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ISBN 953-6577-99-2

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FACULTY OF PHARMACY AND BIOCHEMISTRY Competition Project, 1st prize, Zagreb, 1997 NA[I^ANKA Residential and Commercial Building Competition Project, 2nd prize, Na{ice, 1997 MILITARY ORDINARIATE Competition Project, 1st prize, Zagreb, 1997 BRITANSKI SQUARE Competition Project, 2nd prize, Zagreb, 1997 ZVIJEZDA Residential and Commercial Building Competition Project, 3rd prize, Zagreb, 1998 SUMMER HOUSE Banj, Pa{man Island, 1998 THE STUDY OF SOCIAL WELFARE HOUSING Competition Project, Honourable Mention, 1998 KOMUNALAC Commercial Building Competition Project, 2nd prize, Samobor, 1998 CONTEMPORARY ART MUSEUM Competition Project, Zagreb, 1999 FAMILY HOUSE with Swimming Pool Zagreb, 1999 SPORTS HALL Addition to School Marku{evac, 2000 THREE FAMILY HOUSES Zagreb, 2000 URBAN INTERPOLATION Zagreb, 2000 SPORTS AND CONCERT HALL Competition Project, Makarska, 2000 PE[KERA New Development with a Tourist Harbour in Pore~ Competition Project, 2nd prize, Pore~, 2000 ALMERIA Commercial and Residential Block Feasibility Study, Zagreb, 2001

RADMAN VRBANEK

082

FARMACEUTSKO-BIOKEMIJSKI FAKULTET natje~ajni projekt, 1. nagrada, Zagreb, 1997. NA[I^ANKA stambeno-poslovna zgrada natje~ajni projekt, 2. nagrada, Na{ice, 1997. VOJNI ORDINARIJAT natje~ajni projekt, 1. nagrada, Zagreb, 1997. BRITANSKI TRG natje~ajni projekt, 2. nagrada, Zagreb, 1997. ZVIJEZDA stambeno-poslovna zgrada natje~ajni projekt, 3. nagrada, Zagreb, 1998. KU]A ZA ODMOR Banj, otok Pa{man, 1998. STUDIJA SOCIJALNOG STANOVANJA natje~ajni projekt, otkup, 1998. KOMUNALAC poslovna zgrada natje~ajni projekt, 2. nagrada, Samobor, 1998. MUZEJ SUVREMENE UMJETNOSTI natje~ajni projekt, Zagreb, 1999. OBITELJSKA KU]A s bazenom Zagreb, 1999. SPORTSKA DVORANA dogradnja {kole Marku{evac, 2000. TRI OBITELJSKE KU]E Zagreb, 2000. URBANA INTERPOLACIJA Zagreb, 2000. SPORTSKO KONCERTNA DVORANA natje~ajni projekt, Makarska, 2000. PE[KERA novo naselje u Pore~u s turisti~kom lukom natje~ajni projekt, 2. nagrada, Pore~, 2000. ALMERIA poslovno-stambeni blok studija izvedivosti, Zagreb, 2001.

RPK

1997-2002

radman vrbanek


1997-2002

001


Izdava~: RPK d.o.o., Zagreb

Published by RPK d.o.o., Zagreb, Croatia

Tekst © 2002. Andrej Radman i Igor Vrbanek Fotografija © 2002. Andrej Radman i Igor Vrbanek

Text © 2002 Andrej Radman and Igor Vrbanek Photograps © 2002 Andrej Radman and Igor Vrbanek

Sva prava pridr‘ana. Nijedan dio ove publikacije ne smije se reproducirati ili prenositi ni u kojem obliku, ni ikojim elektroni~kim, mehani~kim ili drugim sredstvima, bez prethodne pismene dozvole izdava~a.

All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical or other, without prior written permission of the publisher.

CIP - Katalogizacija u publikaciji Nacionalna i sveu~ili{na knji`nica - Zagreb UDK 72 Vrbanek, I. UDK 72 Radman, A. RADMAN, Andrej Radman - Vrbanek : 1997-2002. / (prijevod Tatjana Zagajski). - Zagreb : RPK, 2002. Tekst usporedo na hrv. i engl. jeziku. ISBN 953-6577-99-2 1. Vrbanek, Igor 420729088 Urednik: Andrej Radman Prijevod: Tatjana Zagajski Lektura engleskog teksta: Davies d.o.o., Zagreb Grafi~ko ure|enje: Andrej Radman Tisak: Gandalf d.o.o., Zagreb FOTOGRAFIJE Fotografije snimili Andrej Radman i Igor Vrbanek, s izuzetkom: Farmaceutsko-biokemijski fakultet: Ivan Radman Pe{kera: Renco Kosino‘i} ZAHVALE Projekti prikazani u ovoj publikaciji ne bi bili mogu}i bez velikodu{ne podr{ke Miljenka Kne‘evi}a, Alana Kostren~i}a, Aleksandre Krebel-Kostren~i}, Miroslava Lazi}a, Jagode Leinert, Sini{e Marekovi}a, Damira Petraka, Ivana Radmana i Milana [osteri~a.

Cataloguing-in-Publication Data: A catalogue record for this book is available from the Croatian National University Library Edited by Andrej Radman Translated into English by Tatjana Zagajski Proofread in English by Davies d.o.o., Zagreb Graphic design by Andrej Radman Printed by Gandalf d.o.o., Zagreb PHOTOGRAPHY CREDITS Photographs were taken by Andrej Radman and Igor Vrbanek, excluding: Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry: Ivan Radman Pe{kera: Renco Kosino‘i} CREDITS The projects presented in this publication would not have been possible without the generous support of Miljenko Kne‘evi}, Alan Kostren~i}, Aleksandra KrebelKostren~i}, Miroslav Lazi}, Jagoda Leinert, Sini{a Marekovi}, Damir Petrak, Ivan Radman and Milan [osteri~. Cover page: Atrium of the House with Swimming Pool

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Naslovna strana: atrij ku}e s bazenom 002

003

PREDGOVOR Alan Kostren~i} FARMACEUTSKO-BIOKEMIJSKI FAKULTET natje~ajni projekt, 1. nagrada, Zagreb, 1997. NA[I^ANKA stambeno-poslovna zgrada natje~ajni projekt, 2. nagrada, Na{ice, 1997. VOJNI ORDINARIJAT natje~ajni projekt, 1. nagrada, Zagreb, 1997. BRITANSKI TRG natje~ajni projekt, 2. nagrada, Zagreb, 1997. ZVIJEZDA stambeno-poslovna zgrada natje~ajni projekt, 3. nagrada, Zagreb, 1998. KU]A ZA ODMOR Banj, otok Pa{man, 1998. STUDIJA SOCIJALNOG STANOVANJA natje~ajni projekt, otkup, 1998. KOMUNALAC poslovna zgrada natje~ajni projekt, 2. nagrada, Samobor, 1998. MUZEJ SUVREMENE UMJETNOSTI natje~ajni projekt, Zagreb, 1999. OBITELJSKA KU]A s bazenom Zagreb, 1999. SPORTSKA DVORANA dogradnja {kole Marku{evac, 2000. TRI OBITELJSKE KU]E Zagreb, 2000. URBANA INTERPOLACIJA Zagreb, 2000. SPORTSKO KONCERTNA DVORANA natje~ajni projekt, Makarska, 2000. PE[KERA novo naselje u Pore~u s turisti~kom lukom natje~ajni projekt, 2. nagrada, Pore~, 2000. ALMERIA poslovno-stambeni blok studija izvedivosti, Zagreb, 2001. CURRICULUM VITAE Andrej Radman Igor Vrbanek Sadr`aj Contents

004 016 028 036 046 056 066 070 082 090 102 110 118 122 126 134 148 154

FOREWORD Alan Kostren~i} FACULTY OF PHARMACY AND BIOCHEMISTRY Competition Project, 1st prize, Zagreb, 1997 NA[I^ANKA Residential and Commercial Building Competition Project, 2nd prize, Na{ice, 1997 MILITARY ORDINARIATE Competition Project, 1st prize, Zagreb, 1997 BRITANSKI SQUARE Competition Project, 2nd prize, Zagreb, 1997 ZVIJEZDA Residential and Commercial Building Competition Project, 3rd prize, Zagreb, 1998 SUMMER HOUSE Banj, Pa{man Island, 1998 THE STUDY OF SOCIAL WELFARE HOUSING Competition Project, Honourable Mention, 1998 KOMUNALAC Commercial Building Competition Project, 2nd prize, Samobor, 1998 CONTEMPORARY ART MUSEUM Competition Project, Zagreb, 1999 FAMILY HOUSE with Swimming Pool Zagreb, 1999 SPORTS HALL Addition to School Marku{evac, 2000 THREE FAMILY HOUSES Zagreb, 2000 URBAN INTERPOLATION Zagreb, 2000 SPORTS AND CONCERT HALL Competition Project, Makarska, 2000 PE[KERA New Development with a Tourist Harbour in Pore~ Competition Project, 2nd prize, Pore~, 2000 ALMERIA Commercial and Residential Block Feasibility Study, Zagreb, 2001 CURRICULUM VITAE Andrej Radman Igor Vrbanek


natje~aj za Muzej suvremene umjetnosti - skice Competition for the Contemporary Art Museum - sketches

U

posljednjih nekoliko godina svjedoci smo prave poplave knjiga u podru~ju arhitekture. ^ini se da je cijelu pri~u zapo~eo nezaobilazni Rem Koolhaas1 sa svojom biblijom S,M, X,XL2 i izjavom da on tu knjigu tako|er smatra projektom OMA-e3. Ovo izmje{tanje uobi~ajene arhitektonske prakse u neka druga podru~ja, u neke druge medije, kao i prodor drugih medija u tradicionalno arhitektonsko mi{ljenje, gotovo da ~ini glavnu odrednicu posljednjih godina pro{log stolje}a. Situacija u Hrvatskoj posvema{nje je druga~ija. Prate}i “dobru staru tradiciju” izdava~kog mrtvila, bez ikakovih ozbiljnijih monografija velikana hrvatske arhitekture, osim polupiratskih, “xerox technology” uradaka nastalih gotovo privatnim anga`manom pojedinih asistenata i docenata s Arhitektonskog fakulteta, osim vrlo periodi~ne periodike, arhitektonske publicistike gotovo da i nema. Jedina, ili skoro jedina izdanja, osobni su napori pojedinih arhitekata da se naprosto predstave, da naprave svojevrstan luksuzniji portfolio. Od ukupno tri meni poznatih, dva su vrijedna pa`nje, Penezi} & Rogina: 30 do 30 i Randi} & Turato: Arhitektura tranzicije.4 I eto u takvome se kontekstu pojavljuje na{a “mo~na gomilica” od dva arhitekta. Ambicija napraviti knjigu, pa jo{ k tome arhitektonsku, gotovo da je suluda ideja za hrvatske prilike. Me|utim, s druge strane, to je ujedno gotovo i jedina prilika da gomile neprospavanih no}i, gomile sjajnih ili manje sjajnih ideja i zapravo jedan izuzetno velik napor, koji bez ljubavi za ovim na{im poslom ne bi bio izvediv, ne bude ba{ sasvim ba~en u vjetar ili bespu}a virtualne memorije. Dok za europske prilike pomalo ulazimo u godine kad bi ve} trebalo imati etablirane biroe koji preuzimaju zna~ajne poslove, mi smo jo{ uvijek ... mladci pred kojima je karijera i koji nesumnjivo obe}avaju, ali...5 Radmanova ambicija da iskoristi kratak predah, i da sagleda i arhivira napravljeno, na kraju je urodila ovom knjigom. Moj skromni doprinos, a ujedno i zadovoljstvo da u~estvujem u tom prisje}anju kao kolega, suborac i prijatelj, ovaj je poku{aj fokusiranja zapravo osobne interpretacije ovdje predstavljenog dijela njihovog rada. Ovo je jedno od mogu}ih ~itanja.

I

n the past few years there has been a flood of books published in the field of architecture. Apparently, the whole thing was started by the indispensable Rem Koolhaas1 with his bible - S, M, X, XL2 - and his statement that he regarded this book as yet another project by OMA.3 The relocation of ordinary architectural practice into other fields and other media, and the penetration of other media into traditional architectural thinking, in effect constitutes the main terms of reference of the closing years of the last century. The situation in Croatia, however, is completely different. In line with the “good old tradition” of publishing lethargy and in the absence of any higher-quality monographs of leading figures of Croatian architecture – apart from the semipirate “xerox technology” products made mostly on the private initiative of individual assistant and senior lecturers at the Faculty of Architecture, and apart from the periodical periodicals, architectural publications are virtually non-existent. The existing publications are personal efforts by individual architects serving merely to promote themselves through a more luxurious portfolio. Two of the three such publications that I am aware of are noteworthy: Penezi} & Rogina: 30 do 30 and Randi} & Turato: The Architecture of Transition.4 So, it is in this context that our “powerful little bunch” of two architects emerges. The ambition to write a book, and on architecture at that, is an almost insane idea for Croatian circumstances. On the other hand, it is almost the only way of ensuring that all those sleepless nights, all those splendid or not so splendid ideas and, enormous effort in general, which could not be made if it were not for the love of architecture, have not been entirely wasted, hurled into the wastelands of virtual memory. Although we are now nearing the period of our lives when, in European terms, we should already have established firms and be taking on significant assignments, we are still... undoubtedly promising youngsters with a career ahead of us, but...5 Radman’s ambition to seize a short break to look back at what has been done and to record it has ultimately yielded this book. It is my modest contribution and a pleasure to participate in this recollection as a colleague, a brother-in-arms and a friend, by focusing on a personal interpretation of the part of their opus presented here. This is one of the possible ways of reading it. 004

Predgovor Foreword

005 m/M=M/(m+M)


Ivan Ko`ari}, Unutarnje o~i, 1959-60. Ivan Ko`ari}, Inner Eyes, 1959-60

“It says that when you put two minds together, there is always a third mind, a third and superior mind, as an unseen collaborator. William S. Burroughs i Brion Gysin, The Third Mind.6 Svaka knjiga, kao i svaki film, kao i na koncu konca svaki ‘ivot, predstavlja odre|eni vremenski okvir, mogu}nost sagledavanja ne~eg. Ovisno o tim okvirima mogu}e je mijenjati percepciju doga|aja. Okvir ove pri~e postavljen je vrlo pragmati~no, kao uostalom i sam rad ovog dvojca. Pri~a po~inje Farmaceutskim fakultetom, prvim zna~ajnim zajedni~kim autorskim radom, a zavr{ava odlaskom Andreja Radmana u Nizozemsku, {to bi moglo, vidjet }e se, zna~iti neku novu fazu. Vremenski, taj period obuhva}a ne{to manje od pet godina, {to bi se pak moglo odrediti kao zapravo formativno razdoblje karijere. Vrijeme u kojem su se postavili odre|eni stavovi i pogledi. Vrijeme u kojem mladena~ka energija do‘ivljava prve {amare nesretne zbilje i vrijeme kad se iz jedne dobrohotne stvarala~ke naivnosti prelazi u borbu s dru{tvenim i ekonomskim kontekstom. Formiranje njihovog zajedni~kog stava, a time i rada, odre|eno je zapravo vrlo konkretnim hrvatskim uvjetima, {to uglavnom zna~i ekstremnu redukciju izraza i baratanje izrazito low-tech7 tehnologijom, u odnosu na problem izvo|enja, i s druge strane, u odnosu na investitore, pribjegavanje trikovima da se estetika ugura ispod oblikovnih zahtjeva investitora, koji su u najboljem slu~aju nezainteresirani ili u gorem slu~aju 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

006

Predgovor Foreword

zainteresirani, ali bez elementarnog osje}aja za lijepo. Problem tr‘i{ta je sam po sebi razumljiv, ne mo‘e{ prodavati ne{to {to se kupcu ne svi|a, me|utim na{a specifi~na hrvatska nevolja je apsolutni nedostatak kriterija tko je za {to u na{em poslu mjerodavan, kao i jedna posvema{nja arogancija onih koji imaju novac, ali nemaju adekvatnu, ponekad ~ak ni minimalnu kulturu. Naslu}ujem da se radi o problemu uru{enog sustava vrijednosti, koji se dogodio s jedne strane raspadom socijalizma i s druge strane nesretnim ratom. U nastalom vakumu potrebno je uspostaviti nove vrijednosti, {to dakako zna~i i prona}i odgovaraju}u estetiku. Naivnost izraza kvazi gra|anske arhitekture, koja na‘alost ~ini ve}inu hrvatske produkcije u godinama neposredno nakon rata, samo je odraz naivnosti kvazi gra|anskog dru{tva tu|manovskog re‘ima. Kao {to je to svojedobno Laibach8 ustvrdio... kultura je najvi{i oblik politike... U tom i takvom kontekstu, dvojac Radman – Vrbanek zapo~inje svoje traganje za arhitektonskim identitetom. Pozadina iz koje dolaze svakako je obrazovanje na tehni~kom fakultetu - Arhitektonskom fakultetu Sveu~ili{ta u Zagrebu. Za vrijeme studiranja bili smo neprekidno podsje}ani od strane profesora i asistenata na ne{to {to se zvalo “zagreba~ka {kola”. Fantomska kovanica koju nitko nije obja{njavao, jer se pre{utno podrazumijevalo da svi znaju {to je to, mada je svatko, bojim se, imao svoju posebnu, katkad i sasvim opre~nu viziju. Na~elno, radilo se o tradiciji koju su na neki na~in postavili arhitekti poput Iblera, Gali}a,

Rem Koolhaas - jedan od najzna~ajnijih i najutjecajnijih suvremenih arhitekata iz Nizozemske, posebno utjecajan svojim radikalnim teoretskim radom u posljednjih petnaestak godina. Kapitalna i jedna od najpopularnijih knjiga - monografija izdana 90-tih godina, koja je postavila standard pisanja recentnih knjiga o arhitekturi kojih su autori arhitekti, a ne kriti~ari. OMA - Office for Metropolitan Architecture. Penezi} i Rogina, Randi} i Turato - zna~ajniji hrvatski arhitekti mla|e generacije. Na nesre}u, u Hrvatskoj arhitekti do 40 godina u pravilu gotovo da i nemaju izgra|enih ku}a, za razlku od evropskih kolega ili hrvatskih kolega iz boljih vremena, koji su dotad imali zna~ajan opus. Kad se spoje dva uma, uvijek postoji tre}i um, tre}i i superiorniji um, kao nevidljiv suradnik. low-tech - doslovni prevod - niska tehnologija, kao suprotnost visokosofisticiranoj tehnologiji gradnje - high-tech, elementarni, tradicionalni gra|evinski materijali umjesto platine, inoxa, fiberglassa i sli~nih materijala. Laibach - avangardna slovenska umjetni~ka grupa iz 80-tih godina, koja estetiku formira kroz kori{tenje politi~ke ideologije i ikonografije.

“It says that when you put two minds together, there is always a third mind, a third and superior mind, as an unseen collaborator.” William S. Burroughs and Brion Gysin, The Third Mind. Every book, every feature film and, in essence, every life represents a given time frame and provides the possibility of analysing what is contained within. The perspective from which the events are viewed can vary depending on the time frame. The frame of this story has been set in a very pragmatic way, as pragmatic as indeed is the entire work of this duo. The story starts with the Faculty of Pharmacy, the first prominent work jointly produced by these authors, and ends with Andrej Radman’s departure to The Netherlands, which, it still remains to be seen, might yield yet another phase. Temporally, the period covers nearly five years and could be defined as the formative period of their careers. The period when certain viewpoints and outlooks were developed. The period when youthful energy experienced some of the first blows of an adverse reality. The period when well-meaning creative naivety turned into a fight with the social and economic context. The development of their common position and of their ensuing work together has been determined by the very specific conditions in Croatia. Hence the extreme reduction of expression and the use of low-tech6 building technology, as a way of addressing construction-related problems, and the recourse to various tricks in order to find an aesthetic 1 2 3 4 5 6

Rem Koolhaas is one of the most significant and influential contemporary architects from the Netherlands, whose influence has particularly been felt through his radical theoretical work in the last fifteen years. His most important, and most popular, book, a monograph published in the 1990s, which set the standard for subsequent books on architecture whose authors are architects, and not critics. OMA - Office for Metropolitan Architecture. Penezi} and Rogina, Randi} and Turato - notable Croatian architects of the younger generation. In Croatia, unfortunately, almost none of the architects under 40 can boast that their projects have actually been built, unlike their European peers, or their Croatian peers who worked in more favourable times and had a significant opus at this age. As opposed to the highly sophisticated building technology - high-tech - low technology involves the use of elementary traditional building materials, instead of platinum, inox, fiberglass and similar material.

007

Predgovor Foreword


Jorn Utzon, skica ulaza u Sydneysku operu, 1956-73. Jorn Utzon, a sketch of the entrance into the Sydney Opera, 1956-73

Plani}a, Turine...9 Radilo se izrazu koji je spajao ~isto}u i funkcionalnost Modernizma ,10 te tada recentnu arhitektonsku avangardu, s ne~im {to je Frampton, 11 mnogo kasnije, nazvao kriti~kim regionalizmom .12 Da nam takvo {to treba, bilo je vi{e no o~ito. Da nam takvo {to treba danas, jo{ je i o~itije. To je naprosto nu‘an povratak jednoj tradiciji koja svoje vrijednosti nalazi u amalgamu univerzalnosti i osobnog - onog {to zapravo jesmo, sa svim svojim aspektima, od etni~kog i kulturnog, do ne~eg {to bi se moglo nazvati kolektivnom memorijom ili kolektivnom podsvje{}u.

