Open Hearts, Open Gatesâ€Ś
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Comprehensive Care for Street Children: Handbook for Planners and Practitioners Supporting Carers
Indradhanush Academy Centre for Equity Studies 105/6A, 1st Floor, Adhchini, Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi-110017 Ph.: 011-26514688, 41078058 Email: email@example.com Website: centreforequitystudies.com
Centre for Equity Studies
Indradhanush Academy Centre For Equity Studies
la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] dksbZ rks gekjk gks---gj jkr dh ckgksa esa] lqcg dk ut+kjk gks
In this life full of strife In this life, full of strife, We long for a friend and guide... In the darkness of night We long for a dawn, warm and bright
la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] dksbZ rks gekjk gks---geus rks t+ekus dh] jaft'k dks gh ih Mkyk pqHkrs gq, gj iy dks] gl [ksy ds th Mkyk
In this life full of strife, We long for a friend and guide… We swallow hatred and the vile Stinging moments, with a smile
D;ksa iwN jgs gks rqe] D;k geus xok;k gS thou dh rks cl NksM+ks] gj [okc ijk;k gS
Why do you ask, what have we lost, Not just life, even our dreams went past...
la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] dksbZ rks gekjk gks----
In this life, full of strife We long for a friend and guide…
oks iy Hkh Fkk viuk] ;s iy Hkh gekjk gS la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] vc dksbZ gekjk gS---oks jkrsa feV gh xbZ] ,d lqcg vkbZ u;h py jgs veu dh jkgksa ij] gj [okc gekjk gS ,d vk'kk veu dh] gS vc bl fny esa dksbZ jkg u vc jksds] dqN dj ds fn[kkuk gS c<+k,axs ge dne dks] feVk;saxs gj xae dks pysaxs mu jkgksa ij] tgk¡ ls fn[krk fdukjk gS la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] gj dksbZ gekjk gS----
In this life, full of strife, We have someone as a guide and friend… That past was ours, this present is ours In this life, full of strife, Now we have someone as a guide and friend… Those nights have passed, there dawns a new sun Walking on the paths of peace, every dream is ours There is a ray of hope in this heart There is no stopping us; we have to achieve something now We will take a step forward, remove all the pain We will walk on paths in life, from where the shore is near In this life, full of strife, We have everyone as a guide and friend…
Written by one of the children from Sneh Ghars in Delhi
Open Hearts, Open Gates…”
Comprehensive Care for Street Children: Handbook for Planners and Practitioners Equipping and Supporting Carers
Indradhanush Academy Centre for Equity Studies
We would like to thank… In researching and writing these handbooks, we have drawn on some of the best examples in the work by pioneers like Sister Cyril in Kolkata, MV Foundation led by Shantha Sinha and the BOSCO Brothers. We have added learning based on the efforts of Centre for Equity Studies and Aman Biradari, of work with state governments of Andhra Pradesh and Delhi; to establish and manage Sneh Ghars in Hyderabad and Delhi. Without the support of the senior officials in the Department of School Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) especially Secretary, Anshu Vaish, Additional Secretary Anita Kaul, Directors Neelam Rao and Maninder Kaur, and the state governments of Andhra Pradesh and Delhi, this effort would not have been possible. This effort was supported by grants from ICCO & Kerk in Actie; Save the Children and Axis Bank for which we are very grateful, and look forward to further support for this work from diverse sources, including Partnership Foundation and Sir Dorabji Tata Trust. We are grateful to the following experts who authored various portions of the detailed manuals; for each, this was a labour of love. The writers are Ambika Kapoor, Harsh Mander, Preeti Mathew, Rachel Firestone, Satya Pillai, Shaheen Adreshir, Shashi Mendiratta, Subroto Baul, Sunil Snehi and Sveta Dave Chakravarty. We learnt a great deal from the children themselves, as well as the team members or Sneh Sathis who undertook the pilot to establish Sneh Ghars, in Loreto Rainbow Home, Kolkata, the Dilse team, Delhi and the Aman Vedika team, Hyderabad, for providing rich insights on residential care setups in functional schools. We acknowledge Satya’s stewardship and for holding the reins of all the teams to ensure timely completion of this complex task. She was ably advised by Sister Cyril, Sveta Dave, K Anuradha, Ferdinand Van Koolwijk, Fr. George Kollashany, and Shashi Mendiratta; and assisted by her team members Shubhada Hiwale, Preeti Mathew and Ambika Kapoor. We would also like to thank Aarti Chandra for patiently going through the transcripts and editing them. Finally, sincere and heartfelt thanks to Harsh Mander, for his inspiring leadership of the entire process of putting our learning’s together and ensuring that the child remained in focus at all times.
Contents Introduction........................................................................................................................................5 Chapter 1: Values and Philosophy.................................................................................................7 Chapter 2: Roles and Functions.................................................................................................... 14 Chapter 3: Recruitment.................................................................................................................. 21 Chapter 4: Motivation and Retention.......................................................................................... 30 Chapter 5: Training........................................................................................................................ 38 Chapter 6: Performance Appraisal............................................................................................. 43 Annexures....................................................................................................................................... 49
Introduction A programme for long term, comprehensive care for street children is not just about the logistics of running a home. Nor is it about ensuring that the daily routine of eating, bathing, sleeping, going to school and playing happen smoothly. There are many deeper and demanding dimensions to the provisioning of care in the non-custodial, open approach that is being pioneered in several cities in the country. For the people who are running institutional care homes, their tasks are clear, mechanical and regimental. All that one has to do is mindlessly adhere to the strictly laid down rules and procedures and not worry about being kind, compassionate and caring. This is a description of Maharukh Adenwalla’s visit to an Observation Home for Boys in Werrington, England. She walks through endless corridors and several iron doors till - “On the left I see another iron door but with a difference, the upper half of the door is barred and I can see into a room. There are four uniformed boys aged between 16 -18 years seated on chairs with books or magazines on their laps and they are staring at the walls whilst uniformed male guards who out-number the uniformed boys, stare at them. This was the reading room... When the boys left their rooms to go to their classrooms or workshops, the attendants would shout ‘en-route!’ and the boys walked in single file within the narrow lane – talking was prohibited inside and outside the classrooms.” And then she describes her visit to a home in India...“I am relieved to return to the Observation Home in Dongri, Mumbai. I peep through the wooden door manned by an attendant wearing a green pant and red checked shirt into the courtyard beyond where some boys in blue are running around, whilst others are squabbling, yet others in class rooms talking more with each other than listening to the teacher-all doing children things. Though the two descriptions are of observation homes, what they vividly bring out is the philosophy and beliefs underlying the approach to caring for children. From the perspective of people required to meet the needs of the two approaches, clearly, the search for the right kind of people for the home in Dongri will be difficult, complex and painstaking. When a residential set up is trying to fulfil the need of a home in the lives of a hundred homeless street children, the adults in the home, through a natural extension, acquire the positions and roles of parents and close family members. This brings us to the realisation that we are looking for distinct personalities with a sense of responsibility, commitment and energy that is not going to be easy to find. The person is not only expected to be kind, compassionate, patient and caring but also worrying about ‘is it enough?’ or thinking about ‘what more?’; and being able to put tiredness behind them when a child needs their presence and attention. The remuneration offered in no way compensates adequately for the demands placed on the person. Yet, the person is able to summon from within a degree of motivation that is inexplicable and defies definition. What emerges is that people in a non-custodial care model are truly special and give more 5
than what most working people are expected to. What is also evident is that there is a lot of stretch and stress that they go through and much of it is psychological and emotional which can be extremely draining. As an organisation, these needs have to be deeply understood and acknowledged and strong structures should be in place to take care of them. This manual provides an understanding of the roles and responsibilities of a Sneh Sathi, the expectations placed on them, how to identify such people and develop their capacities and convey respectfully how valued they are for the strengths they bring and their round the clock availability. It puts forward several suggestions on how best to place the people based on direct experiences in the field and most suggestions come with a justification or rationale in order to clarify that nothing is arbitrary. This is not a human resource management manual. Each individual organisation should independently formulate its own HR policies and guidelines based on the people perspective and understanding that this manual provides and the context in which they work.
Core Values and Guiding Principles
Approach to Child Care in a Sneh Ghar In the Sneh Ghar approach to child care, the organisation commits: ‘To set up residential homes for street children that will provide long term, comprehensive care in a non custodial environment. The approach is rights-based; there is no sense of charity in providing for the well-being of children, rather it is ensuring that children get what is their right. The homes are democratic, secular spaces and function on the principles of mutual trust, love and unconditional acceptance, recognise the agency of the child and never compromise their self-respect and dignity. The process adopted in the Sneh Ghar ensures the emotional, psychological, mental and physical well being of the children.’ Two pre-requisites for a Sneh Ghar to exist are firstly the physical space and its environment and secondly the adults who provide the care. Together, they form the backdrop against which the child will spend a critical part of his/her formative years. The physical characteristic of the Sneh Ghar have been described in detail in the manual on Home Management. Here we will examine the adults who are in the home to care for the children, their abilities, their motivation levels and how they go about performing their role. Sneh Sathi or the ‘friend who loves’ is a role with multiple and overlapping functional and psychological dimensions. It is a combination, in varying degrees, of being a friend, companion, ally, counsellor, guide, well wisher and mentor, all rolled into one. With a continuous physical presence, a Sneh Sathi feels a genuine concern, provides unconditional love and nurtures children in their journey to heal, grow and evolve into happy, healthy and confident adults. The role of a Sneh Sathi is not only extremely demanding, but in many ways goes much beyond the normal parameters of caring and thereby impacts the manner in which this work should be understood. In the Sneh Ghar, people come from diverse backgrounds bringing with them their predispositions, prejudices, beliefs and behaviours which are the consequence of their life experiences over the past years before coming to work with the children in the Sneh Ghar. If they continue to function in their personal ways of being, even a collective of sensitive adults would not be able to establish the synergy and cohesion that needs to lie at the base of the care programme for children who were formerly on the streets. The group needs to come together ideologically and emotionally at many levels and dimensions. It is important that they are held together by commonly shared and passionately valued beliefs about the rights of children in society, social inequalities, child care, destitution and the right to live life with dignity even in deprivation. Core beliefs are not person/group specific 7
but are part of the over-arching organisational philosophy that guide the approach and design of interventions, define operating principles that translate into democratic, secular, compassionate and nurturing processes. These shared beliefs finally flow out into a culture of caring and behaviours that are subtle, sensitive and highly nuanced. Ideally, all three need to be organically integrated. While the expectation exists for the team of Sneh Sathis to believe in and work accordingly and be parents for children under their care, rules and regulations governing the Sneh Sathis correspondingly have to be framed keeping in mind the unique challenges of the environment in which they work, their daunting responsibilities and the manner in which they interpret and perform their tasks.
A Shared Vision All the Sneh Sathis in a home have to operate together as a team. They have to be almost thinking, responding and feeling similarly in any given situation. How is it possible to ensure that this happens? Social scientists have explained that this is possible when a team has a shared vision of the social change it is working towards, the shared goals to be achieved and a common understanding of how to get there. Helping every member to take ownership of the core values and principles is important towards developing a thinking, motivated, collaborative team. In the context of the Sneh Ghar, we will examine the guiding principles and how each principle can be seen at work in the manner in which the Sneh Sathis operate.
