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A reconception of Lukla Airport

Rahul Malla


Gateway to the Himalayas: A reconception of Lukla Airport Rahul Malla

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Architecture in Architecture at:

The Savannah College of Art and Design Š August, 2013. Rahul Malla The author hereby grants SCAD permission to reproduce and to distribute publicly paper and electronic thesis copies of document in whole or in part in any medium now known or hereafter created.

Author _____________________________________________________________________________ l ___ l ___ Dr. Hsu-Jen Huang ____________________________________________________________________ l ___ l ___ Professor of Architecture, Committee Chair

Thomas Hoffman _____________________________________________________________________ l ___ l ___ Professor of Architecture, Committee Member

Arpit Shrestha _______________________________________________________________________ l ___ l ___ First Officer at Tara Air, Committee Member

Gateway to the Himalayas: A reconception of Lukla Airport

A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Architecture Deparment in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters in Architecture in Architecture

Savannah College of Art and Design By Rahul Malla Savannah, GA August, 2013

Sulima Temple Roof Strut Kathmandu, Nepal (Pencil Sketch)

list of figures abstract 1 Introduction and Hypothesis 2 Solu-Khumbu and the Cultural Ecology of the Sherpas 3 Tourism, Economic Development and Environment 4 Himalayan Architecture 5 Geological overview of the Himalayas 6 Site analysis 7 Case Study 8 Schematic design 9 design development 10 final presentation Acknowledgement work cited

list of figures Chapeter 1 Figure 1.1: Figure 1.2: Figure 1.3: Figure 1.4:

Lukla Airport Postcard / Lukla Airport runway / Namche Bazaar / Woman and her bull collarge / by artist

Chapeter 2

Figure 2.1: Woman and her Yak / Figure 2.2: Cultural show / Tibetan Art Figure 2.3: Tibetan man / Ibid. Figure 2.4: Lamas carrying TIbetan longhorn / Ibid.

Chapeter 3

Figure 3.1: Tourist on a swinging bridge /

Chapeter 4

Figure 4.1: Robert Powell, House with Rigsum Gonpo, Tangbe / Himalayan Drawings Figure 4.2: Robert Powell, Monks’ Quarters, Tsarang Gompa / Himalayan Drawings

Chapeter 5

Figure 5.1: Mt. Everest / Figure 5.2: Himalayan range / by Author Figure 5.3: Shifting of Indian plate / by Author Figure 5.4: Extrusion of Tibetan crust / Figure 5.5: Geologic - Tectonic map of Himalaya / Figure 5.6: Seismic hazard map / Figure 5.7: Schematic tectonic cross-section through central Nepal / Protection of educational building against earthquakes

Chapeter 6

Figure 6.1: Air link / by Author Figure 6.2: Road link / by Author

Figure 6.3: Conservation area / by Author Figure 6.4: Soil condition / by Author Figure 6.5: Solu-Khumbu district / by Author Figure 6.6: Trail to Everest base camp / by Author Figure 6.7: Average temperature / Figure 6.8: Average rainfall / Figure 6.9: Market in Lukla / Figure 6.10: Existing Towers / Figure 6.11: Road leading out from the airport / Figure 6.12: Coffee shop / Figure 6.13: Interior of a restaurant / Figure 6.14: Hotel close to the airport / Figure 6.15: Rhino model of site / by Author Figure 6.16: Rhino model of site / by Author Figure 6.17: Topography / by Author Figure 6.18: CNC cut on blue foam / by Author Figure 6.19: Site model / by Author

Chapeter 7

Figure 7.1: Potala Palace / Figure 7.2: The Druk White Lotus School / Figure 7.3: Madeira Airport / Figure 7.4: Centre Pompidou-Metz /

Chapeter 8

Figure 8.1: Area recuired / by Author Figure 8.2: Space organization / by Author Figure 8.3: Matrix diagram / by Author Figure 8.4: Site development / by Author Figure 8.5: Site circulation / by Author Figure 8.6: Site development / by Author Figure 8.7: Site section / by Author

list of figures Figure 8.8: Site section / by Author Figure 8.9: Building section sketch / by Author Figure 8.10: Building section sketch / by Author Figure 8.11: Building model / by Author Figure 8.12: Building model / by Author Figure 8.13: Robert Powell, Siva Parvati Temple/ Himalayan Drawings Figure 8.14: Entry skectch / by Author Figure 8.15: Robert Powell, Eight Chorten, Tangye/ Himalayan Drawings Figure 8.16: Stupa complex / by Author Figure 8.17: 8 Buddhist Stupas /

