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DECEMBER 2020 Issue number 20



The next generation of high-speed rail China’s high-speed rail network continues to evolve

Track and Trackside Train detection systems for efficient operations

Equipment Railway focused cutting tools

Latest News All the latest updates from around Asia Pacific

Rail Professional

Rail Professional



DECEMBER 2020 Issue number 20



The next generation of high-speed rail China’s high-speed rail network continues to evolve

Track and Trackside Train detection systems for efficient operations

Equipment Railway focused cutting tools

Latest News All the latest updates from around Asia Pacific

Rail Professional

PUBLISHER RAIL PROFESSIONAL LIMITED Hallmark House, Downham Road, Ramsden Heath, Essex CM11 1PU Tel: +44 (0)1268 711811 EDITORIAL EDITOR SAM SHERWOOD-HALE editor@railprofessional.com ADVERTISING sales@railpro.co.uk ADMINISTRATION CHERIE NUGENT info@railpro.co.uk DESIGN & PRODUCTION NICK FOGDEN REBECCA GOLDBERG production@railpro.co.uk

Rail Professional welcomes contributions in the form of articles, photographs or letters, preferably by email. Original photographs may be submitted, but, while every care will be exercised, neither the editor nor the publisher take responsibility for loss of, or damage to, material sent. Submission of material to Rail Professional will be taken as permission for it to be published in the magazine. ISSN 2397-8287 © All rights reserved. No part of this magazine may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the copyright owners. The views and opinions expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the publisher, nor does it accept liability for any printing errors or otherwise which may occur.


ur final issue of the year features interviews with senior representatives of two companies that are soon to become one. Ling Fang, Senior Vice President of Asia Pacific at Alstom and Danny Di Perna, Global President of Bombardier Transportation. Alstom Group’s closing of the acquisition of Bombardier Transportation remains on track for the first half of 2021, another thing to look forward to next year! My discussion with Ling Fang centred on digital rail, the return of passengers to the global rail network and diversity in the industry but we also discussed the impact of the pandemic with Ling Fang saying Alstom has made good progress on projects delivery despite the pandemic and that the shortterm consequences could actually bring long-term resilience and transformation in the industry. Asking the same questions of Danny Di Perna, Bombardier are in a post-pandemic recovery phase and are ramping up operations from partial to full capacity. Now the year is drawing to a close the disparity in the ridership reality for operators in Europe and operators in Asia Pacific is becoming more obvious. Two countries that were among the most successful in the handling of the pandemic and as such are not under a national lockdown of the likes of Europe, Thailand and Vietnam, have both recently celebrated with the two above companies. In Bangkok, Bombardier delivered its BOMBARDIER INNOVIA monorail 300 vehicles for the new Metropolitan Rapid Transit (MRT) Pink and Yellow Lines. Whilst Hanoi is preparing for the delivery of the second of ten four-car metro trains that will equip the new Line 3 of the Hanoi metro. The eight other metro trains will all be delivered to Hanoi in time for the start of commercial service, which is scheduled for 2021. As we went to print AES Exhibitions event, Rail Asia 2020, was just wrapping up a successful two days. The conference hosted speakers, both in-person and via video link, and several stands supported by the Thai Government proving the region is backing rail and bolstering business confidence. On the same day, a billion-dollar high-speed rail contract was signed in Thailand. I am not making any predictions about my possibility to travel freely in 2021 but as construction of metros and cross-country railways is expected to continue at full capacity I am confident that, by time I do get to visit some countries, there will a lot to report back on.

Sam Sherwood-Hale Editor

Rail Professional

Digital construction

is common practice at DB E&C: With Building Information Modeling (BIM) we set quality standards in project planning and implementation

Modern technology

is in daily use at DB E&C: For example, 3D laser scanning, ground-penetrating radar and multicopters

Smart data networks

inform us of maintenance requirements for infrastructure and vehicles before problems occur – maintenance via remote diagnostics

Photo: Max Lautenschläger

Modern mobility is driven by modern technology. This in turn drives us to offer you optimal solutions based on state-of-the-art technology. We know: Innovative processes and construction methods help to increase quality and save costs in construction and operation. As one of the world’s leading engineering and consulting companies in the rail sector, we offer tailor-made mobility and transport solutions that meet the challenges of our time.

Learn more at g-consulting.com www.db-engineerin

Rail Professional



06 News Productivity-boosting rail project on track for South Australia, Prasarana and SMRT sign Joint Venture Agreement for Johor Bahru – Singapore Rapid Transit System Link, MTR Awarded Shenzhen Metro Line 13 Private-Public Partnership Project

08 Business Profile Deutsche Bahn’s diagnosis and analysis solution of railway and metro network infrastructure

10 Rail Professional Interview


Sam Sherwood-Hale spoke to Ling Fang, Senior Vice President of Asia Pacific at Alstom about digital rail, the return of passengers to the global rail network and diversity in the industry

17 14 Business Profile Railway focused cutting tools can often be complex due to the specific requirement needed to machine a certain component in an efficient and highly reliable manner

17 Business Profile Since the very moment of its foundation Talgo has been present in USA, starting in the 1940s and continuing up to today, contributing to sustain a circular economy and create cleaner mass transit systems

19 Rail Professional Interview Sam Sherwood-Hale spoke to Danny Di Perna, Global President of Bombardier Transportation

21 Track and Trackside 9

The efficiency of a traffic management system is dependent on the reliability of the train detection system, as well as other connected functions, such as level crossing systems Rail Professional



More news at www.railprofessional.com/news

LTA Awards Civil Contract to Construct Johor Bahru - Singapore Rapid Transit System (RTS) Link Singapore – The Land Transport Authority (LTA) has awarded the first of two civil contracts for the construction of Johor Bahru – Singapore Rapid Transit System (RTS) Link to PentaOcean Construction Co Ltd at a contract value of SG$932,800,000 (US$697,000,000). This contract covers the construction of the RTS Link Woodlands North station, tunnels and the Customs, Immigration, and Quarantine (CIQ) building in Singapore. Penta-Ocean Construction Co Ltd has wide-ranging experience in infrastructure and building projects in Singapore. The company is currently constructing the Bright Hill and Orchard stations on the Thomson-East Coast Line (TEL), and had previously worked on the TEL Woodlands North station as well as the Downtown Line’s Bendemeer station. Construction for the RTS Link is expected to commence in the first quarter of 2021 and passenger service is expected to commence

in end 2026. The second civil contract for this project, which includes the construction of the RTS Link viaduct, will be awarded in the first quarter of 2021. The RTS Link is a rail shuttle service between the Singapore terminus at Woodlands North station and the Malaysia terminus at Bukit Chagar station in Johor Bahru. It will support a peak capacity of 10,000 passengers per hour in each direction. To facilitate a seamless travelling experience, the CIQ facilities will be conveniently co-located at Woodlands North and Bukit Chagar stations. Passengers will only be required to clear both Singapore and Malaysia immigration authorities once at the point of departure. Upon arrival in Singapore, passengers can continue their journey by transferring to the TEL Woodlands North Station. When operations commence, the RTS Link will further improve connectivity between Singapore and Johor Bahru and help ease congestion along the Causeway.