Za vrijeme mog rada u uredni{tvu ^IP-a, glasila Dru{tva arhitekata Hrvatske, bili smo u kontaktima s nekim kolegama iz Be~a, koji su bili zainteresirani za arhitekturu mladih hrvatskih arhitekata, ali su molili da ih uputimo na neke koji ne izgledaju nizozemski!!!13 ^ini se da u prostoru mediokritetstva i “avangarde” nosa zabodenog u recentne strane ~asopise ne ostaje ba{ mnogo prostora u hrvatskoj arhitektonskoj sada{njosti. Svojedobno je grupica formirana oko uredni{tva spomenutog ^IP-a i nekoliko mla|ih hrvatskih biroa i timova arhitekata poku{ala dijagnosticirati i postaviti standarde ne~eg {to bi mogao biti standard nove hrvatske arhitekture, ne{to na {to je dotad pretendirao fantomski naziv “zagreba~ka {kola”. Rad Radmana i Vrbaneka zasigurno pripada u krug koji bi se mogao staviti pod takav zajedni~ki nazivnik. Tri mi se rada ~ine paradigmatskim za njihov pristup, jer svaki od tih projekata na svoj specifi~an na~in oslikava njihovu te‘nju. Prvi, i ujedno mo‘da najprogramatskiji je natje~ajni rad za Farmaceutsko-biokemijski fakultet, koji je zapravo i prvi zajedni~ki rad. Tu zapravo po~inju sa svojom tehnikom monovolumena, koju je tako dobro dijagnosticirao arhitekt Goran Rako14 u jednom od na{ih neformalnih razgovora. Tendencija objedinjavanja, svo|enja pod najmanji zajedni~ki nazivnik, postat }e jedna od temeljnih odrednica njihovog rukopisa. Druga je karakteristika “do bola” jednostavna urbanisti~ka gesta koja uvijek svodi situaciju na dva osnovna elementa – novu zgradu i kontekst. U ovom slu~aju Bolleove arkade15 i zgradu fakulteta okomitu na njih. U drugom, mo‘da jo{ ekstremnijem slu~aju, to je sportska dvorana u Makarskoj. Tu je iznimno kompleksan

9 Zna~ajniji hrvatski arhitekti iz perioda Modernizma, perioda izme|u dva svjetska rata i neposredno poslije. 10 Modernizam - univerzalni “internacionalni stil” koji vu~e korijene iz novih konstruktivnih sredstava novog industrijskog dru{tva, a koji ima za cilj preobra`aj dru{tva u smislu njegovog ukusa i dru{tvenog dekora, odnosno ure|enja. Majstori “moderne” su Mies, Le Corbusier, Gropius. 11 Kenneth Frampton - jedan od najeminentnijih teoreti~ara arhitekture u posljednjih tridesetak godina. 12 Kriti~ki regionalizam - izvedenica Kennetha Framtona koju koristi za arhitekturu koja koristi lokalnu tradiciju u generiranju novog suvremenog arhitektonskog izri~aja, za razliku od ortodoksnog modernizma. 13 Nizozemska arhitektura, uz {panjolsku, predstavlja jednu od najvitalnijih nacionalnih arhitektura i u koli~ini i kvaliteti produkcije. Na‘alost, nekriti~no implantiranje stila u drugim situacijama ili zemljama dovelo je odre|enog kompromitiranja tog arhitektonskog izraza - superdutch. 14 Zna~ajniji hrvatski arhitekt, guru najsvje‘ijih generacija hrvatskih mladih arhitekata. 15 Bolleove arkade - kapitalno djelo grobne arhitekture, zagreba~ki Mirogoj, sagra|eno po~etkom pro{log stolje}a.

008

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expression of the design requirements of investors who are, at best, disinterested or, at worst, interested but deprived of even the most elementary feeling for beauty. The way the market functions is clear: you cannot sell what the buyer doesn’t like. However, the trouble with Croatia is the complete lack of criteria determining who is in charge of what in our line of business, as well as the general arrogance of those who have money but lack adequate, sometimes even minimal, culture. I sense that this has been caused by the toppled value system, a result of the dissolution of socialism on the one hand and the unfortunate war on the other. The resulting vacuum calls for the establishment of a new set of values, which includes the search for aesthetics. The naivety of expression of the quasicivic architecture which, unfortunately, constitutes the predominant part of the Croatian architecture of the immediate post-war period is simply a reflection of the naivety of the quasi-civic society during the Tu|man regime. As stated by Laibach7 at one point... culture is the supreme form of politics... It is in this context that the Radman-Vrbanek duo set off on their quest for an architectural identity. Their educational backgrounds include a technical school – the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Zagreb. During our studies, we were constantly reminded by our professors and assistant lecturers of what they called “The Zagreb School”. It was a phantom-like term which nobody ventured to explain because it went without saying that everyone knew what it meant, although, I fear, everyone had their own special, sometimes even contrasting, visions. In principle, it represented a tradition established by architects such as Ibler, Gali}, Plani} and Turina...8 It was an expression

combining the purity and functionality of Modernism9 and of the recent architectural avant-garde with something that, many years later, Frampton10 called critical regionalism . 11 That we needed such architecture was more than evident. That we need it today is even more evident. This is simply a necessary return to a tradition whose values lie in an amalgamation of universal and personal qualities, revealing who we actually are in all aspects, from the ethnic and cultural to something that could be called the collective memory and the collective subconscious. When I was working on the editorial board of ^IP – the newsletter of the Croatian Association of Architects – we were contacted by some colleagues from Vienna who were interested in learning about the work of young Croatian architects. However, they asked us if we could refer them to those whose work did not resemble Dutch architecture!12 It seems that mediocrity and an “avant-garde” whose nose is stuck in the pages of the latest magazines do not leave much space in Croatian architecture today. At one point, a group of people from the ^IP editorial office, and from several Croatian offices, and teams of younger architects tried to identify and set the standards of what could be called the new Croatian architecture, similar to the one which had laid claim to the phantom “Zagreb School”. The work of Radman and Vrbanek definitely belongs to the architectural circle to be subsumed under this term. Three of their projects are paradigmatic of their approach, since each of these projects illustrates their aspirations in its own specific way. The first, and probably the most programmatic, is the competition project for the Faculty of Pharmacy

Laibach is a Slovenian avant-garde art group dating from the 1980s, which creates aesthetics by drawing upon political ideology and iconography. Distinguished Croatian architects of Modernism from the period between the two world wars and in the immediate post-war period. Modernism – a universal “international style”, which has its roots in new constructive instruments of a new industrial society, aiming at transforming a society’s taste and decor. The masters of Modern Movement include Mies, Le Corbusier, Gropius. 10 Kenneth Frampton is one of the most eminent theoreticians of architecture in the last thirty years. 11 Critical regionalism is a term coined by Kenneth Frampton denoting a type of architecture which uses local tradition to generate a new modern architectural expression, as opposed to orthodox modernism. 12 Next to Spanish architecture, Dutch architecture constitutes one of the most vital national architectures both in terms of quantity and quality of production. Unfortunately, the indiscriminate utilisation of their style in different situations and countries has somewhat compromised this architectural expression - the Superdutch. 7 8 9

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Vasari, galerija Uffizi, 1560-80. Vasari, Uffizi Gallery, 1560-80

funkcionalni aparat komprimiran u krug, u to~ku reda u urbanisti~kom kaosu na kontaktu starog i novog dijela grada. Takav princip omogu}ava jasno}u. Problem suvremenog urbanizma, koji se sastoji u potrebi obuhva}anja i razrje{enja svih kompleksnosti i nepredvidivosti suvremenog ‘ivota, gotovo da je centralna tema urbanizma danas uop}e. I dok zapadnoeuropske kolege pronalaze poetiku u kaosu ulaznih potreba i parametara projektiranja i kroz to grade estetiku fluktuiraju}ih formi i prostora, {to u jasnim gradskim matricama i naslje|u povijesnog reda ima itekako smisla, u op}em kaosu hrvatske gradbene situacije Radman i Vrbanek generiraju svoju arhitekturu kao mjesta

El Lissicki, niz moskovskih nebodera, 1923-25. El Lissitzky, a series of skyscrapers for Moscow, 1923-25

urbanisti~ke jasno}e. Mjesta koja jednostavnom organizacijom, gotovo vojni~ke discipline, uspostavljaju - jednostavno red. Ta tema reda nije slu~ajna i ona predstavlja odgovor na zapravo tipi~ni hrvatski problem, a to je kaos.16 Suo~eni sa svim mogu}im vrstama kaosa, od politi~kog i ekonomskog, do onog najpodmuklijeg unutarnjeg kaosa pomutnje i gubitka dru{tvene vrijednosti, ostaje jedino prilika u zrncu reda koji bi trebao postati “atraktor”,17 to~ka obrtanja spirale kaosa. Tu dolazimo i do jo{ jedne opsesije obojice, a to je anti~ki Rim. Dvorana u Makarskoj suvremeni je Koloseum, ba{ kao {to je obiteljska ku}a u Bor~ecu zapravo suvremena rimska ku}a

16 Slikovit primjer kaosa je stihijska izgradnja substandardnih ku}a u prazninama urbanih matrica zagreba~kih naselja kao {to su Tre{njevka ili Dubrava, koje su potpuno zakr~ile i uni{tile njihovu urbanost i uop}e dovele u pitanje normalno funkcioniranje ‘ivota i prometa. 17 Atraktor - termin iz matemati~ke teorije kaosa, ozna~ava to~ku grupiranja ili to~ku kojoj te‘e matemati~ka grupiranja vjerojatnosti neke pojave.

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and Biochemistry, which is their first joint project. It is here that they first developed their technique of creating monovolumes, accurately identified by the architect Goran Rako13 in one of our informal conversations. The tendency to bring together into one and to reduce everything to the lowest common denominator is one of the fundamental traits of their authorship. The second trait is the disarmingly simple urban gesture of always reducing the situation to two basic elements – the new building and the context. In this particular case, these are the perpendicular faculty building and Bolle’s arcades.14 A second example, perhaps even more extreme, is the sports hall in Makarska. This is a very complex functional apparatus compressed into a circle, into an island of order amidst the urban chaos right at the point of contact between the old and the new part of the town. This principle allows for clarity. The problem of urbanism today lies in the need to address and resolve all the complex and unpredictable factors of the modern lifestyle. This seems to be the central issue of present-day urbanism in general. While Western European colleagues discover poetics in the chaos of requirements and planning parameters – thus creating an aesthetics of fluctuating forms and spaces – which definitely makes sense in the context of a clear town matrix and a historical legacy of order, in Croatia’s general building chaos Radman and Vrbanek generate their architecture as places of urban clarity. Places whose simple organisation has an almost military discipline that simply establishes order. The theme of order is not accidental; it is a response to the standard Croatian problem of chaos.15 When confronted with all the possible types of chaos, from the political and economic to the most perfidious internal chaos characterised by confusion and loss of social values, all hope is placed in a single grain of order which

should become the “attractor”,16 the point of reversal of the spiral of chaos. There is another obsession shared by them both – ancient Rome. The Makarska sports hall is a present-day Colosseum, just as the Bor~ec family house is actually a modern-day Roman house from a post-Corbusian17 perspective. The fascination with Rome, elaborated by Vrbanek as a student in his paper entitled Recent Architecture and the Downfall of the Roman Empire, is far more complex than fascination with form or architectural expression. This is a fascination with a culture which had the good sense and the power to sublimate almost the entire tradition of architecture in that part of the world known to them, and to define typologies whose universality makes them equally applicable today, as indeed for all times.

13 A prominent Croatian architect, the guru of the latest generations of young Croatian architects. 14 Bolle’s arcades - a seminal work of cemeterial architecture at the Zagreb Mirogoj Cemetery, built at the beginning of the last century. 15 An good example of chaos is the uncontrolled development of substandard housing in the vacuums of the urban matrixes of Zagreb neighbourhoods such as Tre{njevka or Dubrava, which have completely blocked and destroyed their urbanity and undermined the regular functioning of traffic and life. 16 Attractor - a term from the mathematical theory of chaos denoting a point of grouping or a point toward which a mathematical grouping of probability of a certain phenomenon tends to evolve. 17 17 The Swiss architect Le Corbusier is the father of Modernism in architecture.

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Ivan Me{trovi}, Dom umjetnosti u Zagrebu, tlocrt polukata, 1934-38. Ivan Me{trovi}, Hall of Visual Arts in Zagreb, mezzanine plan, 1934-38

vi|ena s ove strane Le Corbusiea.18 Fascinacija Rimom, koju je jo{ u studentskim danima Vrbanek elaborirao u svom seminarskom radu Arhitektura najnovijeg doba i propast Rimskog carstva, znatno je kompleksnija od same fascinacije formom ili arhitektonskim izrazom. Rekao bih da se radi o fascinaciji kulturom koja je imala razuma i snage sublimirati gotovo cjelokupnu tradiciju arhitekture, na tada njima poznatom dijelu svijeta, i zapravo postaviti tipologije koje svojom univerzalno{}u mogu biti aktualne i danas, a vjerojatno i zauvijek. Ku}a na Bor~ecu vrlo je atipi~na ku}a za hrvatske prilike. Iako vrlo jake tradicije gradnje iznimno kvalitetnih obiteljskih ku}a, naro~ito u periodu izme|u dva svjetska rata, to je ono na {to se zapravo mislilo pod “zagreba~kom {kolom” ,19 gotovo da i nema primjera luksuzne obiteljske ku}e koja je prizemna. Ku}a na Bor~ecu je prizemna ku}a s izuzetkom “gostinjskih” soba u potkrovlju ulaznog dijela ku}e. Rasko{ je ovdje hedonisti~ka, a ne bahata i malogra|anska sa `eljom za samodopadno{}u i fasciniranjem. Ovdje je rasko{ jednostavnost i prije svega funkcionalnost u ispunjavanju u`itaka. Od bazena, do dnevnog boravka koji postepeno ekspandira u razne nivoe zatvorenosti - otvorenosti prostora. Istovremeno introvertirana, ali i otvorena, no ciljano, preko ni{ana izme|u parapetnog zida i grede dvori{taatrija, na prekrasni pogled gotovo cijelog Zagreba i jugozapadne okolice. Tipologija i jo{ va`nije logika Rimske ku}e,20 odnosno ladanjske vile, ovdje je spretno reinterpretirana na jedan suvremen na~in, spajaju}i univerzalno s lokalnim i sasvim osobnim, ~ak intimnim.

Pored ova tri objekta, od kojih se zasad jedino ku}a Bor~ec realizira, izdvojio bih meni osobno mo‘da najdra‘i projekt, njihov natje~ajni rad za Muzej suvremene umjetnosti u Zagrebu.21 To je rad u njihovom najpoeti~nijem izdanju. Ovdje je najizra‘enija tendencija rastakanja modernizma, na jedan nov, suvremen i sasvim osobit na~in. Antika, kao i Modernizam, po~iva na skladu i odnosu proporcija koji proizlazi iz uvjetovanosti percepcije prostora, pa i svijeta, na temelju na{eg biolo{kog odre|enja, na temelju onog {to nas ~ini ljudima. Recentna estetika (arhitektonska, muzi~ka ili bilo koje druge umjetni~ke kategorije), koja je po rije~ima Vrbaneka antiestetika i protiv koje se on tako svesrdno donkihotovski bori, s jedne strane je rezultat uru{avanja utopija iz 60-tih, 70-tih i 80-tih, te svojevrsne devalvacije artisti~ke, pa na kraju i ljudske vrijednosti, ali je s druge strane i mogu}a “nova zora” ili bar tra‘enje “nove zore” nietzscheovskog “novog ~ovjeka”, na kojeg je i

18 Le Corbusier - {vicarski arhitekt - otac Modernizma u arhitekturi. 19 Jedan od najsjajnijih primjera hrvatske stambene izgradnje ne samo tog perioda, ve} i uop}e, jest izgradnja vila u Novakovoj ulici u Zagrebu. 20 Rimska ku}a - introvertirana ku}a kompletno ogra|ena zidovima, s atrijem i peristilom kao unutarnjim dvori{tima u kojima se nalaze bazeni ili fontane sa zelenilom. 21 Natje~aj proveden u prolje}e 1999. godine. Na‘alost, rad biva zapa‘en, ali ne i nagra|en.

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By Croatian standards, the Bor~ec house is highly atypical. Despite the presence of a strong tradition of high-quality family housing, dating particularly from the period between the two world wars, which is what was most often meant when referring to “The Zagreb School”,18 there is barely a single example of a luxury family house consisting of a ground floor only. The Bor~ec house is a ground-floor house, if we exclude the “guest” rooms in the attic in the entrance section of the house. Its luxury is hedonistic rather than haughty or petit bourgeois, with no desire to be self-sufficient or fascinating. Its luxury lies in its simplicity and, above all, functionality in the fulfilment of pleasure. From the swimming pool to the living room, gradually expanding into different levels of open and closed space. Inward-oriented and yet open at the same time, but open with an aim – between the parapet wall and the beam of the courtyard/atrium towards the beautiful vista of almost the whole of Zagreb and its southwestern suburbs. The typology and, what is more, the logic of the Roman house,19 that is, of a country villa, have been skilfully interpreted in a modern way, by combining the universal with the local, and quite personal, even intimate, features. In addition to these three projects, Bor~ec being the only one in the process of construction, I wish to highlight a project that is my personal favourite – their competition project for the Museum of Contemporary Art in Zagreb.20 This piece of work is their most poetic expression. Their tendency to recreate Modernism in a new, contemporary and quite unusual manner is best illustrated in this project. Antiquity, like Modernism, is based on harmony and on a set of proportions derived from

our perception of space and of the world, biologically conditioned and determined, based on what makes us human. The recent aesthetics (in architecture, music or any other form of art), or rather antiaesthetics according to Vrbanek who fights a Don Quixotean battle against it, is a result of the dissolution of the utopian ideas of the 60s, 70s and 80s and of the devaluation of artistic and, ultimately, human value. It may, however, also be the possible “new dawn”, or at least the quest for a “new dawn” of the Nietzschean “new man”, whom even Le Corbusier counted on. Despite their resistance to the new, the necessity of this new horizon transpires in the gently folded21 plane of the entrance to the museum which is at once inconspicuous and monumental. Like Proust’s “madeleine”22 cake, their museum evokes memories of the Greek temple, the agora, Mies, Le Corbusier and Niemeyer,23 but is unstoppably headed towards something new. Contrary to, for instance, the old stager Rem, 24 they do not assume a light-hearted attitude forged on the surrealist principle of ordinary things in extraordinary places, nor do they consciously try to manipulate the above-mentioned memories in a postmodern fashion. Their act is almost unconscious, a necessity, a reflex. Unlike the three projects mentioned above, where pragmatism is used as poetics, and selfdiscipline as a mode of expression, this piece of work intuitively goes beyond any logic and consistency, creating a specific expression. I cannot but be fascinated with the fact that, while doing their best to avoid “modernity”, they actually find a splendid way of expressing it and in a far better way than many others who are persistently trying to achieve the same thing by applying “models”,

18 The villas in the Novakova Street in Zagreb are one of the most brilliant examples of Croatian housing development, not only of this period, but in general. 19 The Roman house is an inward-oriented house fully surrounded by walls, with an atrium and a peristyle as inner courtyards containing swimming pools or fountains with greenery. 20 The competition was carried out in the spring of 1999. Unfortunately, the project, although well-received, was not awarded a prize. 21 Folding - translated in Croatian as “nabiranje” or fold - “nabor”. This specific term ermerged in the recent theory of architecture related to the mathematical theory of field. In practice, it refers to the curved plane introducing a new principle into the strict Euclidean geometry of Modern space. 22 Marcel Proust, novelist (1871-1922); the novel cycle “Remembrance of Things Past”, the novel “Combray”. 23 Possibly the three most important architects of the Modern Movement. 24 For most of his buildings, Rem Koolhas uses Breton’s syntagm related to surrealist art... an encounter between a sewing-machine and an umbrella on the operating table...

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Josip Vani{ta, Beskona~ni {tap / U ~ast Manetu, 1961. Josip Vani{ta, Endless Cane / Hommage to Manet, 1961

Le Corbusier ra~unao. Upravo nu‘nost tog novog horizonta, unato~ svom njihovom opiranju - novom, vidljiva je u blago folderiranoj22 plohi, istovremeno samozatajnog i monumentalnog ulaza u muzej. Njihov muzej poput Proustovog kola~i}a “madeleine”23 nosi sje}anje i na gr~ki hram, i na agoru, i na Miesa, i na Le Corbusiera, i na Niemayera24 , ali nezaustavljivo kre}e prema ne~em novom. Za razliku od, na primjer, starog lisca Rema,25 oni ne zauzimaju njegov zezatorski stav iskovan na nadrealisti~kom principu obi~nih stvari na neobi~nim mjestima, niti poku{avaju svjesno posmodernisti~ki manipulirati, ranije nabrojenim sje}anjima, njihov je akt gotovo nenamjeran, rekao bih nu‘an, poput refleksa. Za razliku od prethodno spomenuta tri rada, koji pragmati~nost koriste kao poetiku, a samodisciplinu kao izra‘ajno sredstvo, ovaj rad na jednom intuitivnom nivou nadilazi logi~nost i dosljednost, stvaraju}i jedan specifi~an izraz. Ne mogu naprosto ne biti fasciniran time {to, trude}i se iz petnih ‘ila da izbjegnu “suvremenost”, zapravo pronalaze sjajan na~in da je iska‘u, i to mnogo bolje nego neki drugi koji to uporno poku{avaju “modelima”, “dijagramatskim pristupom” i drugim pomodnim floskulama. I za kraj da se vratim na enigmati~ni naslov. Rad ove dvojice arhitekata kroz svoju analiti~nost i pragmati~nost zapravo za svaki svoj projekt stvara algoritam, jednad‘bu koja svojom neumoljivom logikom daje rje{enje koje je nemogu}e ignorirati ~ak i od strane na{ih najarogantnijih investitora. Upravo ta jasno}a jednostavnosti ~ini cjelokupnu njihovu poetiku. Oni nisu skloni pomodnim i arhitektonski primamljivim oblikovnim bravurama, niti jeftinim

dosjetkama. Njihov je izraz poput algoritma iz naslova, koji je usput matemati~ki izraz za zlatni rez. Mo‘da njihova arhitektura nije na prvi pogled zavodljiva, ali je poeti~na u svojoj neumoljivosti. Tako|er i njihov izraz nije samo plo{an zbir njihovih ukusa, ve} je upravo algoritam sa stalno promjenjivim varijablama udjela jednog ili drugog, do kona~nog rezultata – zlatnog reza26 – prohtjeva jednog i drugog. Interesantno je da je u pripremnoj fazi, knjiga isprvo bila radno zvana “duografija”, da bi zatim bila prekr{tena u “stereografiju”, {to mi se ujedno ~ini i najboljom metaforom njihovog zajedni~kog rada. Njihov je rad stereo sistem u kojem su glasno}a i pojedini kanali na zvu~nicima u stalnoj promjeni, ~as u nadglasavanju, ~as u suglasju, ali uvijek s dobrom muzikom.