Chapeter 9

Figure 9.1: Canopy development / by Author Figure 9.2: Canopy development / by Author Figure 9.3: Canopy sketch / by Author Figure 9.4: Canopy development / by Author Figure 9.5: Elevation sketch / by Author Figure 9.6: Canopy structure development / by Author Figure 9.7: Sulima Templem, Kathmandu / Sulima Temple Figure 9.8: Canopy Development / by Author Figure 9.9: Translucent fiber glass and teflon textile / by Author Figure 9.10: Laminated timber structure / by Author Figure 9.11: Floors connected by ramos and wood spirew / by Author Figure 9.12: Canopy System / by Author Figure 9.13: Canopy model / by Author Figure 9.14: Vaccuformation of canopy / by Author Figure 9.15: Wooden structure / by Author Figure 9.16: Canopy model / by Author Figure 9.17: Canopy model / by Author Figure 9.18: Canopy structure / by Author Figure 9.19 : Structure system / by Author Figure 9.20: Photograph / by Author Figure 9.21: Site Plan / by Author

Figure 9.22: Site model / by Author Figure 9.23: Elevation / by Author Figure 9.24: Section / by Author Figure 9.25: First floor / by Author Figure 9.26: Second floor / by Author Figure 9.27: Third floor / by Author Figure 9.27: Roof Plan / by Author Figure 9.28 : Perspective view / by Author Figure 9.29 : Model / by Author Figure 9.30: Exterior Perspective / by Author Figure 9.31: Modle / by Author Figure 9.32: Interior view / by Author Figure 9.33: Wall section / by Author

Licchavi Stupa (Pencil Sketch)


to the

A reconception of


Lukla Airport

Rahul Malla Date 2013

Traditional architececture is of necessity because it is a concentrated expression of a culture. It embodies the particular environental , economical, religious and social requrements and yet it remains universally recognizable as shelter, protection and symbol. Through a buildings material, tactile and ritual presence, a deep sencse of place is evoked and the mystery of everyday life is revealed. By re-imagining Tenzing-Hillary Airport , this thesis attempts to captuer that power of such modest structue and transform the mundane airport building into a enclosure which will reflect the lifestyle of the people living in the Solu-khumbu region. As cultural diversity shrinks, this project attemps to celebrate its survival.


Introduction & Hypothesis

introduction Tenzing-Hillary Airport, also known as Lukla Airport, was named after Sir Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay, the first people to reach the summit of Mount Everest. It is a small airport located in the eastern Himalayas of Nepal. Only helicopters and Twin Otter type planes can handle the 15,000 foot long and 65 foot wide runway which has a 12% gradient uphill runway. The reason Lukla airport has been rated one of the most dangerous airports in the world is due to the high terrain immediately after the northern end of the runway and a steeply angled drop, of about 2000 feet at the southern end of the runway, into the valley below. Along with the terrain, wind shear, turbulance, short runway, and constant changing weather all contribute towards making the airport difficult to approach. The infrastructure and technology available in the airport barely meets safety standards, even for a small-scale airport. No landing aids are available and the only air traffic service is an Aerodrome Flight Information Service. The pilot has to land the airplane through a fully visual approach and has to act upon his instinct. Figure 1.1: Lukla Airport Postcard, Nepal, 1970

The steep terrain and harsh weather creates a major challenge for transportation in the Himalayan region. Time and time again heavy rainfall, land- and mudslides destroypaths, bridges and houses. Nepal being one of the most earthquake-prone zones, if earth-quake was to occur, the region would be completely disconnected for aid. Lukla airport, situated at 2,800 meters, is the only airport in the area and serves as a lifeline for people living in the region for transporting people and goods. Some 80% of the people of Nepal live in the countryside, mainly as small farmers at the subsistence level. They cultivate medicinal herbs and plants, run cardamom plantations and produce and sell textiles made from nettle fibers. These communities need a stable means of transportation for trade with other cities and towns for better economic opportunities. Along with exporting goods, receiving stable supplies of goods for people living there and the tourist is also needed. Lukla airport, serves as the gateway for thousands of trekkers and mountaineers going to the Everest region, therefore this Himalayan strip gets quite a bit of

traffic. Nearly 60 years after Edmund Hillary conquered Everest, and 30 years after climbing turned commercial, the region is still struggling to deal with mass tourism. Left behind by climbers, the waste includes discarded oxygen tanks, camp tents, eating utensils, and all sorts of miscellaneous debris. The growing numbers of tourists passing through the area has also led to an increase in the demand for fuel wood, with alarming deforestation.

project objectives impact of project

project actions

- To exploit the Lukla airport by improving and expanding the existing infrastructure with a better equipped facility which would connect the isolated region to the rest of the country and provide equal access to the majority of population.

