èíå â ðàçðåç ñ Çàêîíîäàòåëüñòâîì ÐÔ íà òåððèòîðèè Ðåñïóáëèêè Áàøêîðòîñòàí, â ñàìîì ñåðäöå çàïîâåäíîé çîíû Íàöèîíàëüíîãî ïðèðîäíîãî ïàðêà «Áàøêèðèÿ» (êëþ÷åâàÿ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ «Watershead of Belaya and Nugush river» RU 208), âåäåòñÿ ñòðîèòåëüñòâî ïëîòèíû íà ð. Áåëàÿ.  ðåçóëüòàòå ïóñêà ïëîòèíû, êîòîðûé ïëàíèðóåòñÿ íà÷àòü â ñëåäóþùåì ãîäó, áóäåò çàòîïëåíî 30 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñàïñàíîâ (12,5% áàøêèðñêîé ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè), ðàñïîëîæåííûõ íà òåððèòîðèÿõ ÎÎÏÒ ôåäåðàëüíîãî óðîâíÿ (íàöèîíàëüíûé ïðèðîäíûé ïàðê «Áàøêèðèÿ», ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé ïðèðîäíûé çàïîâåäíèê «Øóëüãàí-Òàø»).  2002 ã. ëèêâèäèðîâàí äëÿ äàëüíåéøåé ýêñïëóàòàöèþ ðåñóðñîâ çàêàçíèê «Àäîâñêèé» â Ïåðìñêîé îáëàñòè (êëþ÷åâàÿ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêàÿ òåððèòîðèÿ ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ «Adovo-Chugrumski wetland» RU210), íà òåððèòîðèè êîòîðîãî ïîêà åùå ãíåçäÿòñÿ 4 ïàðû ñàïñàíîâ (4,5% ïåðìñêîé ãíåçäîâîé ãðóïïèðîâêè). Íà ðàññìîòðåíèè íàõîäÿòñÿ ïðîåêòû ëèêâèäàöèè åùå 2-õ çàêàçíèêî⠖ «Êóìèêóøñêèé» è «Óôèìñêîå ïëàòî». Ðàçðàáàòûâàþòñÿ ïëàíû âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ äîáû÷è òîðôà íà çàáðîøåííûõ ðàíåå òîðôÿíèêàõ, âûðàáîòêà êîòîðûõ ïðåêðàòèëàñü â êîíöå 80-õ ãã. â ïåðèîä ýêîíîìè÷åñêîãî êðèçèñà. Âñå ýòè ïðîöåññû ìîãóò ñíîâà ïðèâåñòè ñàïñàíà íà îïàñ-


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Ïòåíåö ñàïñàíà â ãíåçäîâîé íèøå íà ð. Áåëàÿ (Áàøêèðèÿ). Ôîòî À. Ïàæåíêîâà Chick of the Peregrine Falcon in the nesting niche on the Belaya River (Republic of Bashkortostan). Photo by A. Pazhenkov

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

íóþ ãðàíü âûæèâàíèÿ. Ïîýòîìó íåîáõîäèì ðåãóëÿðíûé ìîíèòîðèíã ÷èñëåííîñòè ýòîãî âèäà â òàêîì âàæíîì äëÿ åãî âûæèâàíèÿ ðåãèîíå, êàê Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêèé. Äî ñèõ ïîð íåèçâåñòíû ïóòè ïðîëåòà è ìåñòà çèìîâîê ñàïñàíîâ, ãíåçäÿùèõñÿ â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå. Íåò äàííûõ ïî ðîëè âîëãî-óðàëüñêèõ ñàïñàíîâ â ëåãàëüíîé è íåëåãàëüíîé òîðãîâëå ñîêîëàìè, õîòÿ èìåþòñÿ äàííûå î ðåãóëÿðíîì íåçàêîííîì èçúÿòèè ïòåíöîâ èç ãíåçä â ãîðíî-ëåñíîé çîíå Óðàëà è îòëîâå ïòèö â ïåðèîä ïðîëåòà â Ïðåäóðàëüå. Âñå âûøåñêàçàííîå óêàçûâàåò íà íåîáõîäèìîñòü ðåàëèçàöèè ïðîåêòà ïî ñàïñàíó â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå ñ ïðèìåíåíèåì íîâåéøèõ òåõíîëîãèé, òàêèõ êàê ñïóòíèêîâàÿ òåëåìåòðèÿ è ìå÷åíèå ïàññèâíûìè òðàíñïîíäåðàìè.

Áëàãîäàðíîñòè Àâòîð áëàãîäàðèò âñåõ êîëëåã, ó÷àñòâîâàâøèõ â ñáîðå ìàòåðèàëà, îñîáåííî Ò.Î. Áàðàáàøèíà, Î.Â. Áàäîíîâó, Å.Â. Âàñèëüå-

âà, Ñ.Â. Ãîëîâêîâà, À.À. Ãðèøèíà, È.Â. Äþæàåâó, Ä.À. Èëüèíó, Ñ.Þ. Êàìåðèëîâó (Ëàïøèíó), Ë.È. Êîíîâàëîâà, Ì.À. Êîðîëüêîâà, À.Â. Êîòåëüíèêîâà, Ð.Ä. Ëàïøèíà, À.Å. Ìàëûãèíà, À.Â. Ìîøêèíà, À.Â. Ìîõèíà, È.À. Íîãîâèöûíó, À.À. Îðëåíêî, Ä.Ñ. Ïàâëîâè÷à, À.Ñ. Ïàæåíêîâà, È.Ì. Ïàæåíêîâó, Å.À. Ïåïåëÿåâó, À.Â. Ïðåñíÿêîâà, À.À. Ñåäèíèíà, È.Ý. Ñìåëÿíñêîãî, Ò.À. Òðîôèìîâó, Ì.Ã. Øàðàïîâó (Ïðåñíÿêîâó), À.À. Øåñòàêîâó. Àâòîð âûðàæàåò áëàãîäàðíîñòü Ñ.Â. Âàñèëüåâó, Á.Ñ. Âåðè÷åâó, Ë.À. Åäðåíêèíîé è Â.Ì. Êóçíåöîâó, îêàçûâàâøèì àâòîðó è êîëëåãàì âñåñòîðîííþþ ïîìîùü â îðãàíèçàöèè ðàáîòû, Ñ.Â. Áàêêå è Î.Â. Áîðîäèíó, ïðåäîñòàâèâøèì ñâîé íåîïóáëèêîâàííûé ìàòåðèàë, Ì.À. Äóáèíèíó è À.Æ. Ïóðåõîâñêîìó, ïîìîãàâøèì â ñîçäàíèè ÃÈÑ Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà è âñåìó ëåñíîìó êëóáó Öåíòðà îõðàíû äèêîé ïðèðîäû, áåç êàðòîãðàôè÷åñêèõ ìàòåðèàëîâ êîòîðîãî âðÿä ëè áûëî âîçìîæíî ïîëíîöåííî âåñòè êàäàñòð ãíåçäîâèé ñàïñàíà â ðåãèîíå.

Ëèòåðàòóðà / List of Literature: Áîãäàíîâ Ì.Í. Ïòèöû è çâåðè ÷åðíîçåìíîé ïîëîñû Ïîâîëæüÿ è äîëèíû Ñðåäíåé è Íèæíåé Âîëãè (áèî-ãåîãðàôè÷åñêèå ìàòåðèàëû). – Òðóäû Îáùåñòâà åñòåñòâîèñïûòàòåëåé ïðè Èìïåðàòîðñêîì Êàçàíñêîì óíèâåðñèòåòå, ò. 1, îòä. 1. Êàçàíü. 1871. 226 c. Âîðîíöîâ Å.Ì. Ïòèöû Êàìñêîãî Ïðèóðàëüÿ. Ãîðüêèé. 1949. 113 ñ. Âîðîíöîâ Å.Ì. Ïòèöû Ãîðüêîâñêîé îáëàñòè. Ãîðüêèé. 1967. Ãàíóñåâè÷ Ñ.À. Ñàïñàí. – Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè (Æèâîòíûå). Ì.: Èçä-âî Àñòðåëü. 2001. – Ñ. 457-459. Ãðèãîðüåâ Í.Ä., Ïîïîâ Â.Ë., Ïîïîâ Þ.Ê. Îòðÿä ñîêîëîîáðàçíûå (äíåâíûå õèùíûå ïòèöû). – Ïòèöû Âîëæñêî-Êàìñêîãî êðàÿ. Íåâîðîáüèíûå. Ì., 1977. Ñ. 76-116. Èëüè÷åâ Â.Ä., Ôîìèí Â.Å. Îðíèòîôàóíà è èçìåíåíèå ñðåäû. Ì., 1988. 248 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Òåõíèêà âûÿâëåíèÿ ðåäêèõ âèäîâ (êðóïíûå ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè). Ïåðìü: Èçä-âî ÖÏÈ ÑÎÆ Óðàëà, ×.1. 1996. 80ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè Óðàëüñêîãî ðåãèîíà. Ñîêîëîîáðàçíûå (Falconiformes), Ñîâîîáðàçíûå (Strigiformes). Ïåðìü: ÖÏÈ Ñîþçà îõðàíû æèâîòíûõ Óðàëà / ÑîÝÑ, 1998. 483 ñ. Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî ó÷åòó ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ è îáðàáîòêå ó÷åòíûõ äàííûõ. – Íîâîñèáèðñê, èçäàòåëüñêèé äîì «Ìàíóñêðèïò». 2000. 32 ñ. Ïåðøàêîâ À.À. Ñïèñîê ïòèö Êàçàíñêîãî êðàÿ. – Òðóäû ñòóä. Êðóæêà ëþáèòåëåé ïðèðîäû ïðè Êàçàíñêîì ãîñ. óí-òå. 1929. Âûï. 3. Ïîòàïîâ Å.Ð. Ñàïñàí â áûâøåì ÑÑÑÐ: ÷òî íàì èçâåñòíî? Raptorlink 4 (1). 1996. C. 1-4. Ðóçñêèé Ì.Ä. Ìàòåðèàëû ê èçó÷åíèþ ïòèö Êàçàíñêîé ãóáåðíèè. – Òðóäû îáùåñòâà åñòåñòâîèñïûòàòåëåé ïðè Êàçàíñêîì ãîñóäàðñòâåííîì óíèâåðñèòåòå, Êàçàíü. Ò. 25. âûï. 6. 1893. 292 ñ. Ñàáàíååâ Ë.Ï. Ïîçâîíî÷íûå Ñðåäíåãî Óðàëà è ãåîãðàôè÷åñêîå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå èõ â Ïåðìñêîé è Îðåíáóðãñêîé ãóáåðíèÿõ. Ì. 1874. Ñ. 21-35. Ñóøêèí Ï.Ï. Ïòèöû Óôèìñêîé ãóáåðíèè. – Ìàòåðèàëû ê ïîçíàíèþ ôàóíû è ôëîðû Ðîññèè. Îòä. çîîë., âûï. 4. Ì. 1897. 331 ñ.