New light rail vehicles and real-time service information Hong Kong – The MTR Corporation has been enhancing Light Rail facilities to provide customers in the Northwest New Territories with a convenient and high-quality public transport service. The brand new ‘Phase 5’ LRV inherits the concise exterior design as well as the white, green and purple colour scheme of the previous generations with sleek front and rear ends, while the driving cabin will provide a wider sightline for Light Rail captains. To further enhance customer experience, the new LRVs features several enhancements, including an improved LED lighting system to enhance the ambiance of the train saloons, and improved handrail and straphanger arrangements, etc. The first two new LRVs have passed the safety and performance tests and obtained approval from the Electrical and Mechanical Services Department. They are now under final preparation and will

be deployed to serve Routes 610 and 751 in coupled set at the initial stage. Customers are welcomed to take the routes and experience the service of new LRVs. As for another new LRV, which is under testing and commission, the engineering team has installed solar photovoltaic panels at the top of the vehicle as a trial to use clean and renewable energy to provide electricity to the in-compartment lighting system, hoping to make journeys on new LRVs even greener. The Corporation ordered a total of 40 new LRVs in 2016, among which 30 LRVs will replace existing Phase 2 LRVs while the rest will help to expand the Light Rail fleet size. The overall journey time and schedule of the Light Rail network has been fine-tuned for a more flexible deployment of LRVs and a better coordination of overlapping and long-haul routes.

Keolis expands its footprint in China and wins a new tram contract Shanghai, China – Keolis’ Chinese joint venture, Shanghai Keolis was awarded a new five-year contract by the public transport authority of Jiaxing, forming a new joint venture called Shenjia with the authority to operate and maintain the city’s new tram network. Jiaxing is one of the most densely populated cities in China’s eastern coastal province of Zhejiang. Scheduled to open 1 July 2021, the catenary-free network is the province’s first tram system and will serve Jiaxing’s 4.65 million inhabitants. As the first Keolis-operated public transport network in China outside Shanghai, this new contract expands the company’s Chinese footprint, positioning it to meet growing Rail Professional

demand for urban mobility and enhancing its status as a world leader in tram operation and maintenance. ‘We are delighted that Jiaxing Tram Co, our new PTA partner, has entrusted us with the Jiaxing tram contract’ said Bernard Tabary, CEO International at Keolis Group. ‘We’ll draw on our track record operating the tram network in Songjiang, as well as our international experience in Australia, Canada, France, Norway and the UK. Our goal is to provide an outstanding mobility option to Jiaxing residents and visitors and to reduce traffic congestion and pollution by offering a safe, reliable alternative to private cars.’

More news at www.railprofessional.com/news



Billion-dollar high-speed rail contract signed in Thailand Bangkok, Thailand – The State Railway of Thailand has signed five fresh contracts, worth about 40 billion baht ($1.3 billion), for construction work on the high-speed railway project between Bangkok and the north-eastern city of Nakhon Ratchasima.

Second Keolis-operated tram network in China The Jiaxing tram network is designed to become the city’s go-to public transport option. As the first tram network in Zhejiang province, it will help create an integrated rail transport option in the bustling Yangtze River Delta, one of China’s three great metropolitan regions. The catenary-free network will have two lines spanning a total of 15.6 km and 26 stations, including Jiaxing regional train station and Jiaxing South for high-speed rail. A total of 20 trams made by CRRC will run on it, with daily ridership expected to reach 50,000 passengers a day.

With the need for shared mobility on the rise, a third line will be added in 2023, bringing the total to 35.7 kilometres of line, 55 stations and 45 trams. Shanghai Keolis will manage the new company set up to operate and maintain the new Jiaxing tram network. Plans include the recruitment of 200 new employees including drivers, maintenance technicians and customer support staff. Drawing on its experience operating the Songjiang tram network, Shanghai Keolis will train the new employees.

Bombardier wins ten-year services contract to maintain 636 MOVIA metro cars in Singapore Singapore – Global mobility technology leader Bombardier Transportation announced today that it has signed a new contract with Singapore’s rail operator, SMRT Train Ltd (SMRT), supported by the Land Transport Authority (LTA), to provide ten-years of long-term service support for 636 BOMBARDIER MOVIA metro cars currently in delivery for the North-South and East-West Lines (NSEWL). This order comes with an option to extend the agreement for a further 20 years. The new integrated fleet services contract includes technical support and spares supply at the NSEWL. ‘We are proud to continue playing such a major role, contributing to Singapore’s public transport network and supporting our customer’s ambitious expansion plan to grow its rail network to 360 km by the 2030s. This order demonstrates the confidence LTA and SMRT have in our industry-leading services capabilities’ said Jayaram Naidu, President of Southeast Asia Region, Bombardier Transportation. ‘We will maintain their assets to the highest levels of reliability and availability throughout their lifecycle and ensure that the trains move people safely and on-time to their destinations.’

This is the third order received for the NSEWL. The initial base contract was awarded by the LTA for 396 metro cars, then a further order of 240 additional metro cars was placed. The new NSEWL Service contract awarded is the latest chapter in Bombardier’s rail services growth story. In March 2018, SMRT awarded Bombardier a ten-year maintenance and spares support contract for 32 BOMBARDIER INNOVIA APM automated people mover cars operating on the Bukit Panjang Light Rail Transit (LRT) line. This was the first services contract of this scope for Bombardier in Southeast Asia. With over 1,000 vehicles under maintenance across Southeast Asia by 2024, Bombardier is fast becoming a recognized leader in rolling stock services. Bombardier is responsible for design, engineering, manufacturing, assembly, testing, commissioning and delivery of the six-car MOVIA metro trainsets for the NSEWL system, scheduled to arrive from 2021. In its 20-year partnership with Singapore, Bombardier has become a trusted local partner helping to solve the mobility needs of the city state. It contributes significantly to Singapore’s productivity by cultivating local rail engineering expertise

and maintenance services capabilities. Bombardier Transportation is a global mobility solution provider leading the way with the rail industry’s broadest portfolio. It covers the full spectrum of solutions, ranging from trains to sub-systems and signalling to complete turnkey transport systems, e-mobility technology and datadriven maintenance services. Combining technology and performance with empathy, Bombardier Transportation continuously breaks new ground in sustainable mobility by providing integrated solutions that create substantial benefits for operators, passengers and the environment. Headquartered in Berlin, Germany, Bombardier Transportation employs around 36,000 people and its products and services operate in over 60 countries. Rail Professional



DIANA – digitalized predictive maintenance Deutsche Bahn’s diagnosis and analysis solution of railway and metro network infrastructure


n the rail transport industry, delays can cause massive economic damage. This negative impact harms not only the railway companies’ reputation, but, significantly, also incur the costs of delays and additional expenses resulting from corrective maintenance to infrastructure. All the while, the customers are increasingly demanding climate-friendly mobility solutions that are available at any time. To meet this demand, innovative digital maintenance strategies are needed, which ensure a higher level of system availability while also reducing costs. Transitioning from corrective to predictive maintenance In examining maintenance strategies used across all types of rail operations in the past, it becomes evident that most of these approaches fell under corrective and preventive maintenance. Corrective maintenance is a straightforward maintenance strategy which entails taking action when prompted by the consequences of past mistakes (e.g. replacing defective components). On the contrary, preventive maintenance utilizes manual and periodic scheduled inspections in order to avoid malfunctions whenever is possible. By using this strategy, the maintenance intervals are based on specific usage metrics or historical values, but the status of an infrastructure asset still remains unknown at any given time. As an alternative to corrective or preventive maintenance, digital innovations facilitate a move toward to predictive maintenance by using diagnostic and analytical tools to identify the most appropriate time to take a preventive action. This model is known as condition-based monitoring. Under the predictive maintenance model, data are collected with sensors and through Internet of Things (IoT) techniques, can be analyzed and visualized. In this regard, diagnostics are produced, and then are converted into forecasts by using artificial intelligence (AI) models and analytical methods. These forecasts help to identify precisely expected likely downtimes. Accurate prognoses like these have not been available in the past, which is why DB Engineering & Consulting is focusing on them in some of its research.