- Opportunity for new air connection

- Surveys and Data Collection

- Greater access to other regions

- Exchange of Information for methodology

- To promote the exchange of knowledge, experience and know-how between people living in the region to other cities and towns by becoming a catalyst for regional development through agriculture, education and health. - To promote ecologically balanced tourism and trade for local economy.

- Attraction of new business - Enhancement of tourism - Creation of employment opportunities

- Regional study - Analysis of policy implications

- Contribution to sustainable regional development - Improvement in socio-economic standards

Figure 1.2: Lukla Airport runway

The Site is a fragile and a tough place to live where Buddhism prevails throughout the region. After the construction of the airstrip once an extremely remote location is now easily accessible. With so many visitors coming to the area, a lot of pressure is placed on what was traditionally a subsistent economy and that becomes a draw for people from rural communities to get a regular job and earn a living. My aim is to set an example of appropriate modernization. The project is planned around a scarcity of resources and desires to do as little harm as possible to the environment which are both, Buddhist principle and basic tenants of sustainable design.

Figure 1.3: Namche Bazaar

Hypothesis Redesigning Lukla Airport will promote


in the eastern Himalayan region of Nepal to mediate different

socio-economical domains for

regional development.

Figure 1.4: Woman and her bull


solu-khumbu cultural ecology sherpas & the

of the

Solu-khumbu region The Solu-Khumbu District is one of the 75 districts in Nepal which falls under the Sagarmatha Zone. The district capital of this region is Salleri, a recently developed town in Solu. Until the 1960’s, Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal was still remote and required two weeks of walking which made the region isolated. In the late 1960s the Chinese built Arniko highway and the Swiss built the Jiri road in 1985 which may have reduced the days to be travelled, but the region is better integrated with the rest of the country by air rather than road. Except during the summer and monsoon months, when the weather conditions usually forces the airstrip to be closed, the Lukla Airport in the Parak region, also known as Tenzing-Hillary Airport, was constructed in the 1964 by Edmund Hillary. Another airstrip was also constructed by the Japanese in 1973 called Thyangboche airstrip as a part of a luxury hotel development in the Khumbu area. The Himalayan Mountains attains their greatest heights in this region, around the headwaters of the Dudh Kosi and Barun rivers. A wall of world’s highest

glaciated peaks soars above the green ridges of the midlands, including the highest of them all, Mount Everest. This region consists of two parallel mountain ranges with more mountains emerging between them. This collection of high mountains makes this region the densest concentration of high peaks in the entire arc. The three areas; Khumbu, Pharak and Shorung, all of which fall under Solu-Khumbu District, remains the most populated area

by the Sherpas today, with approximately 17,000 of a total of 20 to 25,000 living in Nepal. According to the legends, this area was the first area settled by the Sherpas who migrated from Tibet. Although the three regions are next to each other, the environmental conditions in one differ greatly from another.

Figure 2.1: Woman and her Yak

Figure 2.2 Cultural show

Sherpa People To most of the world the idea of Sherpa people is synonymous with the experience of trekking in Nepal. After the first ever successful climb to the summit of Mount Everest was made by Tenzing Norgey Sherpa and Edmund Hillary, the Sherpas became widely known as the local skilled mountaineering guides who assisted with complex climbs. Essentially, Sherpas came to be the designation of the Tibetan-origin people settled in the Khumbu area. The name Sherpa means “easterner,” which is derived from the Tibetan word “Sharpa”, making reference to their origins in Khams, eastern Tibet. They began to migrate in the 15th century, making a living for many centuries by trading, wool, and rice, herding yaks and cows, and farming potatoes, barley, and buckwheat. Since then, the Sherpas have inhabited a considerable part of the highlands of Nepal. Khumbu Sherpas have a well-defined sense of themselves due to their culture of trade, pilgrimage, and mountaineering and trekking work. They have their own stand because they have maintained their language, religion, social structure and most importantly territory.