Óøêîâ Ñ.Ë. Ñïèñîê ïòèö Ïåðìñêîãî îêðóãà Óðàëüñêîé îáëàñòè. – Áþë. ÌÎÈÏ. Îòä. áèîë. 1927. Ò. 36, âûï. 1-2. Ñ. 68-116. Øåïåëü À.È. Õèùíûå ïòèöû è ñîâû Ïåðìñêîãî Ïðèêàìüÿ. Èðêóòñê: Èçä-âî Èðêóòñêîãî óí-òà, 1992. 296 ñ. Ýâåðñìàí Ý. Åñòåñòâåííàÿ èñòîðèÿ ïòèö Îðåíáóðãñêîãî êðàÿ. Êàçàíü. 1866. 621 ñ. BirdLife International/European Bird Census Council. European bird populations: estimates and trends. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International (BirdLife Conservation Series ¹ 10). 2000. – 160 p. Bauer K. Present status of birds of prey in Austria. – World Conf. Birds of Prey, Vienna, Oct. 1975. Rept Proc. Basingstoke, 1977. P. 83-85. Cade T.J., J.H. Enderson, C.G. Thelander and C.M. White, eds Peregrine Falcon populations. Their management and recovery. Boise: The Peregrine Fund, Inc. 1988. – 949 p. Dyck J., Eskildsen J., Moller H. The status of breeding birds of prey in Denmark 1975. – World Conf. Birds of Prey, Vienna, Oct. 1975. Rept Proc. Conf. Birds of Prey, Vienna, Oct. 1975. Rept Proc. Basingstoke, 1977. P. 91-96. Garzon J. Birds of prey in Spain, the present situation. – World Conf. Birds of Prey, Vienna, Oct. 1975. Rept Proc. Basingstoke, 1977. P. 159-170. Newton I. Changes in the status of the Peregrine Falcon in Europe. – Cade, T.J., J.H. Enderson, C.G. Thelander and C.M. White, eds Peregrine Falcon populations. Their management and recovery. Boise: The Peregrine Fund, Inc. 1988. P. 227-234. Potapov E. Time budget, organochlorines and productivity in the Peregrin Falcon Falco peregrinus in the Kolyma Lowlands Region (North East Siberia) – Meyburg, B and Chancelor D Eds. Raptor conservation today, WWGBP/Pica press. 1994. P. 195-201. Ratcliffe D. The Peregrine falcon/ T&A Poyser. London (second edition). 1990. Tucker G.M., Heath M.F. Birds in Europe: their conservation status. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International (BirdLife Conservation Series ¹ 3). 1994. – 600 p. Willgons J. Birds of prey in Norway. – World Conf. Birds of Prey, Vienna, Oct. 1975. Rept Proc. Basingstoke, 1977. P. 143-148.


Raptors Research

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Peregrine Falcon on the Bol'shoy Inzer River, Russia ÑÀÏÑÀÍ Â ÄÎËÈÍÅ ÐÅÊÈ ÁÎËÜØÎÉ ÈÍÇÅÐ, ÐÎÑÑÈß À.S. Pazhenkov (The Volga-Ural ECONET Assistance Center, Samara) À.Ñ. Ïàæåíêîâ (Öåíòð ñîäåéñòâèÿ «Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîé ýêîëîãè÷åñêîé ñåòè», ã. Ñàìàðà) Êîíòàêò: Àëåêñåé Ïàæåíêîâ Ðîññèÿ, ã. Ñàìàðà óë. Ãàãàðèíà, 69, êâ.39 òåë.: 8 9272-15-39-60 f_lynx@hotbox.ru Contact: Aleksey Pazhenkov Gagarina str., 69 – 39 Samara, Russia tel.: 8 9272-15-39-60 f_lynx@hotbox.ru

Ïòåíöû ñàïñàíà (Falco peregrinus) â ãíåçäå ¹7 â 2004 ã. Ôîòî À. Ïàæåíêîâà Chicks of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) on the nest ¹ 7 in 2004. Photo by A. Pazhenkov

Èññëåäóåìûé ó÷àñòîê ðàñïîëîæåí â öåíòðàëüíîé ÷àñòè ãîðíî-ëåñíîé çîíû Þæíîãî Óðàëà, â Áåëîðåöêîì ðàéîíå Ðåñïóáëèêè Áàøêîðòîñòàí. Ñëîæåí íèçêîãîðíûìè õðåáòàìè ñ àáñîëþòíûìè âûñîòàìè 700900 ì, ïîêðûòûìè ïðåèìóùåñòâåííî ñâåòëîõâîéíûìè è âòîðè÷íûìè ìåëêîëèñòâåííûìè ëåñàìè. Õðåáòû ðàçäåëåíû äîëèíîé ðåêè Áîëüøîé Èíçåð è åãî ïðèòîêàìè. Äîëèíà Á. Èíçåðà èìååò øèðèíó 200-600 ì, çäåñü, íàðÿäó ñ õàðàêòåðíûìè äëÿ äàííîãî ðàéîíà õâîéíûìè ëåñàìè, ïðîèçðàñòàþò ïîéìåííûå îëüøàíèêè, à çíà÷èòåëüíûå ïëîùàäè çàíÿòû ëóãîâîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòüþ. ×àñòî õðåáòû îáðûâàþòñÿ â äîëèíó ðåêè îòâåñíûìè ñêàëüíûìè îáíàæåíèÿìè äî 100 ì âûñîòîé (îáû÷íî 20-50 ì). Èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïðîâîäèëèñü íàìè ñ 27 èþíÿ ïî 6 èþëÿ 2004 ã. â äîëèíå ð. Á. Èíçåð îò ñåëà Êàðòàëû äî ñåëà Èíçåð (ïðîòÿæåííîñòü äîëèíû îêîëî 100 êì). Áûë îñóùåñòâëåí ñïëàâ íà ðåçèíîâûõ ëîäêàõ ñ îáñëåäîâàíèåì ïðèëåãàþùèõ ê äîëèíå ðåêè ñêàëüíûõ îáíàæåíèé. Ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûå äëÿ ñàïñàíà ñêàëû îñìàòðèâàëèñü íàìè â áèíîêëü ñ ðàçíûõ òî÷åê. Ìû èñêàëè ñëåäû ïîìåòà íà ñêàëàõ, ïóõ è ïåðüÿ æåðòâ ñàïñàíà, êîòîðûå îñòàþòñÿ íà êóñòàõ êàðàãàíû è äðóãîé íàñêàëüíîé ðàñòèòåëüíîñòè âáëèçè îò ïðèñàä. Òàêæå ìû îáõîäèëè è îñìàòðèâàëè ïîäíîæèÿ ñêàë â ïîèñêàõ óïàâøèõ îñòàíêîâ æåðòâ ñàïñàíà è âåðõíþþ ÷àñòü ñêàë (íà áðîâêå âîäîðàçäåëà) äëÿ îáíàðóæåíèÿ ïðèñàä. Êàê äîïîëíèòåëüíûé ñïîñîá îáíàðóæåíèÿ ñàïñàíà èñïîëüçîâàëîñü ïðîèãðûâàíèå íà ìàãíèòîôîíå òîêîâûõ ñèãíàëîâ ôèëèíà. Åñòåñòâåííî, ôèêñèðîâàëèñü âñòðå÷è ñàïñàíà, à îáíàðóæåííûå ãíåçäà

The Bol'shoy Inzer River flows through the South Ural Mountains within the Republic of Bashkortostan. The Peregrine Falcon has been surveyed conducted here in the period from 27 June to 6 July 2004. The surveys in fact are continuation of a work by I.V. Karyakin in 1996, who initially mapped all nesting areas of the Peregrine Falcon along the Bol'shoy Inzer River. During our surveys a total of 7 occupied nests with 16 juveniles were located in 2004 (10 occupied nests with 13 juveniles – in 1996). Within the study area three (Numbers 7, 11 and 12) peregrines shifted their nests to the cliffs occupied by eagle owls in 1996. In the 35 km stretch of the river valley in middle of the study area (between nesting territories 3 and 5) peregrine falcons were completely lacking due to high numbers of the Eagle Owl there. In general it is noted a great degree of spatial conservatism of the nest locations of Peregrines within the study area.