“Gr~ki ideali (umjetnosti) bili su opipljivi za stvarnost i mogli su postati prava Umjetnost i @ivot. Za razliku od njih atavisti~ke nostalgije zvane “modernizam” uglavnom su mra~no uto~i{te za nesposobnost - strah od suo~avanja sa stvarno{}u i izra`avanja stvarnosti. Kvalitetna tradicionalna djela (koja svojedobno nisu smatrana takvima) uvijek }e biti velika, jer su nad`ivjela prolazne mode i faze razmi{ljanja. Austin Osman Spare – The Moderns and Art – Absit Invidia

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“The Greek ideals (of art) were tactual of reality, with the possibility of being true Art and Life. Whereas the atavistic nostalgias called “modernism” are mainly the dark sanctuary of incapacity – the fear of facing and expressing reality. The fine traditional works (not always so in their period) will always remain great, because they are works that survived the ephemeral fashions and phases of thought. Austin Osman Spare – The Moderns and Art – Absit Invidia Zagreb, 26 July 2002 Alan Kostren~i}

Zagreb, 26. srpnja 2002. Alan Kostren~i}

22 Od termina folding - u hrvatskoj literaturi prevo|eno kao nabiranje ili fold - nabor, radi se o specifi~nom terminu recentne teorije arhitekture, a koja je vezana na matemati~ku teoriju polja. U praksi odnosi se na zakrivljenu plohu kojom se unosi novi princip u strogu euklidsku geometriju modernisti~kog prostora. 23 Marcel Proust, knji‘evnik (1871.-1922.) - ciklus knjiga “U tra‘enju izgubljenog vremena”, knjiga “Combray”. 24 Tri mo‘da najzna~ajnija arhitekta modernizma. 25 Rem Koolhaas za ve}inu svojih gra|evina koristi Bretonovu sintagmu vezanu za nadrealisti~ku umjetnost... susret {iva}eg stroja i ki{obrana na operacijskom stolu... 26 Zlatni rez - “divina proportione”, “bo`anska proporcija” kod koje se manja stranica prema ve}oj odnosi kao ve}a prema njihovom zajedni~kom zbroju (M = major, m = minor).

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“diagram approaches” and other meaningless fashionable phrases. Finally, allow me to go back to the enigmatic title. Analytical and pragmatic, the work of these two architects actually creates an algorithm for each and every project, an equation whose unrelenting logic provides a solution which cannot possibly be ignored, not even by the most arrogant of our investors. It is the clarity of simplicity that constitutes their entire poetics. They are not prone to fashionable and architecturally attractive bravura of design, or to cheap ideas. Their expression is like the algorithm in the title – a mathematical expression of the golden section. Their architecture might not be seductive at first sight, but it is poetical in its relentless nature. Similarly, their expression is not merely a one-dimensional sum of their respective tastes. Quite the contrary, it is an algorithm with the ever-changing variables of the portions with which each of them is represented, until their respective interests come together in the ultimate result - the golden section.25 Interestingly enough, the draft title of the book was “duograph”, only to be later changed into “stereograph”. This seems to be the best metaphor of their joint work. They function like a stereo system, with the volume and the individual channels constantly changing, with one tone overpowering the other, or with both tones in unison. But the music is always good.

25 Golden section - “divina proportione”, the “divine proportion” in which the lesser of the two portions of a line or the two dimensions of a figure is to the greater as the greater is to the sum of both (M = major, m = minor).

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pogled prema gradu view against the city skyline

017 FARMACEUTSKO -BIOKEMIJSKI FAKULTET natje~ajni projekt, 1. nagrada, Zagreb, 1997.

FACULTY OF PHARMACY AND BIOCHEMISTRY Competition Project, 1st prize, Zagreb, 1997

APZ - In`enjering d.d., Zagreb 016

Farmaceutsko-biokemijski fakultet Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry


situacija 1:5.000 site plan 1:5,000

LOKACIJA Parcela fakulteta je trokut ome|en ulicama koje se trebaju izgraditi ili produ‘iti. Zapadno parcela pada u dolinu kojom te~e Ksaverska ulica od Gup~eve zvijezde. Prema parceli se pru‘a i uspinje nova Bijeni~ka cesta. Alagovi}eva ulica }e se produ‘iti u Aleju Hermanna Bollea. Time se dodatno ostvaruje tema mirogojskih arkada kao najja~eg prostornog akcenta ovoga dijela grada Zagreba. Parcela se nalazi unutar prostora park-{ume kao predprostora Mirogoja. Mirogoj arkadama tvori temu ortogonalnosti unutar razvedenih prostornih formi podsljemenskih dolina 018

Farmaceutsko-biokemijski fakultet Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry

i bre‘uljaka. Parcela fakulteta se nalazi na osjetljivom mjestu nedovr{enog zavr{etka arkada. Analiza {ire prostorne situacije navodi na izdu‘en arhitektonski oblik koji se ortogonalno postavlja prema Mirogoju i ortogonalno presijeca zonu park-{ume. Ortogonalna postava centralnog objekta kompozicijski se nadovezuje na arkade i rapodjeljuje paralelnu zonu park-{ume na sekvence. Ortogonalnom pozicijom zgrada zapravo ne zauzima povr{inu nego je samo presijeca. Zgrada ortogonalno sije~e slojnice ~ime odgovara na pitanje koje izme|u ostaloga postavlja izrazit usjek u teren na sjevernoj strani. Zgrada fakulteta se ne utapa u mirogojskoj {umi nego je ravnopravan prostorni element. Tako je omogu}eno cjelovito ostvarenje zgrade u punoj veli~ini svog zna~aja kao Zgrade fakulteta Sveu~ili{ta u Zagrebu. Medve{~ak i Ksaverska cesta kao glavne ulice, kao i pozicija tramvajske stanice na Gup~evoj zvijezdi, definiraju glavni pje{a~ki prilaz objektu sa zapadne strane odnosno iz podno‘ja objekta. Tu se stvara prostorna koncentracija izme|u postoje}ih zgrada i zgrade fakulteta koja se uzdi‘e u punoj veli~ini sa svojih 6 eta‘a i 24,5 metara visine. Iza te urbane koncentracije slijedi prostor park-{ume te objekti fakulteta unutar nje, gdje se kao os prostiru nove Zmajeva~ke stube kao glavna pje{a~ka komunikacija. Na vrhu brda je produ‘ena Alagovi}eva ulica gdje se nalaze parkirali{ta, odnosno prostor kamo se dolazi osobnim vozilom. Uspostavljeni su odnosi zgrade fakulteta... ...prema perspektivi mirogojskih arkada, gdje zgrada opona{a perspektivu samo u “inverziji”, ...prema dolini izme|u Ksavera na lijevom obronku i Mirogoja na desnom obronku, gdje zgrada postepeno spu{ta svoje podno‘je linijom stepenica i podesta, ...prema krivulji siluete Medvednice sa ‘ari{tem na vrhu TV tornja, gdje zgrada nagla{ava svoju horizontalu najvi{e staklene eta‘e, ...i kona~no zgrade prema samoj sebi i svojem zna~aju.

LOCATION The plot belonging to the Faculty is a triangle which is to be enclosed by streets that are planned either to be built or extended. The western side of the plot descends into a valley where Ksaverska Street flows from Gup~eva Zvijezda. The new Bijeni~ka Street stretches out and ascends towards the plot. Alagovi}eva Street will be extended and joined with Hermanna Bollea Boulevard. The theme of the Mirogoj arcades will thus be further enhanced as the strongest spatial accent in this part of Zagreb. The plot lies within a wooded park which is a prelude to Mirogoj. The arcades of 019

Farmaceutsko-biokemijski fakultet Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry

Mirogoj constitute a theme of orthogonality in the context of the organic spatial forms of the valleys and hills below Sljeme. The plot of the Faculty is situated on a sensitive spot at the unfinished end of the arcades. An analysis of the general physical context reveals an elongated architectural shape orthogonal to Mirogoj and orthogonally traversing the wooded park zone. The orthogonal setting of the central structure forms a composition with the arcades, and divides the parallel wooded park zone into sequences. Thanks to its orthogonal placement, the structure does not appear to occupy, but rather to slice, the underlying land. The building intersects the isohypses at right angles and thus counterbalances a prominent depression in the northern part of the terrain. The Faculty building is not absorbed by the Mirogoj woods - it is a spatial element of equal standing. This allows the building to fully express its significance as a building housing a faculty of the University of Zagreb. The building can be accessed by pedestrians at its western side, that is, at the foot of the structure, as defined by Medve{~ak and Ksaverska Street - the principal roads and by the existing tram stop at Gup~eva Zvijezda. It is there that spatial concentration is created, amongst the existing buildings and the Faculty building rising 6 storeys and 24.5 metres above the ground. Behind this urban concentration lies the wooded park enveloping the Faculty facilities, with the new Zmajeva~ke Steps axis stretching out as the major pedestrian communication. The top of the hill is marked by Alagovi}eva Street and the adjoining parking lots to be accessed by private vehicles. An interaction has been established between the Faculty building... ...and the perspective of the Mirogoj arcades, where the building “inversely” mimics the perspective, ...and the valley between Ksaver on the left


tlocrt ulazne eta`e 1:1.000 entrance floor plan 1:1,000

tlocrt eta`e P-1 1:1.000 floor -1 plan 1:1,000

OBLIKOVANJE Oblikovanje je primarno posljedica prethodno navedenih zahtjeva lokacije. Nakon njih slijedilo je nekoliko polaznih postavki. One najzna~ajnije su se nametnule i preklopile u logi~an slijed zahtjeva koje treba ostvariti: ...{kole i fakulteti spadaju u najzna~ajnije objekte za urbanizam grada, ...fakulteti su visoko{kolske ustanove i njihove zgrade to izra‘avaju svojom arhitekturom, a i

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Farmaceutsko-biokemijski fakultet Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry

tlocrt eta`e P-2 1:1.000 floor -2 plan 1:1,000

polo‘ajem koji im se daje u gradu, ...Farmaceutsko-biokemijski fakultet je tehnolo{ki komplicirana i zahtjevna zgrada koja te‘i jednostavnosti radi lak{eg funkcioniranja, ...zgrada se nalazi unutar parka koji je ve} sam za sebe pro~elje. Osim toga u Hrvatskoj, u Zagrebu postoji zagreba~ka {kola arhitekture koju treba slijediti i to prije svega u ovako eksponiranim objektima. Dakle ova zgrada mora biti zagreba~ka i to prije mnogih drugih.

slope and Mirogoj on the right slope, where the building gradually lowers its base in a line of steps and landings, ...and the curve of the silhouette of Medvednica Mountain, the focus being at the top of the TV transmitter, highlighting the horizontality of the building’s glazed top storey, ...and the significance and posture of the building itself.

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Farmaceutsko-biokemijski fakultet Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry

DESIGN

The design is primarily a result of the above-mentioned requirements of the location. Furthermore, several basic propositions have been developed and the most significant ones form a logical sequence of key considerations: ...School and university buildings are some of the most significant structures for the urbanism of a town, ...Faculties are institutions of higher education, which


tlocrt eta`e P-3 1:1.000 floor -3 plan 1:1,000

tlocrt eta`e P-4 1:1.000 floor -4 plan 1:1,000

PROSTORNA ORGANIZACIJA Objekt fakulteta je funkcionalno i prostorno podijeljen na 5 dijelova: - AB laboratorijska zgrada s 5 eta‘a - metalno-stakleno nadgra|e prizemne, najvi{e eta‘e sa zajedni~kim sadr‘ajima - objekti predavaonica i muzeja - vanjsko stubi{te - nove Zmajeva~ke stube - vanjska parkirali{ta

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Farmaceutsko-biokemijski fakultet Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry

PRIZEMLJE: Prizemlje je prostor zajedni~kih prostorija te prostor za okupljanje i odmor. Zajedni~ke prostorije pretpostavljaju okupljanje ve}ih grupa ljudi, kao npr. prilikom upisa studenata. Stoga je ovaj prostor ostakljen staklenim stijenama koje omogu}avaju potpunu transparentnost za poglede na izvanredne vizure cjelokupne siluete Medvednice sve do dalekih gradskih vizura Katedrale, Cibone, Zagrep~anke itd. Prostor je visine 4,5 m. U eta‘i prizemlja je ulaz iz Alagovi}eve

should be apparent from the architecture and the location of the buildings housing them, ...The Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry requires a technologically complex and challenging building, tending towards simplicity and a higher form of functionality, ...The building is enclosed by a park which is a façade in itself. Moreover, Croatia has its Zagreb School of Architecture whose precepts should be followed, particularly in the case of publicly exposed

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Farmaceutsko-biokemijski fakultet Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry

tlocrt eta`e P-5 1:1.000 floor -5 plan 1:1,000

structures such as this one. Therefore, this building, more than any other, ought to have specific Zagreb traits. LAYOUT Functionally and spatially, the building is divided into 5 elements: 1. A five-storey ferro-concrete laboratory building 2. A superstructure of metal and glaze as the highest storey placed at ground-level with a restaurant,


pogled prema Mirogojskim arkadama view against Mirogoj Arcades

nove Zmajeva~ke stube new Zmajeva~ke steps

pogled na Ksaversko brdo view against Ksaver Hill

ulice gdje su parkirali{ta. ETA@A P-1: Sjeverno je trakt znanstvenih laboratorija s odvojenim hodnikom. Ju‘no je trakt studentskih laboratorija s pripremama. Centralno su smje{tena dizala, stubi{ta i sanitarije. Na isto~nom dijelu zgrade je atrij koji osvjetljava prostore zgrade koji su ukopani u teren, dok su u zapadnom dijelu smje{tene prostorije za nastavnike, apartmani za goste i velika soba za sastanke koja ujedno slu‘i i kao prostorija za okupljanje i odmor zaposlenih s izvanrednim pogledom na grad. Laboratoriji za studente su u rasteru 630 cm koji omogu}ava ~etiri niza laboratorijskih pultova od po 80 cm u jednoj {irini prostorije. Pripreme su naizmjeni~no postavljene tako da dolaze na 2 - 3 laboratorija po jedna. Digestoriji su oslonjeni na unutarnji zid laboratorija koji je ujedno instalacijski. Taj zid {irine 100 cm prote‘e se cijelom du‘inom zgrade te omogu}ava prolaz svih potrebnih instalacija za laboratorije, pogotovo primarnog razvoda ventilacijskih cijevi i plinskog te vodovodnog razvoda. Postava i {irina instalacijskog zida omogu}ava nesmetano servisiranje iz strane hodnika. Sekundarni razvod instalacija sproveden je u spu{tenom stropu visine 64 cm. Konstruktivna visina eta‘e je 390 cm, {to zna~i 16 cm AB, 10 cm pod, 64 cm spu{teni strop i 300 cm svijetla visina laboratorija. Znanstveni laboratoriji su u rasteru 540 cm. Oni omugu}uju centralnu postavu laboratorijskih pultova 2 x 80 cm i ormare 60 cm uz zidove. Digestoriji i instalacijski zidovi jednaki su kao i u studentskom traktu. ETA@A P-2: Ponavlja se konstrukcija i raspored prostorija iz eta‘e P-1, osim jednog raspona u kojem se nalazi glavni ulaz u zgradu iz Zmajeva~kih stuba te prolaz dalje u prostor predavaonica. Glavni ulaz u zgradu je na koti terena {to omogu}uje direktnu komunikaciju od predavaonica, kroz glavni ulaz, do muzeja i botani~kog vrta u kojem se predvi|a dio prakti~ne nastave. Ukopaniji dijelovi zgrade su sada arhiva i vagaonice, dok je isti dio studentskih laboratorija 024

Farmaceutsko-biokemijski fakultet Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry

025

Farmaceutsko-biokemijski fakultet Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry

a 3. 4. 5.

library and other joint facilities Lecture rooms and museum facilities The external steps of the new Zmajeva~ke Steps External parking lots

GROUND FLOOR: The ground floor is an area of joint facilities, a meeting point and a place for relaxation. It is designed to receive large groups of people, for instance, during the period of admission examinations and administrative enrolment procedures. For this purpose, the space is flanked by glazed walls whose unobstructed transparency provides a view to an extraordinary panorama of the entire silhouette of Medvednica, as far as the distant skyline of the Cathedral, the Cibona building, the Zagrep~anka building and so on. The space is 4.5 metres high. The ground-floor level is accessed from Alagovi}eva Street and its parking lots. FLOOR -1: To the north lies a tract of scientific laboratories with a separate corridor. To the south lies a tract of laboratories for students with adjoining preparation rooms. Elevators, staircases and toilet facilities are situated in the centre. The eastern section of the building contains an atrium providing daylight to the parts of the building embedded in the terrain, whereas the western section houses rooms for the teaching staff, apartments for guests and a large meeting room also intended to be a place of assembly and relaxation for the staff, with a wonderful view of the city. The laboratories for students are modules of 630 cm each, thus allowing four rows of laboratory counters of 80 cm each to be placed in each room. There is one preparation room for every 2-3 laboratories. In all the laboratories, digestors are placed against the inner wall, which also serves for installations. This wall is 100 cm wide and runs throughout this section of the building, allowing for the passage of any installations the laboratories may require, in particular the primary distribution of ventilation shafts, gas pipes and plumbing. The location and the width of this wall facilitates access to and the servicing of installations from the corridor. The


maketa model

ponovo osvijetljen atrijem. DIO S PREDAVAONICAMA; ETA@A P-2: Predavaonice i muzej su izvan gabarita laboratorijske zgrade i mogu funkcionirati samostalno i za nefakultetske potrebe, odnosno predavanja i izlo‘be. Svi ulazni prostori su u istoj razini kao i eta‘a P2. Predavaonice su amfiteatralne, dakle u nagibu prema katedri. Nagib poda to~no slijedi pad terena na kojem predavaonice le‘e. Krovovi su tako|er kosi, jednostre{ni, lagane metalne konstrukcije, Al na potkonstrukciji, koji naizgled lebde u istom nagibu kao i teren. Ispred predavaonica je velik prostor predvorja. ETA@A P-3: Tlocrt je za polovicu kra}i od prve 3 eta‘e. Konstruktivni raster je isti kao i raspored prostorija. ETA@A P-4: Tlocrtno se ponavlja prethodna eta‘a osim {to se u ukopanijem dijelu sada nalaze garderobe, laboratoriji za te{ke instrumente i radionice. ETA@A P-5: Ova eta‘a je rezervirana za servisne prostorije, strojarnice, skladi{ta i gara‘u. Na po~etku zgrade su vrata za direktni ulaz vozila u gara‘u s Bijeni~ke ceste. Visina i {irina manipulacijskog prostora gara‘e omogu}avaju nesmetan ulaz i dostavu za manje kamione i kombi vozila, koja direktno do vrata servisiraju strojarnice i pune skladi{te. Najni‘a eta‘a je ponovo prizemna {to omogu}uje da strojarnice imaju direktne izlaze na razini terena, kao i da velik dio eta‘e ima prozore.

026

Farmaceutsko-biokemijski fakultet Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry

secondary distribution of installations is provided for in a 64 cm suspended ceiling. The construction height of the storey amounts to 390 cm, namely: 16 cm for the ferro-concrete structure, 10 cm for the floor, 64 cm for the suspended ceiling and 300 cm of net height for the laboratories. The scientific laboratories are planned as modules of 540 cm each, thus allowing two laboratory counters of 80 cm each to be placed centrally and cupboards of 60 cm each to be placed against the wall. Digestors and installation walls are the same as those of the student tract. FLOOR -2: The construction and the layout of rooms mirror the floor -1, except for the section containing the main entrance of the building leading from Zmajeva~ke Steps and the ensuing passage towards the lecture rooms. The main entrance to the building is situated at ground level and provides 027

Farmaceutsko-biokemijski fakultet Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry

direct communication between the lecture rooms, the main entrance, the museum and the botanical garden where the practical part of the training is done. The sections of the building more deeply entrenched in the terrain are intended for the archives and weighing rooms. Again, the atrium provides light to the same section of student laboratories as the one on the floor -1. SECTION CONTAINING LECTURE ROOMS: FLOOR -2: The lecture rooms and the museum lie outside the body of the laboratory building and may function independently and for purposes other than teaching, such as lectures and exhibitions. All the entrances are placed at the same level as the floor -2. The lecture rooms are amphitheatric, with the slope descending toward the rostrum. The inclination of the floor precisely matches the slope of the terrain supporting the lecture rooms. Similarly, the roofing is also inclined, single-eaved, of light metal construction resting on an aluminium-clad understructure. As such, the roof seems suspended and inclined to the same degree as the terrain itself. A large foyer stretches out in front of the lecture rooms. FLOOR -3: The plan of the floor is only half the size of the previous three floors. The construction modules follow the layout of the rooms. FLOOR -4: The plan of the floor is identical to that of the floor -3. However, the section of the building more deeply embedded in the terrain contains cloakrooms, laboratories for heavy instruments and workshops. FLOOR -5: This floor is exclusively intended for maintenance, boiler rooms, storage rooms and a garage. The garage can be accessed directly from Bijeni~ka Street. The height and the width of the garage allows for the unimpeded entry of smaller delivery trucks and vans, with easy access to the boiler rooms and storage rooms directly adjoining the garage. The lowest floor is again at the level of the terrain, providing ground-level access to the maintenance and boiler rooms, and providing natural illumination to the predominant part of the floor.


uglovnica corner building

029 NA[I^ANKA stambeno -poslovna zgrada natje~ajni projekt, 2. nagrada, Na{ice, 1997.

NA[I^ANKA Residential and Commercial Building APZ - In`enjering d.d., Zagreb 028

Na{i~anka Na{i~anka

Competition Project, 2nd prize, Na{ice, 1997


pogled na zgradu iz gradskog parka view from city park

situacija 1:5.000 site plan 1:5,000

pti~ja perspektiva iz smjera dvorca Peja~evi} aerial view from the direction of Peja~evi} Palace

OPIS LOKACIJE Na{ice su mali grad, ali grad izra‘enih urbanih karakteristika. Postoje}a arhitektura Na{ica, odnosno arhitektonsko naslje|e, sadr‘i niz gre{aka kao i vrhunskih ostvarenja. Stoga je u stvaranju arhitekture potreban oprez i temeljito sagledavanje situacije i lokacije. Zadana lokacija nove zgrade osjetljivo je mjesto uglovnice u centru grada. Okolne zgrade su razli~ite arhitektonske kvalitete i oblikovanja. Urbanisti~ki je lokacija nedefinirana i u njoj je potrebna sna‘na intervencija koja }e sanirati postoje}e stanje. To se i o~ekuje od zgrade koja }e nositi ime “Na{i~anka”. U analizi {ire situacije mogu se prepoznati situacijske osi koje tvore postoje}e zgrade i ulice. Sve vizure se zatvaraju u mjerilu sagledivom za ~ovjeka {to daje podlogu za stvaranje kvalitetnog urbanizma. Urbanisti~ke osi su dakle dobre i ~ine kvalitetnu kompoziciju te ih je dobro slijediti u stvaranju arhitekture u manjem mjerilu. Oblikovanjem nove uglovnice stvara se zna~ajan volumen u slici grada koji }e zna~ajno pridonijeti urbanom sre|ivanju ovoga dijela centra grada. Centralni, polukru‘ni dio zgrade prikazuje se prema parku i centru. Lijevo se zgrada uzdi‘e, ~ime dovr{ava slijed koji je zapo~et nizom ~etverokatnica. Desno krilo slijedi ulicu i {iri se u dubinu prema unutra{njem trgu. OBLIKOVANJE Tlocrtno je zgrada podijeljena na dva dijela. Uz ulicu bra}e Radi}a prote‘e se jedno krilo zgrade, a uz ulicu kralja Zvonimira drugo. Izme|u je prolaz koji slijedi kompozicijske osi {ire situacije. Taj prolaz otvara unutra{nji trg prema ulici te formira glavni ulaz u zgradu za stanare. U prizemlju su obostrano smje{teni lokali koji su logi~an zahtjev za zgradu u centru grada. Galerijska tipologija stambenih eta‘a opravdana je ekonomi~no{}u i mogu}no{}u da svaki stan ima vezu s liftom (invalidi). Takvo rje{enje je omogu}ilo ~istu podjelu na poslovnu eta‘u i stambene eta‘e, s jasno odvojenim ulazima i nemije{anjem funkcija. 030