Figure 2.3: Tibetan man

Although high altitude life may pose significant constrains for settlement, the Sherpas have adopted a typical high-altitude agro-pastoral strategies. They have developed techniques of integrating agriculture and pastoralism based on familiar crops and livestock. They earn a living through trading crop surpluses and pastoral products and transporting goods acrossTibet and central Nepal. Khumbu Sherpas are usually of small households and agriculture and pastoralism is carried out by nuclear families. The most popular crop to be grown in the region is potatoes while the buckwheat and barley grains grown in a biannual rotation. There is a strong cultural connection on raising yak which can be related with the concept of wealth and status. Sheep and cattle are also kept in a small scale. They are extensively used for their milk, meat, blood, hair, manure, and even for transportation and trade. Figure 2.4: Lamas carrying TIbetan longhorn



Economic Development Environment and

Tourism economic development enviroment and

The Himalayan regions of Nepal have become a center for mountaineering and trekking in Asia. Once considered as one of the most remote places in the world, adventure tourism and availability of resources now links these places with the global economy and provides new opportunities for economic development. he change is most evident in the Mount Everest

region, where the prosperity of the Sherpas has been in contrasts with the living standards of people who are not involved in tourism. Although tourism has transformed land and life in the Mount Everest region in some ways, people living in the region are determined of cultural resiliency and have been ingenious in terms of adaptability. Although tourism has transformed land and

life in the Mount Everest region in some ways, people living in the region are determined of cultural resiliency and have been ingenious in terms of adaptability.

Figure 3.1: Tourist on a swinging bridge

For many families in Khumbu tourism has taken the place of trade for household economy. It offered a variety of opportunities for involvement such as guides, shops and lodges. Tourism has become the main source of income and accounts for more than 90% of all the money earned directly or indirectly in the region. Large numbers of visitors have become a catalyst

for deforestation because of high demand of firewood for cooking and construction. Waste- water and garbage from the camps and lodges and increasing accumulation of trash along the tails has caused local pollution and has been the most widely reported issue in the Himalayas. The Sherpas of Khumbu have thrived in the Himalayan region for more

than 400 years. Over time they have adjusted and devised different economic strategies, land-use practices and resource management and constrains of the highlands. Their way of living has created a complex interwoven pattern in the economic, cultural and environmental changes in the region.


Himalayan Architecture

Himalayan Architecture The architecture of Solu Khumbu reflects both Nepalese and Tibetan invention as it shares two traditions of domestic and sacred construction. Another factor influencing the arts is the uniqueness of the place where Buddhism and Hinduism had mingled for over centuries to produce an exceptional architectural technique. A lot can be learned from vernacular architecture as it has a stronghold of rationality. Integration of new technologies and resources in respect to the regional architecture could be one of the solutions for an establishment of a sustainable settlement in the Himalayan region. In Tibet- Land of Snows, Giuseppe Tucci compares architecture of mansions and ordinary dwellings having no drastic difference between them beyond size and ornaments. He also explains how power is expressed through height. The houses usually have a broad base and tapers upward to a flat roof, a result of being load bearing external walls. The roofs are used for drying clothes and for many other purposes such as work space or space to enjoy a bird’s eye view of the village and its dramatic surroundings. Figure 4.1: Robert Powell House with Rigsum Gonpo, Tangbe

Figure 4.2: Robert Powell Monks’ Quarters, Tsarang Gompa


Geological overview Himalayas of the

The great himalayas For thousands of years people of South Asia have had a profound significance on their religion, myths, and language by the Great Himalayas. Since ancient times, the mountains have attracted the attention of pilgrim mountaineers of India who gave the Sanskrit name Himālaya, which literally translate as ‘hima’ meaning snow and ‘ālaya’ meaning residence or hometown. The great Himalayas, highest and the youngest mountain range in the world, forms a barrier between the plateau of Tibet to the north and the plains of the Indian subcontinent to the south. The range stretches uninterruptedly for about 1,550 miles (2,500 km) from west to east between t he Pakistani administered portion of the Kashmir region, and the Tibetan Region of China. Between these western and eastern extremities lie the two Himalayan countries of Nepal and Bhutan. The Himalayan range is home to more than 110 peaks rising to elevations of 24,000 feet (7,300 m) or more above ea level and is often referred to as the “Roof of the World”. Figure 5.1: Mt. Everest