Rail Professional

The aim is to demonstrate the transitioning from condition-based maintenance to longterm prognoses. Here are the four main criteria for this path: • Elimination of ad hoc inspections to identify defects in the field. • Reducing overall maintenance costs. • Improving service quality with higher asset availability. • Allows better planning reliability of maintenance processes. For several years now, Deutsche Bahn has been continuously implementing new technologies, which collect and analyze data to identify at early stage potential malfunctions and create a knowledgebase. DIANA point machine diagnostics Switch defects are one of the main causes of infrastructure-related delays. Deutsche Bahn’s rail network has more than 69,000 switches and crossings. Incipient faults can lead to significant losses in rail operations. Even so, their negative consequences can be avoided only by identifying the root causes at very early stage so that corrective actions can be planned and implemented effectively and efficiently. This is why precise, reliable forecasts of point machine defects are needed, which usage can reduce maintenance costs and increase the availability of infrastructure assets. Deutsche Bahn faced the challenge of

having many different diagnostics systems which were providing a vast unmanageable amount data, that could not be efficient to evaluate. This is where the DIANA idea was established with the goal to build a universal Platform for all different types of assets of the Infrastructure and Rolling Stock. So we designed a vendor- and manufacturerindependent interface standards, replacing all other proprietary solutions and created for the first time of history an railway-operatororiented platform solution, supporting an evolutionary implementation within the organization and having the data ownership within the railway operators as well as building and maintaining know-how in-house. For instance, in order to quickly identify changes in the condition of point machines, a point machine diagnostics system with its own sensor technology was developed alongside the DIANA platform. By applying, a sensor on each point machine’s power cable we could measure the electrical consumption that is required during the turn event. The system compares the actual condition against reference curves and deviations in power consumption can be detected across the entire turning event point machine. If a deviation is detected, the maintainer who is responsible for this infrastructure asset is notified in real-time through an app and applies his knowledge and experience to assess the irregularity and ultimately decide what action needs to be taken in order to prevent failure. Integrating DIANA into other relevant systems.

Source: Isidoros Sapounas


Track system at Frankfurt (Main) central station. Source: Deutsche Bahn AG, Max Lautenschläger

But comparing and evaluating only the actual conditions, doesn’t provide a clearly overview how an asset performs. Certainly, it helps to understand the root causes, but the main goal remains to monitor permanently the asset performance. So, a new principle was introduced the so-called green plot.

DIANA sensors: new digital sensors for point machine diagnostics 2.0 installed at CFL. Source: Walter Giess

The green plot is a historical view of all the point machine turns within a specific period. DIANA measures the power curve, rotates it 90 degrees and color-codes deviations from the relevant reference curve. For instance, if no deviation is present, the color code is green; if a deviation is significant, its color code is red. This method allows to keep the asset in ‘validation state’, by monitoring permanently and identify the transient behavior, in order to repair ‘when it’s suitable’. By documenting the root causes of defects in the system and categorizing problems that arise, a failure

pattern catalog can be developed, which serves as a compass for navigating the diagnostics process and is also closely intertwined with the action catalog. The first generation of DIANA point machine diagnostics is already in use at DB Netz AG and at Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois (CFL) in Luxembourg. This was the first step toward implementing condition-based maintenance. DB Netz AG has connected a total of 28,000 operations-critical switches to the DIANA point machine diagnostics system. In 2019, the system prevented 3,600 incidents. Point machine diagnostics 2.0 with new sensor technology A second generation of sensors has been developed based on the analog sensor technology utilized thus far and the experience gained with it. The new technology collects more measurement data since parameters such as voltage drop, apparent power and reactive power are relevant by performing a deeper analysis of point machine turns. The new sensor technology is intended to identify as-yet undetected malfunctions, thereby improving analytics and diagnostics (figure 3). Point machine diagnostics 2.0 covers three main areas: improving diagnostics notifications, preparing forecasts and developing AI models. This new technology aims to generate more meaningful diagnostics notifications than the previous system could by improving the analysis of collected data. The ultimate goal is to identify more precisely an irregularity occurring in a given phase of an infrastructure asset’s operations. Additionally, the aim is for future diagnostics systems to be able to prepare reliable forecasts which predict when an infrastructure asset will fail if it receives no further maintenance. Improved forecasts will reveal the full wear reserve of a given unit while also revealing the level of its functional performance based on specified


manufacturer and repair data. Ultimately, machine learning will help blaze new trails for the next generation of switch drive diagnostics, particularly using systems based on data analytics and new algorithms. Artificial intelligence is on the rise – and it’s much more than just automating processes. True artificial intelligence includes diagnostics systems which learn on their own, improve themselves over time and develop their own solutions. One relevant example is the development of artificial neural networks that set their own reference curves and parameters for each point machine, continuously monitor them and informs when it is necessary. The new digital sensors provide more data, thereby taking a decisive step toward predictive maintenance. The new sensors are also compatible with alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC). They are lighter in weight, measuring contactless and non-intrusively without interfering any other train protection system the three phases of AC/DC motors. Each digital sensor is connected directly to the motor cable termination in the interlocking. From there, the sensor measures the power and current draw from the power supply to the point machine. Digital signals are sent unaltered to the communication box, so a separate logger or analog-to-digital converter is not needed. Each communication box utilizes edge computing to analyze the significant data and transmits it to the diagnostics platform over an IP connection. The platform generates a visualization of the data, produce the diagnostics and notifies maintenance technicians of the potential root cause of any incident. The sensors can be used wherever AC/DC switch drives with repeating turns have been deployed. This is why barrier drives for railroad switch and crossing safety systems could also fall into the category of infrastructure assets which could be monitored by sensors, as could escalators, elevators and the powerplant industry. Summary Condition-based and predictive maintenance require a system integration that integrates condition monitoring with asset management, maintenance planning, operations management systems and third-party data. Accessing relevant data sources through standardized interfaces and applications provides an overall view of the relevant infrastructure assets. This view helps to improve data analysis and diagnostics outcomes on the IoT platform. Additionally, best practices are being developed and, at DB E&C, maintenance expertise is continuously improving in order to increase quality on the rail network while also minimizing inspections and maintenance costs. E-mail: db-engineering-consulting@ deutschebahn.com Visit: www.db-engineering-consulting.com Rail Professional