Guiding Principles at Work This section explains how the key guiding principles that evolve from the core values are operationalised by the Sneh Sathis in managing the Sneh Ghar and the children therein. Along with each operating principle is a brief section explaining its implications in day-today matters and how it is lived within the organisation. Familial Care: The children will be loved as oneâ€™s own children The need for nurturance is prevalent in children and adults alike. Attachment theory is one of the most widely used models to understand and describe the dynamics of relationships between humans. This theory highlights that the quality of nurturing has important implications for the way children define who they are, what they can become, and how and why they are important to other people. Attachment relationships shape the development of selfawareness, social competence, conscience, emotional growth and emotion regulation as well as learning and cognitive growth. Its most important tenet is that children need to develop a close and positive relationship with at least one or two primary caregivers for social and emotional development to occur normally and emphasises the importance of continuity and sensitivity in caring relationships. 8
In the process of a compromised survival, many street children, without families or those with uncaring ones, are usually left to develop their own understanding of themselves, of people and the larger world around them which may be faulty and flawed, limiting the child from developing into an autonomous, socially responsible, psychologically welladjusted adult. Implications for the Sneh Sathi Establishing caring and attachment does not necessarily depend on a biological connection. It can be formed with any adult who, on a continuing day-to-day basis, through interaction, companionship, interplay, and mutuality, fulfils the childâ€™s psychological and physical needs. This important principle of the theory has been well corroborated by the experience in the Sneh Ghars of Kolkata, Delhi and Hyderabad. The real need of the children from the street and the key to having them reside in open, non custodial Sneh Ghars is the love, respect and dignity that is extended to them and the attachment they feel with the people therein. The important factor is therefore the continuous presence of caring adults, their consistent personalities and the predictability of their behaviour that is reassuring and builds trust. Egalitarian Compassion The term â€˜egalitarian compassionâ€™ essentially describes a relationship of equals. It means recognising that no one is above or more important and others are not weaker or lesser. It recognises the ability of another to understand the challenges of their situation and find suitable or right ways to resolve them. In situations where there are adults and children, rather than seeing the child as being dependent, they are viewed as equal partners in the process of their own growth and development. The manner in which adults treat children must demonstrate an ability to proactively include and integrate all children, irrespective of their region, religion, language or gender and recognise the agency of the child. Implications for the Sneh Sathi This word best describes the approach of the Sneh Sathis towards the children. It becomes all the more essential, as the child in most cases has so far been in-charge of his/her life, all by him/herself in difficult circumstances. Respecting their views and taking them into confidence regarding all matters which involve them recognises their ability to think and arrive at decisions. The Sneh Sathis should not take decisions on behalf of the children but help them in taking their own decision. Adults providing care should encourage child participation in decision making. It requires the Sneh Sathi to be non-partial, fair and consistent in behaviour with all children giving each child the opportunity to present his/her point of view or version of a situation. The best interest of the child and accepting the agency of the child should be the guiding principles and every effort has to be made to help a child understand the options that are available and the best possible decision in any given situation.
The Agency of the Child Children who come into the Sneh Ghars possess extraordinary strengths and abilities. Their experiences have made them independent, smart, confident and able. They are selfempowered and have considerable control over their lives. It is an important and unique quality and this agency of the individual needs to be kept alive and active for it is a defining characteristic of the street child’s persona. However, it is also important to remember that this strength has to be firmly channeled in the right direction and positive usage. Implications for the Sneh Sathi The Sneh Sathis should not take decisions on behalf of the children but help them in taking their own decision. The manner in which Sneh Sathis treat children must demonstrate an ability to proactively include and integrate all children, irrespective of their age, region, religion, language or gender in matters pertaining to their lives. The Sneh Sathis must set up processes in a way that is understandable to them and they can participate actively. Discussion is essential for participatory decision making and the Sneh Sathi is required to be non-partial, fair and consistent in behaviour with all children, giving each child the opportunity to present his/her point of view or version of a situation. The best interest of the child and accepting the agency of the child should be the guiding principles for the Sneh Sathis and every effort has to be made to help a child understand the options that are available and the best possible decision in any given situation. Sneh Sathis should include children in the process of issues/conflict resolution. If children are made part of the team that decides the course of action to be taken, it leads to an understanding of accountability and being responsible for the consequences of an action. Children’s committees should be formed to manage or monitor routine tasks that need to be done in the home. Embracing Diversity The term ‘diversity’ in the western context is mostly understood to represent gender and racial equality. Therefore it is important to emphasise this term with specific reference to the Indian context. Indian diversity would include an appreciation, respect and understanding of people from different: Religious
Caste Class Socio-economic
Backgrounds States of Origin Gender
Implications for the Sneh Sathi The organisation should retain consistent openness to people of all faiths and race. Diversity should also exist in the team of Sneh Sathis â€“ there should be people of higher qualifications for tasks that need such a background as well as others with valuable skills but perhaps lesser academic qualifications. There should also be a judicious mix of people of all ages, gender and social/cultural backgrounds. The team work, interdependence, mutual respect and joyful cooperation exhibited by the team of Sneh Sathis send out strong signals to the children about the desired way to live and work together in society. It is expressed by observing different festivals or by preparing special kinds of foods associated with some occasions. It requires Sneh Sathis to break gender stereotypes of female Sneh Sathis being allocated traditional tasks of cooking and serving food and to prevent derogatory remarks about a state, language or a community from being made. There has to be high level of respect and value for what each colleague brings to the organisation. Democratic Functioning Each person, young or old, is an entity and exercises the right to be heard, to express views and be an equal partner in matters that are likely to impact his/her life. Democratic functioning needs to be reflected in the manner in which decisions are taken in the Sneh Ghar. It requires the practice of negotiation and dialogue. It also then entails the need to listen to different points of views, to engage in discussion and then to stand by the consensus on any matter. When children and adults participate in such open discussions, it is likely that decisions will be respected and adhered to. Implications for the Sneh Sathis The Sneh Ghars should be democratic and secular spaces. The rights and responsibilities of all in the home, the children as well as the Sneh Sathis, need to be clearly expressed, understood and respected, and decisions taken collectively. The right to be heard also implies the responsibility to listen. Children follow expected ways of expressing issues/ concerns, feelings and needs when they feel sure that their problems will be acknowledged and addressed. In situations where it is likely that everyone involved may possibly be strongly influenced by personal factors, then the group involved could collectively decide to call in or refer the matter to a person/s whom they all agree will be able to help reach an agreement. Transparent Management Transparency in functioning includes many aspects of the operating principles. Openness, the right to know about matters pertaining to their lives, being treated with respect and as equals, opportunities to be empowered and become mentally strong, confident and capable - all of these are put into practice when an institution is managed in a transparent manner and teams participate collectively in different processes. It rests on the principle that when matters are 11
brought up, discussed and understood, then the outcome of the shared responsibility is owned by all. Implications for the Sneh Sathis In the business of managing the Sneh Ghar, it is important to share all matters with the children and not keep them in the dark for any reason including money management. They need to be part of the budget making, spending and accounting processes. When issues or problems arise in the home, solutions should be collectively agreed upon. Children should form committees to participate and manage tasks that need to be done in the home. Children are initiated into life management skills in the process of keeping accounts, making purchases, engaging in seeking solutions for serious issues or being in committees and participating in the management of the Sneh Ghar. Strong Moral Fibre Children look up to the adults in their lives. They observe them and imbibe their beliefs and behaviours. They also place immense trust in them. It is important for the adults to be strong, consistent and of high moral character. Children are in the protection of the Sneh Ghar and the Sneh Sathi. If people exhibit immoral behaviours, it is a breach of faith and betrayal of the childrenâ€™s trust. Implications for the Sneh Sathi In the light of the fact that children in the Sneh Ghar are in the process of healing from previous exploitations and betrayals, any action of the Sneh Sathis that puts the children at risk needs to be strictly avoided. Any instance of deceit, aggressiveness, reckless disregard for safety, irresponsibility or using crude vocabulary on the part of the Sneh Sathi needs to be strictly dealt with immediately. Instances of financial misappropriation or seeking or taking bribes are serious offences and will not be tolerated. The presence of such adults negatively impacts the minds of children. There is a direct co-relation between transparent processes and low levels of corruption so it is worthwhile to strive for transparency in all areas as has been discussed earlier. The issue of sexual offences involving adults, children have been dealt with in detail in the Child Protection Policy Document. This policy document is binding on all Sneh Sathis. The important point here is that Sneh Sathis have to be of impeccable moral character and strength. It is pre-requisite for working closely with children. Secularism In the western model of secularism, politics and religion are separate from each other. In a multi-religious society like India, the real spirit of secularism is visible in its inclusiveness, religious pluralism and peaceful co-existence. Societal and political structures and processes in India regard all religions, faiths and beliefs with respect and are all equal in the eyes of 12
the law. People are free to worship and practice rituals and rites relevant to their particular religions Discriminatory practices on the basis of religion are an offence and justiciable. All government public spaces are secular spaces including schools and institutes of higher learning. Implications for the Sneh Sathis The Sneh Ghars need to represent this religious diversity and the team of Sneh Sathis should be recruited from all faiths. There should be no discrimination on the basis of religion in the recruitment process. Sneh Sathis need to adopt inclusive practices in the Sneh Ghars â€“ such as observing all festivals, important days in different religions etc. The prayers that children are taught should reflect secular values. All children in difficult circumstances needing care and protection should be given shelter in the Sneh Ghar without any discrimination. The Sneh Sathis should be particularly aware and careful about derogatory remarks about any child on the basis of his or her religion. Special foods associated with a religious practice should be prepared in the Sneh Ghars and children need to be explained the significance of such observations.
Roles and Functions
The Sneh Ghar is a place offering comprehensive care at any given point to at least 25 children, a number that can, depending on the capacity of the space even go up to a 100 children. It offers love and care and attends to the holistic growth needs of a child like health, education and overall development. Multiple services have to be carefully planned within the purview of numerous legislations pertaining to infrastructure, human resources and childcare. The Sneh Ghar has to organise itself with structures, systems and processes so as to make the entire programme run smoothly and have the required impact on the lives of children.
Home Resource Functions There are a variety of Human Resources functions required to run a Sneh Ghar, these diverse functions are illustrated in Fig.1.
Fig 1: Human Resource Functions in the Sneh Ghar
In order to take care of these diverse functions, a Sneh Ghar requires a team of people with different skills. These can be divided into two broad categories: â€˘â€˘
Sneh Sathis providing Direct Care - These include individuals who are with the children throughout; located at the Sneh Ghar, engaging with them directly, offering them unconditional love and acceptance and providing them with an environment which is secure, healing, stimulating and empowering. They are also responsible for executing and running the required administrative processes to support the creation of such an environment.
Sneh Sathis supporting Care Functions - These are the pivotal people who provide the administrative and managerial scaffolding to ensure that the overall programme runs smoothly. They contribute through their thought leadership and insights of how structures, systems and processes should function; taking into consideration statutory as well as the practical aspects across different parts of the organisation.
There is no best ratio or formula defining the number of Sneh Sathis required for direct care of a certain number of children. The size of a care team should largely depend on the number of children in a Sneh Ghar and their age group. While a Sneh Ghar with younger children who need more physical attention and care, should have more Sneh Sathis in a care role, those with children in the age group of 9-14 years need to be offered strong academic support and need more Sneh Sathis who can fulfil an educators role. If there are many older children, the Sneh Ghar needs Sneh Sathis to attend to their adolescent needs. Older children can assume some of the care responsibilities and assist the Sneh Sathis with cooking, administration, etc. through participatory methods. While care activities can be assumed by all, some functions require technical competencies, for facilities such as healthcare, teaching and report writing along with knowledge and understanding of laws pertaining to the field, etc. As a principle, the number of Sneh Sathis should proportionally increase with the number of children in the Sneh Ghar. Provision for special personnel should be made for young children and those with special needs.
Critical Service Components of a Sneh Ghar This section describes the six critical service components of a Sneh Ghar and the tasks to be undertaken in order to ensure that they are optimally operationalised. Sneh Sathis need to take up multiple roles as per the requirements and therefore we have refrained from presenting them as precise and preset role designation. It is left to the teams internally to exercise the freedom to assess the needs of the children and the Sneh Ghar and to decide collectively and allocate key tasks that address the functions, singularly or in combination with Sneh Sathis, in full or part time roles as appropriate.1 Function â€“1: Management The smooth functioning of every aspect of a Sneh Ghar, through synergising the human, finance, community and other resources towards providing care, safety, health and education to all the children depends on this function.
1 As per the Delhi Juvenile Justice Act - The strength of the Sneh Sathis should be determined according to the number of children, vacancies, size of the home, work load, distribution of functions and activity plan.
Key responsibilities To ensure that the structures, systems and processes laid down are followed. To maintain all the registers and complete documentation. To ensure timely availability of funds, judicious utilisation and accurate audit. To participate in community mobilisation to ensure effective management of the Sneh Ghar. To ensure proper maintenance of the building and premises. To ensure daily routines are followed. To allocate and supervise the Sneh Sathis - administration, personal welfare and discipline. To maintain all records and registers as required in the Juvenile Justice Act. To ensure compliance with the SSA norms and provisions of the JJ Act and rules therein.
Function – 2: Care Cultivate a homely atmosphere full of love, affection and care. Provide age, gender and personality-appropriate, thought and attention to each child to ensure growth and development of the children in the Sneh Ghar. Key responsibilities To ensure hygiene and grooming of all children especially of children below the age of 10 years - bathing, dressing and grooming, ensuring hair and nails are cut, body is oiled and hair is combed. To wash, dry and store their uniforms, daily clothes and underclothes. To prepare children for school. To cook or assist the cook in preparing food. Ensure that tasty and nutritious food is laid out in a hygienic manner as per prescribed meal timings. To maintain hygiene and sanitation in the home. To clean rooms, corridor and campus premises. To dry mattresses in the sun and keeping them in a proper place. To be available to the children if they want to talk, sensitively attend to their needs. To inculcate good manners in children. To ensure safety and comfort of the children. To enable better adjustment of a new child with the Sneh Ghar environment and with other children. To interact with parents/family of the children on a regular basis to discuss, plan and share their progress.