Ðèñ. 1. Ðàñïðåäåëåíèå ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñàïñàíà â äîëèíå ð. Á. Èíçåð â 1996-2004 ãã. Fig. 1. Nesting areas of the Peregrine Falcon on the Bol’shoy Inzer River in 1996-2004


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Ñëåòêè ñàïñàíà. Èþëü 2004. Á.Èíçåð, Áàøêèðèÿ. Ôîòî À. Ïàæåíêîâà The fledglings of the Peregrine. July 2004. B. Inzer river, the Republic of Bashkortostan. Photo by A. Pazhenkov

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ

ñàïñàíà ïîñåùàëèñü ñ ïîìîùüþ ñòàíäàðòíîãî àëüïèíèñòñêîãî ñíàðÿæåíèÿ, èõ ïðîñòðàíñòâåííîå ðàñïîëîæåíèå ôèêñèðîâàëîñü ïîñðåäñòâîì GPS. Ìû èìåëè â ñâîåì ðàñïîðÿæåíèè ìàòåðèàëû èññëåäîâàíèé ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ, ïðîâåäåííûå È.Â.Êàðÿêèíûì íà ýòîé æå òåððèòîðèè 5-9 èþíÿ 1996 ã. ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ñõîäíûõ ìåòîäîâ. Ïî ñâîèì äàííûì è ìàòåðèàëàì È.Â.Êàðÿêèíà ìû î÷åðòèëè óñëîâíûå ãðàíèöû ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ (ðàäèóñîì 2 êì îò ãíåçäà) è ïðè ñîïîñòàâëåíèè âñåõ ìàòåðèàëîâ èñïîëüçîâàëè íóìåðàöèþ äàííûõ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ. Íàìè áûëî îáíàðóæåíî 9 ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñàïñàíà (ñì. ðèñ. 1, è òàáë. 1), íà äâóõ èç êîòîðûõ âñòðå÷åíû òîëüêî âçðîñëûå îñîáè, à íà îñòàëüíûõ ïðèñóòñòâîâàëè è ñëåòêè.  ïåðèîä èññëåäîâàíèé íåïîñðåäñòâåííî â ãíåçäå íàõîäèëèñü òîëüêî ïòåíöû ñ ãíåçäîâîãî ó÷àñòêà ¹ 7, îñòàëüíûå âñòàëè íà êðûëî è äåðæàëèñü âáëèçè ãíåçäîâûõ íèø (íå äàëåå 200-300 ì).  ñâÿçè ñ ýòèì, íà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêàõ 8 è 12 íå óäàëîñü òî÷íî îïðåäåëèòü ðàñïîëî-

æåíèå ãíåçäà, òàê êàê â áèíîêëü îáíàðóæåíî íåñêîëüêî íèø ñ ïðèñàäàìè, íî â ñâÿçè ñ èõ òðóäíîäîñòóïíîñòüþ îíè íå ïîñåùàëèñü.  ñðåäíåé ÷àñòè îáñëåäóåìîé òåððèòîðèè (ìåæäó ãíåçäîâûìè ó÷àñòêàìè 3 è 5) íà ïðîòÿæåíèè áîëåå 35 êì â 2004 ã. íå îáíàðóæåíî âîîáùå íèêàêèõ ñëåäîâ ïðåáûâàíèÿ ñàïñàíà. Çäåñü îòíîñèòåëüíî ìåíüøå ãíåçäîïðèãîäíûõ ñêàë è, âåðîÿòíî, îòñóòñòâèå ñàïñàíà îáóñëîâëåíî áîëåå âûñîêèì ïðåññîì ôèëèíà. Íà ó÷àñòêàõ 7, 11 è 12 ñàïñàí ïîìåíÿë ñâîè æèëûå ãíåçäà, ïåðåìåñòèâøèñü íà ñêàëû, êîòîðûå â 1996 ã. áûëè çàíÿòû ôèëèíîì. Ïî óñïåøíîñòè ðàçìíîæåíèÿ 2004 ã. áûë áîëåå óäà÷íûì, òàê êàê îáíàðóæåíî 16 ïòåíöîâ â 7 ãíåçäàõ, à â 1996 ã. áûëî 13 ïòåíöîâ â 10 ãíåçäàõ.  öåëîì, ñëåäóåò îòìåòèòü ñîõðàíåíèå ïðîñòðàíñòâåííîé ñòðóêòóðû ðàçìåùåíèÿ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ è ñòåðåîòèïà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ ãíåçä – íèøà â âåðõíåé òðåòè ñêàëû, îáðàùåííàÿ â äîëèíó ðåêè.

Òàáë. 1. Õàðàêòåðèñòèêà ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ ñàïñàíîâ Table 1. Characteristics of nesting areas of the Peregrine

¹ ãíåçäîâîãî ó÷àñòêà ¹ nesting area 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12



Ãîä Êîëè÷åñòâî Year ïòåíöîâ, ñëåòêîâ Number of juvenile

Êîëè÷åñòâî ñòàðûõ ãíåçä Number of old nests

Ðàçìåùåíèå Âûñîòà ðàñïîëîæåíèÿ Êîëè÷åñòâî âñòðå÷ æèëîãî ãíåçäà îò ãíåçäà âçðîñëûõ ïòèö Number of registra- Location of nest ïîäíîæèÿ (â ìåòðàõ) Height of nest (m) tions of individuals

1996 2004 1996 2004 1996 2004 1996 2004 1996 2004 1996 2004 1996 2004 1996 2004

0* 2 3 2 1 0* 3 3 2 1

1 3 1 2 -

1

1996 2004 1996 2004 1996 2004 1996 2004

2 íå ïðîâåðåíî 3 0* 2 2 3

4 2 -

2 2 2 2

2 1 1 1 1 2

Íèøà Niche Ïîëêà Shelf Ïîëêà Shelf Íèøà Niche Íèøà Niche Íèøà Niche Íèøà Niche Íèøà Niche Íèøà Niche Íèøà Niche Ìåñòî íå îïðåäåëåíî Place not determined Íèøà Niche Íèøà Niche Íèøà Niche Íèøà Niche Íèøà Niche Íèøà Niche Ìåñòî íå îïðåäåëåíî Place not determined

* – ãíåçäà ñ íåóäà÷íûì ðàçìíîæåíèåì (ãèáåëü êëàäêè èëè ïóõîâûõ ïòåíöîâ) / nests with dead eggs and chicks

45 50 60 60 30 45 45 35 25 80 80-100

50 90 90 60 50 70 80-100


Grants

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Grants ÃÐÀÍÒÛ North Star Science and Technology Transmitter Grant Program ÏÐÎÃÐÀÌÌÀ ÃÐÀÍÒÎÂ NORTH STAR Â ÎÁËÀÑÒÈ ÑÏÓÒÍÈÊÎÂÎÉ ÒÅËÅÌÅÒÐÈÈ ÏÒÈÖ Contact: George E. Wallace American Bird Conservancy tel.: 540-253-5780 fax: 540-253-5782 gwallace@abcbirds.org

North Star, LLC è Àìåðèêàíñêîå îáùåñòâî îõðàíû ïòèö îáúÿâèëè òðåòüþ åæåãîäíóþ ïðîãðàììó ãðàíòîâ â îáëàñòè ñïóòíèêîâîé òåëåìåòðèè ïòèö. Åñòü äâà ñóùåñòâåííûõ èçìåíåíèÿ â ïðîãðàììå ýòîãî ãîäà: 1. Ïî ïðîãðàììå ïðåäîñòàâëÿåòñÿ áîëüøå ñïóòíèêîâûõ òðàíñìèòòåðîâ Argos Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTTs) – âñåãî âîñåìü äëÿ îäíîãî èëè äâóõ ïîëó÷àòåëåé (8 – íà îäèí ïðîåêò èëè ïî 4 – íà äâà ïðîåêòà). 2. Òåïåðü ïðîãðàììà ñòàëà îòêðûòà äëÿ ïðîåêòîâ ïî âñåìó ìèðó.

PTT – ìîùíûé, âàæíåéøèé èíñòðóìåíò äëÿ èçó÷åíèÿ ìèãðàöèè ïòèö, êîòîðûé ñóùåñòâåííî ðàñøèðÿåò âîçìîæíîñòè ïðîñëåäèòü ïåðåìåùåíèÿ îòäåëüíûõ ïòèö. Èññëåäîâàíèÿ ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì PTT ïîìîãàþò ïîíÿòü ìíîãîå èç áèîëîãèè ïòèö è ñîäåéñòâîâàòü ïîëó÷åíèþ íåîöåíèìûõ äàííûõ äëÿ èõ îõðàíû.

North Star Science and Technology, LLC and American Bird Conservancy announce the 3rd annual North Star Science and Technology Transmitter Grant Program. There are two major changes in the program effective this year: 1) The grant program will award more transmitters – a total of eight (8) satellite ransmitters (Argos Platform Transmitter Terminals (PTTs), to one or two recipients (8 PTTs to one project or 4 PTTs to each of two projects); and 2) The program is now open to projects throughout the world. North Star is providing the PTTs in the spirit of

PTTs are powerful, cutting-edge tools for the study of bird migration that greatly extend the range over which individual birds can be tracked. Studies using PTTs can teach us much about avian biology and contribute invaluable data for bird conservation.

North Star îáåñïå÷èâàåò ÐÒÒ ñ óñëîâèåì, ÷òî âñå ïîëó÷åííûå äàííûå áóäóò äîñòóïíû â îáðàçîâàòåëüíîé ïðîãðàììå Earthspan56, íàçâàííîé «Ãëàç ñîêîëà», êîòîðàÿ èñïîëüçóåò äàííûå ñïóòíèêîâîé òåëåìåòðèè ïðè îáó÷åíèè ìîëîäåæè ïî ïðîáëåìàì ìèãðàöèè è îõðàíå ïòèö. Àìåðèêàíñêîå îáùåñòâî îõðàíû ïòèö57 ñîáåðåò è ïðîñìîòðèò ïîñòóïèâøèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ, ïîñëå ÷åãî âûáåðåò ïîáåäèâøèå ïðîåêòû. Íà ñàéòå North Star58 ìîæíî íàéòè áîëüøå èíôîðìàöèè îá îñíîâíûõ êðèòåðèÿõ ïîäàâàåìûõ ïðîåêòîâ. Ïîñëåäíèé ñðîê ïîäà÷è ïðîåêòîâ 2 ôåâðàëÿ 2005 ã. Âñå âîïðîñû ïî ïðîãðàììå ìîãóò áûòü àäðåñîâàíû Äæîðæó Å. Óîëëåñó.

giving back to the research community that they serve, with the condition that the resulting data are available for use in an Earthspan’s56 educational program entitled, «Eye of the Falcon,» which uses satellite tracking data to teach young people about bird migration and conservation. American Bird Conservancy57 will handle the proposal submission process, review proposals, and select the winning projects. Please see www.northstarst.com58 for more information and proposal guidelines. Deadline for proposals is February 2, 2005. Any further questions about the program can be directed to George E. Wallace.