Ling Fang Sam Sherwood-Hale spoke to Ling Fang, Senior Vice President of Asia Pacific at Alstom about digital rail, the return of passengers to the global rail network and diversity in the industry

You’ve written for us previously about the future of rail transport in Southeast Asia and how it is unquestionably digital. Given the current circumstances that might necessitate acceleration in digital interactions, how have your predictions changed? Transport and mobility have become rapidly associated with potential spread of the virus—especially in situations where transport is synonymous with enclosed spaces and large concentrations of people, as is often the case on planes or public transport. This is the most immediate challenge that transport systems have been grappling with since the outbreak began, and operators have had to take quick action to protect their staff as well as passengers. Because of the new requirements brought by the pandemic, the trends and expectations in the industry have also changed. The demand for digitisation and the adoption of green policies and energy solutions in the rail industry has certainly accelerated given the current circumstances. We see this as an opportunity like no other for us to rethink our mobility system holistically. In the rail transport industry, to bring back the trust of passengers, we look at their need for cleaner, safer, and more secure rail

Rail Professional


systems. Mastria, our artificial intelligence solution, has been successfully put to use in Panama during this period of the pandemic. This digital solution is offered to ensure passenger distancing and safety in trains and stations in operation in projects all over the world. Mastria is based on four main standard functions: multimodal supervision, traffic management, coordination of operations and predictive analysis. Another clear demand from rail transport passengers is the reliability of the train service. Automation will certainly improve system efficiency and boost the confidence of passengers. With driverless trains, automation has already delivered positive effects on punctuality and energy savings in operations of freight transport and metros, for example by optimising braking and acceleration processes. The further development and expansion of urban metro and regional rail networks should also remain a priority to improve freight transport and sustain the lower emissions levels observed during the pandemic. Such projects will be critical to reversing climate change effects, enabling under-served populations to participate in economic growth and strengthening opportunities across the region. Incorporating rail transportation options into a multimodal network that links rail with airports and maritime ports will also strengthen the overall infrastructure and enhance the region’s competitiveness. What role did the rail transport industry play in the resilience in the supply chain during the current circumstances? Among other aspects of daily life, there has been a direct impact of the spread of the coronavirus on public transport, including railways. Many countries have resorted to reducing the frequency of urban rail services to effectively curb crowds and ensure that the train cabins do not become hot spots for spreading the virus. However, trains and rail systems continue to provide essential services at such unprecedented times, transporting people to and from their essential jobs in sectors such as healthcare, or carrying patients between hospitals across long distances. Due to the impact of the pandemic on global supply chain, rail freight has become even more relevant, to keeping economies running, the lights on and the supermarkets filled. During the pandemic, as countries worked to ensure that food supplies were maintained in stores, freight transport by rail proved to be a safer, faster and more reliable method of transporting goods. This was observed within Europe and also with freight trains travelling between Europe and China. By comparison, food deliveries by truck were subjected to health checkpoints that delayed deliveries. There was also a noticeable reduction in emissions, as road and air travel ground to a halt. Underlining the contribution of road transport to air

pollution, however, as people in the region resumed their regular, pre-pandemic activities , those reductions were quickly reversed. Thus the argument is made for governments to encourage the use of rail systems to move away from transportation options that contribute to climate change. The Asia Pacific region in particular has handled the Covid-19 pandemic well, is Alstom largely on track with their work in the region? We at Alstom, remain focused on achieving our main goal, which is to be the leading global innovative player for a sustainable and smart mobility. With a focus on sustained growth, green and digital innovation, operational efficiency, and an agile, inclusive and responsible corporate culture, we have set and follow clear priorities. Having pre-defined business continuity and disaster recovery plans had helped us remain robust not only in the region but globally as well. With a strong liquidity position, a demonstrated ability to deliver execution and profitability and the rapid launch of a cost and cash mitigation plan, the Group is confident in its capacity to weather the crisis as well as to capture opportunities in a resilient rail market and contribute to the transition towards sustainable transport systems. Alstom has made good progress on projects delivery despite the pandemic. In May 2020, the first of the 12,000-horsepower Prima T8 electric locomotives was put into commercial service by Indian Railways. In line with the Make-in-India mandate, all 800 of the Prima locomotives are being manufactured locally. Additionally the second stretch of the Sydney light rail was also commissioned during the lockdown period. While the world remains challenged, we move forward by continuing our commitment to protecting employees, customers and society as a whole while preserving the environment. We will continue to develop and market integrated systems that provide the sustainable


foundations for the future of transportation while keeping our fundamental principles at the heart of all our actions. Can you give us an update on the Bombardier deal? Following the notification of the transaction to the European Commission on 11 June, 2020, Alstom has taken a further step towards finalising its planned acquisition of Bombardier Transportation. On 9 July, Alstom submitted commitments in response to the Commission’s potential concerns. The European Commission approved the deal on 31 July, subject to full compliance with a number of commitments offered by Alstom. The Group’s closing of the acquisition of Bombardier Transportation remains on track for the first half of 2021. Passengers numbers are steadily rising again, do you anticipate economic resilience in the sector? In the past months, with the stimulus packages being introduced by governments and with massive support from various organisations served, we’ve seen the ability of governments, companies, investors, and civil society to find ways to partner and seek solutions to shared problems. Such cooperation will be necessary going forward to craft more resilient transport systems to steel business and society against the inevitable crises to come. As the situation evolves day by day, the question of ‘will the passengers come back’ will linger for some time despite the reopening of most economies, and despite passenger numbers gradually rising. But after the current crisis, we expect a fast recovery of the rail market, sustained by strong fundamentals and increasing demand for sustainable mobility. The pandemic has had a tremendous impact on the public transport sector, but we have observed that the short-term consequences can actually bring long-term resilience and transformation in the industry.

>>> Rail Professional



What are the most impactful lessons we’ve learned so far when it comes to the rail transport sector? What are some lessons that are specific to the Asia Pacific region? This year’s pandemic, and the resulting unprecedented disruptions to daily commuting, travel and freight activities, has brought these issues into sharp focus providing proof that short-term measures are not enough. Transport systems need to be enhanced, and networks developed, to support economically sustainable and resilient societies going forward. The pandemic has grown attention to cleanliness, safety, and security of public transport systems. With this, the operators are providing solutions that will ensure the trust in public transports. The pandemic also undermined the reliability and efficiency of transport networks, particularly in freight sectors, thus disrupting the supply chain. To address this, it is imperative that transport stakeholders find solutions to enhance the resilience of their networks. Here again, we see that digital technology could play an important role, and some operators could quickly deploy big data solutions to adapt their operations. The most unexpected consequences from the crisis have been on the environment, with the sudden drop in carbon emissions. As such, the pandemic has pushed governments and organisations to rethink solutions that would be more sustainable in the future. In Southeast Asia, in particular, the transportation sector has been critical to the continuing rapid growth of megacities and the sustainable economic development of the entire region. The movement of people and goods plays an essential role in the economic, business and social life of individual countries and of ASEAN as a whole. As the region looks beyond the pandemic and into the future, rail transport can be a critical component of the way forward, as countries seek to manage issues related to rapid urbanisation and take the opportunity to address concerns around sustainability. How can we maintain a safe, healthy and secured public transport system? What can governments do going forward? What do mass transport agencies need to allow for safety and security of the commuters? In order to manage travel and freight demands as they recover following the pandemic, governments across the region have to seriously focus on the ripple effects of the situation. Authorities must plan accordingly, and reconsider how transport networks should be built. To encourage a return to train travel as restrictions ease, the transportation industry will also need to focus on ensuring the health and safety of passengers and employees. Mass transport agencies must act in accordance with the recommendations of local and global authorities, taking Rail Professional