Function - 3: Health Ensuring the overall good health of all children and residents by organising timely and appropriate curative, preventive and promotional health initiatives. Key responsibilities To take preventive and precautionary measures with regard to hygiene in the Sneh Ghar and health of children and Sneh Sathis. To organise monthly check-ups of children by a visiting doctor. To ensure required vaccination/de-worming is administered to all the children. To recommend and take cases that cannot be treated with basic medical care to the hospital/specialised medical practitioner. To ensure timely intervention during medical emergencies. To administer medicine - maintain stock, supervise distribution, record in the appropriate register. To ensure special care of children who are acutely sick. To ensure care of children with special needs. To hold discussions on health and hygiene and its importance and on adolescent issues with the children, conducting workshops for the same. To maintain individual health profiles and records of children.
Function – 4: Education Design, develop and implement a relevant, need-based, high quality education programme that meets the educational needs of all the children in the Sneh Ghar and is aligned to the organisational vision for education of children in its care. It should also ensure the overall personality development of children and provide them with a platform for discovering, developing and showcasing their talents. Key responsibilities To facilitate children to be appropriately bridged, admitted and accepted into the mainstream schooling system. To teach preparatory courses (Bridge, Remedial and Refresher) towards mainstreaming. To monitor school progress, bridge course progress, teachers and logistics through regular visits. To maintain a detailed educational profile of each child and evaluate his/her progress on a regular basis using multiple assessment tools.
To examine direction for Teacher and Curriculum development. To ensure compliance with guidelines issued by school authorities and administration. To understand concerns and challenges and address them appropriately. To focus on ‘remedial’ classes for the weak children, and tailor solutions for them accordingly. To ensure appropriate educational inputs for children with special needs. To draw up an annual calendar of non-academic events for the Sneh Ghar; plan and execute excursions, summer and winter camps for all children. To plan and execute a variety of programmes for all children to gainfully and happily engage in different creative activities. To plan and execute activities like Annual Day, Sports Day, etc. once in a year for all the children and celebrate all festivals. To develop links and contacts with multiple agencies and organisations to provide expertise and experts in creative fields. To facilitate Resource Teachers in implementing the Life Skills, English and Computer curriculum. To facilitate vocational opportunities for the older children. To write and ensure timely submission of reports. To document learning’s and findings. To engage in a continuous analysis of the appropriateness of the educational philosophy and direction and providing rationales for the changes required. To counsel children individually on their concerns regarding schooling/ vocational choices or problems.
Function – 5: Community Mobilisation The focus of this function is to initiate and develop a social process in selected communities of the city, undertake a collective analysis of community perception and approach towards vulnerable children and spearhead collective action leading to identification and positive action for them. Key responsibilities To approach urban poor groups, get associated with them, win their trust, support them and build more awareness and consciousness of health, education and upbringing of unaccompanied as well as their own children. To identify potential leaders and/or organisers; and provide them with skills and knowledge in getting them interested, organised and motivated.
To initiate actions aimed at breaking down passivity, apathy and attitude of abusing or neglecting children. To assist them in obtaining information and knowledge that may be available through governmental and non-governmental agencies, through extension and outreach programmes. To assist community members to identify needs and to generate solutions; identify priority issues and analyse their problems. To raise awareness of families and other community members and help them to access health and other entitlements. To identify children in need and work with them to reach the best course of action that will ensure their safety and growth. To undertake a vulnerability audit of the child’s family on a regular basis. To repatriation and restoration of as many children as possible back to their homes. To identify those vulnerable children who do not want to or cannot be restored with their families and encourage them into the care of a Sneh Ghar. To ensure that the child obtains basic health care, emergency services and emotional support during the mobilisation period. To develop close ties with the parents/guardians of the child and good relations with the police of the contact area. To showcase the work of the Sneh Ghar and the organisation to the outside world. To mobilise sections of the community to marshal volunteers who can contribute time and energy for the cause. To identify individuals, communities, schools, colleges, agencies and other spaces that offer potential volunteer opportunities To recruit, place, monitor, evaluate, accredit and retain volunteers. To work in tandem with the other Sneh Sathis to ensure that adequate preparation is made to welcome and care for the child in the Sneh Ghar.
Function – 6: Legal Ensure that the Sneh Ghar and all activities therein are in compliance with all statutory obligations relating to the Child Welfare Committee (CWC) and Juvenile Justice Board (JJB), Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and other such authorities. Key responsibilities To accept the children ordered to be sent to the Sneh Ghar by the CWC. To do intensive case work with each new child to assure the child about her/ his safety.
To make individual plans for the child's rehabilitation as per the best interest of the child. To conduct a mandatory month long investigation into their place of origin, health and background and submit a report to the CWC. To ensure that all other CWC, JJB and police requirements are met. To ensure that the children sent by the CWC are produced month on month before the CWC. To maintain case files of each individual child and update the CWC with all important and relevant information pertaining to the child. To support the effort to assess prospective families in their responsibility to sustain placements for children in care and to train them as per the need.
An example of Staff Role Allocation at the Sneh Ghars in Delhi and Hyderabad Functions
Social mobilize cum counsellor
Home coordinators and Home manager
Home Manager cum health worker
Home manager cum teacher
Cook and Housemother
Upkeep of the home
Housemother, Manager and children
# Refer to Annexure 1 for staff pattern as per Delhi JJ Rules, 2009.
It is clear from the earlier sections that running a Sneh Ghar smoothly requires people to operate at multi-levels and assume multi-functions. Recruiting suitable individuals for these varied roles is often a challenging and arduous task. It is therefore important to have a clearly laid out recruitment strategy that will attract qualified, competent and diverse professionals to the programme. While the latter portion of the chapter focuses on how volunteers can be drawn to complement the work undertaken by the Sneh Sathis, this section outlines measures that may help organisations in recruitment of paid Sneh Sathis. It discusses two aspects of recruitment: Sourcing (finding candidates) and Process (evaluating and selecting candidates).
Sourcing In a situation where appropriate people are not easily found, it is imperative for an organisation to consistently be on the look-out for suitable individuals, instead of searching only when a vacancy arises. If an appropriate resource is identified and a vacancy is not available, the person may be asked to volunteer, or work as an apprentice for a mutually acceptable time period and stipend (if resources are available). If possible, a temporary role can be created to accommodate the person till full-time roles are allocated. To be on a constant look out will require one person in the team to regularly focus on this work. In case the organisation does not have a formal HR department, the role could be assigned to an existing member, such as the Sneh Sathi handling the social mobilisation function, owing to his/her extensive interaction with the external world. Internal selection It may be appropriate to bring in a Sneh Sathi, already working in any given capacity, who has been found suitable for the role in question. This not only works as a motivation tool, but also as a reward for good work and continuity with the organisation. The advantage of selection from within is that the person is already comfortable with the culture, policies, is tested for values and is likely to settle in sooner into the role than a new recruit. The disadvantage of this is that the organisation may lose out on a chance for newer ideas, fresh perspectives and creativity that always comes with a new person.
Internal Selection: Khushi Rainbow Home, one of the first Sneh Ghars to open in Delhi, has had a roller coaster ride in terms of its human resources. Many promising people took charge but due to a lack of continuity and stability, the Sneh Ghar faced many mild and some serious challenges. After many failed attempts, the team decided to promote a Sneh Sathi who had been with the organisation from its inception and was currently functioning in the capacity of a teacher. The experience of having closely observed and of having learnt from her group leader, her own aspirations and calibre made her an obvious choice for this unsteady and challenging position. For the organisation, it meant permanence and for her it meant a higher salary and growth in the direction she desired. Within weeks of her assuming the role, her enthusiastic presence, understanding of the work and pleasant nature has brought in the required positivity and stability in the Sneh Ghar.
Network Referrals A recommendation from existing, likeminded organisations and individuals is a reliable and rich source for new appointments. Often, people who have previously worked or have been associated in any capacity with the Sneh Ghar, such as partners, volunteers, donors, etc. are familiar with the atmosphere, approach and culture and would be able to make appropriate recommendations.
Kolkata Mashis - In an approach unlike the other Sneh Ghars, the Rainbow Homes in Kolkata hire women to perform the nurturing role of mothers from reliable agencies working for the development of disadvantaged women. They are referred to as â€˜Mashisâ€™, which translates into 'mother like'. The requisite qualities have been communicated by the home to the agencies, which carefully screen and send only those who qualify. The Mashis spend the entire day, from early morning to evening and diligently undertake all the childcare related tasks. This system has been successfully followed by all the Rainbow Homes in Kolkata since the past several years.
Current Employee References Since Sneh Sathis have been in positions of responsibility and have an understanding of the nuances of work, they can be a source of referrals for new Sneh Sathis. A referral scheme by existing Sneh Sathis that is incentive based might be tried which is also beneficial in boosting motivation. Particular emphasis should be placed on popularising this scheme with social mobilisers, who have maximum interaction with the community. However, relying completely on word of mouth will generate a pool of employees that does not reflect the diversity requirements and may be discriminative; therefore one should be careful with this method and use it sparingly. If hiring relatives, they should preferably work in different Sneh Ghars or another part of the organisation to prevent issues of favouritism, nepotism and possible morale problems amongst other Sneh Sathis. It is never appropriate for family members to be in supervisory positions when they are required to manage their own relative.
Internships Some positions lend themselves well to internships. Internship is an arrangement in which a student is placed temporarily in a position with an organisation with no obligation by either party to make it into a permanent one. It may be a summer or a part time job that a student takes on while in college, enabling her/him to learn more about the organisation and the Sneh Ghar and to try out the job while settling into it as a career. It also enables the organisation to check out the competency fit before offering a role. Online Resources In todayâ€™s world, websites, blogs and social networks are the most cost effective and mass-appealing method of reaching out to a large audience. A wide range of available resources, such as children's artwork, stories by children and personal account of volunteers and Sneh Sathis, forms a rich base for creating meaningful blogs and social networking accounts. It is necessary to ensure that materials, postings and vacancies are regularly published and monitored on these sites. Advertisements The organisation can choose to advertise in the local newspaper or circulate single page notices to announce vacancies. This method is low cost and can generate a good number of applications. For a wider circulation, appeals to network partners and agencies are also useful. Regular Media Coverage Specifically for senior leadership positions, frequent media coverage is helpful in establishing the organisation in the purview of the public and in articulating the Sneh Sathi requirements. One way of doing this could involve the publication of papers in periodicals or journals covering generic topics such as a critique of the Legal Approach to Street Children, or specific endeavours being undertaken. This would increase the overall visibility of the organisation in circles where senior leadership could potentially be sourced from. Recruitment of Older Children A structured approach of recruiting the older children (18 years and above) in the Sneh Ghars may be another way of finding suitable people; however this should be done with the consent of the child. This is a resource base that will have emotional ties with the Sneh Ghar, a good understanding of what the role requires. Home coordinators could make recommendations based on their observations and understanding of the childâ€™s interest, aptitude, competence and readiness.
Process The recruiting process designed to fill the personnel needs of a Sneh Ghar is made up of a set of sequential stages. This section briefly outlines these: 23
Personal Interview Personal interview is a good way of evaluating any candidate’s suitability for the role of a Sneh Sathi. Candidates should ideally be interviewed separately by at least two people, preferably from the senior leadership and experienced Sneh Sathis. They should be interviewed on their knowledge, aptitude, competencies, skills, prior experience and expectations. The questions asked in an interview should also reveal the prospective Sneh Sathi’s work style, their future plans and aim to find out any pertinent background information that has not been mentioned in the resume. Some prospective Sneh Sathis, especially those coming for the vacancies of a house mother, may not be educated, may not have submitted a resume and may never have faced a formal interview till date. In such cases, the interview should be modified so that the information is sought carefully in an informal interaction mode. In either situation, the questions can be open ended or ‘situational’, converting as many real life examples to “what would you do in a case like this”; thereby allowing the candidate to speculate and imagine how s/he will handle the situation. Open-ended conversations will allow them to express thoughts that are directly relevant to the job. During the course of the interview, it is useful to briefly summarise the functions that the job entails and to then ask the candidate if s/he feels confident that they would be able to perform them. (a) Parameters to be assessed are Competency - Apart from the driving motivation to opt for this task, the key competencies listed against each function are a strong basis on which prospective Sneh Sathis can be short-listed. There is not much evidence to suggest that any specific kind or level of educational qualifications correspond to specific competencies. However, some functions need technical skills and competencies such as teaching, managing finance, documentation, legal compliances, etc. While interviewing Sneh Sathis for these functions therefore, relevant knowledge and skill sets should be assessed. Matching Values - The harmony between the personal values of the prospective Sneh Sathis and the framework on which the work with children is based should be a mandatory criterion to evaluate a potential Sneh Sathi. A candidate unable to demonstrate or relate to these should not be considered appropriate for the role and conversely an embodiment of the values should serve as a qualifier. Therefore, interviewers should carefully, sensitively and gently probe for evidence of these values. Personal Qualities - The quality of Sneh Sathis sets the standard for care that is provided in the Sneh Ghar. Their compassion, concern and care are enough to make even a poorly resourced place feel like a happy, comfortable home. The following key attributes in a person are fundamental to their fitting
positively into the role of a Sneh Sathi and hence they should be assessed on these. Together with enjoying working with children, a Sneh Sathi should be:
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix.