Na{i~anka Na{i~anka

031

Na{i~anka Na{i~anka

LOCATION Na{ice is a small town with prominent urban characteristics. Na{ice’s architecture, or rather its architectural heritage, includes a number of mistakes as well as state-of-the-art structures. This is why an architect should proceed with care and thoroughly analyse the physical context and the location. The chosen location for the new building is a sensitive corner site in the centre of the town. The surrounding buildings vary in architectural quality and design. The location has not been defined in urban terms and requires a strong intervention to improve the present situation. This is what a building bearing the name Na{i~anka (The Na{ice Building) is expected to do. An analysis of the general physical context reveals the axes formed by the existing buildings and streets. All the different views fit the human scale and provide a good basis for the development of high quality urbanism. The urban axes are therefore appropriate, and constitute a sound composition. They ought to be observed in the development of smaller-scale architecture. With the design of a new corner building, a significant volume will be created on the town’s landscape which will add considerably to the urbanisation of this part of the town centre. The central, semi-circular part of the building faces the park and the centre. On the left hand side the building rises and thus finishes off the sequence started by a row of four-storey buildings. The right wing of the building runs parallel to the street and widens and extends towards an inner square. DESIGN

In its plan view, the building is divided into two sections. One wing of the building stretches out along Bra}e Radi}a Street and the other along Kralja Zvonimira Street. There is a passage between them, which follows the composition formed by the axes of the general physical context. This passage serves as an opening from the inner square onto the street and as the main entrance for the building’s residents. The ground floor has commercial premises


tlocrt 1. kata 1:500 1st floor plan 1:500

Pro~elja su nastala iz te‘nje da se jasnom i ~istom formom ostvari ekspresija. Parapetni zidovi prote‘u se kontinuirano cijelim pro~eljem kao “niti” koje povezuju prostor. Takvo oblikovanje uglovnice preuzeto je iz oblikovnih postupaka klasi~ne arhitekture Moderne, koja ima vrlo jaku tradiciju u Hrvatskoj u svojim izvornim ostvarenjima iz 20-tih i 30-tih godina ovoga stolje}a, ostvarenjima koja su razasuta {irom na{e zemlje i koja su dio na{eg najsjajnijeg naslje|a. Takva ekspresija doprinosi jasnom urbanom prepoznavanju zgrade izbliza i izdaleka, kao i pozitivnom utjecaju zgrade na budu}e formiranje toga dijela centra grada. Zgrada ‘eli ostati jednostavna i prepoznatljiva bez pretjeranih oblikovnih elemenata upravo zato da se uklopi u sliku grada kao dio cjeline, a ne kao samostalni element u prostoru. Takva pojavnost zgrade u skladu je s njenim imenom - “Na{i~anka”, koje bi trebalo zna~iti da je zgrada prepoznatljiva ve} “sama po sebi”. KONSTRUKCIJA, INSTALACIJE, MATERIJALI Konstruktivno zgrada slijedi vanjsku jasno}u s okvirnom AB konstrukcijom u popre~nom rasteru 500 cm. Takav raster omogu}io je jednostavno rje{enje gara‘nog prostora, potpunu otvorenost prizemlja za sve vrste lokala i nizanje stanova, tako da je mogu}e dokupljivanje i pro{irivanje stanova na susjedni stan. Omogu}ena je i jasna podjela zgrade na tri dilatacije za izvedbu u tri faze izgradnje. Konstruktivna jasno}a nosive konstrukcije omogu}uje nesmetano vo|enje vertikalnog i horizontalnog razvoda svih potrebnih instalacija. Nosiva konstrukcija je AB sa zidanim

032

Na{i~anka Na{i~anka

033

Na{i~anka Na{i~anka

tlocrt prizemlja 1:1.000 ground-floor plan 1:1,000

tlocrt podruma 1:1.000 basement plan 1:1,000

facing both sides - a logical requirement for a building located in the centre of the town. The galleried residential units on the upper floors are an economical solution and provide easy access from flats to elevators (for the disabled). Such a layout allows for the clear division of the building into commercial and residential levels with clearly defined separate entrances, making the intermixing of different functions impossible. The front of the building is the result of an effort to achieve an expression with a clear and pure form. Parapets extend throughout the front as an integrating “thread”. This design of a corner building has been taken from the designing methods of the classical architecture of the Modern Movement, which has a very strong tradition in Croatia through its authentic structures dating from the 1920s and 1930s dispersed throughout the country and forming part of Croatia’s most brilliant heritage. Such design makes the building a clear urban landmark, whether viewed up close or from a distance, which will have a positive effect on the future development of this part of the town centre. The building strives to remain simple and distinctive without being over designed, and also attempts to fit into the context of the town as part of the whole, rather than as an

independent element in space. Thus, the appearance of the building is consistent with its name - “Na{i~anka” - requiring the building to be distinctive “in itself”. CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATIONS, MATERIAL In terms of construction, the building’s external clarity is mirrored by a general ferro-concrete construction of transversal supports with a span of 500 cm. Such a span of supports solves the issue of the garage in a simple way, leaves the ground floor open to different types of commercial establishments, and allows for the apartments to be laid out in a sequence, thus facilitating the possible unification of two neighbouring flats into one. This also makes it possible for the building to be divided into three sections, allowing the building to be constructed in three stages. The clarity of the supporting construction facilitates a smooth vertical and horizontal distribution of all the necessary installations. The supporting construction is a ferroconcrete structure with brick fillings. The residential units have light partition walls. The façade of the ground floor consists of plate glass shop windows. The residential storeys are made of ferro-concrete parapets supporting a continuous sequence of windows embedded in the façade walls. The attic


presjek kroz stubi{te 1:500 cross section of the staircase 1:500

presjek kroz rampu 1:500 cross section of the ramp 1:500

ulica street

ispunama. Pregradne stijene u stanovima su lagano siporeks zi|e. Fasada prizemlja su stakleni izlozi lokala. Stambene eta‘e oblikovane su iz AB parapeta i iznad njih tako|er kontinuiranog niza prozora u fasadnim zidovima. Mansarda i krov oblo‘eni su bakrenim limom, koji slijedi predlo‘ak dvorca Peja~evi}a. PROSTORNA ORGANIZACIJA PODRUM: Podrum je iskori{ten za parkiranje i gara‘iranje vozila. Otvorenost tlocrta omogu}ava da se po potrebi iskoristi i za drugu namjenu, djelomi~no ili u potpunosti. Svako parkirali{no mjesto mo‘e se pregraditi u zatvorenu gara‘u. Stubi{te i dizalo povezuju podrum s ostalim eta‘ama. Prilazna rampa iz kote terena do kote podruma nalazi se s ju‘ne strane zgrade. PRIZEMLJE: U prizemlju zgrade dva su krila poslovnih prostora. Mogu}a je potpuna fleksibilnost podjele lokala na razli~ite kvadrature. Sanitarne jezgre smje{tene su centralno i naknadno se ugra|uju po potrebi. Na uglu je slobodan prostor za ve}i lokal. U prolazu izme|u dva dijela zgrade smje{ten je odvojeni, glavni ulaz u stambeni dio zgrade sa stubi{tem i dizalom. Prilazna rampa u podrumski prostor djelomi~no zauzima prostor trga. Nadstre{nica rampe, poplo~enje podne povr{ine i jedno stablo na rubu trga mogu se oblikovati kao tri elementa koji formiraju i definiraju Trg. Jednako poplo~enje nastavilo bi se i na plo~nike rubnih ulica, {to bi oblikovno nazna~ilo prostor oko zgrade. 1. i 2. KAT: Stanovi su raspore|eni po galerijskoj tipologiji, prema tome pristup je iz jednog glavnog stubi{ta s dizalom, a stanovi se ni‘u s jedne i druge strane centralnog hodnika. Kontinuirani popre~ni raster od 500 cm omogu}uje da se stanovi pro{iruju na susjedne ili smanjuju na polovice. MANSARDA 1 i MANSARDA 2: Mansarda je istog tlocrta kao i 2. kat, osim {to su u sjeveroisto~noj dilataciji dvoeta‘ni stanovi i nema lo|a za stanove. 034

Na{i~anka Na{i~anka

035

Na{i~anka Na{i~anka

and the roof are copper-clad and modelled on Peja~evi} Palace. LAYOUT

BASEMENT: The basement serves as a garage for parking or storing vehicles. The open character of the plan also makes it possible to use the space for different purposes, fully or in part. Every parking space can be redesigned as an enclosed garage. The staircase and the elevator connect the basement with the other levels. The ramp accessing the garage descends from ground level to basement level and is located at the southern side of the building. GROUND FLOOR: The ground floor of the building contains two wings of commercial establishments. The layout is entirely flexible, allowing for premises to be divided into areas of a desired size. Sanitary facilities are positioned in the centre and may be subsequently installed as appropriate. The corner area is intended for a larger commercial establishment. A separate main entrance into the residential section of the building, with a staircase and an elevator, is located in the passage between the two wings of the building. The ramp accessing the basement occupies part of the square. The canopy spanning the ramp, the paving and a tree standing at the edge of the square may be shaped as the three elements forming and defining the square. The same type of paving should spread out onto the sidewalks of the surrounding streets, thus marking the area around the building. FLOORS 1 AND 2: The residential units are laid out along a gallery on both sides of the central corridor and are accessed from one principal staircase and an elevator. A continuous transversal span of 500 cm allows for the neighbouring flats to be united or for single flats to be divided in half. ATTICS 1 AND 2: The layout of the attic is identical to that of the second floor, except for the north-eastern section where duplex flats without loggias are located.


pogled prema Sljemenu view against Sljeme

037 VOJNI ORDINARIJAT natje~ajni projekt, 1. nagrada, Zagreb, 1997.

MILITARY ORDINARIATE Competition Project, 1st prize, Zagreb, 1997

APZ - In`enjering d.d., Zagreb

036

Vojni ordinarijat Military Ordinariate


odnos nove zgrade Ordinarijata i postoje}e Nuncijature future Ordinariate building in relation to existing Vatican Embassy

situacija 1:5.000 site plan 1:5,000

LOKACIJA Na zadanoj parceli je postoje}i objekt ambasade Vatikana koji ve} svojom postavom diktira uvjete ostatku parcele na kojoj je predvi|ena gradnja Vojnog ordinarijata. Oba objekta su podjednakog zna~aja, pa su stoga odmaknuti i pozicionirani tako da jedan drugom ne smetaju. Osim toga, na padini ispred ambasade vidljiva je namjera da se uredi park sa stazama za {etnju. Od planiranog izgra|ene su samo staze, dok }e se park, pretpostavljamo, uskoro posaditi i urediti. Predlo‘eno rje{enje objekta ordinarijata je gra|evina pribli‘no istog tlocrtnog gabarita kao i ambasada. Me|utim ordinarijat svojom postavom okomito na ambasadu (to~nije JZ-SI) zatvara i prostorno artikulira predvi|eni prostor parka. Zgrada ordinarijata le‘i na ~etiri metara ni‘oj koti od ambasade. Me|utim, to joj ne umanjuje zna~aj jer se prostire u drugom smjeru i tako stvara vlastiti zna~aj. Razli~itost postave se me|utim upotpunjuje u urbanisti~koj vizuri predprostora-parka ispred obje zgrade, parka koji ih sada povezuje u prostornu kompoziciju. Ovakva postava objekta rezultat je i pomirenja gra|evinske linije koju tvore gra|evine uz Ksaversku cestu (dje~ji vrti}) i gra|evine Vatikanske ambasade. Nova zgrada ordinarijata ponovo “zatvara gra|evinsku liniju”, odnosno spaja je oko prostora parka.

038

Vojni ordinarijat Military Ordinariate

OBLIKOVANJE Gra|evina Vojnog ordinarijata u ovom rje{enju ‘eli biti jednostavna i prepoznatljiva zgrada. Prepoznatljiva u vojnoj i sakralnoj komponenti: vojnoj pragmati~nosti, utilitarnosti, jednostavnosti, te sakralnoj smjernosti i ~isto}i. U tom smislu gra|evina je oblikovana u duhu formi klasi~ne arhitekture, ali s nesakrivenim detaljima i materijalima suvremene konstrukcije. Cijela zgrada je organizirana simetri~no oko jedne osi. Zapo~inje kru‘nom platformom za prilaz automobilom do ulaza, koja u sredini ima otvor s fontanom-vodoskokom. Slijede stepenice i forma zida s lukovima ispred staklenog zida s ulazom. Nakon ulaza slijedi elipti~ni ulazni hall kroz obje eta‘e i niz prostorija s obje strane hodnika sve do dvorane za predavanje u prizemlju, odnosno dvorane s kapelicom i zajedni~kim prostorijama na prvom katu. Prema tome, unutra{nji prostor je organiziran s jasno formiranim prostornim po~etkom i ciljem u obje eta‘e podjednako. Jedino centralni hall stvara prostor koncentracije za va‘nije prostorije. Unutarnja jednostavnost pokrivena je pla{tom pro~elja jednake jasno}e. Iznad nizova prozora prostire se ~etverostre{ni krov s elipsoidom iznad ulaznog halla na kojem stoji

039

Vojni ordinarijat Military Ordinariate

LOCATION The plot is already occupied by the Vatican Embassy building, whose position dictates the articulation of the rest of the plot where the Military Ordinariate is to be built. These two buildings are of equal significance and should therefore be placed apart and positioned in a manner that will prevent them from standing in each other’s way. Furthermore, the slope in front of the embassy is clearly intended to be turned into a park with pathways. Only the pathways have been made so far, and the park will presumably be planted and landscaped soon. The proposed plan of the Ordinariate includes a structure whose footprint is similar to that of the embassy. However, being positioned vertically to the embassy (to be more precise, in a SW-NE direction), the Ordinariate defines the boundaries of the planned park and thus articulates the entire area. The Ordinariate building stands 4 metres lower on the terrain than the embassy. However, the position does not have a negative effect because the building faces a different direction, and thus has a significance of its own. However, the differently positioned buildings are co-ordinated by the park as the forecourt of both buildings, uniting them in an urban ensemble. The position of the Ordinariate building is the result of the intention to reconcile the front property line of the buildings along Ksaverska


tlocrt kata 1:500 1st floor plan 1:500

tlocrt prizemlja 1:500 ground-floor plan 1:500

tlocrt podruma 1:500 basement plan 1:500

tlocrt krova 1:500 roof plan 1:500

Street (a kindergarten) and the Vatican Embassy building. Here again, the new Ordinariate building serves to “define the front property line” and integrate it around the park area. DESIGN

The design of the Military Ordinariate building is intended to be simple and distinct. Distinct in its military and sacral components: military pragmatism, utilitarianism, simplicity, sacral humbleness and purity. In this respect, the building has been designed in the spirit of classical architecture, but with unconcealed details and modern construction materials. The entire building is organised symmetrically around a single axis. It starts with a circular platform as a driveway for vehicles, with a fountain at its centre. Next follow the steps and a wall with arches in front of a glazed wall containing the entrance door. The entrance leads to an elliptical entrance hall rising one storey above the ground and to a series of rooms on both sides of the corridor, all the way to the lecture room on the ground floor and a chapel with a dayroom and a dining room on the first floor. Accordingly, the interior layout has a clearly defined spatial beginning and a spatial objective on both storeys. It is only the central vestibule that places the focus on the more significant premises. The internal simplicity is shrouded by an equally transparent façade. Above a series of windows lies a four-eaved roof with an ellipsoid above the entrance hall supporting a cross. The ground-floor and the first-floor windows start and end in the same axes, but are positioned at different intervals in the central part of the building, thus creating a flickering optical illusion. This illusion symbolises the spiritual chaos of a world that is able to perceive its beginning and its end, but never ceases to roam. The driveway is slightly off the axis of the building and is flanked by a parking lot and by an entrance into the basement-level garages. The 040

Vojni ordinarijat Military Ordinariate

041

Vojni ordinarijat Military Ordinariate


uzdu`ni presjek 1:500 longitudinal section 1:500

pogled s prilaznice view from access road

Kri‘. Prozori prizemlja i prvog kata po~inju i zavr{avaju u istoj osi, dok se prema sredini zgrade lagano izmi~u, stvaraju}i opti~ku iluziju titranja. Ta iluzija simbolizira duhovni kaos Svijeta koji mo‘e spoznati svoj po~etak i cilj, ali uvijek luta. Prilazna cesta je malo izmaknuta od osi zgrade. Uz cestu je rije{eno parkirali{te i ulaz u podrumske gara‘e. Cesta zavr{ava na poziciji odvojenog objekta sa servisnim stubi{tem i dizalom. Cijeli taj servisno-prometni dio djelomi~no je ukopan i zaklonjen {umom u pozadini objekta te ne sudjeluje u zna~ajnim perspektivama. Os objekta dodatno se nastavlja kroz dva simboli~na objekta: na zapadnoj strani postavom malog paviljona-sjenice u prostoru parka te na isto~noj strani izgradnjom malog sveti{ta ukopanog u {umovito brdo iza zgrade, poput sveti{ta Majke Bo‘je u Lourdesu kojem hodo~aste hrvatski vojnici. Takvo longitudinalno oblikovanje zgrade Vojnog ordinarijata, s tek nekoliko oblikovnih akcenata, rezultat je i analize prostornih vizura u kojima dominiraju siluete Medvednice i podsljemenskih {uma, unutar kojih se jasno raspoznaju akcenti Medvedgrada, Ksaverske crkve i tornja na Sljemenu. Na ju‘noj strani su tako|er jasne crte grada i pogled na Katedralu. Sve je to dovoljno lijepa slika koju zgrada ordinarijata samo upotpunjuje. MATERIJALI Gra|evina Vojnog ordinarijata je u ovom rje{enju jedna zgrada pod jednim krovom. Te ‘ i s e j e d n o s t a v n o s t i i i z b j e g a v a n j u arhitektonske pretencioznosti. Pro~elja su obi~ni bijelo ‘bukani zidovi s prozorima. Zidovi su zidana konstrukcija iz opeke s AB konstrukcijom horizontalnih i vertikalnih serkla‘a. Nosivi zidovi su uzdu‘ni dimenzije 40 cm. Plo~e-stropovi su AB konstrukcija. Konstruktivna visina eta‘e je 390 cm, {to omogu}ava 300 cm svijetle visine 042

Vojni ordinarijat Military Ordinariate

043

Vojni ordinarijat Military Ordinariate

driveway ultimately leads to an outbuilding containing a service staircase and an elevator. This entire area, occupied by a service outbuilding and the driveway, is partly entrenched in the terrain and hidden by the woods at the rear of the building. As such, it is not included in any significant perspective views. Positioned along the axis of the building are two symbolic structures: a small pavilion-gazebo in the park area at the western side of the plot, and a small shrine embedded in the wooded hill behind the building on the eastern side, like the shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes - a place of pilgrimage for Croatian soldiers. The longitudinal shape of the Military Ordinariate building and the small number of design accents have also resulted from an analysis of the physical context dominated by the silhouettes of Medvednica Mountain and its underlying forests, with clearly distinguishable landmarks of the medieval castle of Medvedgrad, the Church of Ksaver and the Sljeme TV transmitter. To the south there is a clear view of the city skyline and the cathedral. The Ordinariate building enhances this beautiful scenery. MATERIAL Within this project, the Military Ordinariate building is a single building under a single roof. Its design tends towards simplicity and shrinks away from architectural pretentiousness. The façades consist of plain windows and walls plastered in white. The walls are made of brick and ferro-concrete frames. The 40 cm thick supporting walls are longitudinal and the slabs/ceilings are made of ferro-concrete constructions. The floor-to-floor height is 390 cm, allowing for 300 cm of net height in the rooms and for a suspended ceiling containing installations and ascending relief. The ceiling slabs in the lecture room on the ground floor, as well as in the chapel, the dayroom and the dining room on the first floor, are ferro-concrete constructions constituting the cassetted ceiling.


interieur the interior

interieur the interior

u prostorijama i spu{teni strop s instalacijama i oblikovnim uzdizanjima. Stropne plo~e u prostoru predavaonice u prizemlju i kapelice s dnevnim boravkom i blagovaonicom na 1. katu su AB konstrukcija kasetiranog stropa. Krov je ~etverostre{na konstrukcija na potkonstrukciji iz tankih ~eli~nih profila koji nose drvenu oplatu s pokrovom u tamnoj boji (“tegola”). Prema teoriji arhitektonskih konstrukcija, rije~ je o ventiliranom krovu kod kojeg je toplinska izolacija polo‘ena na plo~u stropa prvog kata. Na taj na~in krov je vizualno lagana, izdvojena konstrukcija koja “lebdi”, dok je ispod nje funkcionalni objekt koji vizualno postaje masivniji i stabilniji na terenu. Iz krova izvire elipsoid nadsvjetla iznad centralnog halla. Elipsoid je konstrukcija staklenih opeka 25/ 25/10 cm. Na vrhu stoji Kri‘. Ispred ulaza je “paravan”zid s lukovima oblo`en kamenom u zelenoj boji (po mogu}nosti originalni sljemenski kamen). Ulazne stepenice su oblo‘ene kamenom u neutralnoj sivo-bijeloj boji koja se ne isti~e od pro~elja. Kru‘na platforma ispred stepenica je konstrukcija oblo‘ena drvom. Potkonstrukcija je poput krovne, iz tankih ~eli~nih profila, {to predstavlja “inverziju” krovu. Platforma je lagano uzdignuta iznad terena koji pada. U ravninu platforme ugra|ena je fontana-vodoskok ~ije korito viri ispod nje u obliku ~eli~ne polukugle. Iz fontane izvire samo jedan visoki mlaz vode. Prilazne ceste i parkirali{te su asfaltirana povr{ina. SADR@AJNA STRUKTURA ZGRADE Ovo rje{enje omogu}ava jasnu razdvojenost poslovnog od stambenog, kao i od sakralnog prostora. Me|utim sama struktura zgrade, po kojoj je sve pod jednim krovom i po kojoj se prolazne prostorije ni‘u jedna na drugu po najjednostavnijoj tipologiji dvotrakta, omogu}ava i jasne veze unutar zgrade. Tako|er je omogu}ena i danas vrlo tra‘ena fleksibilnost prostorija, zahvaljuju}i uzdu‘nim nosivim zidovima koji omogu}avaju popre~no postavljanje pregradnih zidova na bilo kojem mjestu. 044

Vojni ordinarijat Military Ordinariate

The roof is a four-eaved construction consisting of a steel skeleton supporting dark-coloured shingle tiles. According to the theory of architectural constructions, it is a ventilated roof, where thermal isolation materials are placed on the ceiling slab of the first floor. In this way, the roof is visually a light and separate construction, “levitating” above the actual functional building, thus making the latter seem more massive and stable. An ellipsoid-shaped skylight is projected from the roof, just above the central hall. The ellipsoid is a construction of glass prisms of 25/25/10 cm each. There is a cross on top. In front of the entrance there is a “screen” a wall with arches coated in green stone (preferably the original stone of Sljeme). The steps at the entrance are coated in neutral grey-white stone which blends with the colour of the façade. The circular platform in front of the steps is a construction clad in wood. Its sub-construction is a steel skeleton similar to that of the roof, thus representing an “inversion” of the roof. The platform is slightly raised above the slope of the terrain. The platform’s flat surface contains a fountain whose basin protrudes beneath the platform in the form of a steel half-sphere. Only one jet of water spurts high up out of the fountain. The driveways and the parking lot are asphalted. INTERIOR LAYOUT OF THE BUILDING The proposed design grants a clear-cut division between offices, residential units and the sacral area. Furthermore, the very structure of the building - the fact that everything is housed under one roof and that the rooms are laid out in a sequence and are inter-connected in the simplest of two-tract typologies - makes the connections within the building very transparent. Another advantage of such a layout, and something that is very much in demand today, is the flexibility of the rooms, provided by the longitudinal supporting walls which allow for the random placement of transversal partition walls.