whatever measures are necessary to ensure the safety of passengers and contribute to minimising the impact of the pandemic on society at large. Rail operators can reduce concerns about safety by enforcing social distancing and putting in place health protections and technology solutions. Transport operators can also opt for advanced solutions such as installation of efficient HVAC systems, driverless trains, digital systems to predict occupancy in train cars and on platforms and contactless e-ticketing upgrades. Is there a requirement to pay attention to digital apps and even cybersecurity? From predictive maintenance to automated signalling, and from driverless operation to enhanced passenger experience, digital technology is enabling more advanced performance and delivering benefits to authorities, operators and passengers. However, as the rail transport industry moves to embrace the digitalisation of systems and operations, the deployment of new technologies inevitably opens the door to risks, threats and the possibility of cyberattacks. The demand for cyber security solutions and services is growing at an impressive pace and it is anticipated to rise further with growing complexity of cyber threats, especially given that the railway transportation is as susceptible to cyberattacks as any other industry. We recognise that the transportation cybersecurity has become a critical issue. At Alstom, we take this very seriously and have developed solutions with the appropriate guidelines and procedures for secure installation, configuration, operation and maintenance. You’ve been with Alstom for 24 years, how have you seen the industry change in that time? In my 24 years with Alstom, I’ve been grateful for the opportunity to move between roles and countries. I’ve witnessed the growth of the industry amidst evolving market landscapes, liberalisation, competition, changing passenger expectations, and the rise of digital technologies that have provided opportunities, threats and challenges over the years. The increasing adoption of digitisation and automation is one of the most exciting changes I have observed. Transport operators are now focused on solutions to deliver security and fluidity to passengers and operations, by optimising real-time performance in signalling and multimodality, by offering connectivity and automating driving. Also, now, the use of artificial intelligence aids operators and transport authorities with enhanced passenger flow management tools. The solution allows operators to adapt, easily and in real time, their response to the various social distancing and public

gathering requirements that have arisen due to the Covid-19 pandemic. While digital solutions offer passenger safety and convenience, technology also plays an integral role in defending operators against cyber-attacks which were not as prevalent 20 years ago. Needless to say, the solutions we used back then have evolved tremendously. These past few years, we have seen governments investing in driverless trains, while more recently, we are talking about hydrogen-powered trains. With rapidly changing demographics and consequent massive urbanisation, transport systems will have to be redesigned to meet the increasing demand for mobility while preserving the environment. The environmental impact of transport may arguably be the most important change in the industry, but with the rising awareness comes the commitment from governments and organisations, such as our Group, to supporting carbon neutrality in transport by building innovative, sustainable mobility solutions with a lower carbon footprint. Reflecting on your personal journey, you were both the first female and the first Asian person to lead Alstom’s Asia Pacific region. How does the playing field today compare to back then? Is it more level? As the first Asian woman to sit on the Alstom management committee, I feel this demonstrates that Alstom values diversity and believes in offering opportunities. I’m an example for other women that we should not be afraid to show our confidence and ambition, and we should not hesitate to seize opportunities to demonstrate our capabilities. Over the past few years, across industries, we have witnessed the growing numbers of working women succeeding in their professional careers. The transport industry in particular has been more welcoming now than before to hiring women and allowing them to achieve a higher status for their profession. What can the rail industry do to encourage more diversity? The industry can perhaps take lessons as Alstom tries to exemplify how a company must be open to diversity. With a broad geographical base, the group provides longand short-term international assignment opportunities for its employees. Alstom supports its people with training, mentoring, and coaching. We offer every employee the chance to succeed. While it has proven challenging to hire diverse talents, especially when courses such as engineering and computer science are not as popular with women, we still ramp up efforts in recruiting more women for varied roles and positions. In India, Alstom has incorporated the approach of exposing senior women executives to other female colleagues to help them build confidence and serve as role models.


As a trusted, long-term supplier to the railway industry, we work with many of the world’s leading manufacturers. Providing quality products for wheel set machining, covering all operations from roughing to finishing. Our versatile and comprehensive range of inserts are suitable for all workpiece materials and cutting conditions, consistently delivering process reliability and security. Simply Reliable.

Dormer Pramet International UK T: 0044 1246 571338 E: info.int@dormerpramet.com www.dormerpramet.com

Dormer Pramet International CZ T: 00420 583 381 520 E: info.int.cz@dormerpramet.com

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Providing tools for the railway industry as standard Railway focused cutting tools can often be complex due to the specific requirement needed to machine a certain component in an efficient and highly reliable manner


herefore, across many applications, the majority of cutting tools for the railway industry are classed as Specials, designed with the customer and operation in mind. But not all products! There are several tools available within Dormer Pramet’s standard assortment, which can be used to support the production of various railway components. The company’s Penta HD and Econ HN, for example, are milling tools from its Pramet indexable range which can be used for various applications, including machining switches, base plates and wagon parts, such as frames, wheel axles and bogies.

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Machining Switches Rail switches and crossings are the sections that guide trains from one track to another. Dormer Pramet’s assortment encompasses tools for machining switches in all major rail profiles. The 60E1 and 60E2 rail profiles, for example, are the most common, especially in Europe. The type T section rail (flat bottom rails) is suitable for medium and heavy load traffic. In the crossing part of the two rails, known as the frog, manganese steel, also known as Hadfield Steel, is used. An alloy steel, it is ideal for high impact environments. Manganese steel is not magnetic and has a very high abrasion

resistance because the crossing must withstand the highest load on a railway track. It is a very tough material, with a low hardness (200-280HB), however, when it is machined, the hardness increases to more than 350HB. Another material used in the production of switches is Bainite steel, which is much easier to machine, even though it is a harder material at 450HB. It is ideally suited to this part of the track due to its high strength and wear resistance. Rail steel must be designed to be able to resist plastic deformation, rolling contact fatigue, bending and thermal stresses during the welding processes and renovations.



Railway switches during the production process.

When machining switches, the design is usually made from a single component and therefore one of the first operations is roughing the top and bottom sections of the rail. This requires a large diameter cutter, enabling the fewest number of passes possible. Both the Penta HD and Econ HN assortments have indexable cutters up to 315mm diameter. Penta HD The Penta HD milling cutter was specifically developed with switches machining in mind. Allowing operators to utilize the full power of their machines, the Penta HD with PNMU insert is ideally suited to heavy roughing operations in a variety of material, including steels, stainless steels and cast iron. Offering up to 10mm depth of cut and a feed rate of 0.7mm per tooth, the range enables high metal removal rates and productivity. Its double-sided insert design with ten cutting edges has an available length of 100mm, with each edge numbered for easier indexing. In a recent test example, the Penta HD with PNMU insets, M chipbreaker and M8345 grade was able to machine 4,600mm of track in 39 minutes, with a cutting speed of 70m/min, a feed rate 0.33mm/tooth and an axial depth of cut (ap) at 7mm. Another key feature of the Penta HD is the use of Dormer Pramet’s patented Sidelok technology system, which provides quick and easy clamping and release of the inserts. With a large retention screw permanently remaining in the cutter body, inserts can be quickly changed enabling more machine time and further increasing productivity.