Alert A Good Communicator Compassionate Caring Empathetic Non-Judgemental Patient Problem Solver Self Driven
It is also crucial to check and confirm that the candidate has no criminal record or history of child abuse, is currently not under any kind of serious substance addiction, not suffering from any progressive deteriorating medical illness and not currently under treatment for any kind of mental illness.
Willingness to be Residential - In the job of rearing children, there can be no ‘off hours’ when one can switch off completely. Similar to the role of a parent, who does not stop caring for his/her children after 5 pm, the prospective Sneh Sathis should be willing to extend work hours if necessary to ensure that the children’s needs are met. The nature of this work mandates that Couple working as house mother Sneh Sathis need to be residential and security in a Boys' Home (URH): Jayamma and Kurmiah were daily workers. Also as per the JJ Act, wagers working in road laying projects. along with the Programme InThey are both sensitive and hard charge, as many Sneh Sathis as working. Hailing from a poor dalit possible should be available on background, they had no opportunity the premises, i.e. be residential. In to go to school. They feel inspired to case where the accommodation is see anyone working hard to improve not available within the premises, the education system so that the poor they can stay at a place in close can access it. Thus they try to provide good care to the boys to the best of proximity to the Sneh Ghar, till a their ability. They have even identified time that such accommodation can children in their slum who are in need be arranged within the campus. and helped them to come to the Having couples working in the Sneh Ghar. Jayamma also insists upon Sneh Ghar has immense strengths. discipline and proper utilisation of things and resources - a valuable and Apart from the fact that they are a much needed lesson for the boys. source of personal and emotional support to each other, they embody 25
the notion of a family with a mother figure and father figure at the centre. Children are able to relate to them in the traditional image that they have of a family and it is emotionally comforting. It is also easier for a couple to slip effortlessly into the mode of shared roles and responsibilities. Â„Â„ Time Commitment - Since continuity is the cornerstone for all childcare related functions, it is important that the person commits a sustained time of not less than two years in the Sneh Ghar. Therefore clarify how long the candidate is willing to stay on. Probe whether s/he is genuinely interested or is likely to move out if offered a more lucrative job. Site Visit Once the candidate qualifies in the initial talks, s/he should be asked to visit a Sneh Ghar and the catchment area from where the children have moved into the Sneh Ghar and spend as much time as possible there. Although a week is the ideal duration for this first exposure and observation, a day or even a couple of hours experience may be adequate to get a feel and allows the candidate to make initial inferences. In the interview following the visit, ask and note carefully, the candidateâ€™s opinion on his/ her experience of what was seen and heard and how they feel about it. Also, find out what made an impression, their suggestions for improvement in the situation, etc. Discuss the physical and emotional energy level required to take on the role. This will stimulate selfreflection and a realistic self-assessment before reconfirming their suitability for the role. A prior feedback from children and the Sneh Sathis will be extremely beneficial for this part of the screening. Overview of the Work and Responsibilities At this stage, offer the prospective Sneh Sathi a realistic overview of the Sneh Ghar, its function and the specific tasks that will be assigned to her/him. People can leave if a job turns out to be something that they did not expect. Tell them everything they need to know, good as well as the unpleasant. State clearly the salary, benefits, etc. specify how much travel is involved, the specific requirements if the role is residential, the challenges and crisis to be expected; based on all of which they can take an informed decision. This information will help to ensure that they do not face surprises and unwarranted stress leading to an early or an eventual exit. Background Check Before making an offer, verify the information provided by the candidate through a reference check of the personality, strengths and weaknesses and the authenticity of the facts shared by him/her. Inform the prospective Sneh Sathi about this protocol and ask for
appropriate references. If undertaking a check with sources other than those suggested by the candidate, take permission from the candidate. Probation Period Once selected, it is recommended that the position be offered to the Sneh Sathi with a probation period of one to three months, which will provide the opportunity for hands on work and time for both parties to review the suitability of the position. After a formal review and on being mutually satisfied, the Sneh Sathi can be confirmed into the position. This is done by giving a formal appointment letter with details of the role, reporting terms, compensation, other benefits, leave and other HR rules applicable. It is important that the Sneh Sathi be given a copy of the organisationâ€™s HR Policy and the Child Protection Policy. Refer to Annexure 2(i) and 2(ii) for the Appointment Letter and the CPP Code of Conduct respectively.
Volunteers as a support to Sneh Sathis Volunteers are individuals and or organisations that dedicate their time, talent and energy without seeking monetary compensation and are an important part of an endeavour like the Sneh Ghar. They provide a flexible, motivated work force far beyond the financial resources of the organisation. A strong and carefully managed volunteer system will yield a large number of people and can make a significant difference in the human resource pool of the Sneh Ghar. Volunteers can range from students, retired officers, teachers, housewives and professionals, etc. i.e. anyone who is willing to commit time and who can establish a mutually meaningful relationship. Volunteers can contribute by engaging in several kinds of functions. It is important that all organisations clearly think through the ways in which volunteers â€“ long term, short term, from overseas could engage in the work of the organisation. Once these areas are defined and agreed upon, it becomes easier to match the skills or desires of the volunteers and place them in areas of mutually fruitful engagement. For this, a good database of volunteer information could be put in place. Volunteers could be engaged in direct work involving children or activities that will obliquely impact them such as fund raising, community mobilisation, event management, etc. A well-defined and communicated volunteer management plan should include a recruitment protocol, description of all volunteer tasks, be it long or short term volunteers; and possible stipend and reimbursement policies, if applicable. It is important to follow a policy that does not discriminate, but respects, encourages and represents the diversity of the community.
Volunteer Teacher - A retired school teacher, Ms. Shiva Priya, has been coming to the Mursheerabad Sneh Ghar in Hyderabad every single day since the past four years and has been teaching Maths and Science to the children. While helping patiently to initiate first time learners into education, she empathetically listens and counsels the older girls who are approaching the crossroads of adulthood. She is loved by the children and deeply regarded by the Sneh Sathis. At no instance does she come across as just a volunteer, be it her punctuality, commitment, accountability, depth of engagement with the children and Sneh Sathis or her passionate involvement with the day-to-day home administration. Volunteer Doctor - She approached the programme with an unswerving will to associate and engage in work that would directly impact vulnerable and needy children. Although she desired to be involved in some form of educational activities, knowing that she was a Senior Psychiatrist at a premier government hospital in Delhi, she was requested to contribute part of her time to what she did best i.e., screen and advise the in-house counsellor on the correct intervention for the numerous children entering Kilkari Rainbow Home with moderate to severe psychological problems. With limited services and experts for treatment of mental health and psychological issues in the city, and even lesser access for poor and traumatised children, the Sneh Sathis had been struggling, for every minor and major case that presented itself in the Sneh Ghar. Agreeing graciously to a weekly visit, the Sneh Sathis and the children are now reassured and relieved with Dr. Anita's ready, appropriate and precise advice and feel more relaxed and confident of managing the children.
Delegating Allocations While handling allocations to volunteers, key points that the organisation should keep in mind are: Assign
roles chosen on the basis of their interest, skills and time commitment. Have a variety of tasks to engage them and not to give tasks to volunteers simply because they are considered inferior, boring or repetitive for Sneh Sathis. It should give them confidence and make them feel that they are making a meaningful contribution. Give volunteers the training they need. Introduce them to the Child Protection Policy Protocol of the organisation, so that they can plan their engagement with children in mutually safe and acceptably ways. Find out their expectations for their contribution and help them adapt and learn new things. Supervise them properly and offer resources and support. Have a complaints and grievance resolution mechanism in case they have a problem.
that they do a thorough job. Do not under-value the volunteers contribution. Organise performance appraisals periodically and communicate to them how well they are doing, or where additional attention is required. Ask them to review and evaluate their own involvement and the people they work with and suggest areas for improvement. Have a process for reviewing and responding to ideas, suggestions, comments and perceptions from volunteers. Consult them and seek their opinion on the happenings of the Sneh Ghar. Build team spirit by providing volunteers with team t-shirts and help them to get to know their fellow volunteers. Think about ways to recognise and reward them and most importantly, respect them and the work they do. List volunteers names where appropriate in the newsletter, reports, etc. and thank them publicly in speeches. Organise a function at least once a year involving volunteers. Invite them to events and other functions held during the year.
Challenges - Motivation and Retention
Much of the success of a Sneh Ghar is to be measured by how much the children feel loved and cared for and by the degree of their growth and development into healthy, confident and hopeful young adults. Recognising that this is largely and directly dependent upon the continuous presence of motivated and satisfied Sneh Sathis, it becomes critical to ensure that they are themselves content, happy and enjoy their work. What keeps the Sneh Sathis motivated and committed? The biggest advantage and also possibly one that is unique to working with children is the immediate visibility of tangible changes that occurs as a result of individual efforts. As a Sneh Sathi one can be in a unique position to make an immense, visible, long-term social change happen in the community. The positive social change that gets sculpted by oneâ€™s efforts goes a long way in providing a deep sense of satisfaction to anyone who chooses to work in this field. Despite these possibilities and strengths, there are several situations and realistic challenges that the Sneh Sathis could be faced with while undertaking this work that manifest themselves in roadblocks such as low morale, frequent absenteeism resulting in a high turnover. This chapter delves deeper to first understand the challenges that disrupt stability and goes on to recommend broad guidelines to develop a strong and effective Sneh Sathi development plan and management strategy.
Some Challenges Long Working Hours While the company of children livens and stimulates, taking care of them also sap tremendous amounts of energy from the adults around them. Sneh Sathis, especially the residential ones, shoulder a big responsibility (especially beyond the 9am-6pm time bracket) and often end up working 80-100 hours per week. On an average, a Sneh Ghar will have 75-100 children to take care of. Each child with their specific requirements, peculiarities and idiosyncrasies put significant amount of burden on the Sneh Sathis. Coping with challenging behaviour, getting up at night, persistent high levels of noise, overwhelming workload, working against time, recurring emergencies and occasional resource constraints are situations that the Sneh Sathis may have to face in different degrees. In addition to the variety of regular tasks to be undertaken round the clock such as managing children, cooking, cleaning and additional chores like shopping, administrative procedures, etc. means that there is no end to their duty hours. 30
Other than in exceptional cases, the Sneh Ghars will be established in a restricted part of a building or a school already in use, with very limited free space that can be taken up further. Since the attempt will always be to optimise the available space with maximum children, it may not permit allocation of separate private spaces to the residential Sneh Sathis where they can have some privacy, unwind and refresh as they continue discharging their responsibilities each day. The limited personal time coupled with limited space often translates into a physical and psychological drain out for the Sneh Sathis. Perceived Lack of Support Owing to the different set-up, demanding physical work, round-the-clock nature of their duties and the ensuing pressures, Sneh Sathis dealing directly with children may feel that those in supporting and leadership roles do not really understand their stresses and difficulties. Sneh Sathis may feel a sense of exasperation and frustration owing to the fact that while the maximum time goes in â€˜managingâ€™ children, especially the older ones, there is a further demand from the head office for e.g. requesting for a specific report, a visit or inspection that may, distract, disrupt and affect the routine work plan schedules and timings. On the other side of the coin, the management team labours with donor management, liasoning with government officials, school principals, the CWC and other such programmatic issues that are based on the cooperation of the Sneh Sathis and the timely data to be provided by them about the children. The two teams may end up feeling that the other team and its members are not being supportive and cooperative. Personality Factors Sneh Sathis in specific functions may come from diverse backgrounds, academic orientations, will have different personalities and very different work styles, and therefore may find it challenging to work with one another as a team. A conflict like this is particularly detrimental if it occurs at the level of team leaders, since they serve as role models for the other team members who work with them.