Pakisthan Nepal

Bhutan Bangladesh



Figure 5.2: Himalayan range

making Eurasian Plate

of the


Figure 5.3: Shifting of Indian plate

India Today 10 Million years ago

38 Million Years ago Equator

55 Million Years ago

Indian Land mass

Sri Lanka

71 Million years ago Indian Ocean

By 80 million years ago, India had separated from Madagascar and by 60 million years ago, during the Paleozoic, the Indian plate began its very rapid northward drift at an average speed of 16 cm per year, covering a distance of about 6000 km, until the Tethyan Ocean was closed due to subduction and it collided with the northwestern part of the Indian plate with Eurasian continent. Since that time and until today, the Indian continent continues its northwards ascent at a slower but still surprisingly fast rate of around 5 cm per year, indenting Eurasia by about 2400 km and rotating by just over 33째 in an anticlockwise direction. This movement caused the rocks along the leading edge of the Indian plate to deform and fracture. Immense slices of Indian crust were pushed southward and stacked up to produce the Himalayan orogeny.

Major tectonic subdivision

of the


The Himalayan range can be divided into four parallel longitudinal mountain belt, each having distinct physiographic features and its own geologic history. They are designated, from south to north, as the Sub-Himalaya, Lesser (Lower) Himalaya, Higher (Great) Himalaya, and the Trans-Himalaya. Indian Foreland


Tibetian Plateau

South Tibetian Fault Main Central Thrust Fault Main Boundary Thrust Fault Main Frontal Thrust Fault

Extruding channel

Himalyan Sole Thrust Fault Indian Plate

Mantle Figure 5.4: Extrusion of Tibetan crust

1) The Sub-Himalayan range consists of clastic sediments that were produced by the uplift and subsequent erosion of the Himalayas and deposited by rivers. These rocks produce the Siwalik Hills that are at the foot of the mountains. It has steeper southern slopes facing the Indian plains and descends gently northward to flatfloored basins called duns.

2) The Lesser (Lower) Himalayas, right above the Siwalik Range is a massive mountainous expanse which is 50 miles (80km) in width, with mountains rising up to 15,000 feet and valleys with elevation of 3,000 feet. Since the neighboring summits share similar elevations, it creates an appearance of a highly dissected plateau. They are primarily sedimentary rocks from the Indian platform.

3) Considered as the backbone of the entire system is the Higher (Great) Himalayan Range, rising into the zone of perpetual snow. The range reaches maximum height in Nep al and consists of 10 of the 13 highest peaks in the world, each of which exceeds 26,250 feet (8,000 meters) in elevation.

4) The Trans- Himalaya zone is made up of rocks which are derived from the uplift of magmatic rocks and their subsequent erosion. This zone varies between west and east directions. The west has an island arc environment whereas in contrast the eastern side represents an Andean-type environment.

Figure 5.5: Geologic - Tectonic map of Himalaya


Leucogranites Transhimalaya Suture Zone Thethys Himalaya High Himalayan Crystalline Sequence Lesser Himalaya



seismic hazard The Himalayas are one of the most seismic places in the world. This colliding force builds up pressure continually for several years and this pressure is released in the form of earthquakes from time to time. Hazard m/s^2 .2 .4 .8 1.6 2.4 3.2 4.0 4.8 9.8

Figure 5.6: Seismic hazard map

Figure 5.7: Schematic tectonic cross-section through central Nepal


Site analysis

Nepal nepal


lu-khumbu solu-Khumbu

Lukla lukla

Air Link


Seasonal Airports All Season Aiports

Figure 6.1

Syangboche Lukla Phaplu

Road Link


Major Roads

Figure 6.2

Lukla Airport

Conservation Area

Conservation Area

Figure 6.3

Soil Condition

Glaciated mountain

Dystrochrepts, Haplumbrepts, Haplustalfs Dystrochrepts, Haplumbrepts, Haplustalfs-calcareous

Haplumbrepts, Dystrochrepts, Cryumbrepts Haplumbrepts, Dystrochrepts, Cryumbrepts Rhodustalfs, Dystrochrepts, Haplustafs Haplaquepts, Dystrochrepts, Haplaquents Haplaquepts, Haplaquents, Eutrocrepts Haplaquepts, Eutrocrepts, Haplaquents-calcareous Haplaquepts, Psammaquents, Ustorthents Udorthents, Ustorthents, Haplaquents Fystrochrepts, Eutrochrepts, Argiudolls Udipsamments, Dytrochrepts, Rhodustalfs