045

Vojni ordinarijat Military Ordinariate


pogled prema rotoru view of the roundabout

047 BRITANSKI TRG natje~ajni projekt, 2. nagrada, Zagreb, 1997.

BRITANSKI SQUARE Competition Project, 2nd prize, Zagreb, 1997

046

Britanski trg Britanski Square


razvijena pro~elja trga unfolded façades of the square

situacija 1:20.000 site plan 1:20,000

situacija 1:5.000 site plan 1:5,000

POSTOJE]E STANJE Jedini problem Britanskog trga je neartikuliran sjeverni zavr{etak odnosno po~etak Radni~kog dola. Zbog toga su u mjerilu pje{aka nejasne vizure i ciljevi prema kojima bi trebalo otpje{a~iti. Centralna postava trga s okvirom od drvoreda i prometnica je dobra. Postoje}i nogostupi uz rub trga su preuski. Na sjevernom dijelu je prometni i oblikovni kaos. Najvi{e nedostaje veza sa Radni~kim dolom i dalje prema Zelengaju. U Radni~kom dolu, u njegovom sredi{njem dijelu, nalazi se hortikulturno ure|ena lijepa pje{a~ka staza sa zdencima uz nju. Danas je ona zapu{tena i mogla bi se aktivirati ponovnim ure|enjem. Konzervatorske smjernice iz natje~ajnog elaborata su dobre i valja ih slijediti. KONCEPT NOVOG RJE[ENJA 1. Drvored Radni~kog dola treba pribli‘iti Britanskom trgu. 2. S Ilice pje{aku treba biti vidljiv zavr{etak Trga da bi imao volje prema njemu se kretati, jer na njegovom kraju dolazi do po~etka Dola koji ga vodi dalje, svojim ritmom drvoreda, staza i zdenaca u parkove i {ume. 3. Suvremenom rekonstrukcijom Rondoa/ Rotora/Kolokreta uvodi se “tre}i element”, spajanja i razdvajanja dva razli~ita zagreba~ka urbaniteta. Rotor/Rondo razrje{uje koncentraciju prometa, a Rondo/Rotor razrje{uje vizure i slike trga. 4. Ponovo se aktivira tema vode biv{eg potoka Kraljevca s postavom niza zdenaca, {to je samo nadovezivanje na hortikulturno rje{enje Radni~kog dola.

048

Britanski trg Britanski Square

049

Britanski trg Britanski Square

AT PRESENT The only problem of Britanski Square is its unarticulated northern edge which constitutes the beginning of Radni~ki Dol Street. For this reason, the pedestrian-scale views and points accessible on foot seem indistinct. The central position of the square framed by trees and surrounding streets is good. The existing sidewalks on the edge of the square are too narrow. The northern part of the square is chaotic, both in terms of traffic regulation and design. Acutely missing is the link with Radni~ki Dol street and with Zelengaj lying beyond. The central part of Radni~ki Dol Street consists of a beautiful landscaped pedestrian path with wells, which is in a neglected condition today but could be restored and reactivated. The artconservation guidelines contained in the competition assignment are relevant and ought to be followed. CONCEPT OF THE NEW DESIGN 1 The avenue of trees in Radni~ki Dol Street should be brought closer to Britanski Square. 2 A pedestrian standing in Ilica Street should be able to see the boundaries of the square to encourage him to walk through the square and on into Radni~ki Dol Street, where a rhythm of trees, paths and wells leads him further into the parks and woods. 3 A modern reconstruction of a Mini Roundabout introduces a “third element” uniting and dividing two different urban features of Zagreb. The Roundabout reduces the traffic congestion, while at the same time it improves the view and the scenery of the square.


situacija - parter 1:2.000 site plan - ground level 1:2,000

situacija - promet 1:2.000 site plan - traffic 1:2,000

bojom.

5. Pje{a~ka ploha trga aktivira se crvenom

6. Unato~ problemati~noj prometnoj situaciji, prometnice aktivno sudjeluju u oblikovanju ploha svojim rubnjacima, denivelacijama, pje{a~kim prijelazima i pa‘ljivo oblikovanim krivuljama koje moraju istodobno zadovoljiti prometne radijuse i oblikovne zahtjeve. 7. Zadr‘avanjem postoje}eg i rekonstrukcijom staroga, trgu se ni{ta ne oduzima nego samo dodaje. Tako se najmanje ugro‘ava gra|ane Zagreba ve} osjetljive na brzoplete destrukcije prostora u posljednjih nekoliko godina. 8. Rje{enje se poziva na projekte iz 1890. i 1901. u kojima je ucrtavan Rondo, te na projekte Milana Lenuzzija iz 1910. s idejom pretapanja trga u bulevar prema sjeveru, kao i na hortikulturni projekt Smiljana Klai}a iz 1964. s pje{a~kom stazom i sa zdencima kroz drvored Radni~kog dola prema park-{umi Zelengaj. Rje{enje se poziva i na projekt regulacije Kaptola Viktora Kova~i}a, gdje su prostori podijeljeni na sekvence novim objektima posred trga. Posebno su u tom projektu va‘ni crte‘i pje{a~kih vizura, s to~no definiranim po~etkom i ciljem. 9. Vrijeme kraja stolje}a trebalo bi biti vrijeme razrje{avanja kaosa jednostavnim rje{enjima. Postoje}i slojevi gradova (pergamene toposa) razrovani su pretjeranom eksploatacijom i treba im dati vremena i prostora da se regeneriraju. ELEMENTI OBLIKOVANJA Postoje}a niveleta i forma trga ostaje ista, dok je novim prometnim rje{enjem pro{iren plo~nik uz prizemlja zgrada {to omogu}uje prostranije prilaze lokalima predvi|enim cijelim obodom trga. Postoje}i paviljon ostaje isti uz rekonstrukciju sata i oglasnog stupa po konzervatorskim smjernicama. Bunar se pretvara u jedan od zdenaca u nizu. Cvje}arnice se prerazmje{taju u niz na isto~nom dijelu plohe trga. Mogu}e je upotrijebiti postoje}e uz redizajn nadstre{nica. Po~etak Arnoldove i Rokove ulice 050

Britanski trg Britanski Square

4 The theme of water inspired by the former Kraljevac creek and expressed in a series of wells will be reactivated, thus integrating the square with the similarly landscaped Radni~ki Dol Street. 5 The pedestrian plane of the square will be activated by being coloured in red. 6 Despite the problematic traffic regulation, the streets actively participate in the shaping of the surfaces with the kerbstones, different elevation points, pedestrian crossings and carefully shaped curves which must meet the requirements of traffic and design alike. 7 Keeping the current features of the square and reconstructing the old ones can only be a gain for the square. Such an intervention will not represent a threat to the inhabitants of Zagreb who have over recent years become sensitive to rash and destructive interventions in space. 8 The design draws upon projects dating from 1890 and 1901 which placed a Roundabout on this very spot, on the projects designed by Milan Lenuzzi in 1910 involving an idea to blend the square with a boulevard running northwards, and on the landscape gardening project designed by Smiljan Klai} in 1964 involving a pedestrian path and wells spreading out in an avenue of trees in Radni~ki Dol Street towards the park woods of Zelengaj. It also draws upon the Kaptol project by Viktor Kova~i} regulating the area into sequences by placing new structures in the middle of the square. In the latter project, particularly important were the sketches of pedestrian-scale views with clearly defined boundaries and focal points of the square. 9 The forthcoming turn-of-the-century should be an era providing simple solutions for the regulation of chaos. The existing strata of towns have been excessively exploited and ravaged and should be allowed time and space to regenerate.

051

Britanski trg Britanski Square


rotor roundabout

pogled prema Ilici view towards Ilica Street

pogled iz Ilice view from Ilica Street

zatvara se za teku}i promet uz dopu{ten prolaz i parkiranje samo za stanare. Istodobno se ostavlja mogu}nost aktiviranja i rekonstrukcije obje ulice u budu}nosti. Postoje}i prostor strmog asfaltiranog uspona rje{ava se ugradnjom nekoliko stepenica koje tvore stepenaste terase. Prostorni akcent Izme|u Trga i Dola je Rondo/Rotor/Kolokret. Kroz njega prolazi centralna pje{a~ka komunikacija. Rotor sadr‘i jedan od zdenaca u nizu, a ome|en je staklom. On je prostorni akcent, vidljiv u svim vizurama ali istodobno transparentan, pa ne zakriva postoje}e poglede. Rotor/Rondo je suvremena interpretacija konzervatorskih uvjeta, gdje mu je dana aktivna funkcija povr{ine trga kroz koju se prolazi i u kojoj se mo‘e u prolazu zastati kraj zdenca. Sredi{nji hortikulturno ure|en dio Radni~kog dola “dovla~i se” neposredno do Trga, gdje se ve`e na spomenuti “tre}i element” - Rondo, element spone. Takvim oblikovanjem stvaraju se dva konvergiraju}a prostora - Trg i Dol. Oni postaju oblikovno srodni, premda je Gradski Trg kratak i koncentriran, a Park-Dol rastegnut i lagano povijen. Po~etak ulice Pantov~ak artikulira se sli~nim terasastim rje{enjem kao i Arnoldova/Rokova ulica, ali ovaj put su to travnate terase na postoje}em travnjaku. Travnate plohe razdvajaju betonski rubnjaci. Mali park na vrhu uspona ostaje isti. Tramvajske stanice postavljaju se uz trg pro{irenjem plo~nika u prostor trijemova/arkada u prizemljima zgrada. Autobusne stanice su razdvojene na na~in da je svaka smje{tena u ulici koja vodi u smjeru autobusne linije, radi lak{e orijentacije. Stajali{ta taksija ostaju na istom mjestu. Parkirali{ta se reduciraju uz predvi|enu pretpostavku izgradnje gara‘nih objekata u ulici Radni~ki dol broj 6 i 7.

052

Britanski trg Britanski Square

053

Britanski trg Britanski Square

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN The levels and forms of the square remain the same, whereas the new traffic regulation provides for an expansion of the sidewalk along the base of the buildings in order to make more accessible the commercial premises running along the entire edge of the square. The pavilion remains the same, while the clock and the advertisement pillar are to be reconstructed in keeping with art-conservation guidelines. The well will become part of the sequence of wells. The flower stands will be rearranged into a line at the eastern part of the square. The current flower stands may be used with redesigned canopies. Access to Arnoldova Street and Rokova Street will be closed to regular traffic, with the exception of residents’ vehicles. The option of the subsequent activation and reconstruction of both streets is left open. The problem of the existing steep slope of asphalt will be overcome with the construction of several steps forming step-like terraces. The space between the square and Radni~ki Dol Street is accentuated by a roundabout. It is there that the central pedestrian communication will take place. The glazed roundabout will contain a well, forming part of the mentioned sequence of wells. The roundabout constitutes a spatial accent visible from all sides and yet transparent, allowing the viewer to look through it. The roundabout is a modern interpretation of the art-conservation requirements: it has an active function as a section of the square, allowing passage and at the same time providing an opportunity to pause by the well. The central landscaped strip of Radni~ki Dol Street is thus “extended” to the square and joined with the mentioned “third element” – the Roundabout, a bonding element. With such a design two converging areas are created - that of the square and that of Radni~ki Dol. They are related by their similar design. The town square is short in depth and concentrated, whereas the park of Radni~ki Dol is stretched out and mildly curved.


aksonometrijski prikaz trga axonometric view of the square

The beginning of Pantov~ak Street has been articulated with a terrace-like effect similar to that of Arnoldova/Rokova Street, the difference being that these are grassy terraces on the existing lawn. The grassy terraces are divided by concrete kerbstones. A small park at the top of the climb remains the same. Tram stops are placed along the square and the related sidewalks are expanded into the porches/arcades of the buildings overlooking the tram stops. Bus stops are decentralised and separated from one another, each being located in the street covered by that bus line in order to facilitate orientation. The taxi rank remains on the same spot. Parking lots are reduced, as garage facilities are planned to be built at 6 and 7 Radni~ki Dol Street.

MATERIJALI Paviljon na trgu je postoje}i. @buka. Sat i oglasni stup se rekonstruiraju u identi~ne kopije starih. Metalni, bojani. Cvje}arnice su staklena konstrukcija u metalnim okvirima. Plavo-zeleni ton. Ploha trga je bojani asfalt. Crvena boja. Kolnici trga su oplo~eni granitnim kockama. Sivocrna boja. Rondo/Rotor je ogra|en transparentnom staklenom stijenom. Crveni ton. Centralna pje{a~ka os je oplo~ena betonskim kockama. Svijetlosivo. Pje{a~ki prijelazi su bojani. Bijela boja. Zdenci su betonski. Voda je u njima do ruba. Terase po~etka Arnoldove/Rokove ulice su betonski rubnjaci u asfaltu. Sivo. Terase po~etka ulice Pantov~ak su betonski rubnjaci u travnjaku. Zeleno. Centralni prostor Radni~kog dola je nastavak postoje}eg projekta hortikulture. Zelenilo. Autobusna stajali{ta su tipska. ^eli~na mre‘a u okviru, ve} postoje u gradu. Transparentno. Svjetiljke su tipske, lijevano ‘eljezne, historicisti~ke rekonstrukcije, ve} postoje}e u gradu ali bez kamenih postamenata. Stupi}i uz kolnik su tipski, lijevano ‘eljezni, postoje}i u Arnoldovoj ulici. 054

Britanski trg Britanski Square

MATERIAL The pavilion on the square remains the same and is treated with plaster. The clock and the advertisement pillar are to be reconstructed into copies identical to their old versions. They are made of metal and painted. Flower stands are made of a glazed construction with metal frames and are coloured in a blue-green shade. The square is covered with red-coloured asphalt. The sidewalks on the square are paved with light055

Britanski trg Britanski Square

grey granite cubes. The roundabout is clad in transparent glaze with a shade of red. The central pedestrian axis is paved with light-grey concrete cubes. The pedestrian crossings are coloured in white. The wells are made of concrete and filled to the brim with water. The terraces at the beginning of Arnoldova/Rokova Street are made of grey concrete kerbstones placed on the asphalt. The terraces at the beginning of Pantov~ak Street are green concrete kerbstones placed on the grass. The central area of Radni~ki Dol is a continuation of the existing landscape gardening project dominated by the colour green. The bus stops are of the type that can be seen throughout the town: a framed steel grid characterised by transparency. The lighting is also of the type generally present in the town: it is made of cast iron and of historicist reconstruction, but without the stone base. The existing posts along the sidewalk in Arnoldova Street are made of cast iron.


situacija 1:10.000 site plan 1:10,000

glavno pro~elje front faรงade

057 ZVIJEZDA stambeno -poslovna zgrada natje~ajni projekt u suradnji s arh. M. [osteri~, 3. nagrada, Zagreb, 1998.

AP-92 d.o.o., Zagreb + Mistrija d.o.o., Zagreb 056

Zvijezda Zvijezda

ZVIJEZDA Residential and Commercial Building Competition Project in collaboration with architect M. [osteri~, 3rd prize, Zagreb, 1998


pogled prema donjem gradu view towards the downtown

situacija 1:2.500 site plan 1:2,500

UVOD

Prema projektnom zadatku i urbanisti~kim uvjetima, predlo‘eno je rje{enje stambeno-poslovne gra|evine tlocrtne dimenzije 130 x 28 m, 2PO+PR+5, uz budu}u produ‘enu Branimirovu ulicu. Lokacija gra|evine urbanisti~ki je definirana elaboratom za lokacijsku dozvolu kompleksa “Zvijezda” koji je 1994. godine izradio UZGZ. Gra|evina slijedi smjernice elaborata i po{tuje cjelovitost budu}eg kompleksa. Jedina razlika je u naglasku ja~e veze gra|evine prema zapadu, gdje se nalaze neke od najzna~ajnijih osi grada Zagreba POSTOJE]E STANJE LOKACIJE - “VRATA DONJEG GRADA” Gra|evina se nalazi na izuzetno zahtjevnom i osjetljivom mjestu zavr{etka-po~etka Donjeg grada Zagreba. S obzirom na tu zahtjevnost, postoje}e stanje je lo{e. Unato~ tome {to je Zagreb ve} davno “pre{ao” prugu i Savu, Donji grad se jo{ uvijek nije zavr{io na ovom mjestu. Nisu se uspjela formirati dva gradska bloka koja su trebala formirati jedan od “Ulaza u Donji grad”. Branimirova tr‘nica se zbog svoje funkcije nije mogla formirati kao blok, kao ni po~etak parcele tvornice ulja “Zvijezda”. Zbog toga se ova gra|evina morala stvarati tako da rije{i ovaj problem, iako je vrlo izvjesno da }emo na “zapadni odgovor” - odnosno artikuliranje Branimirove tr`nice - ~ekati jo{ mnogo godina. Isto~ni dio gra|evine se odnosi prema budu}oj izgradnji kompleksa “Zvijezda”, prema postoje}em elaboratu. POSTOJE]I URBANISTI^KI PROJEKTI - GRANICA DONJEGA GRADA Arhitekt Vlado Antoli} je 1949. godine izradio “Regulacioni plan i direktivnu regulacionu osnovu Zagreba”. U tom projektu jasno se vidi rje{enje izdu`enog isto~nog bloka i formiranje Branimirove tr`nice u blok. Cijeli projekt je dosljedan u “zavr{avanju” Donjega grada ne bi li se definirala Granica kao osnovni element urbanisti~kog oblikovanja. 058

Zvijezda Zvijezda

059

Zvijezda Zvijezda

BACKGROUND Based on the competition assignment and the town planning requirements, the following project has been developed for a residential/commercial building with two basement floors, a ground floor and five upper floors, the plan of each floor being 130 x 28 m. The building is situated on what will soon be the extended Branimirova Street. The urban requirements of the location were defined in 1994 by the City of Zagreb Institute of Urbanism, in a study of the Zvijezda complex developed upon the application for a provisional building permit. In the planning of the Zvijezda residential and commercial building, the guidelines defined in the above study have been observed and the fact that this building is part of a larger complex has been borne in mind. The only difference with regard to the above-mentioned study is that the building’s communication links with the western part of the city of Zagreb, where some of its most important communication roads are located, have been emphasised. THE LOCATION AT PRESENT - “GATEWAY TO THE DOWNTOWN AREA” The building is located on a highly demanding and sensitive spot where downtown Zagreb ends, or rather begins. In view of its demanding character, the plot is currently in poor shape. Although Zagreb crossed both the railway tracks and the Sava River a long time ago, the city has not yet been articulated in this particular spot. Two blocks of buildings, which should have constituted one of the “Gateways to the Downtown”, have not been formed. The Branimirova marketplace could not be formed as a block due to its very function. The same is true for the section of the plot occupied by the “Zvijezda” edible oils factory. This is why the Zvijezda residential and commercial building has to be developed in an attempt to solve this problem, although it is almost certain that “the western response”, that is, the articulation of the Branimirova marketplace, will take many years to develop. The eastern section of the building has been planned in line with the future “Zvijezda” complex as defined in the above-mentioned study.


tlocrt podruma 1:1.000 basement plan 1:1,000

060

Zvijezda Zvijezda

tlocrt prizemlja 1:1.000 ground-floor plan 1:1,000

tlocrt poslovne eta`e 1:1.000 commercial floor plan 1:1,000

061

Zvijezda Zvijezda

tlocrt stambene eta`e 1:1.000 residential floor plan 1:1,000


uzdu`ni presjek 1:500 longitudinal section 1:500

popre~ni presjek 1:500 cross section 1:500

stra`nje pro~elje rear façade

zavr{etak zgrade gable wall

Kasnijim {irenjem grada izostalo je ovakvo dosljedno razmi{ljanje i Grad Zagreb je na mnogim mjestima izgubio kontinuitet, {to je glavni razlog svih urbanisti~kih problema Zagreba. Zbog toga je danas sazrijelo vrijeme da se sagleda nu‘nost formiranja gradskog bloka na mjestu projektirane gra|evine. Ovom se stavu pridru‘uje i promatranje blokova u najbli‘em susjedstvu gra|evine, koji su najbolji primjer kvalitetnog zagreba~kog blokovskog ambijenta u “najzdravijem” izdanju. OS GRADA: KATEDRALA - ME[TROVI]EV DOM LIKOVNIH UMJETNIKA - GRA\EVINA “ZVIJEZDA” Zna~aj lokacije gra|evine mo‘e se tako|er jasno prepoznati i po tome {to dodiruje spomenutu os. Ne samo {to je dodiruje, ve} se nalazi i na jednakoj udaljenosti od Me{trovi}eve rotonde, kao i ona sama od Katedrale. Ulice teku kontinuirano u tom smjeru, tako da je ostvarena potpuna vizura. PROBLEM POSTOJE]E UPRAVNE ZGRADE I TRAFOSTANICE Da bi se aktivirala spomenuta os grada i vizura, postoje}u izgradnju bi trebalo nadgraditi. Dimenzija gra|evine je takva da ona predstavlja Blok, a ne samo Zgradu. U skladu s time ona mora rije{iti pojavnost za sebe, kao i za svoje “male” susjede od kojih se to niti ne mo`e o~ekivati. Hrvatski arhitekt Josip Pi~man je 1929. godine izradio projekt kavane Kontinental na Su{aku koji se bavi sli~nom urbanom situacijom, samo u manjem mjerilu. BLOKOVSKA GRADNJA Stav o potrebi formiranja Blok-zgrade rezultirao je gra|evinom koja se sastoji od nekoliko dilatacija, odnosno zgrada koje su priljubljene zabatima jedna na drugu. Zgrade su kompaktne u tradiciji gradnje Donjega grada, {to istodobno omogu}ava da se oblikuju mjestimi~nim prodorimapasa‘ima i ugibanjima, slijede}i postoje}u okolnu izgradnju. Na taj na~in je gra|evinu oblikovao sam Grad i zbog toga su joj dovoljni minimalni 062