Addressing Challenges These are just a few examples of difficulties that have stood out in some of the established Sneh Ghars. There may be many other factors that interplay causing frustration and anxiety in the teams at work. Here are some ways in which these issues can be addressed. Human Resource Policy Every implementing organisation must have a written Human Resource Policy or a guidebook for its Sneh Sathis. The policy serves as a comprehensive source for understanding the practices of the organisation. Through this, the Sneh Sathis can independently find answers to their questions, which saves time spent on clarifying expectations; supports communication 31
and accountability; and promotes consistency, continuity and an understanding within the organisation and the Sneh Ghar. The document should spell out the policy and corresponding protocol for areas such as: Code
of Conduct Working Conditions (attendance, duty hours, residential/non residential etc.) Recruitment and Termination Compensation and Benefits Training and Development Appraisals Health and Safety Grievance Redressal The policy should comply with employment standards and other related legislation such as Employment/Labour Standards, Privacy Legislation, Occupational Health and Safety, Human Rights, etc. Sneh Sathis and other key stakeholders must have access to up-to-date copies of the policies and procedures that are relevant to their role. They should be adhered and made to understand any new policies or changes to policies coming into effect. Induction and Training Building the basic understanding and knowledge of the work and inculcating the right attitude and skills in each Sneh Sathi through a formal induction and future training sessions, increases the quality of care. Training will help the Sneh Sathis to get clarity and accuracy in their tasks leading to increased satisfaction. Happy members make a happy team who will then become a productive workforce. The more satisfied the Sneh Sathis are and greater the morale, the more productive and spontaneous they will be with lesser absenteeism and turnover. For example, one of the fundamental principles is the understanding of the role of a caregiver that the Sneh Sathis have to assume, which often conflicts with that of the biological families, resulting in friction. Training helps the Sneh Sathis to understand why the children, who having been living independently this far, require nurturing; that the Sneh Ghar is not a surrogate family; and that the Sneh Sathis are professionals playing multiple roles in an alternate care arrangement for children, so their role and the role of the family are different. The induction programme should aim to address such issues, clarify them and help bring objectivity in their role of a caregiver. Revisiting Values Restating the core values of the organisation from time to time will go a long way in keeping 32
up the spirits of the Sneh Sathis. A familiar saying states, 'Families that pray together, stay together.' So also, people who reflect together, work together. Beliefs are constantly being challenged and are under fire. It is possible that people are faced with conflicts or dilemmas. When people are holding themselves around an ideology, it is important to incorporate a process that leads to resolving or clarifying uncertainties rather than allowing the questions to linger. The organisations that revisit their assumptions and share the dilemmas that they face and also learn to continue searching for answers, have greater chances of emerging stronger and unified. It also enables the starfish phenomenon i.e. if any part of a starfish is cut off from the rest of the body, the cut part has the potential to grow back into a starfish. This is because the starfish has no central command but carries the entire nervous system encoded in every cell. Similarly, each Sneh Sathi should hold the key to represent the organisational thought and culture everywhere. Role Clarity and Distribution It should be clarified and accepted by all the Sneh Sathi's that the various functions to be undertaken for the comprehensive care of children are not mutually exclusive but interdependent and overlapping. However, the primary set of responsibilities and accountabilities of each Sneh Sathi with a “when to contact, whom and for what purpose” should be agreed upon and laid out clearly. A roster can be collectively prepared which will balance each person’s time and responsibilities. Incorporating a shift system is useful, particularly for residential Sneh Sathis. The schedule should be planned in such a way that there is a balance maintained between each Sneh Sathi’s work and rest periods and that no one Sneh Sathi is strained. The schedules could be changed on a weekly, fortnightly or monthly basis, as suitable. Refer to Annexure 3 for Sample of a day's routine of Sneh Sathis in the Delhi Sneh Ghars. Collective Planning, Review and Learning Weekly or monthly reviews chaired by the group leader, to ensure regular communication between the Sneh Sathis and the supporting staff on issues of concern are very advantageous. The group leader, right from the onset, must set in place the frequency, tone, tenure and content of these review forums. Encourage the Sneh Sathis to sit down together to share, inform, question, brainstorm and review the completed tasks and to reflect and generate plans. Difficult issues can be identified, discussed and resolved quickly, before they become more serious. This allows members from leadership functions and Sneh Sathis operating in the Sneh Ghars to see how their objectives are linked and how they are working towards a common goal. This sense of one team with one goal, allows team spirit to develop and permits Sneh Sathis to understand and respect what the other Sathi is doing. This also enables to seek and give help more readily. Some team members rarely tell or ask unless they see a good opportunity to
do so. Regular, informal review meetings provide them with this space. In the initial stages, leadership involvement in facilitating these meetings should be particularly high and at a later stage, while the leader’s presence may not be required, ensuring that these forums continue on a regular basis remains their responsibility. Priorities often change through the year, and correspondingly, plans need to be re-directed and re-focused. Revision of objectives and plans can be agreed, delegated, completed and reviewed quickly, increasing effectiveness and motivation of all Sneh Sathis, if an annual or half yearly collective review and goal-setting exercise, involving the entire team, from top to bottom, is undertaken. Refer Annexure 4 for Sample of Vision Planning of a Sneh Ghar in Delhi.
Issues to be discussed
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Quality of care in terms of Health, Nutrition, and Education Adherence to schedules Adherence to planned menu Issue of ration, clothes, stationery Attendance in schools and bridge course Feedback from school /teachers Enrichment activities within and outside the Home New announcements like exits or new recruitments Discipline issues Children’s committees and issues raised Personal sharing by all team members Sanitation and hygiene of the Home Infrastructure: upkeep and maintenance Records – home and child Visits by funders Donations received Training plans Presentation of inspection report and action to be taken Planning of events in the coming week, month and quarter Planning of restoration and follow-up post restoration Volunteer engagement Community participation Legal support to children and their families
This will provide a platform for Sneh Sathis to interact outside of their regular • roles. As more person-to-person (as • opposed to role-to-role) contact is made possible, allowing mutual understanding • and respect to develop, it will have a • positive impact on teamwork. A follow- • up of the decisions taken at these meetings becomes important to make certain that every one is updated about the subsequent revisions in policies, procedures and decisions. Well-informed workers will make sound decisions and remain motivated and productive. Also, they will feel an integral part of the larger organisational family. Timely and Effective Monitoring and Evaluation Unlike common belief, regular monitoring and evaluation is not an end in itself, but rather a start point for reflection and dialogue with the internal team of Sneh Sathis. Regular programme evaluations should be conducted based on the collection and analysis of data that informs the Sneh Sathis and managers, that progress towards the established goals 34
is being achieved. These help to comprehensively assess the long-term impact of the programme and to track and identify what is working, what is not, and what should be done differently in the future. This is an iterative cycle that should be repeated frequently. Adequate and Timely Supervision Emotional support and the presence of a strong leadership is an important contributory factor in reassuring and encouraging the frontline Sneh Sathis. Supportive supervision and mentoring should be regularly provided to all Sneh Sathis within the structure and function of a team. It should be done in an enabling way and should not be an inspectorial or fault finding mission. It should help to identify gaps, areas for improvement and what support individual Sneh Sathi's or the team as a whole may require and from whom. The purpose is primarily to help all Sneh Sathis and for the programme to perform effectively. Individuals who are tasked with providing supportive supervision or mentoring should themselves be competent and have appropriate supervisory skills. In this regard, it is imperative that all the supporting persons involved in overall planning, supervision and management also need to regularly update their skills and knowledge of the issues and the ways of addressing them. Grievance Redressal Mechanism Having an effective grievance redressal mechanism in place is a must. The Sneh Sathis expect the management to provide them with a safe working environment, fair treatment, proper incentives, participation in decisions and satisfaction of needs. There can be several stressors such as excessive workload, peer pressure, issues around promotional opportunities, personal issues like failing to meet their own expectations whether in terms of personal goals or career goals, performance, self-respect and such like. The gap in any of these can lead to a grievance. A protocol for â€œwho to communicate and when to expect a resolutionâ€? of the matters will help in building trust. It is worth assigning a person in the team to remind the organisation to focus on specific processes at a certain time. If a person cannot be spared for this task exclusively, then someone must be given this additional responsibility. It is nonetheless imperative that the onus of running a smooth HR process lies with the senior leadership of the organisation. Recognition Acknowledging the expertise, time, energy, effort and patience that the different functions demand of Sneh Sathis is immense and invaluable. It is important that group leaders must be encouraged to be vigilant and regularly take the opportunity during public forums like staff meetings or annual events to recognise the efforts of the Sneh Sathis as and when merited. Creative ways of recognising good work and achievements, such as presenting a certificate, souvenir or a laminated photograph of the Sneh Sathi could be extremely appealing and encouraging for them.
Appreciation: The three Sneh Ghars in Delhi, the first ones to be set up after the Loreto Homes, have struggled against many odds, worked well as a team to establish themselves and have generated appreciation for it. Every year, the management recognises the Sneh Ghars for an aspect that it excelled in and awards trophies in a public function like the Annual Day. Some of the categories acknowledged were the cleanest Sneh Ghar, the Sneh Ghar having achieved 100% mainstreaming, the Sneh Ghar with maximum retention of children, the Sneh Ghar best in sports, academic performance, etc. Presented by the Chief Guest, the entire team, led by the team leader proudly come up to the stage to collect the award, along with a surprise gift (usually a utility item for the Sneh Ghar that the Sneh Sathis and children have been planning to procure) and a thundering round of applause. The souvenirs won each year adorn the glass cabinets of these Sneh Ghars.
Salary and Compensation The passion to be associated with social development and the desire to offer their services towards it is the driving force for Sneh Sathis, which can and should be validated by recognition. Any attempt to link it to monetary incentives will take away that spirit and therefore should be avoided. However, it cannot be denied that the remuneration offered is often also seen as a yardstick for measuring the worth of the role being undertaken. Not having a stated norm on compensation can lead to a situation where Sneh Sathis do not know what to expect, creating a perception that these decisions are made on a subjective case-to-case basis, leading to confusion and disengagement in the mind of the Sneh Sathis. It is therefore important to design a compensation structure in which the range of salaries paid to the various Sneh Sathis is fair in terms of their talents, skills and competencies. In the context of the Sneh Sathis in residential roles, it should be noted that they can be entitled to free food, bedding, toiletries, etc. Neither compensation nor increments should be adjusted for these entitlements. In keeping with the practise of transparency, as articulated earlier, it is also important to fix a norm of increments (subject to available funding), which should be communicated to all Sneh Sathi. Increments should be a standard percentage applicable to all Sneh Sathis across the system.
Personal Time and Self Care Sneh Sathis need time, space and discipline for focused work. They need time for recreation, time with themselves, with friends and family. Accompanying children on outings cannot be considered as â€˜relaxationâ€™ as they have the challenging responsibility of managing the children. Therefore, Sneh Sathis should be encouraged to go on regular outings, movies, etc. by themselves. If personal problems are intense, they could be made to consult a counsellor.
A Home away from Home - The 75 children and Sneh Sathis of Medibavi Home had worked very hard for three years to convert the bare rooms of this home into a warm and happy place. The children were now settled, attending school, eating, playing and growing up well. However the residential Sneh Sathis, living with the children 24x7, day after day, with no personal space or time were slowly beginning to feel the stress. In an innovative move, the team took up a small, one room flat in a nearby locality, furnished it, fixed a television and converted it into a welcoming and comfortable place. This became the perfect get away, especially for the housemothers who do not have a family or a home to go back to. Based on their duty roster, the Sneh Sathis would take turns to spend time here for a couple of hours or a full day or two, depending on the agreed leave duration and go back in a refreshed and relaxed state of mind.
It is important to encourage Sneh Sathis to care for their own health, so that they can continue enjoying work and contribute meaningfully for a long time. This will also set a good example for the children about the importance of nurturing. If a Sneh Sathi is coping well, it will mean that the children will find things less stressful. Tips for Self Care of Sneh Sathis
•• •• •• •• •• ••
•• •• ••
Maintain a balance in life, including indulging in a healthy diet, getting enough good quality rest and enjoying moderate exercise on a regular basis. Enjoy some uninterrupted ‘me’ time, such as going for a walk or watching a movie. Involve themselves in an activity that you enjoy. Choose a person who can be a good source of support, who will be able to provide a listening ear and then ventilate regularly. Express your feelings as well as talk to friends. This may include talking to a mentor, having a cry, or seeking professional help. Seek support and not try to sort all things by yourself. Bring to your group leader’s notice the difficulties and challenges; and the specific information or skills required to work on demanding situations. Get a regular check up to avoid health issues. Do not neglect your medical state and remember to eat your medicines. Pay attention to personal grooming and not procrastinate personal needs. A positive attitude and a sense of humour can lighten any burden.