The James R. Koplin Travel Award ÃÐÀÍÒÛ ÄÆÅÉÌÑÀ Ð. ÊÎÏËÈÍÀ ÄËß ÏÎÑÅÙÅÍÈß ÊÎÍÔÅÐÅÍÖÈÉ ÔÎÍÄÀ ÈÇÓ×ÅÍÈß ÏÅÐÍÀÒÛÕ ÕÈÙÍÈÊΠÃðàíòû Äæåéìñà Ð. Êîïëèíà ìîãóò âûèãðàòü ñòóäåíòû äëÿ ó÷àñòèÿ â êîíôåðåíöèè Ôîíäà èçó÷åíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ (RRF), êîòîðûå ÿâëÿþòñÿ ïåðâûìè àâòîðàìè ðåôåðàòîâ, ïîäàííûõ äëÿ ïóáëèêàöèè â ñáîðíèêå òðóäîâ ýòîé êîíôåðåíöèè. Ñóììà ãðàíòà – äî 200 äîëëàðîâ ÑØÀ – âêëþ÷àåò ñòîèìîñòü áèëåòà 56 57 58

www.earthspan.org www.abcbirds.org www.northstarst.com

The James R. Koplin Travel Award is given to a student who is the senior author and presenter of a paper or poster to be presented at the RRF meeting for which travel funds are requested. Up to $200 can be requested. The award will also include a banquet ticket. A recipient from a previous year cannot apply in following years if working on the same degree. Application materials include: (1) a project description (not to exceed one page, single spaced); (2) an itemized budget of costs as-


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Contact: Dr. Patricia A. Hall The James R. Koplin Travel Award 5937 E. Abbey Rd. Flagstaff, AZ 86004 tel.: 928-526-6222; pat.hall@nau.edu

íà áàíêåò. Ïîëó÷àòåëü ïðîøëîãî ãîäà íå ìîæåò çàÿâëÿòüñÿ â ñëåäóþùåì ãîäó â òîì æå ñàìîì êà÷åñòâå. Äëÿ ó÷àñòèÿ â êîíêóðñå, íåîáõîäèìî ïîäãîòîâèòü: (1) îïèñàíèå ïðîåêòà (íå áîëåå îäíîé ñòðàíèöû, ÷åðåç îäèí èíòåðâàë); (2) ñìåòó ðàñõîäîâ, ñâÿçàííûõ ñ ïîñåùåíèåì êîíôåðåíöèè è îáúÿñíåíèåì âñåõ çàòðàò; è (3) ðåêîìåíäàöèþ îò ðóêîâîäèòåëÿ (æåëàòåëüíî â çâàíèè ïðîôåññîðà). Îïèñàíèå ïðîåêòà äîëæíî áûòü ïîäðîáíûì, äîëæíî âêëþ÷àòü êðàòêîå ââåäåíèå, îïèñûâàþùåå çíà÷åíèå è âàæíîñòü èññëåäîâàíèÿ, ìåòîäèêó, àíàëèç è ðåçóëüòàòû. Áþäæåò äîëæåí âêëþ÷àòü îáúÿñíåíèå âñåõ çàòðàò, à òàêæå ïåðå÷èñëåíèå è îáúÿñíåíèå çàòðàò, íå ïîêðûâàåìûõ ñóììîé ãðàíòà. Ðåêîìåíäàöèÿ ÷ðåçâû÷àéíî âàæíà è äîëæíà ñîäåðæàòü òùàòåëüíóþ îöåíêó óíèâåðñèòåòñêèõ ñïîñîáíîñòåé ïðåòåíäåíòà, çíà÷åíèå èññëåäîâàíèÿ, ñòóäåí÷åñêèé âêëàä â èññëåäîâàíèå è ïîòåíöèàë ñòóäåíòà â îáëàñòè èçó÷åíèÿ áèîëîãèè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â áóäóùåì. Îöåíêà ðóêîâîäèòåëÿ ìîæåò áûòü ïîñëàíà â îòäåëüíîì êîíâåðòå, íî äîëæíà ïðèáûòü âîâðåìÿ. Íàèáîëåå íóæäàþùèåñÿ ïðåòåíäåíòû èìåþò áîëüøå øàíñîâ ïîëó÷èòü íàãðàäó. Ðàñïîðÿäèòåëüíûé êîìèòåò äîëæåí ïîëó÷èòü âñå ìàòåðèàëû ê ïîñëåäíåìó ñðîêó ïîäà÷è ðåôåðàòîâ. Ýòà äàòà îáúÿâëÿåòñÿ åæåãîäíî íà êîíôåðåíöèÿõ RRF, ïîñûëàåòñÿ ÷ëåíàì è äîñòóïíà íà ñàéòå ôîíäà59. Ìàòåðèàëû ìîãóò ïîäàâàòüñÿ îáû÷íîé èëè ýëåêòðîííîé ïî÷òîé. Âîïðîñû è çàÿâêè äîëæíû áûòü ïîñëàíû äîêòîðó Ïàòðèñèè A. Õîëë.

Ãðàíòû sociated with attending the meeting and an explanation of how the expenses not covered by this award will be met; and (3) a letter of recommendation from the student’s major professor. The project description should be as detailed as one page will permit, and must include a brief introduction outlining the significance and importance of the research, a description of methods, including the analytical approach, and results. The itemized budget should include an explanation of how the expenses not covered by the award will be met. The letter of recommendation is extremely important, and should contain a thorough evaluation of the applicant’s academic abilities, the significance of the research, the student’s relative contribution to the research, and his or her potential for future contributions to the field of raptor biology. The professor’s evaluation may be sent under separate cover, but must arrive by the application deadline. Applicants with the greatest financial need will receive the greatest consideration. The selection committee must receive all application materials by the deadline for regular abstracts. That date is included in the announcement of RRF’s annual meeting sent each year to the membership and is available on website59. Materials can be submitted by regular mail or email. Inquiries or application materials should be sent to: Dr. Patricia A. Hall.

The Dean Amadon Grant ÃÐÀÍÒÛ ÄÝÍÀ ÀÌÀÄÎÍÀ Contact: Dr. Carole Griffiths 251 Martling Ave Tarrytown, NY 10591 tel.: 914-631-2911 cgriff@liu.edu

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Ãðàíòû Äåíà Àìàäîíà íà ñóììó 1000 äîëëàðîâ ÑØÀ âûäåëÿþòñÿ â ïîìîùü ëèöàì, èçó÷àþùèì ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå è ñèñòåìàòèêó (òàêñîíîìèþ) ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Äëÿ òîãî, ÷òîáû ó÷àñòâîâàòü â êîíêóðñå, íåîáõîäèìî ïîñëàòü CV, ïðåäëîæåíèÿ (íå áîëåå ÷åì ÷åòûðå ñòðàíèöû, âêëþ÷àÿ ðåôåðàò), êîòîðûå îïèñûâàþò öåëè èññëåäîâàíèÿ, ìåòîäû, çàïðàøèâàåìûé áþäæåò è ñïèñîê äðóãèõ èñòî÷íèêîâ ôèíàíñèðîâàíèÿ, ïèñüìî, óêàçûâàþùåå ÷òî äàííûé ïðîåêò çàòðàãèâàåò îáëàñòü èíòåðåñîâ ôîíäà (ò.å. ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå èëè ñèñòåìàòèêó ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ). Ñòóäåíòû, âûïîëíÿþùèå äàííûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ â ðàìêàõ êâàëèôèêàöèîííîé ðàáîòû, ìîãóò âûñëàòü ïëàí èõ äèïëîìà èëè äèññåðòàöèè. Êîíå÷íûé ñðîê ïîäà÷è çàÿâîê – 15 ôåâðàëÿ 2005 ã. Ëèöà, âûèãðàâøèå ãðàíòû, áóäóò èçâåùåíû îá ýòîì äî 15 àïðåëÿ. Äëÿ ïîëó÷åíèÿ áîëüøåé èíôîðìàöèè ïî ãðàíòîâîé ïðîãðàììå Äåíà Àìàäîíà ñëåäóåò îáðàùàòüñÿ ê äîêòîðó Êýðîë Ãðèôôèòñ.

http://biology.boisestate.edu/raptor/conferences.htm

The Dean Amadon Grant for up to $1,000 is designed to assist persons working in the area of distribution and systematics (taxonomy) of raptors. To apply, send a CV, a proposal (no more than four pages including an abstract) outlining the objectives of your study, the methods, your anticipated budget, a list of other funding sources, and a letter indicating how your project fits into the area of raptor distribution and/or systematics. Students involved in thesis work may submit an outline of their thesis proposal. Deadline 15 February. Recipients will be notified by 15 April. To apply or to obtain more information for the Amadon grants, contact: Dr. Carole Griffiths.


New Publications and Videos

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1

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New Publications and Videos ÍÎÂÛÅ ÏÓÁËÈÊÀÖÈÈ È ÔÈËÜÌÛ Films ÔÈËÜÌÛ Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Öåíòð ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé 603000 Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë.Êîðîëåíêî, 17à -17 òåë.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Center for Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a – 17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000, Russia tel.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru

Contact: Echo Film Productions str. Boise, Idaho 83702 407 West Bannock USA tel.: (208) 336-0349 fax: (208) 336 0858 echofilm@mindspring.com

26 ñåíòÿáðÿ 2004 ã. âûøåë â ñâåò ôèëüì «Â ïîèñêàõ êàðëèêà». Ôèëüì ñíÿò â ðàìêàõ ïðîåêòà Öåíòðà ïîëåâûõ èññëåäîâàíèé ïî èçó÷åíèþ ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèÿ è ãíåçäîâîé áèîëîãèè îðëàêàðëèêà (Hieraaetus pennatus) â Ñèáèðè. Àâòîð Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí. Ïðîäîëæèòåëüíîñòü 43 ìèí. Òåêñò: ðóññêèé. VHS/Pal, ïëàñòèêîâàÿ êîðîáêà. Ñòîèìîñòü 150 ðóá. Î äðóãèõ ôèëüìàõ ÖÏÈ ìîæíî óçíàòü íà ñàéòå «Ïðèðîäà Þæíîé Ñèáèðè è åå çàùèòíèêè»60.