Econ HN milling tools can be used for various railway applications

Econ HN Additional railway operations where standard tools can be used include the machining of base plates – the connecting element which ensures the rail is securely attached to the tie or sleeper. Also, wheel set axles, break-pad connectors, beam bolsters and bogie frames all require machining into shape. For all these applications, customers demand high productivity, while at the same time, respecting specific production limitations and materials. In any initial machining, face milling cutters are usually the most suited tool. This allows for the removal of large amounts of metal and creates a smooth, flat surface and base, before specific shaping can be performed for connectivity with other components. When machining the bottom part of base plates, for example, face milling cutters with diameters up to 160mm are often used. The Pramet Econ HN assortment offers a 45° face milling cutter, which is available from 25315mm in diameter and includes the HNGX 06 and HNGX 09 inserts. Designed to generate improved surface quality, the indexable range can perform both roughing (up to 6mm depth of cut), through to finishing (up to 1mm depth of cut). Its inserts have 12 cutting edges, with a wiper option for higher surface finish and is ideally suited to machining cast iron, as well as steels.

The Penta HD milling cutter was specifically developed for rail switches machining.

High insert density for high productivity and longer tool life, means lower cutting forces are required. Also, a differential tooth pitch and a unique geometry (F, M or R) for each operation, from finishing to roughing, along with an internal coolant supply, provides high tool accuracy and quiet running. For more information regarding all of Dormer Pramet’s products for the railway industry, please visit www.dormerpramet. com. Alternatively, speak with your local sales team or official distributor. Company profile Dormer Pramet is a global manufacturer and supplier of tools for the metal cutting industry. Its comprehensive product program encompasses both rotary and indexable drilling, milling, threading and turning tools for use in a wide variety of production environments. An extensive sales and technical support service operate from 20 offices, serving more than 100 markets worldwide. These are assisted by dedicated production facilities in Europe and South America and a highly developed distribution and logistics network. Tel: +44 (0)7912 981013, +44 (0)7709 461042 Email: Steve.hutton@dormerpramet.com, julie.heathcote@dormerpramet.com Visit: www.dormerpramet.com

Examples of rail components which can be machined with Dormer Pramet’s standard indexable milling tools.

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TRACKELAST Specialist Rail Solutions

FC650 - fire retardant FC442 - Stray Current Bespoke Solutions Protection Mats Trackelast FC650 Material has been specially designed with a high degree of fire resistance and excellent electrical insulation properties.

A thin elastomeric material to prevent stray currents escaping and causing severe corrosion to nearby underground services and utilities such as water or gas pipes.

It was derived from a formulation achieving a class 0 standard when tested to current fire specifications. The main application is as a fire retardant insulation pad used on underground systems for third rail isolation and other areas where good fire and electrical insulation properties are required. This material is fully compliant with LU Standard 1-085 Fire Safety Performance of Materials.

Prevents affecting adjacent signalling systems – for example where a metro and main line systems are in near proximity. By laying insulating mats under the track formation, the stray currents can be contained.

Key Capabilities

FC442 is usually supplied in rolls measuring at 1.20m wide and 25.0m long - jointing strips are also available if required (10.0m long and 75mm wide). Trackelast can also provide bespoke sizes and thicknesses to meet customer requirements.

Specially designed in-house for fire resistance & electrical insulation in underground applications Used in underground systems for DC rail isolation Approved by London Underground and Network Rail in various configurations Incorporated into the slab track design by Crosssrail and Doha Metro Used in DC electrification systems, underground, metro and other applications

Tiflex Ltd | Tiflex House, Liskeard, Cornwall. PL14 4NB T: +44 (0) 1579 320808 | E: trackelast@tiflex.co.uk | W: www.trackelast.com

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A division of



Talgo adapted to everywhere Since the very moment of its foundation Talgo has been present in USA, starting in the 1940s and continuing up to today, contributing to sustain a circular economy and create cleaner mass transit systems


he story of Talgo in North America began in 1944; USA was chosen to carry out the production of its new and revolutionary project, to build a completely different train that had been designed in Spain. First Talgo trains introduced the use of unique technology such as independent rotating wheel running gears (also known as ‘Rodals’) instead of conventional bogies and a lightweight construction using aluminum alloy. Such innovative principles allowed to easily increase commercial speeds as compared with conventional trains. In 1945 Talgo signed an agreement with American Car and Foundry (ACF) for the production of first Talgo trains and after spending three years on the detailed design and construction, the first units were completed in 1948. The inaugural trip was made on the Hoboken-Dover line in New Jersey, reaching a top speed of 120 kph. ACF then made three trains of two different types, one for North America and with standard Stephenson track-gauge of 1,435mm, and two more to be used back in Spain on the Iberian track-gauge network of 1,668mm. Arriving in the Iberian Peninsula in 1950 the Talgo II units (the early 40s prototype had already been nicknamed Talgo I), reached a top speed of 145 kph: an engineering feat given the poorly-maintained tracks, most dating back to the 19th century. America was far from over for Talgo: growing steadily in its home market with those lightweight and fast trains, the company crossed back the Atlantic Ocean 40 years later. In 1988 Amtrak tested a new Talgo tilting train model. It had a maximum speed of 200 kph and thanks to its natural tilting technology it was able to increase speeds by up to 25 per cent at curves without having to invest in infrastructure improvements. After some years of negotiation, in 1994, the Federal Railroad Administration finally approved the operation of rented Talgo trains for an initial period of six months and to be used in the Pacific coast, under the order of the Transport Department of the Washington State (WSDOT). The first unit entered commercial service in the Seattle – Portland line, dramatically reducing travel times as compared with the Rail Professional



fastest units then operated at that time. In 2009 Talgo additionally established a new factory in Milwaukee (WI), devised to assemble and refurbish trains in the USA. Thanks to this new manufacturing plant, Talgo acquired a much-valued capacity to build the trains in the USA, thus fulfilling the Buy America requirements. It was in this factory where Talgo made the Serie 8 trains, with a cab-car to work on pushpull mode, being more versatile with a coupling compatible with the entire Amtrak locomotive fleet, and able to adapt to a high speed of up to 250 kph easily. They have seats available for up to 600 passengers on each train, lightweight makeup reducing energy consumption and infotainment systems at-seat and in cars. They are also resistant to telescoping, pileups and overturning, in compliance with both the FRA/CFR and European demanding standards. The Milwaukee Factory is also key in the new diversified strategy under which Talgo is undertaking the modernization of mass transit fleets of Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (CA). After a 25-year-long operation, the A650 metro fleet faced difficulties as a result of its intensive and almost non-stop use, as well as technological obsolescence. Talgo’s task in this project is to breathe new life into 74 railway vehicles, making them reliable, safe and up to date. Additionally, in 2019 the Southern California Regional Rail Authority (SCRRA) awarded the Talgo – Systra Joint Venture to refurbish 50 Bombardier Rail Cars operated by Metrolink, that could be increased by 71 more if funding becomes available for the operator. Metrolink is the commuter rail system in Southern California, and it comprises 7 lines and more than 850 km of rail network. The cars are being heavily upgraded including lighting, trucks and