A properly trained and competent work force is essential to any successful care system. In the unique context of the non-custodial comprehensive care approach for street children, it is imperative that all implementing organisations should adopt a systematic, harmonised, standardised, competency based training approach for the development of all Sneh Sathis. Apart from improving knowledge and maintaining morale, a well-trained Sneh Sathi will be well acquainted, have in-depth understanding of the tasks and will need less supervision. Thus, there will be less wastage of time and effort. As the Sneh Sathi acquire skills and efficiency during training they will then be capable of and prepared to share the responsibilities of different functions. This, in turn, will improve the efficiency, proficiency and effectiveness of the programme. Training should be provided to those involved in direct work as well as those carrying out management functions so that they can perform and deliver professional and quality service to the children. Everyone is capable of learning but different people have different preferences in the ways in which they would like to perceive and process information. Auditory learners learn best by listening and talking; while Visual learners gain knowledge best by seeing, drawing and visualising things; some are Tactile learners who learn well by doing, or having ‘hands on’ experience; while others are Reflective learners and learn best by thinking and reflection. While training Sneh Sathis, a combination of all these methods, with a focus on one method that is considered suitable for the maximum number of Sneh Sathis in the selected group, should be used. For example, the reflective method might be most appropriate for training the leadership level Sneh Sathis, whereas training for the frontline Sathis like the housemother, etc., should rely more on visual and experiential techniques.
Kinds of Training A comprehensive training design that will transfer and prepare all the levels of Sneh Sathis in the key competencies, develop appropriate skills and the right attitude will include: •• ••
Induction by the implementing agency along with Comprehensive Capacities Training by the Indradhanush Academy.
Induction This is a formal orientation to the history, philosophy, work culture and polices of the implementing organisation of which the Sneh Sathi will be a part. Apart from being introduced to the other members of the Sneh Ghar and organisational family, s/he should be given a broad overview of the values and the framework in which their work will unfold. The process should also include learning about the tasks of the job, seeing the layout of the premises of the Sneh Ghar and visiting the catchment area, meeting the families and understanding their circumstances. An induction will encourage the Sneh Sathi to appreciate the â€˜interconnectednessâ€™ of all the members with the overall vision of the organisation. Periodically, time should be allotted by the organisation head to individually share, discuss and revisit the values, expected norms of behaviour and standards of care with the newly inducted Sneh Sathis. All new Sneh Sathis should be oriented within a fortnight of their joining. (a) Field visit A visit to the catchment area, i.e. the railway station, temples etc where the children and their families have been begging or bus terminals where the children and their parents had been living in make shift shelters, gives Sneh Sathis the chance to observe first hand, the life of children before they enter the Sneh Ghar, its challenges; how they lived, where they slept, what they ate and entertain themselves, their work, dynamics of the street, significant people therein, etc. This exposure that permits free interaction with the community involves all the senses and allows for an unlimited range of learning experiences for a Sneh Sathi. It helps them to develop an awareness of the real problems that the children have faced and enable them to think, analyse and connect better with the children under their care. Comprehensive Capacities Training Conventionally, rearing children has been considered a natural role, and thus not specific courses have been designed for it. Keeping this in mind, along with the uniqueness of the program and the profile of the persons undertaking its implementation, the Indradhanush Academy has put together, based on experiential learning and extensive research, a set of manuals and training modules that offer Sneh Sathis a comprehensive and detailed training on the knowledge and skills that they would require. This training also inculcates the right kind of attitude suited for this work. These modules are packaged neatly into simple understandable sessions and are transacted using a variety of interesting and effective techniques. The topics covered in the trainings are: (a) Community Mobilisation The first and most crucial step in the journey of ensuring safety and protection to the children on the street is to befriend them and understand the world through their eyes. It is important to know the reasons why they leave their home, how they enter the city, the spots in the city where they live, the significant others in their life, their routine, aspirations, the challenges 39
they face, as all these contribute towards formulating the 'best plan' for the child. The entire process of establishing a relationship of trust and assessing the vulnerability of a child found on the street is transacted in this training. The significance and the method of involving the community, the immediate neighbours as well as the stake holders in the larger community are also included in this training. (b) Home Management This training discusses the child friendly aspects of a long term, non-custodial and residential set up as compared to the restrictive custodial care set up in state run homes. As with any home, such homes should provide safety, comfort and space for a range of activities for its residents. In this training, ways to liaison with the government towards preparing the MoU, infrastructural requirements and the innovations required in refurbishing buildings and making them liveable welcoming are illustrated. It also covers in detail the many service aspects of running the home smoothly and includes housekeeping, sanitation, interior arrangements and aesthetics, fire safety, emergency management, budgeting, purchase, store management, kitchen management, etc. (c) Physical Health This training prepares the Sneh Sathis to address the preventive, promotional and curative physical health care needs of children including immunisation, hygiene, health education, de-addiction and nutrition tracking. The training furthermore includes the process of establishing linkages with public and private health care institutions and functionaries at primary, secondary and tertiary levels for the care of the children. It also includes emergency curative health care support (including for serious ailments) for children who are still on the streets. (d) Mental Health This training highlights the inner strength and resilience and strong coping strategies that most children from the streets display. It trains Sneh Sathis to identify and appropriately address children with mental illness, addictions, abuse and those with special needs. It also teaches how to use child friendly tools, methods and key life skills to work with children and to deal with some common difficult behaviour. (e) Education It outlines the needs, concerns, challenges and potential solutions in developing and implementing a comprehensive and holistic education programme, the problems that can arise, and an array of strategies of how to solve them. Individual education planning includes ensuring school readiness, baseline assessment, providing teachers, starting children on the bridge course, overseeing the bridge programme within a regular school, education in mainstream schools and enabling the child to accept new adults in the world of learning. Advocacy, networking with the education department, 40
selection of schools, networking with schools, admission processes and putting together documents essential for mainstream education are part and parcel of this training. It also explains the importance of the Enrichment Programmes i.e. extra-curricular activities and academic enhancement programmes such as proficiency in English, Computers and a Life Skills programme. The needs of children with special needs and for those transitioning into life beyond the home are also addressed. (f) Legal This training introduces Sneh Sathis to the various kinds of homes, the Juvenile Justice Act and the legal norms therein. It trains them in procedures to be adopted in the transition of a child from the street to a Sneh Ghar such as who can produce such a child, which are recognised and licensed homes and the procedure for producing these children before the CWC. It trains on documentation and reporting to the CWC and preliminary and detailed enquiries to be made in respect to the child. (g) Documentation Discusses the relevance of comprehensive record keeping along with the sets of forms that need to be filled out and the guidelines for the usage of each. It also teaches the correct manner of maintenance and storage of files in the Sneh Ghar. The training throws light on how records help in looking at each childâ€™s needs so that the activities designed are inclusive and child centric, with the perspective that â€œthe programme should fit the child, not the child to the programme.â€? (h) HR Management This training discusses and inculcates the values overriding the work with children in the context of Sneh Ghars. The various functions involved, recruiting the right kind of workers, inducting them, deploying them appropriately and supervising their work as well as personal growth needs are focused on in this training. (i) Finance Management It helps to train in the execution of financial guidelines and norms. The finance training educates on aspects ranging from practices that a Sneh Ghar or implementing organisation should adopt to ensure the effective use of funds, the use of an accounting system to record all financial transactions, preparing a budget, how to purchase goods and inventory management, awareness of all statutory laws and the provisions therein and calculating salary, PF, etc.
Ongoing Informal On-the-Job Training It is difficult and nearly impossible to teach Sneh Sathis everything they need to know before they begin work in a Sneh Ghar. Along with formal trainings, an informal and continuous on-the-job training is an important method through which Sneh Sathis will slowly 41
get initiated into their roles. New Sneh Sathis should be offered continuous, intensive, demonstrative, interactive hands-on training. It should combine observation, questioning, practicing, reviewing and feedback by a senior Sneh Sathi.
Learning from Internal Reviews The process of regular internal reviews is a continuous source of learning. These insights should be documented from time to time and will eventually become part of the knowledge pool that can be shared with the newer members of the team.
Workshops and Seminars The organisation should make it a point to participate in relevant workshops and seminars organised by expert or partner organisations. Make it a practice to ask the participant Sneh Sathis to share the learnings with the members of the larger team on return. At the year-end review, organisations should assess the specific training inputs required to improve the programme. Consult individual Sneh Sathis and the team as a whole to arrive at the areas that they need further information about. Assess whether the need is to enhance knowledge levels, or whether they need help to develop and refine specific skill sets. Accordingly, make a list of the requirements and keep these training needs in mind while carrying out the annual budgeting.
Appraisals are a formal, recorded, regular review of an individualâ€™s performance and a plan for future development. Appraisals are essential for the effective evaluation and management of Sneh Sathis. Appraisals help to develop the Sneh Sathis, improve their performance, provide inputs for planning by enabling management to monitor standards, clarify expectations and objectives and to delegate responsibilities and tasks. It also establishes individual training needs. Regular appraisals will increase motivation, foster attitude and behaviour development as well as align individual and organisational aims, values and philosophies. There are various ways of conducting appraisals. Some advocate traditional appraisals and forms; others prefer a 360 degree type of appraisal; others suggest using little more than a blank sheet of paper.
Fig. 2: 360 Degrees Appraisal
360 Degree Appraisal The 360 degree appraisal, a powerful development method which involves the appraisee receiving feedback from people (named or anonymous) whose views are considered helpful and relevant, has been seen to be the most effective in appraising the personnel working
in a Sneh Ghar (see Fig.2). The feedback is typically provided on a form designed to show the job skills, abilities, attitudinal and behavioural criteria. The 360 degree review process is effective because it provides more complete and accurate assessment of the Sneh Sathis competencies, behaviours and performance outcomes. Instead of being rated by a single person, who may be biased or have an incomplete view of their work, a 360 degree feedback provided by a circle of raters, will be more thorough and unbiased and therefore the Sneh Sathis are more likely to see the value in this type of evaluation. Additionally, multiple raters offering similar feedback sends a reinforced message to the appraise Sneh Sathi about what is working well and what needs to be improved. As it is more difficult to ignore repeated patterns or write it off as invalid, the acceptance of feedback is high.
Feedback from Children In keeping with the principle of Right of Participation, appraisal should include feedback from children residing in the Sneh Ghar where the appraisee Sneh Sathi is posted. Rather than getting the children to fill a form or a questionnaire, feedback can be collected through a combination of discussion, gentle probing, participant observation or other creative methods. Children may sometimes not be forthcoming, or may not find the right words to express their opinion, but will surely be able to assess the adults around them into broad categories of a ‘positive’ or/and ‘negative’ or by being ‘noncommittal’ which can then be probed further. This exercise can be undertaken by a mature, trusted and experienced person in the organisation who has a rapport with the children.
To use the process for its fullest ‘360 degree’ benefit, feedback should be sought from Sneh Sathis of all levels, children, supervisors and anyone who comes into contact with them and has opinions, views and reactions to share. It can also include any other significant others for whom good working relationships and understanding with the appraisee Sneh Sathis affect the quality of service. The appraisee Sneh Sathis also assesses themselves using the same feedback instrument or form. Open honest feedback as provided in a 360 degree appraisal can touch sensitivities. It is therefore important to ensure that the appraisee Sneh Sathi understands and agrees to the criteria, choice of respondents (by type, if not named) and process. In this regard, the question of anonymity of respondents should be considered carefully. A mature Sneh Sathi should ideally be able to cope with, and derive benefit from operating the process transparently. However, the reality is that some people are happier giving feedback anonymously and some people are not able to deal particularly well with criticism from a named person.
Key Considerations for Appraisals ••
As a principle, appraisals must not discriminate against anyone on the grounds of age, gender, sexual orientation, race, religion, disability, etc. Ensure that the appraisal is applied from top down, and not bottom up, so that everyone can see that the team leader is happy to undertake what s/he expects all the other Sneh Sathis to do. As with anything else, if this happens, the system will have a much stronger acceptance and credibility and will not be seen as an instrument of executive domination. It would be ideal to schedule appraisals close to the year-end, when the full year’s performance can be reliably measured and the future situation be predicted. It will also help the Sneh Sathis to start the year with formally agreed objectives and plans. Appraisals are disliked as they are seen to be daunting and difficult administratively, emotionally challenging, a time-consuming chore and are to be avoided. Therefore the annual appraisal should not be the only time that the reasons the Appraisee and the Appraiser have sat down together for a meaningful one-on-one discussion. Appraisals are much easier, and especially more relaxed, if the team leaders and Sneh Sathis have spent time individually for one-to-one discussions and as team members regularly throughout the year. Appraisals that are administered without explanation or consultation, and conducted poorly will be counter-productive and a waste of time. On the other hand wellprepared and well-conducted appraisals provide unique opportunities to help appraisees improve and develop. The performance of all cadres of Sneh Sathis should be assessed against clearly defined roles, competency levels and standards. Instead of adopting a generic approach, for example, welfare of children for the housemother’s role, it would be more useful to articulate a list of four or five key metrics on the basis of which the role of a specific Sneh Sathi would be evaluated. These could be, timely food on the table, getting the younger children ready for school every day, etc. Performance appraisals should be positive experiences. Avoid using an appraisal to handle matters of discipline or admonishment, which should instead be handled in separately arranged meetings. Apart from the performance in the current role, all Sneh Sathis should undergo ‘Potential Assessment’ which involves understanding the individual’s ability to move from their current role into another. This could be another role within the same Sneh Ghar, or a different more complex role. The competencies listed for all key roles are a good basis for selecting potential candidates. For example, assessing whether someone currently in a housemother’s role, has the potential of becoming a manager, would mean looking for evidence of her ability to demonstrate the key competencies required for the new role.