Figure 6.4

solukhumbu Districts


Solu-Khumbu Distric

Area: 3480 Elevation: 345-8470 metres Khumbu Population: 105,887 (2011)

Everes base camp

Gorak Shep


Dingboch Pangboche Namche Bazar



Village Development Committee(VDC) District HQ Figure 6.5

Village Development Committee (VDC) Distric HQ

Trekking Route to EBC Foot Path Main Trail


pedestrian paths

pedestrian paths

Trail to Everest Base Camp Khumbu

Everest base camp

Gorak Shep





Everest base camp

Gorak Shep

Everest base camp

Gorak Shep


Mt. Everest


Namche Bazar


Mt. Everest


Dingboche Pangboche

Dingboche Pangboche Namche Bazar

Namche Bazar





Trekking Route to EBC Foot Path Main Trail

lopment Committee (VDC)

Trekking Route to EBC Foot Path Main Trail

Trekking RouteFigure to EBC6.6 Foot Path Main Trail


Mt. Everest

Average Temperature

Figure 6.7

Average Rainfall

Figure 6.8

Average High Temp (f) Average Low Temp (f)

Precipitation (inches) Average Rainfall Days

Figure 6.9: Market in Lukla

Figure 6.10: Existing Towers

Figure 6.11: Road leading out from the airport

Figure 6.12: Coffee shop

Figure 6.13: Interior of a restaurant

Figure 6.14: Hotel close to the airport

Figure 6.15, 6.16: Rhino model of site

Figure 6.17: Topography

Figure 6.18: CNC cut on blue foam

Figure 6.19: Site model

Lukla Airport

In 1953 Sir Edmund Hillary and his companions were one of the first foreigners to visit the region. After his successful climb to the summit of Mount Everest, he participated in different social causes as his appreciation to the local people by building schools and hospitals. During this process, an airstrip was also constructed in Lukla for transporting materials and goods.

Figure 6.20: Runway

Figure 6.21: Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay

Also know as Tenzing-Hillary Aiport Opened: December, 1964 Runway: 1,600 ft : 12% gradient (equivalent to 10 story building) Elevation: 9,382 ft / 2800 m 30 Daily flights from Kathmandu which is 85 miles apart High season in October (500 passanger travel daily) Considered one of the most dangerous airport: - High altitude - Terrain - Wind Shear - Turbulance - Short runway - Constantly changing weather - Low visability Figure 6.22

Figure 6.23: Robert Powell The Passage through Tsuk

Figure 6.24

Figure 6.25: Runway on 12% gradient




0+100 0+000


Doodh Koshi River




Figure 6.26: Existing site plan


MAN HOLE (800 x800)

SEPTIC TANK (2520x1700)














0+400 0+500
























case Study

Potala Palace Lhasa, Tibet

Figure 7.1

The Druk White Lotus School Shey, Ladak, India

Figure 7.2

Madeira Airport Santa Cruz, Portugal

Figure 7.3

Centre Pompidou-Metz Shigeru Ban, france

Figure 7.4


Schematic Design

Figure 8.2: Space organization

Figure 8.1: Area recuired

Figure 8.3: Matrix diagram

Figure 8.4: Site development

Figure 8.5: Site circulation

Figure 8.6: Site development

Figure 8.7: Site section

Figure 8.8: Site section

Figure 8.11, 8.12: Building model

Figure 8.9, 8.10: Building section sketch

Figure 8.13: Robert Powell Siva Parvati Temple, Kathmandu

Figure 8.14: Entry skectch

Figure 8.15: Robert Powell Eight Chorten, Tangye

Figure 8.16: Stupa complex

Decent from Tushita Heaven

Reconciliation of Sangha





Turning of the wheel


Figure 8.17: 8 Buddhist Stupas


design Development

Figure 9.1, 9.2: Canopy development

Figure 9.3: Canopy sketch

Figure 9.4: Canopy development

Figure 9.5: Elevation sketch

Figure 9.6: Canopy structure development

Figure 9.7: Sulima Templem, Kathmandu

Figure 9.8: Canopy Development

Figure 9.9: Translucent fiber glass and teflon textile

Figure 9.10: Laminated timber structure

Figure 9.11: Floors connected by ramos and wood spirew

Figure 9.12: Canopy System

Figure 9.14: Vaccuformation of canopy

Figure 9.15: Wooden structure

Figure 9.13, 9.16, 9.17: Canopy model

Figure 9.18: Canopy structure

Figure 9.19 : Structure system

The structure is a combination of six independent bearing layers out of which are three sets are Glulam beams on each axis of the hexagonal grid and a series of rectangular cross section spacers fasten beam – to beam in a sequence alternating at each node. As a network, the structure resists both lateral and gravity loads, with each bearing element under unique bending and torsion stresses.