The new film «In Search of the Booted Eagle» was released in the 26 September 2004. The movie takes the viewer with the research team of the Center for Field Studies (CFS) to a breathtaking quest to study the distribution and breeding biology of the Booted Eagles (Hieraaetus pennatus) in Siberia. Total: 43 min. VHS/Pal (Russian). Price: $7. See other videos by the CFS website Nature of Southern Siberia and its Conservators 60.

Êîìïàíèÿ Echo Film Productions âûïóñòèëà ôèëüì «Morley Nelson» î ñåâåðîàìåðèêàíñêèõ õèùíûõ ïòèöàõ. Òåêñò ÷èòàåò Äæîàí Âóäâàðä.  ôèëüìå ïîêàçàíî, êàê õèùíûå ïòèöû îõîòÿòñÿ, ìèãðèðóþò, âûâîäÿò ïòåíöîâ, è ðàññêàçàíî î èõ ðîëè â ýêîñèñòåìàõ Ñåâåðíîé Àìåðèêè. Ñòîèìîñòü ôèëüìà – $24.95.

Echo Film Productions presents WORLD OF RAPTORS, the most comprehensive video program on North American Birds of Prey. Narrated by actress Joanne Woodward and presenting international raptor authority Morley Nelson. This film offers a fascinating adventure in understanding the natural world as these predators hunt, migrate, nest and fulfill their special role in the North American ecosystem. Price: $24.95.

Ñúåìêè ìîãèëüíèêà, áîëüøîãî ïîäîðëèêà, ñòåïíîãî îðëà, ñäåëàííûå Äæóà Íèåìè 17-20 ôåâðàëÿ 2004 ã. â Îìàíå, ïîÿâèëèñü íà åãî àâòîðñêîì ñàéòå â âèäå êëèïîâ ïî 5-10 ñåê â ôîðìàòå *.mpg61. Íà ýòîì æå ñàéòå äîñòóïíî ìíîãî ôîòîãðàôèé õèùíûõ ïòèö. 60 61

http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/raptors/films.shtm http://www.tp.spt.fi/~jnie/bird/kuvat.htm?go

Video of the Imperial Eagle, Greater Spotted Eagle, Steppe Eagle, Egyptian Vulture, by Juha Niemi done in 17-20 February 2004 in Oman have appeared on his website in the manner of clips on 5-10 sec in *.mpg61. The photos of Birds of Prey is available on this site.


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Íîâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ôèëüìû

Books ÊÍÈÃÈ

Contact: The Peregrine Fund 5668 West Flying Hawk Lane, Boise Idaho 83709, USA tel.: 208-362-3716 fax: 208-362-2376 tpf@peregrinefund.org

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Âîçâðàùåíèå ñàïñàíà: ñåâåðîàìåðèêàíñêàÿ ñàãà î ðàáîòå ïî ïðîåêòó. Ïîä ðåäàêöèåé: Ò. Êåéä è Â. Áàðíõàì. 2003. Ôîíä ñàïñàíà, Áîéñà, 501 ñòð. Âîññòàíîâëåíèå ñàïñàíà ÿâëÿåòñÿ ñàìîé áîëüøîé è óäà÷íîé ïîïûòêîé âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ â äèêîé ïðèðîäå âèäà, ïîñòàâëåííîãî íà ãðàíü èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ. Óñïåõ ýòîé ïðîãðàììû è óðîâåíü ñîòðóäíè÷åñòâà ÿâëÿþòñÿ óíèêàëüíûìè â äåëå îõðàíû ïðèðîäû. Ïî÷åìó è êàê ýòî áûëî äîñòèãíóòî, îïèñàíî â êíèãå è ÿâëÿåòñÿ ïðèìåðîì òîãî, êàê ìîæíî âûïîëíÿòü ãëîáàëüíûå ïðîåêòû, êîãäà ëþäè æåëàþò ðàáîòàòü âìåñòå. Ýòà èñòîðèÿ íàïèñàíà 69 àâòîðàìè, ó÷àñòèå áîëüøèíñòâà èç êîòîðûõ â íàïèñàíèè êíèãè ÿâèëîñü êëþ÷îì ê åå óñïåõó. Èñòîðèÿ íàïèñàíà â õðîíîëîãè÷åñêîì, òåìàòè÷åñêîì è ãåîãðàôè÷åñêîì ïîðÿäêå. Òîì Êýéä íà÷èíàåò êíèãó ñ ïðîëîãà îá èñòîðèè âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ ñàïñàíà, à â ñëåäóþùèõ ãëàâàõ àâòîðû ðàñêðûâàþò òàéíû èñòîðèè ýòîãî ïðîåêòà.  êíèãå îïèñûâàåòñÿ ïðîãðàììà ïî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ ñàïñàíà â îñíîâíîì íà òåððèòîðèè Ñåâåðíîé Àìåðèêè è Ãðåíëàíäèè, îäíàêî íåñêîëüêî ãëàâ íàïèñàíî è ïî Åâðîïå äâóìÿ çíàìåíèòûìè áðèòàíñêèìè ó÷åíûìè. Äåðåê Ðàòêëèôô îïèñûâàåò èñòîðèþ îáíàðóæåíèÿ ÄÄÒ, êàê ïðè÷èíó ðåçêîãî ñîêðàùåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà. Ýòà èíôîðìàöèÿ ïîäðîáíî èçëîæåíà â êíèãå ßíà Íüþòîíà, êîòîðàÿ âíåñëà áîëüøîé âêëàä â ïðîãðàììó âîññòàíîâëåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ñàïñàíà è ïîíèìàíèå ñèòóàöèè ñ íèì, ñóììèðîâàâ èçâåñòíóþ î âèäå èíôîðìàöèþ. Êíèãà ïðåäíàçíà÷àåòñÿ äëÿ øèðîêîé àóäèòîðèè, õîòÿ è ñîäåðæèò ïðåæäå íåîïóáëèêîâàííóþ íàó÷íóþ èíôîðìàöèþ, òàáëèöû è ãðàôèêè, à òàêæå îáøèðíóþ áèáëèîãðàôèþ ïî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ âîñòî÷íûõ è çàïàäíûõ ïîïóëÿöèé ñàïñàíîâ â 1971-2000 ãã. Ýòà êðàñèâàÿ è áîëüøàÿ êíèãà èëëþñòðèðîâàíà áîëåå ÷åì 450 ôîòîãðàôèÿìè, ìíîãèå èç êîòîðûõ èìåþò óíèêàëüíîå èñòîðè÷åñêîå çíà÷åíèå. Êíèãó óêðàøàþò ðèñóíêè ñàïñàíîâ, ñäåëàííûå ðàçíûìè àâòîðàìè, â òîì ÷èñëå ðèñóíîê íà ñóïåðîáëîæêå Ðîáåòà Áýéòìàíà – îäíîãî èç ñàìûõ èçâåñòíûõ õóäîæíèêîâ-àíèìàëèñòîâ Ñåâåðíîé Àìåðèêè. Èíôîðìàöèÿ î ïðèîáðåòåíèè êíèãè äîñòóïíà íà ñàéòå Ôîíäà ñàïñàíà62.

http://www.peregrinefund.org/book_peregrine_order.asp

Cade, T.J., and W. Burnham. 2003. Return of the peregrine: a North American saga of tenacity and teamwork. The Peregrine Fund, Boise, 501 p. The Peregrine Falcon restoration is the largest and most comprehensive endeavor to restore wild populations of an endangered species ever accomplished. The magnitude of the program and level of cooperation achieved are unique in nature conservation. Why and how this effort was achieved is documented in this book and serves as an example of what can be accomplished when people are willing to work cooperatively. Authored by 69 people with long-term involvement, and most of the individuals key to the success, the story is presented chronologically, topically, and geographically. Tom Cade begins with a prologue on the life history traits of the Peregrine Falcon in relation to recovery as only someone with over fifty years of experience can write. In the following 21 chapters and 57 sidebars the story unfolds in each author’s own words. Although the focus is in North America, including Greenland, the story extends to Europe with two renowned British scientists contributing chapters. Derek Ratcliffe tells his story of discovering DDT as the cause for Peregrine Falcon decline, followed later in the book by Ian Newton documenting the contribution of the restoration program to the understanding of the Peregrine and summarizing what is known about the species. The book is intended for a non-scientific audience but does contain previously unpublished information, tables, and graphs plus an extensive literature cited section and a bibliography for Eastern and Midwestern Peregrine restoration publications from 1971-2000. This handsome 394-page, large format book features more than 450 photographs, many with historical significance. Several master artists have contributed their paintings of Peregrines for reproduction here, including a dust jacket painting by famed North American wildlife artist Robert Bateman. For ordering information see website of The Peregrine Fund62.