While an appraisal outline is necessarily a formal structure, this does not mean that the development discussed with the appraisee must be formal and constrained. In fact the opposite applies. Appraisals must address ‘whole person’ development and not just job skills or the skills required for direct work. Growing the ‘whole person’ promotes positive attitudes, advancement, motivation, and also develops lots of new skills that can be surprisingly relevant to working productively and effectively. Therefore be led by the Sneh Sathis about what they love and enjoy, and what they want to develop and experience in their lives. And then look for ways to help them achieve these things.
Refer to Annexure 5 (i), 5 (ii) and 5 (iii) for performance assessment used as appraisal forms of Sneh Sathis in Delhi Sneh Ghars.
The Appraisal Process The process starts with translating the form into the local language, so that all the Sneh Sathis, also the literate ones can read and fill in the instrument independently. The forms can be distributed to the entire group together. Time should be taken to explain clearly the purpose, process and end point of the exercise. Explain each line item or question with relevant examples about how to answer them. For those who cannot write, allocate volunteer scribes who will put down the details on the Sneh Sathis behalf. The best way to decide on which Sneh Sathi will appraise which colleague is to prepare a matrix. It should be designed in such a way that each Sneh Sathi gets an opportunity to appraise and be appraised by people from a cross section of functions. Once the forms are distributed and contents discussed, agree on a time by when the feedback forms will be returned. Filled and collected, a team consisting of the team leader and a predefined appraisal team (who can be appointed by turn) should compile and analyse the information from the parameters outlined in the three appraisal forms.
Feedback Once the appraisal is conducted, a panel consisting of the group leader and the programme head should undertake to give the feedback carefully. Sneh Sathis have a perception of the skills, abilities, talents and knowledge they possess. The feedback should provide specific detailed assessment describing these from the point of view of others. While positive feedback enhances feelings of psychological safety, corrective feedback will force them to see the messages that counter those self perceptions, shake their comfort level and stimulate them to try new behaviours. The acceptance of feedback is a huge catalyst to change. Therefore it is important for the panel giving the feedback to help assist the Sneh Sathis in examining common threads within the feedback and the underlying patterns in a productive manner. Once the feedback is accepted, the likelihood of growth and change increase. 46
The acceptance of feedback is not always easy, especially if it is counter to the self concept a Sneh Sathis carries. Research shows that a person travels through different stages with receiving critical feedback. These typically include; sadness, anger, rejection and finally acceptance. Do not expect all Sneh Sathis to feel they are capable, ready or are interested in change. If and when they become truly motivated, this energy will serve as the catalyst to change. Prepare and Inform Collect and prepare all material, current task description, the previous performance appraisal documents if applicable, agreed tasks and records of performance, achievements, incidents, reports i.e. anything pertaining to performance and achievement of the appraisee Sneh Sathi. Ensure that the Sneh Sathi is informed of a suitable time and clarify the purpose and type of feedback, giving the chance to assemble data, relevant performance and achievement records and materials. Ensure a suitable venue, private and free from interruptions (avoid a Sneh Ghar), is agreed and available. Review and Measure Relax the appraisee with a positive statement. Be warm and friendly, as the appraisee Sneh Sathi may be uncomfortable. It is the leaderâ€™s responsibility to create a calm and nonthreatening atmosphere. Explain what will happen, tell them it is their meeting not yours. It is helpful and appropriate to begin with some general discussion about how things have been going, but avoid getting into specifics. Ask if there are any additional points to cover and note them down so as to include them when appropriate. Review the feedback on activities, tasks, objectives and achievements one by one, keeping separate items distinct. Being objective is one of the greatest challenges for the appraiser. Avoid going off on tangents or vague unspecific views. Concentrate on facts and figures, avoid conjecture, anecdotal or non-specific opinions about the Sneh Sathi. Agree on an Action Plan An overall plan should be agreed with the appraisee Sneh Sathi, which should take into account the current job responsibilities, the appraiseeâ€™ Sneh Sathis career aspirations, the organisationâ€™s priorities, and the reviewed strengths and weaknesses. The plan should have the necessary short, medium and long term aspects, but importantly it must be agreed upon and be realistic. The objectives can be anything that will benefit the fulfilment of the aims and aspiration of the individual and the person is happy to commit to them. When helping people to develop, you are not restricted to job-related objectives, although typically most objectives will be. Sneh Sathis who do not meet the base requirements for their role, therefore, must be given confidential but direct and timely feedback and counselled/coached personally by a member from the senior management. Over a stipulated period of time, their performance 47
on the areas identified as needing improvement must be closely monitored. If by the end of this period, improvement is not seen, the individual must either be asked to leave or moved into a less demanding or better suited role in the organisation. Termination due to Non Compliance - One of the non negotiable principles of work in the Sneh Ghar is to not use corporal punishment. In one of the Sneh Ghars in Delhi, vague rumours began to float that a Sneh Sathi, often beat up the children to ensure discipline. Attempts to unveil the truth were unsuccessful for a long time as the non residential Sneh Sathi had not observed this behaviour and the children did not talk of it or deny it. However, an indication of the truth was revealed in the year-end appraisal and review. It was established that the Sneh Sathi did use force sometimes, mainly during the night time and early morning to get the children to follow the time schedule. Since the Sneh Sathi had received strong positive feedback on other qualities, counselling followed and a firm warning was given. However, after a brief period of not beating the children, news of hitting was received once again. When the next monthly review confirmed the behaviour, it was decided to let the Sneh Sathi go.
High performers should not be rewarded with higher increments but rather, by opportunities to move into different roles and hence at a higher pay range as well as a higher level of responsibility that they are interested in. Time and effort should be invested specifically in understanding the career aspirations of these high performers and concerted endeavours should be made to meet them, as best as possible, through opportunities within the organisation. Agree to provide necessary support that is required by the appraisee Sneh Sathi to achieve the objectives. Be careful to avoid committing to training expenditure before suitable approval and availability has been confirmed. Raising false hopes is not helpful to the process. Invite any other points or questions and make sure you capture any other concerns and suggestions. Most importantly record main points, agreed actions and follow-up plans. Swiftly follow up the meeting with the copies of the minutes and ensure that the documents are filed.
Annexures All Annexures are samples, Sneh Ghars should develop their own formats based on their resources and needs.
Annexure 1 Suggested staffing pattern for an institution with a capacity of 100 children as per the Delhi JJ Rules, 2009. S. No. Staff/Personnel
No. of Posts
Probation Officer or Welfare Officer
House mother or House father (shift duty)
2 (voluntary or part time)
1 (voluntary or part time)
Lower Division Clerk + Upper Division Clerk
Art and Craft cum Music Teacher
1 (part time)
Care takers or ayahs
PT Instructor cum Yoga Teacher
1 (part time)
1 (part time)
Annexure 2 (i) Appointment Letter Dear ___________________ It is a pleasure to appoint you as an employee with ___________________________ (name of the organisation) from _______________ (Date). You will be holding the residential post of a ______________________ (designation) and your place of work and stay will be____________________ . Reporting: You will be directly reporting to ____________________________ who will be responsible for support and supervision of your work. Responsibilities: Mentioned below is the provisional job description of an employee, which is flexible, based primarily on the needs of the child and the campaign. •• •• •• •• •• ••
•• •• ••
onduct bridge and remedial/school support classes for the groups allotted. C Plan with appropriate detail for the bridge/remedial lessons as per the planning guidelines issued including development of appropriate teaching/learning material. Ensure through home teaching support that all children will be able to understand and participate in class sessions in school. Ensure completion of class syllabus/learning. Conduct regular assessments and record child performance data to monitor the development of each allotted student. Mentor and counsel a group of children with their educational choices and make a detailed education plan outlining measures to be undertaken for each of them to enable them to complete their education. Maintain regular contact with the teachers of school-going children and ensure a smooth communication between the school and home in academic matters. Establish a personal rapport with children and ensure the emotional and psychological well being of the children through regular talks with each child in her charge. Engage the children in discussions to deepen the relationship with them.
Additional work: In addition, you will also be carrying out all other duties assigned to you by your immediate supervisor and director.
Emoluments: Your monthly salary has been fixed as ________________ which will be paid via cheque. It will include expenses for travel to and fro from your work place. All travel expenses made on behalf of the office shall be reimbursed on the basis of actual expenditure as presented by you in the prescribed official format. This will have an upper limit as per the salary grade fixed for you. In addition to the above, a separate allowance (as per your salary grade) will be given to you as reimbursement for telephonic communication.
Terms of Employment: 1.
You would be required to work minimum _____ days a week and put in minimum _____ hours of work, as assigned by your immediate supervisor. Since you will be a residential Sneh Sathi, you will be required to perform certain duties assigned to you during night hours.
Even if you are off duty but are present at the home, you are expected to be alert and available for the children at the time of an emergency.
You would be based out of _________________ (name of the Sneh Ghar) but may be required to make field visits occasionally as per the requirements.
Frequent absence from the workplace or repeated lateness may lead to termination of employment.
You will be on a probation period of 3 months. This interim period is for the purpose of gaining a better understanding of each otherâ€™s perspectives, work style and mutual compatibility. If either of the party finds itself not comfortable, the association can be discontinued with a fortnight notice from either side.
Leaves, Holidays, Appraisal and Termination
Leaves will be negotiated keeping in mind the interest of the children. Decisions pertaining to all the above will be taken with reference to the organisationâ€™s HR Policy.
Code of Conduct: •• You shall protect the interest of the organisation at all times and work towards the achievement of aims and objectives of the organisation. •• You shall be committed to perform the work entrusted to you efficiently and conscientiously. •• You shall be bound by the rules and regulations of the organisation, which are currently in force and which may get amended from time to time. •• You shall be accountable and responsible for all the funds entrusted to you for official work. •• You shall not accept or permit any member of your team to accept any gift/ reward in connection with your work with the organisation, without permission from your employer. If and when any such offer is made, you shall immediately report it to the concerned authorities.
Confidentiality of Information: •• You shall observe utmost confidentiality and secrecy of any and all information received by you or entrusted to you in the course of your employment. Any sensitive matter coming to your knowledge shall be handled cautiously and its confidential nature shall be strictly maintained. •• You shall not disclose directly or indirectly any document/publication of the organisation or any part thereof to any other person who is not authorised to receive it. •• You shall at all times, whether during or after the termination of employment, act with utmost fidelity and not disclose or divulge such information to a third party or make use of such information for your own benefit. •• Upon the termination of your employment, you will immediately surrender all documents and any other property entrusted to you in the course of your employment to your immediate supervisor.
Communication: •• Please ensure that at all times organisational facts are quoted only after ascertaining them to be correct or after verifying them. •• Only the director or the person specifically designated is authorised to speak to the press. Please direct all press queries to the above only.
All other terms and conditions will be applicable as per the organisations HR Policy. If the terms mentioned herein are acceptable to you, please sign a copy of this letter in original and return the same to us for our records. I accept all the terms and conditions (those mentioned above as well as in the HR Policy laid by the organisation).
Signature: Date: Welcome to the organisation. We are very happy to have you on the team.