Zvijezda Zvijezda

063

Zvijezda Zvijezda

CURRENT TOWN PLANNING PROJECTS - THE DOWNTOWN BOUNDARY In 1949 the architect Vlado Antoli} developed a regulation plan of the city of Zagreb. This plan clearly provides for an elongated eastern block and for the transformation of the Branimirova marketplace into a block. The project of the Zvijezda residential and commercial building consistently aims at “rounding off” the downtown area in order to define the boundary as the basic element of urban design. The subsequent expansion of the city departed from the above consistent line of thinking, and the city of Zagreb has consequently lost its continuity in many places, which is the root of all the urban problems in Zagreb. This is why the time is ripe to address the need to form a town block on the site of the Zvijezda residential and commercial building. An argument in favour of this approach is the blocks of flats nearest to this building - an example of good quality Zagreb blocks at their best. THE CITY AXIS: CATHEDRAL – ME[TROVI]’S HALL OF VISUAL ARTISTS – THE “ZVIJEZDA” BUILDING The significance of the location of the building can also be recognised by the fact that it touches this axis. Not only does it touch the axis, but its distance from Me{trovi}’s Rotonda is equal to the Rotonda’s distance from the cathedral. The streets run in this same direction, thus completing the vista. THE PROBLEM POSED BY THE EXISTING ADMINISTRATION BUILDING AND TRANSFORMER STATION In order to activate the above axis of the city and the vista mentioned above, the existing structure ought to be superimposed by another structure. The dimension of the structure is such that it constitutes a block and not just a building. Accordingly, the design of this particular building should be sufficiently emphasised to compensate for the building’s “small” neighbours, which cannot


sjeverno pro~elje 1:1.000 northern elevation 1:1,000

ju`no pro~elje 1:1.000 southern elevation 1:1,000

oblikovni akcenti da bi dobila zna~ajan smisao. Ovaj se projekt odnosi na I i II fazu izgradnje promatranog Bloka i predla‘e njihovo oblikovno jedinstvo. Takvim stavom omogu}uje se dosljedno popunjavanje i dovr{avanje Bloka i rje{avanje urbanisti~kog problema lokacije. OBLIKOVNI AKCENTI Prvi oblikovni akcent je nadgradnja postoje}e upravne zgrade tvornice “Zvijezda”. Ta nadgradnja zapravo spada u II etapu gradnje, ali je ishodi{te Bloka. To se mo‘e smatrati i prijedlogom, jer spomenuti “stav o formiranju Bloka” dopu{ta da se pojedine zgrade u bloku izvedu mnogo kasnije, a da se ne izgubi kontinuitet. Nadgradnja je u skladu s budu}om ugostiteljskom funkcijom postoje}e zgrade koja time dobiva terasu na jednoj od najzna~ajnijih pozicija u gradu. Izvedba bi trebala biti vizualno lagana konstrukcija metala i stakla. Drugi oblikovni akcent je brisolej na produ‘enoj Branimirovoj ulici. On stanovima slu`i i kao za{tita od sunca i kao vizualna barijera prema prometnoj ulici. Tre}i oblikovni akcent je niz vertikalnih nosa~a raslinja na 2-3-4-5 eta‘i stambenog dijela gra|evine. Na taj na~in se: - “zatvara dimenzija” donjogradske [iroline ulice, a istodobno propu{ta svjetlost prema susjednoj stambenoj zgradi, - stvara kontinuitet zelenila od obli‘njeg parka do

064

Zvijezda Zvijezda

drvoreda u budu}oj produ‘enoj pje{a~koj [irolinoj ulici koja }e voditi do zgrade muzeja (strojarnice tvornice “Zvijezda”), - stvara atrijski prostor vrta za spavaonice stanova koji time zna~ajno dobivaju na kvaliteti, s obzirom na bu~nu Branimirovu ulicu, - stvara se oblikovni akcent vertikaliteta koji je u skladu s oblikovanjem Donjega grada. ^etvrti oblikovni akcent je prodor u poslovnom dijelu gra|evine. Time se ostavlja {upljina za vizuru niz Fabkovi}evu ulicu do obli‘njeg nebodera koji kompletira jo{ jednu sliku grada. Ina~e se spomenuti neboder nalazi na poziciji gdje bi se osno “trebale” sje}i Branimirova i [ubi}eva ulica, ali to nije slu~aj, pa je i to uzrokovalo neke prostorne deformacije u {iroj situaciji. Peti oblikovni akcent je isto~ni zabatni zid gra|evine. On direktno prikazuje presjek gra|evine, uvla~enja i izvla~enja volumena, ali istodobno prikazuje i strogo po{tivanje zadanog mjerila - okvira Bloka.

be expected to achieve the effect by themselves. In 1929 the Croatian architect Josip Pi~man developed a project for the “Kontinental” cafe in Su{ak dealing with a similar urban situation, but on a smaller scale. BLOCK-TYPE STRUCTURES The view about the need to form a block building resulted in a structure with several different elevation levels, that is, buildings whose gables are glued to one another. In line with downtown building tradition, the buildings are compact and can therefore be shaped by scattered perforations-passages and by deflection, adapting to the existing surrounding structures. In this way, the building is shaped by the city itself and this is why minimal design accents are sufficient to make it significant. This project provides for the construction of the block in two stages and suggests that the two stages form a whole in terms of design. The above view will enable the block to be consistently worked on and finished, and will help resolve the town planning problem of the location. DESIGN ACCENTS The first design accent is a structure to be built above the administration building of the “Zvijezda” factory. Building the superstructure actually falls into the second stage of construction, but is nevertheless the starting point of the block. It may be considered optional, since the “view about the need to form a block” allows for some of the buildings of the block to be built at a much later stage, without losing their

065

Zvijezda Zvijezda

consistency. The superstructure has been planned in accordance with the future function of the existing building - that of a restaurant - which will thus gain a terrace on one of the most significant sites in the city. It should be developed as a visually light construction of metal and glass. The second design accent is a brise-soleil facing the extended Branimirova Street. It serves both to protect the flats from the sun and to visually shield them from the busy street. The third design accent consists of a series of vertical posts around which plants are trained, placed on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th floors of the residential section of the building. This produces the following effects: - the “definition of the dimensions” of the downtown [irolina Street, while affording light to the neighbouring residential building; - the creation of continuous greenery from the nearby park to what will in future be an extended tree-lined pedestrian street ([irolina Street), leading to the museum building (the engine-room of the Zvijezda Factory); - the creation of an atrium with a garden for the bedrooms of the flats, increasing their quality with regard to the noisy Branimirova Street; - the creation of an accent of verticality in line with the design trends prevailing in downtown Zagreb. The fourth design accent is a perforation in the commercial section of the building, which leaves an opening for a view over Fabkovi}eva Street as far as a nearby skyscraper, completing yet another landscape of the city. The skyscraper is situated on the spot where the axes of Branimirova Street and [ubi}eva Street “should” intersect, but do not, causing certain spatial deformations in the more general context. The fifth design accent is the eastern gable wall of the building, which is a straightforward illustration of the building’s cross section and of the retracted and projected volumes, revealing that the chosen scale - that of the frame of a block - has been fully respected.


studije masa volume studies

067

situacija 1:1.000 site plan 1:1,000

AP-92 d.o.o., Zagreb

KU]A ZA ODMOR idejni projekt, Banj, otok Pa{man, 1998.

SUMMER HOUSE Project, Banj, Pa{man Island, 1998

066

Ku}a za odmor Summer House


sjeverno pro~elje 1:250 northern elevation 1:250

ju`no pro~elje 1:250 southern elevation 1:250

tlocrt prizemlja 1:250 ground-floor plan 1:250

tlocrt kata 1:250 1st floor plan 1:250

UVOD

U naselju Banj na otoku Pa{manu namjerava se izgraditi ku}a za odmor. POSTOJE]E STANJE Postoje}e stanje je ravan neure|en teren, udaljen otprilike 40 metara od mora, obrastao maslinama i niskim raslinjem. NOVO STANJE Novo stanje je ku}a za odmor s ure|enim prilaznim putem i ure|enim okoli{em. OBLIK I VELI^INA GRA\EVINSKE PARCELE Parcela je pravokutnik 19 x 30 m. VISINA GRA\EVINE I BROJ ETA@A Gra|evina ima 3 eta‘e; PO+PR+1. NAMJENA GRA\EVINE Gra|evina slu‘i kao ku}a za odmor KONSTRUKCIJA Gra|evina je zidana konstrukcija s AB plo~ama i AB horizontalnim i vertikalnim serkla‘ima. Nosivi zidovi izvedeni su od modularne opeka dimenzije 30 cm, a pregradni od siporeksa dimenzije 10 cm. OBLIKOVANJE Oblikovanje slijedi tradiciju i modernu arhitekturu. Objekt se sastoji od tri nezavisna korpusa vezana hodnikom - produ‘etkom stubi{nog polupodesta. Na ovaj na~in masa je usitnjena, ku}a vizualno smanjena i prilago|ena okolnom nizinskom terenu obraslom maslinama i niskim raslinjem. Krov je kosi, pokriven crijepom. Fasade su bijele i plasti~no oblikovane varijacijom velikih konzolnih istaka koje stvaraju veliko zasjenjenje. Prema moru su okrenute terase i lo|e koje kadriraju poglede iz soba. Na suprotnu stranu okrenuta je gospodarska lo|a utilitarnog karaktera. Ju‘nom korpusu, radi orijentacije suprotne od mora, “otvoren” je sjeverozapadni ugao. 068

Ku}a za odmor Summer House

069

Ku}a za odmor Summer House

BACKGROUND A plan to build a summer house in Banj on the island of Pa{man. AT PRESENT The plot is currently a flat, unarticulated terrain with olive trees and low plant cover, some 40 metres from the sea. AS PLANNED The plot will be occupied by a summer house with a driveway and landscaped grounds. SHAPE AND SIZE OF PLOT The plot is a rectangle of 19 x 30 metres. STOREYS It is a three-storey building consisting of a basement, a ground floor and a first floor. DESIGNATED PURPOSE The structure will serve as a summer house. CONSTRUCTION The house is a brick construction with ferro-concrete slabs and ferro-concrete frames. The supporting walls are made of 30 cm modular brick and the partition walls consist of 10 cm, light concrete blocks. DESIGN The design follows traditional and modernist architecture. The structure consists of three independent bodies connected by a corridor - a continuation of the staircase landing. In this way the volume is downsized; the house is visually scaled down and adapted to the surrounding flat terrain covered with olive trees and undergrowth. The roof is sloped and tiled. The façades are white and plastically shaped with a variation of large projecting structures that create a shading effect. Terraces and loggias face the sea and frame the view of the sea for the rooms contained within. A service loggia is on the opposite side. In the southern section of the building facing inland, the north-western corner has been “opened” to provide a view of the sea.


Iz tjednika “Globus” br. 11/98 excerpt from “Globus” weekly no. 11/98: the Croatian Primadonna Molnar-Talai} refuses an offer from the Metropolitan because she was busy painting her flat!

071 STUDIJA SOCIJALNOG STANOVANJA natje~ajni projekt, otkup, 1998.

THE STUDY OF SOCIAL WELFARE HOUSING AP-92 d.o.o., Zagreb 070

Studija socijalnog stanovanja The Study of Social Welfare Housing

Competition Project, Honourable Mention, 1998


prostorni prikaz 3D view

tlocrt karakteristi~ne eta`e 1:250 typical floor plan 1:250

UVOD U PROBLEM ZADATKA Ovim radom predla‘emo rje{enje problema socijalne gradnje tipskom vi{estambenom ku}om, izgra|enom u visokoj Roh-bau fazi, ~ak i bez vanjskih zidova. Cilj ovakve gradnje je zna~ajno sniziti cijenu investicije, ne 10 ili 20%, nego 50%, odnosno omogu}iti stvarnu i {iroku socijalnu akciju, prilago|enu specifi~noj situaciji u Hrvatskoj. Radi se o cijeni gradnje od 1.311 kn/m2 BP, ili 1.903 kn/m2 NKP, uz parametar ekonomi~nosti K1 BRP/NKP= 1,43 za zgradu P+4+M s deset stanova na stubi{te. Dr‘ava bi ovim rje{enjem izgradila ku}u koja je, doslovno i samo, okvir za daljnju gradnju. Time bi se na pravome mjestu podijelila i razgrani~ila uloga dr‘ave i stanara: - dr‘ava bi rije{ila probleme za koje ima mo} i ulogu da ih rije{i - parcelu, stambenu infrastrukturu i sve potrebne administrativne dozvole, - stanari bi preuzeli unutarnju, obrtni~ku gradnju u zgradi, {to oni sami ‘ele i “najbolje znaju”. Dakle, pojednostavljeno bi se to moglo prikazati kao “kupnja parcele, primjerice, na 3. katu zgrade”. Predlo`eno rje{enje je, dakako, samo sinteza ve} poznatih teorijskih kao i realiziranih rje{enja, opisanih na slijede}im stranicama.

Svatko misli da zna projektirati svoju ku}u bolje od arhitekta. To se ne mo‘e prepustiti nikome. Kao da ne postoji cijela struka s tisu}ama gra|evinara, arhitekata, zidara, poduze}a, koji samo to rade i ‘ele raditi. Va‘no je sagledati koliko je nezahvalna uloga graditelja, pogotovo ako se radi o socijalnoj gradnji gdje se prakti~no radi o poklanjanju stanova: - treba izbje}i situacije u kojima se grade lo|e i balkoni koje stanari redovito zastakle i zazidaju, - treba izbje}i situaciju “vje~nog projektantskog problema kuhinje” u kojoj se projektiraju dnevne sobe s integriranom odnosno odvojenom kuhinjom, a stanari redovito `ele suprotno rje{enje od onog koje je izgra|eno. Popularna psihologija stanara je takva da ‘ele sami graditi svoje ku}e i stanove, odnosno da redovito nisu zadovoljni stanovima u koje se useljavaju, do te mjere da misle kako su ih arhitekti i graditelji namjerno o{tetili. Idejno arhitektonsko rje{enje vi{estambene zgrade iz ove studije u potpunosti izbjegava ove probleme, prepu{taju}i stanarima da sami u potpunosti izgrade stan kakav ‘ele. Naravno da je mogu}e da netko sagradi lo{ i neugodan stan, ali to je IZBOR u koji se ne treba uplitati. PRIMJER IZ NEDA VNOG NATJE^AJA ZA STAMBENE ZGRADE ZA STRADALNIKE DOMOVINSKOG RATA U HRVATSKOJ, 1997. Natje~aj je imao gotovo identi~an zadatak kao ova studija, a raspisalo ga je Ministarstvo razvitka i obnove RH u svibnju/lipnju 1997. godine. Izme|u mnogih rje{enja izvanredno je znakovit primjer usporedbe dva prikazana rada (iz ~asopisa ^IP br. 1/2 1998.). Iz prilo‘enih obrazlo‘enja vidi se da je rad arhitekata Njiri} i Njiri} prakti~no ocijenjen kao lo{ i problemati~an, dok je rad prije njega ocijenjen kao bolji i “artikuliraniji”. Ovo je jo{ jedan aktualni primjer kako, pored “popularne kulture” koju promi~u mediji, i stru~njaci imaju negativan odnos prema kvalitativnim te`njama u arhitekturi. Izvanredan rad i napor arhitekata Njiri} i Njiri} da stvore novu tipologiju

PRIMJER PSIHOLOGIJE STANARA Primjer je stranica ~asopisa (Globus br. 11, 1998.). Naslov je senzacionalisti~ki izvu~en iz konteksta, ali je njegov naizgled neozbiljan “ton” proiza{ao iz puno {ireg i ozbiljnijeg konteksta nego {to je to samo ovaj tekst, osoba, novinar ili ~asopis. Ovo je tipi~an primjer negativnog odnosa koji gra|ani na{e dr‘ave imaju prema gra|evinarstvu, prema ljudima iz te struke i op}enito prema Stru~nosti, koji se vrlo ~esto popularizira kroz medije. Dakle, popularno je misliti da svatko mora sam kre~iti svoj stan, jer, evo, to ~ak i ljudi koji itekako imaju va‘nijeg posla ne mogu prepustiti kojekakvim zidarima/graditeljima. Svatko misli da zna bolje graditi ku}u od gra|evinara. 072

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ABSTRACT This study presents a solution to social welfare housing by proposing a standardised block of flats only half built, lacking even exterior walls. The objective of this type of structure is to substantially reduce investment costs, not by 10 or 20%, but by 50%, thus launching a wide-scale social action adapted to the specific situation in Croatia. The construction of such blocks would cost HRK 1,311 (EUR 180)/gross square metre or HRK 1,903 (EUR 260)/net square metre, at the following costeffectiveness parameter: gross area/net area = 1.43 for a building consisting of a basement, four floors and an attic with ten flats per stairwell. This way, the public authorities would provide a block of flats which is literally a framework for further construction. The role of the public authorities and tenants would thus be appropriately separated and identified: - the authorities would be responsible for matters within their power and competence, i.e., provide plots, housing infrastructure and the necessary administrative permits, - the tenants would be responsible for the internal finishing construction work, and for fixtures and fittings, since that is what the majority prefer to deal with and about which they think they “know best”. Therefore, it would be possible to buy, for instance, “a lot on the third floor of the building”. Naturally, the proposed project is but a synthesis of the wellknown theoretical and practical projects described below. AN EXAMPLE OF THE PSYCHOLOGY OF TENANTS The example is an excerpt from an article published in Globus weekly (Issue no. 11, 1998). The title of the article has been taken out of context for sensationalist purposes. However, its seemingly frivolous tone stems from a much broader and more serious context beyond the article, the person involved, the journalist or the magazine. It is a typical example of the negative attitude that the citizens of our country have towards the building


karakteristi~ni presjeci i pro~elja 1:500 typical sections and elevations 1:500

socijalnog stanovanja ostao je nepriznat i omalova‘en kao proma{en, od strane vlastite struke, odnosno stru~nog ocjenjiva~kog suda. Namjerna, svjesna, oblikovna i konstruktivna redukcija zgrade procijenjena je gotovo kao neznanje. Dakle, u nastojanju da se ne{to poduzme u promjeni na~ina gradnje, graditelji mogu o~ekivati nazahvalnost jednako od strane stru~njaka kao i od laika. Idejno rje{enje vi{estambene zgrade iz ove studije tako|er izbjegava sli~no uplitanje u smi{ljanje nove tipologije stanovanja koja bi rije{ila probleme struke. Svaki stan u zgradi mo‘e imati svoju tipologiju. PRIMJERI SOCIJALNE GRADNJE IZ ZAPADNE EVROPE U ODNOSU NA HRVATSKE SPECIFI^NOSTI Vrlo ~esto se u literaturi pojavljuju primjeri arhitekture iz zapadne Evrope koji se nazivaju socijalnom gradnjom ili gradnjom koja je jeftina i skromna. Ako je rije~ o stambenim gra|evinama, onda su to naj~e{}e galerijske zgrade s vrlo reduciranim, gotovo asketski minimalisti~kim tlocrtima. Sve se doimlju kao eksperimenti stanovanja. Naprimjer, vi{estambena zgrada za socijalno stanovanje u Nimesu arhitekta Jeana Nouvela iz 1987. godine ima ulazne, zajedni~ke terase, a ulazna vrata izvedena su tehnologijom automobilske industrije. Stambena ku}a Frauenfelderg austrijskih arhitekata Dietera Henkea i Martha Schreiecka iz 1993. ima dvoeta‘ne stanove s galerijom kao “lebde}im mostom” za ulaze na pro~elju. Za hrvatske prilike te su ku}e, naravno, potpuno neprihvatljive i apsolutno preskupe. Nisu one toliko nespojive s Hrvatskom samo zato {to nemamo tehnologiju za takvu gradnju, nego zato {to je pojam socijalne gradnje u zapadnoj Evropi potpuno druga~iji od onog u nas. Na{ socijalni problem puno je {iri i dublji.

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industry, members of the building trade and professionalism in general, an attitude which is often popularised through the mass media. Hence, it is popularly believed that everybody should paint the walls of their flats themselves, and even those who have more important business to attend to cannot allow masons/building workers to do the job. Everybody thinks that they can build their house better than a builder. Everybody thinks that they can plan their house better than an architect. No one else can be entrusted with this task. As if the entire trade of thousands of civil engineers, architects, masons and companies who are eager to do the job did not exist at all. Attention must be given to the fact that the role of a builder is unrewarding, especially in the case of social welfare housing where flats are practically given away for free: - Loggias and balconies should be avoided, as tenants tend to glaze them or wall them in; - “The eternal problem of how to plan the kitchen” should not be confronted. Living rooms are planned either with an integrated kitchen or with a separate one. Whichever is the case, tenants will always prefer the opposite of the one offered them. The popular psychology of tenants is such that they want to build their houses and flats themselves. They are usually dissatisfied with the finished flats they move into, so much so that they are convinced that architects and builders have deliberately acted to their detriment. The preliminary architectural project of the housing block contained in this study strives to avoid these problems by allowing tenants to make the kind of flat that they actually want. Naturally, this may lead to people making low quality, uncomfortable flats for themselves. However, this is a CHOICE that should not be denied.