New Publications and Videos Ñîñòîÿíèå ïòèö ìèðà 2004: èíäèêàòîðû àíòðîïîãåííîé òðàíñôîðìàöèè ñðåäû îáèòàíèÿ. 2004. Êåìáðèäæ, Âåëèêîáðèòàíèÿ: BirdLife International. 73 c.  ïóáëèêàöèè ðàññìîòðåíà ñèòóàöèÿ ñ ïòèöàìè è ðåçóëüòàòû ìåðîïðèÿòèé ïî èõ îõðàíå â ìèðå ïî ñîñòîÿíèþ íà 2004 ã. Îäíà âîñüìàÿ ïòèö ìèðà (1213 âèäîâ) íàõîäèòñÿ íà ãðàíè èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ. ×èñëåííîñòü ïòèö, îáèòàþùèõ â ñåëüñêîõîçÿéñòâåííûõ ëàíäøàôòàõ Åâðîïû, ñîêðàòèëàñü íà 34% ñ 1966 ã. Ñâûøå 7500 òåððèòîðèé â ïî÷òè 170 ñòðàíàõ ìèðà ïðèçíàíû êëþ÷åâûìè îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèìè òåððèòîðèÿìè ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ (IBA). Ðàñøèðåíèå è èíòåíñèôèêàöèÿ ñåëüñêîãî õîçÿéñòâà óãðîæàåò 50% IBA â Àôðèêå. 64% ãëîáàëüíî óãðîæàåìûõ âèäîâ ïòèö (áîëüøèíñòâî òðîïè÷åñêèõ) íàõîäÿòñÿ ïîä óãðîçîé èñ÷åçíîâåíèÿ â ðåçóë üòàòå èíòåíñèâíîãî è íåðåãóëèðóåìîãî ëåñíîãî õîçÿéñòâà. 67% ãëîáàëüíî óãðîæàåìûõ âèäîâ ïòèö íà îñòðîâàõ îêåàíà ñîêðàùàþò ÷èñëåííîñòü â ðåçóëüòàòå èíòðîäóêöèè ÷óæåðîäíûõ âèäîâ. Èíâåñòèöèè â îõðàíó ïðèðîäû â 20 ðàç âûøå â ðàçâèòûõ ñòðàíàõ, ÷åì â ðàçâèâàþùèõñÿ. 43% IBA Àôðèêè íå èìåþò þðèäè÷åñêîãî ñòàòóñà è íàäëåæàùåé îõðàíû. Ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïî îõðàíå íåäîñòàòî÷íû äëÿ 67% ãëîáàëüíî óãðîæàåìûõ âèäîâ ïòèö. Ñîäåðæàíèå è îòäåëüíûå ãëàâû â ôîðìàòå *.pdf äîñòóïíû íà ñàéòå BLI63. Ñ. ×åí, Ì.Ä. Êðîñáè, Ì.Ç. Èñëàì, À.Â. Òîðäîôô. Êëþ÷åâûå îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèå òåððèòîðèè ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ â Àçèè. BirdLife International. 297 ñòð. Ýòî ïåðâàÿ èñ÷åðïûâàþùàÿ ïóáëèêàöèÿ î êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ (ÊÎÒð) è ðàçíîîáðàçèè ïòèö â Àçèè. Êíèãà ïîäðîáíî îïèñûâàåò 2293 ÊÎÒð â êàæäîé ñòðàíå Àçèè, 976 (43%) èç êîòîðûõ íå èìååò äàæå ôîðìàëüíîé çàùèòû. Ýòà êíèãà ïðåäñòàâëÿåò îñíîâó äëÿ ðàçðàáîòêè íàöèîíàëüíûõ ñòðàòåãèé îõðàíû ïðèðîäû è ðàçâèòèÿ ñåòè ÊÎÒð è îïèñûâàåò òåððèòîðèè, êîòîðûå äîëæíû îõðàíÿòüñÿ ãîñóäàðñòâîì ïðè ïëàíèðîâàíèè çåìëåïîëüçîâàíèÿ. Öåíà 37äîëëàðîâ ÑØÀ èëè 28 åâðî ïî êóðñó íà êîíåö 2004 ã. Êíèãó ìîæíî çàêàçàòü â ðåæèìå îíëàéí64.

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http://www.birdlife.org/action/science/sowb/pdf_contents.html http://www.nhbs.com/xbscripts/bkfsrch?search=150522

Raptors Conservation 2005, 1

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State of the world’s birds 2004: indicators for our changing world. 2004. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. 73 p. This book is a synthesis of the knowledge about the state and conservation of birds in the world in 2004.

Some key messages: One in eight of the world’s birds — 1,213 species in total — face extinction. The farmland bird index for Europe has declined by 34% since 1966. Over 7,500 sites in nearly 170 countries have been identified as Important Bird Areas Agricultural expansion and intensification threaten 50% of Important Bird Areas in Africa. 64% of Globally Threatened Birds, most of them in the tropics, are threatened by unsustainable forestry. Alien invasive species impact 67% of Globally Threatened Birds on oceanic islands. Scaled conservation investment is over 20 times higher in developed than developing countries. 43% of Africa’s Important Bird Areas have no legal recognition or protection. Conservation actions are underway for 67% of Globally Threatened Birds. State of the world’s birds 2004 can be downloaded as double-page spreads from the *.pdf index from BLI63. Important Bird Areas of Asia. Compiled by S. Chan, M.J. Crosby, M.Z. Islam and A.W. Tordoff. BirdLife International. 297 p. Important Bird Areas in Asia is the first comprehensive inventory of Asia’s key sites for birds and biodiversity. Countryby-country, the book details the region’s 2,293 Important Bird Areas (IBAs), of these 976, or 43% are lacking any formal protection. This book presents a sound basis for the development of national conservation strategies and protected area programmes, and highlights areas which should be safeguarded through wise policies and land-use planning. Price $37 or Eur 28. You can buy Birds in Europe securely online from NHBS64.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Êîíòàêò: Èãîðü Êàðÿêèí Ðîññèÿ, 603000 Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä óë.Êîðîëåíêî, 17à – 17 òåë.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru Contact: Igor Karyakin Center for Field Studies Korolenko str., 17a – 17 Nizhniy Novgorod 603000, Russia tel.: (8312) 33-38-47 ikar_research@mail.ru

Êîíòàêò: Âèêòîð Øèøêóíîâ Êîìèòåò ïðèðîäíûõ ðåñóðñîâ è îõðàíû îêðóæàþùåé ñðåäû Àäìèíèñòðàöèè Âîëãîãðàäñêîé îáëàñòè 400005, Ðîññèÿ ã.Âîëãîãðàä, óë. 7-ÿ Ãâàðäåéñêàÿ, 12 òåë.: (8442) 24-27-94 Contact: Victor Shishkunov Department of Natural Resources and Nature Protection of Government of the Volgograd region Volgograd, 7-s Gvardeyskaya str., 12 400005, Russia tel.: (8442) 24-27-94

Êàðÿêèí È.Â. Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè (ìåòîäè÷åñêèå ðåêîìåíäàöèè ïî èçó÷åíèþ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è ñîâîîáðàçíûõ). – Íèæíèé Íîâãîðîä: Èçäàòåëüñòâî «Ïîâîëæüå», 2004. 351 ñ. Êíèãà ïîñâÿùåíà ìåòîäàì èññëåäîâàíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Îñîáîå âíèìàíèå óäåëåíî âûÿâëåíèþ ãíåçäîâûõ ó÷àñòêîâ, ìåòîäàì ïîèñêà ãíåçä è ó÷åòà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ. Ðàññìîòðåíû ñïîñîáû îïèñàíèÿ ãíåçä, ñíÿòèÿ ïðîìåðîâ ÿèö, ïòåíöîâ è âçðîñëûõ ïòèö, ìå÷åíèÿ ïòèö, âêëþ÷àÿ íîâåéøèå ìåòîäû ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ðàäèî- è ñïóòíèêîâûõ ïåðåäàò÷èêîâ è ìèêðî÷èïîâ. Îïèñàíû ñïîñîáû îòëîâà õèùíûõ ïòèö. Êíèãà ïðåäíàçíà÷åíà äëÿ îðíèòîëîãîâ, ýêîëîãîâ, ñîòðóäíèêîâ ïðèðîäîîõðàííûõ îðãàíèçàöèé, íàòóðàëèñòîâ, êðàåâåäîâ, ïðåïîäàâàòåëåé. Öåíà – 150 ðóá. Êðàñíàÿ êíèãà Âîëãîãðàäñêîé îáëàñòè. Ò.1. Æèâîòíûå. Âîëãîãðàä: ÎÎÎ Èçäàòåëüñòâî Âîëãîãðàä, 2004. – 172 ñ. Ïðåäñåäàòåëü ðåäêîëåãèè Â.Â.Áðàãèí Àâòîðñêèé êîëëåêòèâ: Å.Ì.Àðõèïîâ, À.Ò.Áîæàíñêèé, Ñ.À.Áóêðååâ, Â.Ñ.Âëàñîâñêèé, Â.Ï.Ãîðåëîâ, Ä.À.Êîìàðîâ, Å.Â.Êîìàðîâ, Þ.Ï.Ìóõèí, À.Â.Ñâèðèäîâ, Â.Ô.×åðíîáàé, Ñ.Â.ßêîâëåâ.  Êðàñíóþ êíèãó Âîëãîãðàäñêîé îáëàñòè âíåñåíû 17 âèäîâ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ (16 âèäîâ ñîêîëîîáðàçíûõ è åäèíñòâåííûé ïðåäñòàâèòåëü ñîâîîáðàçíûõ – ôèëèí). Êðàòêàÿ èíôîðìàöèÿ î âèäàõ èç Êðàñíîé êíèãè Âîëãîãðàäñêîé îáëàñòè ïðèâåäåíà íèæå: • Ñêîïà – 2 êàòåãîðèÿ (äî 10-12 ïàð). • Îñîåä – 4 êàòåãîðèÿ (5-9 ïàð). • Ëóíü ñòåïíîé – 1 êàòåãîðèÿ (10-40 ïàð) • Òþâèê – 4 êàòåãîðèÿ (140-150 ïàð, èç íèõ â Âîëãî-Àõòóáèíñêîé ïîéìå 10-20 ïàð). • Êóðãàííèê – 5 êàòåãîðèÿ (â Çàâîëæüå 100-150 ïàð). • Çìååÿä – 3 êàòåãîðèÿ (15-17 ïàð, èç íèõ íà Äîíî-Àð÷åäèíñêèõ è Ãîëóáèíñêèõ ïåñêàõ – 8-10 ïàð). • Îðåë-êàðëèê – 3 êàòåãîðèÿ (30-50 ïàð íà Àð÷åäèíñêî-Äîíñêèõ ïåñêàõ, â îñòàëüíûõ ìåñòàõ ðåäîê). • Îðåë ñòåïíîé – 5 êàòåãîðèÿ (400-600 ïàð â Çàâîëæüå, äî 50 ïàð â ïðàâîáåðåæüå, èç êîòîðûõ 20-25 ïàð â Êàëà÷ñêîé èçëó÷èíå Äîíà, äî 5 ïàð â Âîëãî-Èëîâëèíñêîì ìåæäóðå÷üå, 13-15 ïàð þæíåå Âîëãî-Äîíñêîãî êàíàëà). • Ïîäîðëèê áîëüøîé – 1 êàòåãîðèÿ (810 ïàð). • Ìîãèëüíèê – 1 êàòåãîðèÿ (äî 70 ïàð, 10-15 ïàð â ñóõîñòåïíîì Çàâîëæüå, äî 20

Íîâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ôèëüìû Karyakin I.V. Raptors (methods of studying Birds of Prey and Owls) – N. Novgorod: Publisher «Povolzh’e», 2004. 351 p. The book contains several methods for researching raptors. Specific attention has revealed to methods of searching the breeding areas, nests and census of raptors. Methods of nests description, measuring eggs, chicks and adults, marking of birds (including by radio- and satellite transmitters and PIT’s) are considered. The methods of catching raptors have described. Book may be interested for ornithologists, ecologists, conservationists, naturalists, teachers and others. Price: $5.5. Red Data Book of the Volgograd District. V.1. Animal. Volgograd: Volgograd Publisher, 2004. – 172 p. Editor V.V. Bragin. Author's: E.M. Arhipov, À.Ò. Bozhanskiy, S.A. Bukreev, V.S. Vlasovskiy, V.P. Gorelov, D.A. Komarov, E.V. Komarov, U.P. Muhin, A.V. Sviridov, V.F. Chernobay, S.V. Yakovlev. In the Red Data Book of the Volgograd district there are sections on 17 species of raptors (16 - Birds of Prey and 1 - Owl). Exerts from the book on raptor numbers: • Osprey – 2 categories (before 10-12 pairs). • Honey Buzzard – 4 categories (5-9 pairs). • Pallid Harrier – 1 category (10-40 pairs). • Levant Sparrowhawk – 4 categories (140-150 pairs, 10-20 pairs from them are in the Volga-Ahtuba flood plain). • Long-Legged Buzzard – 5 categories (100-150 pairs – in Zavolzh’e). • Short-Toed Eagle – 3 categories (15-17 pairs from them are on Don-Archeda and 8-10 pairs on Golubinskie sands). • Booted Eagle – 3 categories (30-50 pairs are on Don-Archeda sands and is rare in other places). • Steppe Eagle – 5 categories (400-600 pairs are in Zavolzh’e, under 50 pairs are in the right coast of the Volga river, 20-25 pairs from which are in the Kalach bend of the Don river, under 5 pairs are between the Volga and the Ulovly rivers, 13-15 pairs are on the south from Volga-Don river-channel). • Great Spotted Eagle – 1 category (810 pairs). • Imperial Eagle – 1 category (under 70 pairs; 10-15 pairs are in the Zavolzh’e steppe, under 20 pairs in the northern regions of area, 1-2 pair are in Ergeni). • Golden Eagle – 1 category (breeding populations consists of 1-3 pairs) 3 category – (migration birds).


New Publications and Videos ïàð â ñåâåðíûõ ðàéîíàõ îáëàñòè, 1-2 ïàðû â Åðãåíÿõ). • Áåðêóò – 1 êàòåãîðèÿ (ãíåçäîâûå ïîïóëÿöèè, ñîäåðæàùèå 1-3 ïàð), 3 êàòåãîðèÿ – (ïðîëåòíûå ïòèöû) • Îðëàí-áåëîõâîñò – 3 êàòåãîðèÿ (140145 ïàð, ÷èñëåííîñòü ðàñòåò). • Êðå÷åò – 2 êàòåãîðèÿ (çàëåòíûé âèä). • Áàëîáàí – 1 êàòåãîðèÿ (÷èñëåííîñòü â 80-90-å ã. 8-10 ïàð; â ïîñëåäíèå äåñÿòèëåòèÿ ãíåçäîâàíèå óñòàíîâëåíî â Áàëîáàíîâñêîì îõîòíè÷üåì ðåçåðâàòå (×åðíûøêîâñêèé ð-í), â ïîéìå ð.Èëîâëè (â 15 êì îò ðàéöåíòðà Îëüõîâêà), íà îáðûâàõ ïðàâîãî áåðåãà Âîëãè ê ñåâåðó îò ñ.Àíòèïîâêà è íà Ñòîëáèöàõ â Êàìûøèíñêîì ðàéîíå). • Ñàïñàí – 2 êàòåãîðèÿ (ïðîëåòíûé âèä). • Ïóñòåëüãà ñòåïíàÿ – 1 êàòåãîðèÿ (4050 ïàð). • Ôèëèí – 3 êàò (250-300 ïàð). Êîíòàêò: Ñåðãåé Âîëêîâ Ñîþç îõðàíû ïòèö Ðîññèè Ìîñêâà òåë.: (095) 343-85-55 owl_bird@mail.ru Contact: Sergei Volkov Russian Bird Conservation Union Moscow tel.: (095) 343-85-55 owl_bird@mail.ru

Âûøåë èç ïå÷àòè 11 íîìåð åæåãîäíèêà «Õèùíûå ïòèöû è ñîâû â çîîïàðêàõ è ïèòîìíèêàõ». Ñîäåðæàíèå íîìåðà: Êëèìîâ Ñ.Í., Øèëî Ð.À., Áîðèñîâ Ñ.Í. Ðàçâåäåíèå áåðêóòà íà Êàðàñóêñêîì ñòàöèîíàðå Èíñòèòóòà ñèñòåìàòèêè è ýêîëîãèè æèâîòíûõ ÑÎ ÐÀÍ. Øóðûãèíà Ò.È., Øòàðåâ Ð.Ô. Î ðàçìíîæåíèè áåëîïëå÷åãî îðëàíà â óñëîâèÿõ Ìîñêîâñêîãî çîîïàðêà. Øîêàëî Ñ.È. Èç îïûòà ðàçâåäåíèÿ ñïëþøåê â êâàðòèðíûõ óñëîâèÿõ. Îñòàïåíêî Â.À. Õèùíèå ïòèöû è ñîâû Ðèÿäñêîãî çîîïàðêà (ÊÑÀ). Ðåçàíîâ À.Ã. Ïîâåäåíèå õèùíûõ ïòèö, ñîäåðæàùèõñÿ â íåâîëå, ïðè äîáûâàíèè ïîäâèæíûõ êîðìîâûõ îáúåêòîâ. Àëèñêåðîâ Ñ.Â. Ëîâ÷èå ïòèöû è íà÷àëüíûé ýòàï äðåññèðîâêè âñåõ ëîâ÷èõ ïòèö. Ëåáåäåâ È.Ã. Çíà÷åíèå è ïðîèñõîæäåíèå ðóññêèõ íàçâàíèé õèùíûõ ïòèö. ×àñòü 1. Øòàðåâ Ð.Ô. Îïèñàíèå ãîäîâûõ íàðÿäîâ ó áåðêóòà, ìîãèëüíèêà, ñòåïíîãî îðëà è îðëàíà-áåëîõâîñòà. Êðîìå òîãî, â ñáîðíèêå îïóáëèêîâàíà ñâîäíàÿ òàáëèöà ðåçóëüòàòîâ ðàçâåäåíèÿ õèùíûõ ïòèö è ñîâ â çîîïàðêàõ è ïèòîìíèêàõ â 2001 ã. Åñòü âîçìîæíîñòü ïîëó÷èòü èíòåðåñóþùóþ ñòàòüþ íà CD.

Ìîëîäîé ôèëèí (Bubo bubo). Ôîòî Ý. Íèêîëåíêî Juveniles of Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo). Photo by E. Nikolenko

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• White-Tailed Eagle – 3 categories (140145 pairs, its number increases). • Gyrfalcon – 2 categories (migration birds) • Saker Falcon – 1 category (number in 1980-1990s is 8-10 pairs). • Peregrine Falcon – 2 categories (migration birds). • Lesser Kestrel – 1 category (40-50 pairs). • Eagle Owl – 3 categories (250-300 pairs). Annual (¹ 11) collection of papers «Birds of Prey and Owls in Zoos and Captive Breeding Centers», has just arrived. Contents: Klimov S.N., Shilo R.À., Borisov S.N. Farming the Golden Eagle on the Karasuk station of the Institute of Systematic and Ecology of Animals of the Siberian Department of the Russian Academy of Science (Novosibirsk district). Shurigina T.I., Shtarev R.F. Breeding the Steller’s Sea Eagle in the Moscow Zoo. Shokalo S.I. Experience of farming Scops Owls at home. Ostapenko V.À. Birds of Prey and Owls of the Riyad Zoo. Rezanov À.G. Hunting behavior of Birds of Prey in the captivity. Aliskerov S.V. Birds of Prey used in falconry and basic training of them. Lebedev I.G. Significance and origin of Russian names for Birds of Prey. Part 1. Shtarev R.F. Description of annual plumages of the Golden Eagle, Imperial Eagle, Steppe Eagle and White-Tailed Eagle. Besides, the consolidated table of results on captive breeding of Birds of Prey and Owls in zoos and centers in 2001 has published in proceedings. It could be nice to have such edition on CD.