Figure 9.20: Woven bamboo basket used for carrying firewood, grass and other goods

Figure 9.21: Site Plan

Figure 9.22: Site model

Figure 9.23: Elevation

Figure 9.24: Section








2 4







Figure 9.25: First floor


4 3


1 2












Figure 9.26: Second floor

(1) Baggage claim (2) Baggage room (3) Information (4) Elec/Mech room (5) Departure Lounge (6) Tea stall (7) Toilet

5 6












(1) Police quater (2) Police office (3) Office (4) Conference room (5) Elec/Mech room (6) Airport administration office (7) Airline ticket office (8) CAAN office (9) Office (10) Toilet








1 8

Figure 9.27: Third floor

Figure 9.27: Roof Plan



6 5

(1) Food/Bevrage (2) News/Gif t/Sundry (3) Waiting lounge (4) Elec/Mech room (5) Toilet (6) Lobby (7) Check-In area (8) Security check (9) Security office (10) Baggage check

Figure 9.28

Figure 9.13

1 3 (1) Teracotta roof tiles


(2) Roof strut (3) Timber roof support


(4) Stone wall (5) Operable window (6) Reinforced concrete floor slab


(7) Reinforced concrete column behind


(8) Reinforced concrete beam and lintel (9) Stone cornice (10) Concrete finish floor


6 8

(11) Foundation


11 Figure 9.14: Wall section

Figure 9.29

Figure 9.10

Figure 9.11

Figure 9.12

10 final Presentation

Acknowledgement I would like to thank my committee members and especially professor Hsu-Jen for their knowledge, encouragement and guidance throughout this project. I would also like to show my appreciation to all professors, friends, colleagues and peers through whom I have learned so much in the past years. I dedicate this thesis to my parents, Rabindra and Minerva. I would not be the person I am today without your unconditional love and support.

work Cited Bernier, Ronald M. Himalayan Architecture. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1997. Print. Govinda, Anagarika Brahmacari., and Anagarika Brahmacari. Govinda. Psycho-cosmic Symbolism of the Budhist Stūpa. Emeryville, CA: Dharma Pub., 1976. Print. Tucci, Giuseppe, and Wim Swaan. Tibet: Land of Snow. London: P. Elek, 1973. Print. Fisher, James F. “Sherpas : Reflections on Change in Himalayan Nepal”. 1990. n.p.: University of California Press, 1990. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), EBSCOhost. Stevens, Stanley F. “Claiming the High Ground: Sherpas, Subsistence, and Environmental Change in the Highest Himalaya”. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1993 1993. Dèzes, Pierre, Dr. “Tectonic and Metamorphic Evolution of the Central Himalayan Domain in Southeast Zanskar (Kashmir, India).” Chapter2: Geological Overview of the Himalaya. N.p., 1999. Web. 10 Oct. 2012. < page21.html>. Karan, P. P., Mather, Cotton “Tourism and Environment in the Mount Everest Region”. Geographical Review, Vol. 75, No. 1 (Jan., 1985), pp. 93-95. Published by: American Geographical Society. Article Stable URL: Pigg, Stacy Leigh “Sherpas: Reflections on Change in Himalayan Nepal by James F. Fisher”. American Ethnologist , Vol. 20, No. 2 (May, 1993), pp. 418-419. Published by: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American Anthropological Association. Article Stable URL: Stevens, Stanley F. “Tourism, Change, and Continuity in the Mount Everest Region, Nepal” Geographical Review , Vol. 83, No. 4 (Oct., 1993), pp. 410-427. Published by: American Geographical Society. Article Stable URL: Stevens, Stanley F. “Claiming the High Ground: Sherpas, Subsistence, and Environmental Change in the Highest Himalaya”. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1993 1993. Stevens, Stan “Tourism and Deforestation in the Mt Everest Region of Nepal”. The Geographical Journal , Vol. 169, No. 3, Environment and Development in High Mountain Environments (Sep., 2003), pp. 255-277. Published by: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers). Article Stable URL:

Rahul Malla Thesis: Gateway to the Himalayas