THE EXAMPLE OF THE RECENT COMPETITION FOR BLOCKS OF FLATS FOR CROATIA’S WAR VETERANS, 1997 The assignment given by the Ministry of Reconstruction and Development of the Republic of Croatia at the competition held in May/June 1997 was almost identical to the present study. A comparison of two specific projects (published in ^IP Magazine, Issue no. 1/2, 1998), among the many projects submitted, is a case in point. In the explanation attached to the projects, the jury assessed the work by the architects Njiri} and Njiri} as being low quality and problematic, whereas the other project was assessed as being better and “more articulate”. This is yet another recent example indicating that it is not only “the popular culture” promoted by the mass media which is negatively disposed towards the pursuit of architectural quality, but that members of the profession are as well. The extraordinary amount of work and effort invested by the architects Njiri} and Njiri} to create a new typology of social welfare housing was not given due credit by members of the profession, i.e., by the professional jury, and was belittled as being beside the point. The deliberate and conscious minimisation of the building in terms of design and construction was almost misinterpreted as ignorance. Therefore, any attempt to introduce changes in building methods can be expected to meet ingratitude from experts and laymen alike. The preliminary design of the block of flats presented in this study is not intended to create new housing typologies to solve the problems encountered in the building profession. Every flat in the building can have a typology of its own. EXAMPLES OF SOCIAL WELFARE HOUSING IN WESTERN EUROPE AGAINST CROATIA’S SPECIFIC BACKGROUND Very often professional literature cites examples of Western European architecture under the term social welfare housing or cheap and 075

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varijantna rje{enja 1:250 alternative layouts 1:250

RJE[AVANJE PROBLEMA ZADATKA STUDIJE Na vrhu kompleksnosti problema zadatka stoji ~injenica da su u Hrvatskoj socijalni stanovi najpotrebniji “srednjem sloju” stanovni{tva koji nije toliko siroma{an, koliko je sputan trenutno previsokim cijenama stanova. Rje{enje vi{estambene zgrade iz ove studije najvi{e je podre|eno tom specifi~nom hrvatskom dru{tvenom problemu socijalnih slu~ajeva “koji to zapravo i nisu”. Takvi potencijalni kupci socijalnih stanova naj~e{}e su sposobni na zna~ajne zahvate u adaptaciji stanova za svoje potrebe. Rje{enje zgrade iz ove studije to im u potpunosti omogu}ava i stoga {tedi novac dr‘avi kao i kupcima stanova. Naravno da je mogu} prigovor kako postoji i sloj krajnje osiroma{enih ljudi, ali je isto tako sasvim jasno da je danas nerealno o~ekivati potpuno komforne stanove na poklon od dr‘ave, ma koliko ona socijalna bila. Odnosno, ovim rje{enjem se izra‘ava stav da je zbog specifi~ne situacije u Hrvatskoj bolje izgraditi 100 “polustanova”, nego 50 kompletno komfornih stanova. Dakle, vi{estambena zgrada iz ove studije trebala bi omogu}iti rje{avanje sljede}ih problema: - cijena gradnje mora biti zna~ajno niska da bi uop}e bila realna - mora se izbje}i razbacivanje novaca kroz ~este situacije u kojima tek useljeni stanari ponovo adaptiraju ve} prije dovr{eni stan - treba iskoristiti potrebu stanara da sami grade i potencijal da sami financiraju zavr{ne radove - treba iskoristiti situaciju u kojoj bi se dr‘ava oslobo|ena zavr{nih radova mogla koncentrirati na rje{avanje parcele, infrastrukture i administracije - treba iskoristiti mogu}nost tipske gradnje za dodatno smanjenje investicije. Primjeri “Ku}e u policama” grupe “Site” iz 1969., kao i tipski stan arhitekta Bernarda Bernardija pod nazivom “Stan bliske budu}nosti” iz 1960. godine, ilustriraju kontrast izme|u utopijskog i realnog projekta. Analizom kontrasta mo‘e se sagledati i njihova neraskidiva veza, tolika da se mo‘e postaviti pitanje koji je zbog kojega nastao. 076

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modest housing. If the case involves dwellings, then these are most often galleried buildings with very reduced, almost ascetically minimalist, layouts. They appear to be housing experiments. For instance, there is the block of social welfare flats in Nimes by the architect Jean Nouvel, dating from 1987, with joint terraces at the entrance and with front doors manufactured using the technology of the automobile industry. The Frauenfelderg block of flats, designed by the Austrian architects Dieter Henke and Marth Schreieck in 1993, has duplex flats with entrances from a gallery which seems like a “levitating bridge” at the front of the building. Naturally, in Croatian circumstances these buildings are quite unacceptable and far too expensive. These buildings are incompatible with Croatia, not only because we lack the technology to build them, but also because the concept of social welfare housing in Western Europe is completely different from that in Croatia. The problem of social welfare in Croatia is more far-reaching and deeply rooted. SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEMS RAISED BY THE STUDY In addressing the complex problem raised by this competition, the fact kept to the fore is that social welfare housing in Croatia should mostly target the “middle class” population, which is not so much immersed in poverty as restrained by the current excessively high prices of flats. The plan of the block of flats offered here is designed to address this specifically Croatian problem of social welfare cases “which are not really social welfare cases”. Such potential buyers of social welfare flats are very often capable of undertaking substantial operations in adapting flats to their needs. The present study leaves this possibility wide open to them, thus saving both the state authorities and the buyers money. Clearly, the study could be criticised for neglecting the categories of extremely poor people. It is, however, equally clear that the government, no matter how sensitive to social issues,


urbanisti~ke studije urban studies

IDEJE ARHITEKTA LE CORBUSIERA Rje{enje vi{estambene zgrade u ovoj studiji u velikoj je mjeri nastavak ideja arhitekta Le Corbusiera. Mogu}nosti nove tehnologije AB gradnje na po~etku 20. stolje}a najsna‘nije je prikazao upravo Le Corbusier. Skeletni sistem “Dom-ino” iz 1914. godine trebao je biti novi sistem masovne gradnje, koji je predvi|ao apsolutnu fleksibilnost i razli~itost gradnje od strane svakog korisnika. Zanimljivo je da je taj prijedlog preuzet 1922. godine za studiju masovne gradnje za “stradalnike Prvog svjetskog rata”. Projekt “Vi{estambene vile” predstavlja sli~nu ideju koja u vi{ekatnici s vrtovima na uvu~enim terasama omogu}ava isti stupanj fleksibilnosti i zadovoljenja individualnosti svakog pojedinog korisnika. Vi{estambena zgrada u Marseillesu (Unité d’Habitation) iz 1952. godine realizacija je Le Corbusierovih ideja koja na reduciran na~in sadr‘i sve prethodne ideje. Tehnologija gradnje zahtijevala je redukciju koju je Le Corbusier osmislio u novom duhu, koji je sam nazvao “Stroj za stanovanje”. Na ‘alost, ta je ideja zastranila u masovnoj gradnji sljedbenika Le Corbusierove ideje po cijelome svijetu i proizvela

sna‘an otpor prema arhitekturi Moderne. Inspiriranje ovim, pomalo utopijskim idejama mo‘e izgledati opasno, ali je vremenska distanca dovoljno velika da se prepoznaju po~etne kvalitetne postavke Le Corbusiera. Osim toga, vi{e nema tehnolo{koideolo{kog pritiska koji bi tako drasti~no reducirao ideje i zlorabio ih, niti bi to javnost dopustila. Od Le Corbusiera, dakle, preuzimamo: - “Domino” sistem, ideju gradnje osnovne konstrukcije i prepu{tanja daljnje gradnje `eljama korisnika, - fleksibilnost stanova u vi{ekatnici, - oblikovni uzorak brisoleja za oblikovanje paravana zgrade. SLI^NI PRIMJERI REALIZACIJA U HRVATSKOJ Radi {to jeftiinije gradnje, rje{enje je usmjereno prema zgradi sa {to manje stubi{ta i {to ve}e dubine. U tom smislu je u Hrvatskoj stambeno najkvalitetnija realizacija arhitekta Branka Kincla u objektima u Zagrebu - Klaka iz 1977/78. Idejno rje{enje zgrade u ovoj studiji preuzima prikazana tlocrtna rje{enja centralnog hodnika sa svjetlicima i dispozicijska rje{enja stanova. Centralni

cannot be realistically expected to give away fully equipped flats for free. In other words, this study indicates that, due to the specific circumstances in Croatia, it is much better to build 100 “half-finished flats” than 50 fully-equipped flats. Therefore, the block of flats presented in this study should confront the following issues: - the building costs should be low and therefore cost-effective; - money should be saved by avoiding situations where tenants who have just moved into a fully finished flat redo it to suit their needs; - the tenants’ desire to do the finishing work themselves and their potential to finance that work should be exploited; - the public authorities, relieved of the obligation to provide fully finished flats, would be able to focus on plot-related issues, infrastructure and administrative issues; -typological building models should be used to further reduce the cost of investment. Instances of such models might be “Shelved Houses” by the “SITE” group of 1969, and the typological flat designed by the architect Bernardo Bernardi in 1960 called “The Flat of the Near Future”, both of which illustrate the contrast between a utopian project and a realistic project. An analysis of the contrast also points to the link between the two which cannot be severed and which is so important that it leads to the question of which came first. LE CORBUSIER’S IDEAS The block of flats developed in this study constitutes to a large extent a continuation of Le Corbusier’s ideas. It was Le Corbusier who most powerfully illustrated the potentials of the new ferroconcrete building technology. In 1914, the “Domino” skeleton system was supposed to be a new system of mass building production, providing absolute flexibility and building diversity tailored to every user. Interestingly enough, this system was used in a study of mass building production for “the victims of World War One” in 1922. The

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project of a “Block of Villas” is a similar idea involving a high-rise building with gardens on steppedback terraces, allowing equal flexibility and individualism to each and every user. The residential building in Marseilles (Unité d’Habitation), designed by Le Corbusier in 1952, is a synthesis of all of his earlier ideas. The building technology dictated the need for minimisation which was conceived by Le Corbusier in a new spirit that he himself termed “House-Machine”. Unfortunately, this idea was taken off-course by Le Corbusier’s followers and their mass production throughout the world, producing strong resistance to Modernist architecture. Drawing inspiration from these slightly utopian ideas may seem dangerous, but enough time has passed to recognise the quality of the initial precepts laid down by Le Corbusier. Besides, today there is no such technological and ideological pressure to minimise and abuse these ideas drastically, nor would the general public tolerate it. Accordingly, the following has been taken from Le Corbusier for the purposes of this study: - the “Dom-ino” system, with the basic construction provided and the rest to be determined and constructed by individual users, - the flexibility of housing units in a high-rise building - the design of the brise-soleil to shape the screen of the building. EXAMPLES OF SIMILAR BUILDINGS IN CROATIA Where the main objective is to lower the building costs as far as possible, buildings are produced with as few stairwells and with as great a depth as possible. In this context, the best architectural production in Croatia is the housing estate in Zagreb called Klaka, planned by the architect Branko Kincl in 1977/78. Some features of this production have been exploited in this preliminary project, namely the plan of the central corridor with skylighting and the layout of the flats. The central corridor contains installation shafts, as well as skylighting which refines the space. Also significant is the possible lateral expansion of flats to the


urbanisti~ke studije urban studies

neighbouring flats according to the “SAR” flexibility method, whose potential is fully exploited in this study. Another example includes blocks of flats designed by the architect Ivo Radi} in Split in 1972. The design is defined by façade panels/screens/brisesoleil. The wall is completely concealed and its appearance is irrelevant. This is an explicit example of Modernist architecture justified exclusively by its functionality, applicable to any variations in the volume of the building, as indicated by the illustrations, and thus highly suitable for mass building production. The use of brise-soleil and loggias of great depth as protection against the sun leads to the creation of an important filtering zone towards the outdoor space, which is being increasingly applied in modern architecture. The initial idea has been expanded for additional reasons favouring its use in increasingly adverse urban living conditions, such as the protection against noise and the protection of privacy in general. The presence of wooden elements on the façade is open to criticism, as wood deteriorates rather quickly. However, Radi}’s building proves quite the opposite - the panels took 30 years to deteriorate and it is only now that they need to be replaced. The replacement of panels involved dismounting the old ones and mounting the new ones and is no more demanding than the installation of gigantic façade scaffolding on a 16-storey building and the plastering of a 30-year-old dilapidated façade, which is a modern-day problem of all decaying high-rise buildings in towns. In this sense, wooden façade panels are surely a better solution. One feature of the more recent architecture which is particularly relevant to this study is the increasing presence of the “screen” element within two-fold or multi-fold façades. The aim is to relativise the wall and turn it into a “filter” rather than a space-dividing partition, which is an expression of the spirit of modern times. As it has become quite common to treat the wall in this way and as it is presumably acceptable both psychologically and economically, this method has been used in the present study of a block of flats. Accordingly, the façades could be defined without using a physically constructed partition - without an actual wall.

hodnik sadr‘i instalacijske kanale i svjetlike koji ga prostorno oboga}uju. Zna~ajna je mogu}nost bo~nog {irenja stanova na susjedne stanove, prema “SAR” metodi fleksibilnosti, koja se u ovoj studiji potencira do potpunosti. Sljede}i primjer je realizacija vi{estambenih zgrada arhitekta Ive Radi}a u Splitu 3 iz 1972. godine. Fasadni paneli-paravani-brisoleji u potpunosti definiraju oblikovanje. Zid je potpuno skriven i sasvim je svejedno kako on izgleda. To je izrazit primjer modernisti~kog oblikovanja koje opravdava ~ista funkcija i koje funkcionira na svim volumenskim varijacijama zgrada, te je vrlo pogodno za artikulaciju masovne izgradnje. Brisoleji i duboke lo|e, koji slu‘e kao za{tita od sunca, ostvaruju va‘nu filter zonu prema vanjskom prostoru koja se danas sve ~e{}e koristi u novijoj arhitekturi. Takva je zona dodatno opravdana kao za{tita od buke i op}enito kao za{tita stambene intime u sve nepovoljnijim uvjetima gradskih podru~ja. Kori{tenje drvenih elemenata na fasadi mo‘e biti predmetom kritike zbog navodnog brzog propadanja. Me|utim, upravo primjer ku}e arhitekta Radi}a pokazuje suprotno. Paneli su dotrajali tek nakon 30 godina i tek sada ih treba zamijeniti. Zamjena panela, demontiranje starih i montiranje novih, nije ni{ta zahtjevnija od postave gigantske fasadne skele na zgradu sa 16 katova i ‘bukanja dotrajale fasade nakon 30 godina, {to je suvremeni problem svih drugih dotrajalih vi{ekatnica u gradovima. Drveni fasadni paneli mogu u tom smislu biti samo bolje rje{enje. Za ovu studiju je zna~ajno {to se u najnovijoj arhitekturi vrlo ~esto pojavljuje element “paravana” u sklopu dvostruke ili vi{estruke fasade. Na taj na~in se cilja prema relativiziranju zida koji postaje “filter”, a ne pregrada prostora, {to je izraz duha dana{njeg vremena. Zbog uobi~ajenosti takvog tretiranja zida, a uz pretpostavku da je i psiholo{ki i ekonomski prihvatljivo, to rje{enje je iskori{teno u ovoj studiji vi{estambene zgrade. Na taj na~in je postalo mogu}e definiranje pro~elja bez fizi~ke, zidane pregrade - bez zida. 080

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fotografija postoje}eg stanja at present

interpolacija planned interpolation

083 KOMUNALAC poslovna zgrada natje~ajni projekt, 2. nagrada, Samobor, 1998.

KOMUNALAC Commercial Building Competition Project, 2nd prize, Samobor, 1998

AP-92 d.o.o., Zagreb 082

Komunalac Komunalac


maketa model

situacija 1:5.000 site plan 1:5,000

situacija 1:2.500 site plan 1:2,500

UVOD

Idejno rje{enje zgrade ovog natje~ajnog projekta projektirano je prema lokacijskoj dozvoli. Rje{enje uva‘ava odredbe Prostornog plana ure|enja Samobora i GUP-a grada Samobora. Uva`eno je i idejno rje{enje budu}eg Autobusnog kolodvora i prostorni odnosi koji }e se uspostaviti novom izgradnjom. POSTOJE]E STANJE Parcela i okoli{ su neure|en teren s nedavno izgra|enom poslovnom zgradom koja }e s novoprojektiranom ku}om ~initi funkcionalnu i oblikovnu cjelinu. Postoje}a zgrada sadr‘i gara‘e i servise, dok }e novi objekt biti upravna zgrada poduze}a “Komunalac”, Samobor. URBANISTI^KO RJE[ENJE Zgrada je longitudinalna gra|evina koja svojim zabatnim zidovima stvara odnos prema okoli{u. Ju‘ni zabat je reklama “KOMUNALAC” potcrtana brisolejima prema centru grada. Sjeverni zabat je ulazni portal za pje{a~ki i kolni prilaz na parcelu. Rje{enje je prilago|eno budu}em urbanisti~kom okoli{u industrijskih i poslovnih zgrada, prema GUP-u.

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BACKGROUND The conceptual design of this competition project adheres to the provisional building permit. The design also observes the provisions of the Samobor Physical Plan and the Samobor General Town Plan. Also taken into consideration is the design of the future bus station and the spatial relations which will be established with the new urban development. AT PRESENT The plot and its surroundings constitute a terrain which has yet to be articulated, upon which a recently built commercial building stands. This building will form a functional and conceptual ensemble with the current competition project. The recently erected building comprises garages and service facilities, whereas the new structure will serve as the administration building for the public utility company “Komunalac Samobor”. URBAN DESIGN The building is a longitudinal structure which relates to its environment with its gable walls. The southern gable is an advertising sign saying “KOMUNALAC”, highlighted by a brise-soleil and facing the centre of the town. The northern gable


tlocrt prizemlja 1:500 ground-floor plan 1:500

tlocrt kata 1:500 1st floor plan 1:500

detalj detail

ARHITEKTONSKO RJE[ENJE Zgrada je oblikovana s ciljem da bude prepoznatljiv “znak” poduze}a Komunalac koje se bavi javnim gradskim poslovima odr`avanja infrastrukture grada, kao {to su zelenilo, kanalizacija, ~isto}a, ceste. U tom duhu, oblikovni elementi zgrade reducirani su na plohe-akcente prema vanjskom prostoru, odnosno prema javnosti. KONSTRUKTIVNO-FUNKCIONALNI KONCEPT Nosiva konstrukcija je raspona 12 m i omogu}ava potpuno fleksibilni tlocrt prostorija pregra|enih lakim monta‘nim pregradama. Kontinuirani niz prozora na pro~elju dodatno omogu}ava pregra|ivanje prostora prema razli~itim potrebama. Tlocrtno rje{enje je klasi~ni dvotrakt prostorija. Prostorije se ni`u uzdu‘ hodnika prema povr{inama odre|enim po potrebi. Dvotrakt prostorija po~inje restoranom i zavr{ava hallom. U tom dijelu postoji i vertikalna prostorna veza. PRILAZI I ULAZI Prilazni kolni i pje{a~ki put na parcelu nalazi se sa sjeverne strane. Glavni ulaz u zgradu je stoga sa sjevera, gdje je formirano parkirali{te za 16 osobnih vozila i ulazni trijem za pje{ake. Izme|u postoje}e poslovne zgrade i nove upravne zgrade formira se dvori{te s asfaltiranom povr{inom za manipulaciju vozila veli~ine kamiona i dodatno parkiranje. Prema dvori{tu su orijentirani ulazi u gara‘e, servise i spremi{ta obje zgrade, kao i sporedni ulaz u novu zgradu s nadstre{nicom. KONSTRUKCIJA Tlocrtno i u presjeku zgrada je pravocrtna i simetri~na, {to omogu}uje izvedbu zgrade u raznim konstruktivnim varijantama bez naru{avanja arhitektonskog koncepta gra|evine. Projektni 086

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is a portal providing access to the plot for both pedestrians and vehicles. The design is in line with the town plan for the future industrial and commercial development, in accordance with the General Master Plan. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN The building is designed as a distinctive “trademark” of the Komunalac company providing public utility services such as maintenance of the town infrastructure, including landscape, sewage, sanitation and roads. In keeping with the company’s profile, the elements of the building have been reduced to planes-accents focused outwards, that is, towards the public. CONSTRUCTIVE AND FUNCTIONAL CONCEPT The supporting construction has a span of 12 m and permits a fully flexible plan of rooms divided by light prefabricated partitions. Moreover, an uninterrupted sequence of windows on the front of the building allows the premises to be partitioned for different purposes. The ground plan reveals a classic arrangement of premises in two tracts, the rooms aligned along a corridor and partitioned to meet the area required. The two tracts of premises commence and end with a hall and a restaurant, and have a vertical spatial connection. ACCESS AND ENTRANCE Vehicles and pedestrians may access the plot from its northern side. The main entrance into the building is therefore at the north where a parking lot for 16 cars is situated, as well as a porch for pedestrians. Between the existing commercial building and the new administration building lies an asphalt yard allowing space for


prostorni prikazi 3D views

zadatak predvi|a mogu}nost monta‘e od prefabriciranih AB elemenata, ve} kori{tene u susjednom objektu na parceli. Tlocrtni raster greda je 5,1x12 m, {to daje otvoren tlocrt za fleksibilno kori{tenje s lakim pregradnim stijenama. Pro~elja su zidane ispune ili prefabricirani AB paneli s ugra|enom izolacijom. Krov je dvostre{na konstrukcija od drvene gra|e ili prefabriciranih AB elemenata, pokrivena AL pokrovom. Oborinske vode odvode se kontinuiranim fasadnim ‘lijebom u visini vijenca i vertikalnim odvodima. Ulazne nadstre{nice su lagana ~eli~na konstrukcija. Sve pregradne stijene prostorija napravljene su sistemom “Knauf”. OBLIKOVANJE I MATERIJALI Zgrada je oblikovana jednostavnim ravnim plohama razli~itih obrada. Ulazno pro~elje je monolitnog izgleda sa zavr{nom obradom od glatke ‘buke bijele boje. Ulazne nadstre{nice su ~eli~na konstrukcija s limenim ispunama crne boje. Uzdu‘na pro~elja su tako|er monolitnog izgleda u sivoj boji. U varijanti zidane ispune zid se ‘buka u sivi ton, dok je u varijanti prefabrikacije predvi|ena zavr{na obrada u kuliru. Prozori, vrata i staklene stijene na pro~eljima su AL ili PVC konstrukcija bijele boje, ostakljena izo staklom.