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passenger communication system, along with new HVAC systems that will not only be more powerful, but also more efficient. Talgo can replicate this successful model in Asia Pacific. Transferring technology and creating new economic stimulus, with local suppliers and jobs in the USA, developing regional economies. In the years to come, Talgo will continue to address America’s mobility needs in front of the ongoing climate crisis. As Talgo Chairman Carlos Palacio stated during the recent COP25 conference held in Madrid:

‘The realistic and immediate solution to reduce the CO2 footprint caused by means of transport such as airplane or automobile is the railway.’ And a direct way to further maximize rail efficiency and minimize the emission of greenhouse gases is to have light trains with advanced technical characteristics in terms of energy efficiency, such as Talgo’s. Tel: +34 676 710 682 Email: jesus.rodriguezalonso@talgo.com Visit: www.talgo.com




Danny Di Perna Global President of Bombardier Transportation Sam Sherwood-Hale spoke to Danny Di Perna about asset management in Southeast Asia, Bombardier’s approach to business in the region and get’s the latest on multiple ongoing projects in the region You have been with Bombardier for just over two years now, how have you found the experience so far? When I grew up in engineering, aerospace was the exciting, high tech industry to be in – I completely underestimated rail. My father-in-law worked for the Canadian national railway and I always saw it as an old, stodgy world. But honestly, I underestimated the complexity, the requirements for safety and systems integration, cyber security and increased density for signalling, the whole project design is so impressive and it matters for everybody’s daily lives. I think the industry now is a lot more attractive to young professionals, the days of old steam engines are totally gone – it is all state of the art now. I have been on 20 trips to China over the years and spent a lot of time in Southeast Asia in both aerospace and now in rail. We function as a one stop shop with engineering, one of our centres of excellence is in Bangkok, where we have 640 signalling engineers. We have capabilities with rolling stock and design and production support, we use our JVs in China to produce, for example, the Singapore R151 metro vehicles. We also provide maintenance support. This topic of asset management comes up quite often in Southeast Asia, the perception is that operators and owners don’t take it as seriously as they should. Has that been your experience? Using the UK as an example, I just went to Old Oak Common in the London area, it is a world class state of the art CrossrailBombardier depot. Asset management has been thought through for the next 30 years covering every aspect of maintaining the fleet. I went there with Andy Byford, TFL Commissioner, and Mark Wild, the CEO of Crossrail, and it is exactly as you Rail Professional



say. It is one thing to get the rolling stock delivered but maintaining the value of the stock throughout its life requires full asset management in the form of operating the depots, supplying spare parts and overhauling the bogies – and we provide all of that. Governments used to buy it all and then figure it out as things were falling apart, we now have digital tools that can help us proactively maintain the assets and we strike deals that see us having a relationship that lasts 30 or 40 years. Governments can hold us accountable in this way. It is similar to the aerospace model for jet engines, you sell a jet engine to an airliner then they sign up to a long-term services arrangement for obsolescence management and fuel burn guarantees – so you’re locked down for the fleet life. September has been a busy month for Bombardier, we have covered multiple stories of new contracts for Bombardier in China, Australia, Singapore – all over Asia. You must be very pleased with how business is going in this part of the world? Bombardier Transportation remains a market leader in the Asia Pacific region. In Southeast Asia, we’ve been contributing to the region’s growth for the past 30 years by transforming its public transportation network. We have come a long way, from winning our first turnkey systems contract for a 27 kilometre rail network in Kuala Lumpur in 1992, to winning Bombardier’s biggest asset replacement contract in Asia on Singapore’s North-South & East-West Lines in 2018. We continue to partner with key regional suppliers to develop local rail capabilities and local rail talent for the long-term needs of regional customers. With our globally-proven range of product portfolios and experienced team, we are well equipped to provide the right solutions for the specific and varied requirements of rail authority and operators in the region. You’ve also recently won contracts in Thailand and Malaysia – how do you change your approach when bidding for projects in these different countries? As we’ve always done, with each new environment, climate and culture, we evolve and adapt to provide world-class systems – making us a successful global supplier for greenfield and brownfield projects locally. We listen, innovate and integrate – so we can successfully contribute to improved productivity and ultimately to raising rail industry performance regionally. With demands on mobility growing exponentially in Southeast Asia, Bombardier must find solutions that work for everyone. It’s a challenge no-one can meet on their own. That’s why Bombardier works as a strong team to support customers in understanding the commuter’s needs, while Rail Professional

striving to create solutions that anticipate the needs of tomorrow and keep cities moving. What other projects are currently in the process of delivery? In Singapore we are upgrading 276 MOVIA metro cars for the Downtown MRT Line – comms systems and delivering 636 MOVIA metro cars for the North-South and EastWest MRT Lines and ten-year services. We are also delivering 19 INNOVIA APM cars for the Bukit Panjang LRT Line, signalling system upgrade and ten-year services. In Thailand we are delivering our driverless INNOVIA monorail 300 system for Bangkok’s Pink and Yellow Lines with 20-year services, alongside an INNOVIA APM 300 system for the Gold Line, all equipped with CITYFLO 650. In Malaysia we are delivering 108 INNOVIA metro cars for the Kelana Jaya Line and midlife refurbishment of the Kelana Jaya 414 Fleet. Two years ago, Bombardier announced a 20-year long-term maintenance services contract with BTSC in October 2018 to support the BOMBARDIER INNOVIA monorail system in delivery for Thailand’s first two monorail lines, the Bangkok pink and yellow lines. Can you give us an update on that project? As a committed and long-term partner in this market, Bombardier is honoured to be delivering the first monorails in Bangkok. The project scope includes delivering 288 BOMBARDIER INNOVIA monorail 300 cars equipped with BOMBARDIER CITYFLO 650 automatic train control for driverless operation, and the supply of wayside sub-systems. The first eight INNOVIA monorail cars arrived in Bangkok on 2 October. The wayside system delivery is progressing on track for both Pink and Yellow Lines, the next phase is testing and commissioning. Bombardier partners with LTA and SMRT in Singapore, how do these partnerships come about? LTA and SMRT are technically very astute, and rightfully so. Singapore has always been a podium for Bombardier to showcase innovative mobility solutions from driverless technologies to Train Control Monitoring System (TCMS) and the adoption of predictive and conditionbased maintenance methodologies. We provided the first driverless APM for Singapore’s Bukit Panjang line and the first Automatic Track Inspection (ATI) system and TCMS for the Downtown line. We conducted the launch of real-time passenger load display (a first for Southeast Asia) for the Singapore Downtown Line. With Bombardier’s recent announcement to supply 636 BOMBARDIER MOVIA metro cars to LTA for the high-capacity North-