Encl: Child Protection Code of Conduct
Annexure 2(ii) Child Protection Code of Conduct
Child Protection Code of Conduct (for new employees to pledge and sign at the time of employment / for previously employed Sneh Sathi as soon as possible) I, _______________________ engaged by ______________________ (name of the organisation), agree that while implementing its activities, I will: Treat
children with respect regardless of race, colour, gender, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, disability, birth or other status. Wherever possible, ensure that another adult is present when working in the proximity of children. Take a child home only, if there is a valid reason, is in the best interest of the child, and with the consent of the whole team and the supervisor. Use computers, mobile phones, or video and digital cameras appropriately, and never to exploit or harass children or to access child pornography through any medium. Refrain from physical punishment for the purpose of discipline of children or otherwise. Refrain from hiring children for domestic or other labour which is inappropriate given their age or developmental stage, which interferes with their time available for education and recreational activities, or which places them at significant risk of injury. Ensure all basic needs – clothes, footwear, bedding, etc. – are provided. Ensure fresh, hot, nutritious and adequate meals are provided three times a day and provide special diet for children undergoing medical treatment. Ensure children get clean, un-torn clothes to wear. Ensure children will be sent to school well groomed and well dressed in their uniforms, with bag, water bottle and fresh food so that they do not feel low in front of other children. Provide books, games, toys and other learning material that give stimulation and help in learning. Actively listen to a child to understand and respond to her/his needs. Immediately report concerns or allegations of child abuse in accordance with appropriate procedures.
invite unaccompanied children into my home, unless they are at immediate risk of injury or in physical danger. Not sleep close to unsupervised children unless absolutely necessary, in which case I must obtain my supervisor’s permission, and ensure that another adult is present if possible. Not use language or behaviour towards children that is inappropriate, harassing, abusive, sexually provocative, demeaning or culturally inappropriate. Not engage children in any form of sexual activity or acts, including paying for sexual services or acts. Not refer to a child’s past history or profession of parents in a derogatory manner. Not compare children in the home or be partial towards some of them. Not shame any child in public/private. Not tolerate medical negligence or unhygienic condition of the home or children. Not promote any one particular religion. Not accept goods, gifts or services from any child/adult or anyone in the allied services for services rendered as part of my work for the child. Not take unfair advantage of any professional relationship or use the campus to further personal, religious, political or business interests. Not discuss any private information of the child in public places. I understand that the onus is on me, as a person engaged by __________________ (name of the organisation), to use common sense and avoid actions or behaviours that could be construed as child abuse when implementing its activities.
Annexure 3 Sample of a day's routine of Sneh Sathis in the Delhi Sneh Ghars.
Home Manager 1
Home Manager 2
Wake up and freshen up
Wake up and issue ration Wake up for breakfast and lunch and supervise cooking and cleaning
Physical exercise with the children
Bathe, groom younger children, supervise cleaning of respective rooms by children
Wake up children, get them ready for school
Bathe, help younger children to get ready, supervise cleaning of respective rooms by children
Receive milk, Bathe, groom 20 children, supervise cleaning of respective rooms by children
Supervise and have breakfast
Supervise and have breakfast
Check uniforms of children at the gate
Take children to the school/school bus
Bring children to the school bus
Supervise reading time for children
Supervise reading time for children
Health drill for children in the home
Health drill for children in Rest the home
11.00-12.00 pm Supervise campus cleaning
Ensure stock available for Lunch next day’s food preparation
Lunch supervision and have food
Lunch supervision and have food
Lunch with their designated children
Supervise campus and kitchen cleaning, utensils, dining area
Spend time with children
Vegetable purchase and other market work
Issue ration for dinner
Count utensils, record keeping
Tea and issue snacks
Arrange for review, attend review with children, have tea and snacks
Have tea and snacks
Attend review with children
Attend review with children
Attend review with children
Sneh Sathi meeting
Sneh Sathi meeting
Sneh Sathi meeting
Supervise and have dinner
Supervise and have dinner
Supervise and have dinner
Supervise cleaning Supervise kitchen of dormitories and cleaning younger children while they prepare to sleep
Cleaning of kitchen and utensils
Toiletries for each dormitory issued to respective Sneh Sathi
Annexure 4: Sample of Vision Planning of a Sneh Ghar in Delhi (April 2013-March 2014) Vision Plan Construction
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Wall lockers for rooms Almirah for kitchen Construction of motor room Exhaust fan for dormitory Small dining table White wash Floor maintenance Partition of office for class room, health room and reading Room 9. Inner gate
1. More individual child interaction 2. Hygiene care 3. Child specific needs (clothes, footwear, sweater etc). 4. Inculcate discipline
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Eye camp Dental camp Gynecologist camp Requirement based immunization camp Height and weight every three months Once a month doctor visit Iron tablet and syrup, vitamin-C, vitamin-E, calcium 8. Centralised medicine purchase twice in a year 9. BMI and de-worming
1. Minimum one individual session of each child in a month 2. Life skills group session twice in a month 3. Group counseling and need based individual counseling 4. Records maintenance and individual file
1. 2. 3. 4.
1. New enrolment keeping in mind the vulnerability scale 2. On-going restoration process 3. Record maintenance (care plan, legal paper, quarterly report form)
Sneh Sathi meeting twice in a month Bal Sabha twice in a month Parents meeting once in a month Committees meeting twice in a month
5. Daily staff meeting 4. Follow â€“ up license process 6. Child record (health, legal, education) 5. Frequently field visit for more interaction between Sneh Sathis and parents 7. Home record (attendance, donation, inspection, visitor, stock, cash, child 6. Awareness programme for parents in the leave, central, phone, distribution, staff Sneh Ghar movement) 8. Monitoring (to follow food menu, nutrition, hygienic food, effective functioning) 9. Home MIS 10. Schedule for all Sneh Sathis 11. Follow values of organization (Aman, Insaf, Insaniyat, Sacchai) 12. Home inspection
1. One more B Ed. teacher, one teacher cum librarian 2. Computer classes for children above 8 year 3. Regular school visit of teachers, managers and parents 4. Focus on school attendance 5. Requirement based - NIOS and vocational training 6. Requirement based education visit 7. Moral education
1. One outstation trip for children above 10 year 2. One trip for children under 10 years 3. One local visit for all children 4. Festival celebration, childrenâ€™s birthday celebration 5. Dance, self defense and music classes 6. One movie at a cinema hall
Donation 1. Tiffin, school bags, water bottle for all children 2. Birthday cake 3. Washing machine 4. Blanket
Annexure 5: Performance Assessment Annexure 5 (i) Appraisal Form (Appraiser's Assessment) Name: Position/Designation: Revieweer’s Name: Review Period: S. No.
Key Activities/ Responsibilities
Supervisor’s Evaluation (After Team + Self Review)
Relationship with Peers
Values vis-à-vis child
Attitude towards Work
Adherence to Office Rules
Ability to Handle Emergency Situations
Rating scale Unacceptable Performance - 1
Needs Improvement - 2
Meeting Expectations - 3
Exceeding Expectations - 4
Individual values visà-vis all agents of the campaign, not in line with the values of the campaign.
Except for a few exceptions, individual values vis-à-vis all agents of the campaign, not in line with the values of the campaign.
Except for a few exceptions, individual values vis-à-vis agents of the campaign, in line with the values of the campaign.
Individual values vis-à-vis all agents of the campaign, in line with the values of the campaign.
Needs to acquire skills or learn to apply the knowledge, skills and competencies to achieve the expectations of the job. Is not able to meet expectations on objectives and core requirements.
Requires improved performance to achieve some or all of the job expectations. May be achieving expectation in some areas.
Consistently achieves expectations of the job. Meets important requirements and job objectives.
Significantly performs beyond expectations in important aspects of the job. Meets core requirements and objectives.
Annexure 5 (ii) Sneh Sathi Performance Review Peer Evaluation Name of the Sneh Sathi: ____________________________________ Position/ Designation: ______________________________________ Review Period: ____________________________________________ Rating Scale: 1: Unsatisfactory 2: Needs Improvement 3: Meets Expectations 4: Excellent 5: Outstanding
Values in Relation to a Child
Egalitarian Compassion Secularism Non-Discrimination Believes in the limitless potential of a child and desires to explore the same Ensures that the childâ€™s greatest needs are fulfilled Watchful that children are not abusing each other, themselves or being abused by others
Description (required for any rating other than 3 or 4)
Ensures that all children are always made to feel welcome and at home Values in Relation to Peers
Democratic Functioning Equality and Equity in voice and power Justice/Fairness in Sneh Sathi's decisions Caring bonds across all peers â€“ direct and indirect contact Transparency Responsibility Accountability Establishes and maintains effective working relationships Follows instructions of supervisor Responds to requests from the peer group amicably Contributes to group performance and team success Sincerity Humility Values in Relation to Work
Punctuality Reliability Efficiency Positive Attitude towards work
Consideration for Accuracy, Thoroughness and Effectiveness Ability to work under pressure without compromising on quality Adheres to office rules Work Output is consistent with expectations established Ability to Organise and Prioritise Ability to Multi-task Desire to take on New Tasks Knowledge
Appropriate level of Technical Knowledge Appropriate level of Procedural Knowledge Able to perform all duties with minimal supervision Seeks guidance when needed Desire to enhance knowledge Initiative
Self-motivated Self-reliant Identifies problems and offers solutions Accepts additional challenges and responsibilities Willingly assists others Ability to handle emergency situations
Ability to listen to and understand information Ability to present information in a clear and concise manner Ability to communicate effectively with peers Ability to communicate effectively with children Ability to communicate effectively with immediate supervisors and management Demonstrates respect for all individuals in all forms of communication Clarifies projects before proceeding when necessary Problem Solving and Decision Making
Willing to make critical decisions in a timely and informed manner Flexibility â€“ ability to modify plans to achieve the desired outcome Provides Information and Feedback in a timely manner Creates practical and workable solutions Good Judgement Additional comments
Annexure 5 (iii) Sneh Sathi Performance Review Self-evaluation Name of the Sneh Sathi: ____________________________________ Position/Designation: ______________________________________ Review period: ___________________________________________
Rating Scale: 1: Unsatisfactory 2: Needs improvement 3: Meets expectations 4: Excellent 5: Outstanding Activity/Responsibility
Qualities in relation to a Child
Egalitarian Compassion Secularism Non-Discrimination Believes in the limitless potential of a child and desires to explore the same 66
Ensures that the children's needs are filled Watchful that children are not abusing each other, themselves or being abused by others Ensures that all children are always made to feel welcome and at home Values in relation to Peers
Democratic Functioning Equality and Equity in voice and power Justice/Fairness in Sneh Sathi's decisions Caring bonds across all peers- direct and indirect contact Transparency Responsibility Accountability Establishes and maintains effective working relationships Follows instructions of the supervisor Responds to requests from the peer group amicably Contributes to group performance and team success
Values in relation to work
Punctuality Reliability Efficiency Positive Attitude toward work Consideration for Accuracy, Thoroughness and Effectiveness Ability to work under pressure without compromising on quality Adheres to office rules Work output is consistent with expectations established Ability to organise and prioritise Adheres to office rules Ability to multi-task Desires to take on new tasks Knowledge Appropriate level of Technical Knowledge Appropriate level of Procedural Knowledge Able to perform all duties with minimal supervision Seeks guidance when needed Desire to enhance knowledge Initiative Self-motivated Self-reliant Identifies problems and offers solutions Accepts additional challenges and responsibilities 68
Willingly assists others Ability to handle emergency situations Communication skills
Ability to listen to and understand information Ability to present information in a clear and concise manner Ability to communicate effectively with peers Ability to communicate effectively with children Ability to communicate effectively with immediate supervisors and management Demonstrates respect for all individuals in all forms of communication Clarifies projects before proceeding when necessary Problem solving and decision making Willing to make critical decisions in a timely and informed manner Flexibility â€“ ability to modify plans to achieve the desired outcome Provides Information and Feedback in a timely manner Creates practical and workable solutions Good Judgement
Enumerate the new tasks/activities or plan/career goals that you wish to undertake in the coming year
List all training and workshops you attended this year
List all training and workshops you would like to attend in the upcoming year
Name any other activity that you would like to be transferred into or be involved in
Aspects Expectations are clearly defined When possible, material necessary for the job are available Directions from the supervisor are clear and achievable When necessary, the supervisor is available and responsive Achievements are recognised/ work is appreciated Criticism is constructive Peers are motivated and helpful Additional training is encouraged and available 70
Additional projects are encouraged and supported You feel part of a functional, supportive and productive team You feel personally fulfilled by your work
Which aspect of the campaign is closest to your heart?
Which aspect of the campaign would you want to reform?
Give suggestions for enacting this reform?
Name: Signature: Date:
Centre for Equity Studies
Child Welfare Committee
Juvenile Justice Act
Ministry of Human Resource and Development
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
Open Hearts, Open Gatesâ€Ś
Printed by: Print World # 9810185402
Comprehensive Care for Street Children: Handbook for Planners and Practitioners Supporting Carers
Indradhanush Academy Centre for Equity Studies 105/6A, 1st Floor, Adhchini, Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi-110017 Ph.: 011-26514688, 41078058 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: centreforequitystudies.com
Centre for Equity Studies
Indradhanush Academy Centre For Equity Studies