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Ïåðíàòûå õèùíèêè è èõ îõðàíà 2005, 1

Íîâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ôèëüìû

Thesises ÄÈÑÑÅÐÒÀÖÈÈ Êîíòàêò: Þëî Âÿëè Èíñòèòóò çîîëîãèè è ãèäðîáèîëîãèè Òàðòóññêèé óíèâåðñèòåò Ýñòîíèÿ, 51014, Òàðòó óë.Âàíåìóèçå, 46 òåë.: (3727) 37-50-54 ôàêñ: (3727) 37-58-30 yvali@ebc.ee Contact: Ulo Vali Institute of Zoology and Hydrobiology, Tartu University Vanemuize str., 46 Tartu, 51014, Estonia tel.: (3727) 37-50-54 fax: (3727) 37-58-30 yvali@ebc.ee Êîíòàêò: Àëåêñåé Ìóñèõèí Ðîññèÿ, Ïåðìü leha@permonline.ru Contact: Alexey Musihin Russia, Perm leha@permonline.ru

Ulo Vali. The Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga and the Lesser Spotted Eagle A. pomarina: taxonomy, phylogeography and ecology. Abstract of Biological Thesises. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2004. 158. ISSN 1024-6479; ISBN 9985-56-844-3 Abstract of Dr. Ulo Vali are available from the following website65. T.O. Barabashin. Birds of Prey in the region of the Middle Volga: modern distribution, trends and factors of influence on populations. Abstract of PhD thesis. Moscow, MSU. 2004. – 25 p. Ìàëûé ïîäîðëèê. Ôîòî Þ. Âÿëè Lesser Spoted Eagle. Photo by U. Vali

Þ. Âÿëè. Áîëüøîé ïîäîðëèê Aquila clanga è Ìàëûé ïîäîðëèê A. pomarina: òàêñîíîìèÿ, ãåîãðàôèÿ è ýêîëîãèÿ. – Òàðòó: Èçäàòåëüñòâî Òàðòóññêîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà, 2004. 158 ñ. Àâòîðåôåðàò äèññåðòàöèè äîñòóïåí íà ñàéòå65. À.Ý.Ìóñèõèí. Äèíàìèêà ÷èñëåííîñòè ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ â óñëîâèÿõ àãðîëàíäøàôòà Ïðåäóðàëüÿ, è ôàêòîðû, åå îïðåäåëÿþùèå. Àâòîðåôåðàò íà ñîèñê. ó÷. ñò. êàíä. áèîë. íàóê. Ïåðìü. 2004. 24 ñ.

Êîíòàêò: Èðèíà Óòåõèíà Ðîññèÿ, Ìàãàäàí utekhina@mail.ru zapoved@ online.magadan.su Contact: Irina Utehina Russia, Magadan utekhina@mail.ru zapoved@ online.magadan.su Êîíòàêò: Òèìîôåé Áàðàáàøèí Ðîññèÿ Ðîñòîâ íà Äîíó timbar@bk.ru Contact: Tim Barabashin Russia Rostov na Donu timbar@bk.ru 65 66

A.E. Musihin. Trends of Birds of Prey in Farmland Predural’e, and determining factors. Abstract of PhD thesis. Perm. 2004. 24 p. I.G. Utehina. Steller’s Sea Eagle Haliaeetus pelagicus (Pallas, 1811) on the north Okhotsk coasts: distribution, number, ecology, migration. Abstract of PhD thesis. Moscow, MSU. 2004. 25 p. Abstract, as well as the full text of the thesis of Dr. I. Utekhina is also available on-line 66.

È.Ã. Óòåõèíà. Áåëîïëå÷èé îðëàí Haliaeetus pelagicus (Pallas, 1811) íà ñåâåðíîì ïîáåðåæüå Îõîòñêîãî ìîðÿ: ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå, ÷èñëåííîñòü, ýêîëîãèÿ, ìèãðàöèè. Àâòîðåôåðàò íà ñîèñê. ó÷. ñò. êàíä. áèîë. íàóê. Ìîñêâà, ÌÃÓ. 2004. 25 ñ. Àâòîðåôåðàò äèññåðòàöèè äîñòóïåí íà ñàéòå66. Ò.Î. Áàðàáàøèí. Õèùíûå ïòèöû Ñðåäíåãî Ïîâîëæüÿ: ñîâðåìåííîå ðàñïðîñòðàíåíèå, äèíàìèêà ÷èñëåííîñòè è ôàêòîðû âîçäåéñòâèÿ íà ïîïóëÿöèè. Àâòîðåôåðàò íà ñîèñê. ó÷. ñò. êàíä. áèîë. íàóê. Ìîñêâà, ÌÃÓ. 2004. – 25 ñ.

http://www.utlib.ee/ekollekt/diss/dok/2004/b16541480/Vali.pdf http://raptors.ru/library/Utekhina/

Ñòåïíîé îðåë (Aquila nipalensis). Ñàìàðñêàÿ îáëàñòü, èþëü 2000 ã. Ôîòî Ò. Áàðàáàøèíà Steppe Eagle (Aquila nipalensis). Samara District, July 2000. Photo by T. Barabashin


Contents

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67

Ñîäåðæàíèå

Contents

Îò ðåäàêöèè ............................................................ 3

Editorial ................................................................... 3

Ñîáûòèÿ ................................................................. 4

Events ...................................................................... 4

Ïðîáëåìà íîìåðà ............................................... 19 Âðåìÿ àçèàòñêèõ ñèïîâ ïðîõîäèò (ïðåññ-ðåëèç). Ð. Âàòñîí, Ð. Ãðèí, Á. Àëåí ......... 19 Ìàíèôåñò î çàïðåòå ïðèìåíåíèÿ äèêëîôåíàêà è îõðàíå ñèïîâ ............................ 21

Problem of Number .............................................. 19 Time is Running Out for Asian Vulture (Press Release) R. Watson, R. Green, B. Allen ...... 19 Manifesto on Diclofenac and Vulture Conservation ....................................................... 21

Îõðàíà ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ .............................. 23 Ïîñëåäíèå ðåçóëüòàòû ïðîåêòà ïî óñòàíîâêå èñêóññòâåííûõ ãíåçäîâèé â Ìîíãîëèè. Å.Ð. Ïîòàïîâ ....................................................... 23 Ïðîåêò ïî âîññòàíîâëåíèþ ìåñò ãíåçäîâàíèÿ áàëîáàíà â Ðåñïóáëèêå Òûâà. È.Â. Êàðÿêèí ....... 28 Èòîãè ðàáîòû ïî ïðèâëå÷åíèþ õèùíûõ ïòèö íà èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäà â Êàëìûêèè. Ì.Â. Ïåñòîâ, Ð.À. Ìåäæèäîâ, À.Â. Ñàëòûêîâ, Â.Á. Áàäìàåâ ....................................................... 32 Âëèÿíèå áèîòåõíè÷åñêèõ ìåðîïðèÿòèé íà âîññòàíîâëåíèå îïòèìàëüíîãî óðîâíÿ ÷èñëåííîñòè ðåäêèõ âèäîâ äíåâíûõ õèùíûõ ïòèö â Íèæåãîðîäñêîé îáëàñòè. Ñ.Â.Áàêêà, Ë.Ì.Íîâèêîâà .................................................... 34 Ìåðîïðèÿòèÿ ïî ïðèâëå÷åíèþ êðóïíûõ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ íà èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäà íà êëþ÷åâûõ îðíèòîëîãè÷åñêèõ òåððèòîðèÿõ ìåæäóíàðîäíîãî çíà÷åíèÿ â Ðåñïóáëèêå Áàøêèðèÿ. È.Â. Êàðÿêèí, À.Ñ. Ïàæåíêîâ ........... 36 Îáçîð ïðîåêòîâ, íàïðàâëåííûõ íà ïðèâëå÷åíèå ñîâ íà èñêóññòâåííûå ãíåçäîâüÿ. Ý.Ã. Íèêîëåíêî ................................. 37

Raptors Conservation ........................................... 23 ERWDA Artificial Nest Project in Mongolia: Latest Results. E.R. Potapov ................................ 23 Project for Restoration of the Nesting Places of the Saker Falcon in the Tuva Republic. I.V. Karyakin ........................................................ 28 Results of Work on Attraction of Birds of Prey to Artificial Nests in the Republic of Kalmykia. M.V. Pestov, R.A. Medzhidov, A.V. Saltykov, V.B. Badmaev ...................................................... 32 Impact of the Actions for Optimisation of Nesting Conditions on Recovery of Rare Raptor Species in the Nizhniy Novgorod District. S.V. Bakka, L.M. Novikova ................................... 34 Actions for Attraction of Eagles to Artificial Nests in the Territory of the Important Bird Areas in the Republic of Bashkiria. I.V. Karyakin, A.S. Pazhenkov .............................. 36 The Review of the Projects Directed to Attracting of Owls on Artificial Nests. E.G. Nikolenko .................................................... 37

Èçó÷åíèå ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ .......................... 43 Ñàïñàí â Âîëãî-Óðàëüñêîì ðåãèîíå. È.Â.Êàðÿêèí ....................................................... 43 Ñàïñàí â äîëèíå ðåêè Áîëüøîé Èíçåð. À.Ñ. Ïàæåíêîâ ................................................... 57 Ãðàíòû .................................................................. 59 Ïðîãðàììà ãðàíòîâ «North Star» â îáëàñòè ñïóòíèêîâîé òåëåìåòðèè ïòèö ............................ 59 Ãðàíòû Äæåéìñà Ð. Êîïëèíà äëÿ ïîñåùåíèÿ êîíôåðåíöèé Ôîíäà èçó÷åíèÿ ïåðíàòûõ õèùíèêîâ ............................................................ 59 Ãðàíòû Äýíà Àìàäîíà ............................................ 60 Íîâûå ïóáëèêàöèè è ôèëüìû ........................... 61 Ôèëüìû .................................................................. 61 Êíèãè ..................................................................... 62 Äèññåðòàöèè .......................................................... 66

Raptors Research .................................................. 43 Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in the Volga-Ural Region. I.V. Karyakin ................. 43 Peregrine Falcon on the Bol'shoy Inzer River. À.S. Pazhenkov ................................................... 57 Grants .................................................................... 59 North Star Science and Technology Transmitter Grant Program ..................................................... 59 The James R. Koplin Travel Award .......................... 59 The Dean Amadon Grant ........................................ 60 New Publications and Videos .............................. 61 Films ...................................................................... 61 Books ..................................................................... 62 Thesises ................................................................. 66


Raptors Conservation 1/2005  

Pernatye khishniki i ikh okhrana / Raptors Conservation is the unique peer-reviewed periodical journal in the countries of the former USSR,...

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