South & East-West Lines, making a total of 912 metro vehicles in Singapore – it has one of Bombardier’s largest metro fleet in the world. We have a 20-year partnership with Singapore, Bombardier serves as a trusted and strong local partner, working handin-hand with authority to design nextgeneration trains to anticipate the needs of tomorrow. We are proud to say, Bombardier will be moving up to 1.8 million passengers per day across Singapore by 2024. Today, Bombardier’s regional office in Singapore, led by Jayaram Naidu, Bombardier’s Southeast Asia President, support customers throughout Southeast Asia as a centre for rail vehicles and services. Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia are all at different stages of rail development – how have you found the working culture there? Echoing what I said earlier about our approach, with each new environment, climate and culture, we evolve and adapt to provide world-class systems – making us a successful global supplier for greenfield and brownfield projects locally. We listen, innovate and integrate. Bombardier has also delivered mainline and mass transit rail control systems in China, India, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, The Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. As well as one of the world’s largest fleets of INNOVIA metro operating in Kuala Lumpur at the Kelana Jaya Line. How has Bombardier’s work in the region been affected by Covid-19? At Bombardier, safety is our number one priority and operational excellence is our commitment. Many of our employees have continued to deliver essential work and supported our customers throughout the crisis to keep local transit systems moving. As we move into the post-pandemic recovery phase, we ramped up our operations from partial to full capacity. Our productivity model will now evolve so that work is safe for everyone while we mitigate the impact of the pandemic on our project execution and fleet maintenance activities. What does the Alstom acquisition deal change for Bombardier Transportation? It brings complementary geographical presence and attractive product additions across all rail segments regionally. It also strengthens product lines and strategic industrial capacity of the concerned entities to better address customer’s needs in Southeast Asia. Finally. It strengthens Bombardier Transportation’s focus as we collectively move towards building a more sustainable transportation across SEA. www.bombardier.com



Highly available train detection systems for efficient train operations The efficiency of a traffic management system is dependent on the reliability of the train detection system, as well as other connected functions, such as level crossing systems


nductive wheel sensors and axle counters use state-of-the-art technology to provide train position information to traffic management systems and level crossings alike. As these components form the base for a broad range of relevant applications, robustness and high availability must be guaranteed even under changing and difficult conditions. Many years of global experience and pioneer thinking in combination with high quality awareness, lead to the aspiration to continuously develop and optimise new products and solutions which can meet specific requirements all over the globe. This is the DNA of Frauscher Sensor Technology. In this article, several specific requirements and appropriate solutions will be introduced.

Robust and reliable: Frauscher wheel sensors The main task of a wheel sensor lies in the reliable and precise detection of each passing train axle. Mounted to the track, these sensors are working in an environment which is sometimes exposed to extreme conditions: very low or high temperatures, natural events, such as heavy snowfall or flooding, as well as mechanical and electromagnetic influences. The reliability of inductive wheel sensors is largely dependent upon the ability of the wheel sensor to handle these conditions. Improving temperature stability In some countries wheel sensors are exposed to extreme temperatures, in order to cope with these extreme conditions, Frauscher became convinced that sensors installed worldwide must function at temperatures ranging from -60 °C to +85 °C. It must be guaranteed that the functionality of the sensor is not affected even by swift changes, for example from sunshine to heavy rain. A solution for this can be seen in the development of intelligent algorithms, such as those which have been

implemented in the improved version of the Frauscher Wheel Sensor RSR123. The quality improvement over the past years has also been recognised and appreciated by customers resulting in a positive effect on sales figures. The production output rose by more than 80 per cent to just under 11,000 units in 2019. Ruggedness in all parts To optimise their sensor’s stability against mechanical influences, Frauscher arranged testing stations at its laboratories to simulate even extreme impacts. To increase a sensor’s resilience, it also has to be guaranteed that it continues to work when completely set under water. Combining the experience gained from international projects and innovative development processes which included such tests has,

Based on its flexible software interface the Frauscher Advanced Counter FAdC can be implemented into higher-level systems simply and quick

for example, led to an optimisation of the tried-and-tested Wheel Sensor RSR180. This sensor’s potting compound has been enhanced in order to improve its robustness against shock loads. Besides, the electronic components and their inner workings have also been optimised.

The challenges arising from mechanical influences also concern the mounting assembly, which must ensure that the position of the sensor does not change under extreme stress. These include severe lightning strikes or vibrations caused by flat spots on wheels, defective rail joints, broken Rail Professional



of these functions, the availability of the complete system can be further increased in a cost-effective manner.

Inductive wheel sensors have to work highly reliably, even when completely under water

Suppression of faults The Counting Head Control CHC function prevents false activations due to unexpected disturbances such as road traffic, metal objects or debris on track surfaces. If adjacent track sections are clear, a configurable number of disturbances or false presence detections can be suppressed by the system. No reset is necessary since an occupied indication does not occur. Once an approaching vehicle enters either of the adjacent track sections, the suppression is immediately deactivated, resulting in normal fail-safe train detection. When used correctly, the patented functionality satisfies the safety requirements according to SIL4.

The Frauscher Wheel Sensor RSR123 is highly resistant to electromagnetic interference.

Automated fault correction process The intelligent Supervisor Track Section process (STS) corrects inevitable external interference in a fully automated manner. By observing the general reset conditions, it is thus possible to further optimise availability without any negative effect on safety. Every two track sections are overlaid by a supervisor section. Consequently, it is possible for a faulty track section to be reset automatically, without manual intervention, if the corresponding supervisor section is clear. Similarly, a faulty supervisor section is reset if the two corresponding track sections are clear.

Based on global experience, the proven Frauscher Wheel Sensor RSR180 has been optimised

rails or metal parts hanging from a train. Appropriate developments have for example been made to the Frauscher SK150 rail claw, the components of which were designed to withstand peak stress levels of 2,500 m/ s². However, during an evaluation carried out prior to the installation of this model in other markets, stress measurements of over 50,000 m/s² were recorded. In order to ensure that the sensor remains in the correct position on the track when subjected to these extremely high forces, the clamping bolt material has been changed to increase the robustness of the bolts and to allow them to withstand the given impacts. Defy electromagnetic influences Wheel sensors used in the rail sector work on the highly sensitive evaluation of changes Rail Professional

to inductive parameters. On the one hand, this allows for the precise detection of passing train axles, but it also requires the intelligent handling of the various electromagnetic influences present in the field. These can be caused by equipment and infrastructure, such as eddy current brakes and neutral sections or by natural events, such as lightning strikes. Maximising the system’s availability by intelligent fault tolerance In addition to ensuring the maximum quality of wheel sensors, intelligent, faulttolerant functions, provided by modern axle counters such as the Frauscher Advanced Counter FAdC, can ensure smooth operation even in the event of a fault – particularly if caused by external influences. With the aid

Conclusion As an expert in inductive sensor technology, Frauscher has been conducting fundamental research in this area for over 30 years and it has combined its practical experience, gained from various projects, with the analysis and evaluation of faulty devices. A total of 200,000 sensors in use in more than one hundred countries around the world form the basis of a knowledge database for continuous optimisation. By combining experience-based optimisation with tailored services, by staff in railway markets all over the globe, Frauscher is able to provide its customers with solutions that meet their requirements in an optimum way – which really allows them to track more with less.

To meet local requirements, the Frauscher Rail Claw SK150 has been equipped with even stronger bolts

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Naturally reliable

www.talgo.com Rail Professional

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