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Horizontalni brisoleji na ju‘nom pro~elju su AL konstrukcija, boje aluminija. Reklama na vrhu brisoleja su svijetle}a slova izra|ena od lima i pleksiglasa. Krovni pokrov je trapezni AL lim bijele boje. URE\ENJE PARCELE Prizemlje zgrade je uokvireno asfaltiranom povr{inom pje{a~kog “otoka” s parkirali{tem za osobna vozila. Na sjeveroisto~nom rubu je posa|eno jedno drvo, u centru radijusa kretanja vozila. Ostali dio parcele je ozelenjen travom. Oblikovanje zgrade slijedi tradiciju klasi~nog modernisti~kog izraza primjerenog javnom zna~aju poduze}a Komunalac i budu}em okoli{u poslovno-industrijske zone Grada Samobora.

lorries to manoeuvre, and additional parking. Both buildings have facilities with entrances facing the yard, including garages, servicing and storage, as well as a porch to the new building. CONSTRUCTION The building is orthogonal and symmetrical in plan and in cross section and may therefore be built in different constructional variants without affecting its architectural concept. One of the project requirements includes the possible installation of prefabricated ferro-concrete elements of the kind that have already been used for the neighbouring building on the plot. The grid of beams of 5.1 x 12 m provides an open plan which can be manipulated in a flexible way by using light partition walls. The front of the building is made of bricks or prefabricated ferro-concrete panels with built-in isolation material. The roof is a two-eaved construction of wood and prefabricated ferro-concrete elements with an aluminium covering. The drainage system includes a gutter running along the cornice of the façade, and drainpipes. The porches are made of light steel constructions. The partition walls include the “Knauf” and similar systems.

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DESIGN AND MATERIALS The building is designed with simple flat planes with different finishings. The entrance façade is monolith-like with a smooth white plaster finishing. The porches are made of steel with a black sheet coating. The longitudinal porches are also monolithic and grey in colour. The sections of the brick wall are treated with a specific shade of grey plaster, whereas the sections made of prefabricated ferroconcrete materials are finished in a textured surface. Windows, doors and glazed sections on the façades of the building are made of white AL or PVC constructions with double-glazing. The horizontal brise-soleil on the southern façade is an aluminiumcoloured AL construction. The advertising sign above the brise-soleil consists of illuminated letters manufactured of metal sheets and Plexiglas. The roof covering consists of trapezium-shaped white aluminium sheets. PLOT ARTICULATION The building is surrounded by an asphalted area forming a pedestrian “island” with a parking lot for cars. A tree is planted on the north-eastern edge of the plot, at the centre of the radius of the movement of vehicles. The rest of the plot is grassed. The design of the building follows the tradition of the classical modernist expression, as befits the public significance of the “Komunalac” company and the future development of the commercial and industrial zone of the town of Samobor.


maketa model

091 MUZEJ SUVREMENE UMJETNOSTI natje~ajni projekt, Zagreb, 1999.

CONTEMPORARY ART MUSEUM Competition Project, Zagreb, 1999

AP-92 d.o.o., Zagreb 090

Muzej suvremene umjetnosti Contemporary Art Museum


uglovnica corner building

situacija 1:8.000 site plan 1:8,000

situacija krova 1:8.000 site plan of roof 1:8,000

situacija 1:2.000 site plan 1:2,000

SUVREMENOST U suvremenom svijetu rije~ Moral toliko je otrcana da ima gotovo negativno zna~enje i to vjerojatno s pravom, jer su najve}im prevarantima i lopovima usta puna upravo rije~i Moral. Ipak, i ba{ zato, ovaj projekt po~inje od Morala. Dana{nji svijet nije dobar, on je u krizi i stoga je potrebno raditi i djelovati tako da svijetu bude bolje. Nedavno izvedeni muzej u Bilbaou arhitekta Gehryja iz 1998. godine svojim je probojem kroz medije popularne kulture postao predlo‘ak suvremenog muzeja, a mo‘da i suvremene arhitekture. Njegova popularnost zna~ajno sudjeluje u pritisku kraja stolje}a-tisu}lje}a i u zahtjevu da se arhitektura i arhitekti kona~no “izjasne” {to }e raditi u Tre}em Mileniju i za njega. Povrh toga, muzejska se funkcija poklopila sa sveop}om modom rekapituliranja svega i sva~ega. Zbog svega navedenog, muzej u Bilbaou potrebno je kriti~ki sagledati. Kao arhitektonsko djelo on je izvanredno uspje{an, ali je kao kulturolo{ko djelo ili, to~nije re~eno, kao civilizacijsko djelo, nemoralan. On je umjetni~ka razrada ve} dugo prisutnih ideja kaosa, dovedena do krajnosti. Stvaranje umjetnosti koja tako neizravno potencira Kaos, koji je ina~e suvremen i popularan, odnosno u modi, to jednostavno nije dobro... ako ‘elimo da nam bude bolje. Ako to ‘elimo. Za razumijevanje tog problema, vrlo se lijepo mo‘e usporediti vjerojatno potpuno suprotan projekt, odnosno gra|evina Doma likovnih umjetnosti u Zagrebu Ivana Me{trovi}a iz 1934.-38. To je primjer Reda i Obzira prema gradu i njegovom naslje|u, kao i obzira prema suvremenosti... {to je ~esto dobar put ka svevremenosti. Ili, jednostavno, to je Bolje. ULOGA MUZEJA Muzej Beaubourg u Parizu vjerojatno je najzna~ajniji muzej novijeg doba. Njegove dobre, ali i lo{e strane, postale su ishodi{ne to~ke za utvr|ivanje novih muzejskih standarda. Istodobni uspjeh i neuspjeh le‘i u iznimnoj atraktivnosti 092

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MODERNITY In the modern-day world, the word “morality” is so overused that it almost has a negative connotation, and perhaps rightly so, since the greatest impostors and thieves are those who most often speak of morality. Despite this, or rather, for this very reason, morality is the starting point of this project. Today’s world is not good; it is going through a crisis and one’s work and efforts should aim at making the world a better place. The museum at Bilbao produced by the architect Gehry in 1998 has, thanks to the popular-culture media, become the model for modern-day museums or even perhaps for modern-day architecture. Its popularity adds significantly to the pressure applied by the turn-ofthe-century-millennium era, and increases the demand for architecture and architects to finally “speak their mind” about what they will be doing in and for the Third Millennium. Similarly, the function of the museum has coincided with the general tendency to review everything in sight. For all these reasons, this museum should be critically analysed. The Bilbao museum is an outstandingly successful work of architecture, but in cultural terms, or more precisely, in terms of civilisation, it is immoral. It is but an artistic elaboration of the long-lingering ideas of chaos pushed to the extreme. The creation of a piece of art promoting chaos in such a straightforward manner - chaos being otherwise modern, popular and fashionable - is simply not good... if we want to make things better for ourselves. 1B we want to. To better understand this issue, a comparison can be made with a project which is quite the opposite - the building housing the Hall of Visual Arts, designed by Ivan Me{trovi} in Zagreb in 1934-38. This is an example of order and mindfulness of the city and its heritage, including its modernity... which is oftentimes a good way to achieve quality for all times. Or, to put it simply, it is better.


tlocrt podruma 1:1.000 basement plan 1:1,000

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tlocrt prizemlja 1:1.000 ground-floor plan 1:1,000

tlocrt kata 1:1.000 1st floor plan 1:1,000

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uzdu`ni presjek 1:1.000 longitudinal section 1:1,000

popre~ni presjek 1:1.000 cross section 1:1,000

gra|evine, a ona je toliko velika da je u potpunosti zasjenila njenu muzejsku funkciju. Trg ispred muzeja sa svojim uli~nim sadr‘ajima i eskalatori koji se uspinju iznad krovova grada preuzeli su publiku koja bi trebala razgledavati unutra{njost. Dakle, Beaubourg je uspio privu}i publiku, ali samo do svoje fasade. Ne u unutra{njost. Povrh toga, ubrzo se pokazalo da u muzeju nedostaje zidova za vje{anje slika, pa su naknadno umetnute pregradne stijene kao za klasi~ne sobe s ~etiri zida. Projektirani koncept staklene, otvorene i fleksibilne eta‘e proma{io je svoj cilj. Dobro iskustvo ovog muzeja pokazuje kako od muzeja napraviti gradsku i kulturolo{ku atrakciju, a lo{e iskustvo pokazuje da se ne smije zaboraviti klasi~na funkcija muzeja sa “zidom na koji se vje{aju slike”, unato~ sve ve}em pritisku umjetnina-performance-instalacija kojima to naizgled ne treba. PRU@ENA RUKA Kada ‘ele pomo}i, kada ‘ele dobro, ljudi to pokazuju gestom pru‘ene ruke. Ova gesta je ishodi{na slika iz koje je nastala ideja prilazne rampe ovog muzeja, koja se iz visine kao velika ruka pru‘a prema ljudima... da ih skupi kao mrave... i uzdigne. Ovakva gesta je u duhu funkcije projektiranog muzeja koji bi trebao uzdignuti ljude do umjetnosti koja jedina ima {ansu da bude Nova i Bolja. Za razumijevanje ove te‘nje i geste mo‘da se mo‘e uzeti sli~an primjer Le Corbusierove ruke, “Spomenik otvorene ruke” u Chandigarhu.

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HRAM NA BRDU Zna~aj i potreba za muzejom u dana{njem svijetu postali su poput zna~aja hrama iz pro{losti. Dvadeseto stolje}e proteklo je u kontinuiranom i neopravdanom slavlju zbog otkri}a relativnosti. Pritom su ignorirane mnoge elementarne ljudske osobine, {to je u realizacijama ideja sprije~ilo o~ekivani napredak. U prostornom smislu to se mo‘e ilustrirati kao tako|er zanemarena potreba za Granicama koje definiraju prostor. Granice su dobre i na neki na~in va‘nije nego prostor sam za sebe. Zato upotreba Hrama kao arhetipskog predlo{ka mo‘e biti dobrodo{la i ugodna Novost. U taj predlo‘ak uklju~eno je i Brdo kao jednako va‘an, a mo‘da i va‘niji element postepenog prilaza i meditacije usmjerene prema sadr‘aju muzeja. UZDIZANJE Lokacija na kojoj se muzej nalazi je Novi Zagreb, prostor gigantskih praznina potpuno izvan ljudskog mjerila. Pojedina~ni red postignut u samim zgradama raspr{io se jer nema granica koje bi ga zadr‘ale, {to je tipi~an proizvod 20. stolje}a. Prizemlje-parter prostora za pje{aka je izrazito neugodan i te{ko savladiv. Ta neugoda }e prestati kada se prostor popuni izgradnjom, a to mo‘e biti tek za 10 ili mo‘da 100 godina. U tom smislu muzej se uzdi‘e iznad prostora, iznad problema. Prila‘enje i uzdizanje prilaznom rampom otvara posjetitelju vizure prema okolnom prostoru koje ina~e ne mo‘e vidjeti, ... {to mu daje osje}aj ponovnog dosezanja izgubljenih granica prostora, ... {to se mo‘e pretvoriti u ugodan osje}aj

THE ROLE OF A MUSEUM The Beaubourg Museum in Paris is probably the most significant museum of recent times. Both its good and bad points have become starting points for the definition of new museum standards. The museum’s co-existing successes and failures make the building extraordinarily attractive, so much so that the building completely overshadows its function as a museum. The square in front of the museum, with its street amenities and escalators rising above the roofs of the city, draws the attention of the audience away from the museum’s interior. Accordingly, Beaubourg has managed to attract audiences, but only as far as its façade. Not beyond. What’s more, it soon became clear that the museum lacks walls to hang paintings on, so that partition walls were subsequently introduced, forming in this way classical four-wall rooms. The planned concept of a glazed, open and flexible storey had failed. The positive experience arising from this museum illustrates how a museum can be turned into a cultural and city attraction, whereas the negative experience shows that one should not forget the classical function of museums of providing a “wall to hang paintings on”, despite the increasing pressure of artefacts-performances-installations which do not seem to need one. AN EXTENDED HAND When they wish to help, when they mean well, people show it with the gesture of an extended hand. This gesture is the image from which the idea of the access ramp of the present museum stemmed. The ramp stretches forth from a great height towards

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people like an extended hand... to gather them up like ants... and lift them. Such a gesture is in the spirit of the museum’s purpose - to raise people to the level of art as the only field of human activity still left with a chance of being fresh and better. To illustrate both the aspiration and the gesture, the similar example of Le Corbusier’s hand might be taken: the “Open Hand Monument” at Chandigarh. A TEMPLE ON THE HILL In today’s world, the significance of, and the need for, a museum have become similar to the significance once attributed to temples. The 20th century has been characterised by the continuous and unjustified celebration of the discovery of relativity. Meanwhile, many elementary human characteristics have been ignored, curbing the expected progress in the realisation of ideas. In terms of space, this can perhaps be illustrated as a neglected need to determine space-defining boundaries. Boundaries are positive, and in a way more important than space itself. This is why the use of a temple as an archetypal model can be a welcome and pleasant novelty. This model also involves a hill as an equally important, or even more important, element of gradual access and meditation focused on the museum’s contents. REARING The location of the museum is Novi Zagreb, an area of enormous vacuums totally outside the human scale. Individual order achieved in single buildings is dispersed, as there are no boundaries to contain it, as is characteristic of a typical product of the 20th century.


pogled prema Novom Zagrebu view against Novi Zagreb

dosezanja izgubljenih granica duha, ... {to se mo‘e lijepo nastaviti kroz umjetnine muzeja, i to je dobro. GRAD NOVI ZAGREB Muzej se nalazi na centralnoj osi grada sjever-jug. Kri‘anje Avenije Ve}eslava Holjevca i Avenije Dubrovnik centralna je to~ka Novog Zagreba. Zgrada INE prva je od ~etiri predvi|ene uglovnice na tom kri‘anju. Muzej je uglovnica broj dva. Vezanje muzeja prema starom dijelu grada gotovo je nemogu}e zbog prevelike udaljenosti, ali to nije ni va‘no u ovom slu~aju. Novi Zagreb je takav kakav jest i muzej-uglovnica broj dva mora samostalno ‘ivjeti bez pomo}i staroga grada. Jednom u dalekoj budu}nosti ostvarit }e se kontinuitet grada koji }e dotaknuti muzej svojim osima i vizurama. Kada grad kona~no dotakne muzej, svakako }e se izgradnja grada morati prilagoditi muzeju a ne on njemu. Jer, ipak je ovaj muzej Nova katedrala i uglovnica u centru Grada Novog Zagreba. Grad Novi Zagreb ima vjerojatno 100 - 200 000 stanovnika ali jo{ uvijek nema prostor centra okupljanja. Ta potreba je nesumnjivo velika i zato je ovim projektom maksimalno 098

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iskori{tena stvaranjem velikih vanjskih prostora ispred i ispod - za mogu}nost okupljanja i aktivnosti mno{tva ljudi. Prostor ispred muzeja u svakom je gradu jedan od najdra‘ih prostora okupljanja, iako ve}inu ljudi zapravo ne zanima {to se nalazi u njemu. To treba iskoristiti i to muzeju u Novom Zagrebu ipak mo‘e pomo}i, jer postoji velika {ansa identifikacije gra|ana Novoga grada s Novim muzejom. Dakle, oblikovanje ovog muzeja proiza{lo je i iz potrebe Grada. STVARALA^KI DUH ZAGREBA Unato~ na{oj obi~nosti, u Zagrebu, u Hrvatskoj, postoji neuobi~ajena potreba za internacionalnim stvarala{tvom. To zna~i da postoji niz ljudi i djela koja mo‘emo slobodno pokazati svijetu s uvjerenjem da smo dobri, a ponekad i bolji od mnogih. Lijepo je vidjeti potrebu stvaralaca da budu internacionalni i da hrabro i nesebi~no odlaze u najdalju avangardu umjetnosti, iako im to zapravo nije nu‘no. Tako|er je lijepo primijetiti koliko na{e stvarala{tvo vrlo malo impresioniraju trenutne mode na svjetskom tr‘i{tu umjetnosti. Jedna od ljepota Hrvatske u tom smislu je i arhitektura, koja uporno i “prirodno” njeguje modernizam od samoga za~etka. Novi muzej mora pokazati taj Duh.

For pedestrians, the ground level of this area is most unpleasant and difficult to deal with. This unpleasant feeling will cease only when the space is occupied by buildings, which can only possibly happen in 10, or even 100, years. In this respect, the museum is raised above space, above problems. A visitor accessing and ascending the ramp is faced with a view of the surroundings that cannot otherwise be seen, ... giving him/her a feeling of having reached once more the lost boundaries of space, ... which can turn into a pleasant feeling of having reached the lost boundaries of the spirit, ... a feeling which can be further enhanced by the works of art contained in the museum, all of which is a good feeling. THE CITY OF NOVI ZAGREB The museum is positioned on the central north-south axis of the city. The intersection of Ve}eslav Holjevac Avenue and Dubrovnik Avenue is the central point of Novi Zagreb. The INA building is the first of the four corner buildings envisaged on these crossroads. The museum is corner building number 2. The great distance makes it almost impossible to establish a link between the museum and the old part of the city, and anyway, a link is not important in this case. 099

Muzej suvremene umjetnosti Contemporary Art Museum

Novi Zagreb should be accepted the way it is and the museum, as corner building number 2, must live an independent life without the assistance of the old town. In the distant future, the city will be integrated and will reach the museum with its axes and perspectives. Once the city reaches the museum, building developments will definitely have to be adapted to the museum and not vice versa. For this particular museum is a new cathedral and a corner building in the centre of the city of Novi Zagreb. The city of Novi Zagreb probably has some 100,000-200,000 inhabitants, but still lacks an area where people can come together. Undoubtedly, there is a great need for such a place, which is why this project has been used to the maximum extent to create large outdoor areas - in front of and beneath the museum - to enable people to come together in large numbers and take part in activities. In many towns the space in front of the museum is one of the preferred places of gathering, even though many people are not really interested in what can be found inside. This has to be exploited as a factor benefiting the museum in Novi Zagreb, as the odds are high that the inhabitants of Novi Zagreb will identify themselves with the New Museum. Therefore, the design of the museum has been derived from the city’s needs.


ulazna rampa entrance ramp

RJE[ENJE IZLO@BENE FUNKCIJE Rje{enje je ponudio Renzo Piano 1981. godine u Muzeju zbirke Menil u Houstonu, Texas. Kontinuiran stakleni krov - blagi vi{eslojni “shed” - omogu}ava kontinuirani prostor muzeja u jednoj eta`i, s idealnim prirodnim svjetlom sa stropa i potpuno fleksibilnim zidovima. Zahtjevnost rje{enja krovne konstrukcije opravdana je prostorom izvanredne jednostavnosti, potpune dosljednosti i racionalne ~isto}e. To rje{enje u potpunosti zadovoljava zahtjeve navedene na prethodnim stranicama i zato ga novi muzej preuzima. RJE[ENJE HORIZONTALNE I VERTIKALNE KOMUNIKACIJE Nakon preuzimanja rje{enja izlo‘benog prostora muzeja Renza Piana, koji je zapravo labirint, slijedilo je drugo logi~no rje{enje: stakleni fasadni hodnik-hall oko cijelog izlo‘benog prostora koji omogu}ava jednostavno ula‘enje i izla‘enje u i iz svakog dijela muzeja. Sve u jednoj velikoj fleksibilnoj izlo‘benoj eta‘i. Preostali tehni~ki i radni prostori jednostavno su raspore|eni ispod izlo‘bene eta‘e i najkra}im mogu}im vezama spojeni stubi{tima. Takvo rje{enje dodatno je pro~istilo funkciju i omogu}ilo oblikovnu jasno}u muzeja. Za razumijevanje ove logike vjerojatno mogu poslu`iti primjeri arhitekture kao {to su Koncertna dvorana Lisinski i Galerija Uffizi.

ZAGREB’S CREATIVE SPIRIT Despite our being ordinary, in Zagreb, or indeed in Croatia, there is an unusual need for creativity at the international level. There are a number of people, and there are many works, that we can boast about and show to the world, certain that they are of high quality, sometimes even better than many others. It is nice to see the need of creators to be international and to pursue the most advanced avant-garde with courage and unselfishness, although there is actually no need for it to be pursued. It is also nice to see that our creative circles are not so impressed with current trends on the world market of art. In this respect, architecture is also one of Croatia’s treasures, as it has persistently and “naturally” cherished Modernism from its very emergence. The new museum ought to reflect this spirit. ADDRES SING THE MUSEUM’S EXHIBITING FUNCTION A solution was offered by Renzo Piano at the Menil Collection Museum in Houston, Texas, in 1981. An uninterrupted glass roof - a gentle multilayered “shed” - allows the museum to be contained

in a single storey of continuous space, with ideal natural light from above and entirely flexible walls. The demanding nature of the roof construction is justified by the underlying space of extraordinary simplicity, complete consistency and rational purity. The design of the new museum fully meets the requirements laid out above. ADDRES SING HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL COMMUNICATION Since the museum’s exhibiting function has been modelled on Renzo Piano’s project actually consisting of a labyrinth, the following solution presented itself as logical: a glazed façade corridorhall stretching out along the entire exhibition area facilitating entry into and exit from each and every part of the museum. It has all been fitted into one large flexible storey intended for exhibitions. The remaining technical and service areas have been laid out beneath the exhibition area and connected by staircases at points closest to the exhibition area. In this way the function of the museum has been additionally clarified and the museum has been made transparent in terms of design. To understand the logic, some architectural examples

RJE[ENJE INFRASTRUKTURE MUZEJA Izlo‘beni prostor u jednoj eta‘i, osam metara iznad zemlje, otvorio je mogu}nost da se cijelom povr{inom ispod muzeja rasporede sve infrastrukturne-servisne funkcije. Sve {to je potrebno da bi izlo‘ba na prvom katu funkcionirala jednostavno se priklju~uje ispod nje. Na isti na~in bi se ispod muzeja priklju~io-objesio radno-stru~ni dio s uredima, kao i klimatizacijski ure|aji s potrebnim razvodom cijevi. Takav na~in oblikovanja zgrade instalacijama infrastrukture upotrijebljen je na Lloydovoj zgradi u Londonu. Ova usporedba ve‘e se na muzej Beaubourg koji su radili Rogers i Piano zajedno, odnosno na obojicu ovih autora koji stvaraju sli~ne ~iste prostore, a “ne~isto}u” infrastrukture iskori{tavaju za oblikovanje. Lloyd ima priklju~ke na fasadi dok ih ovaj muzej ima obje{ene ispod. Prostor ispod muzeja postaje pje{a~ki trg kontrastnog ugo|aja i kvalitete. 100

Muzej suvremene umjetnosti Contemporary Art Museum

101

Muzej suvremene umjetnosti Contemporary Art Museum

may be invoked, such as the Lisinski Concert Hall and the Uffizi Gallery. ADDRESSING THE MUSEUM’S INFRASTRUCTURE Placing the exhibition area on a single storey 8 metres above the ground has made it possible to distribute all the infrastructure and service-related facilities underneath the entire area of the museum. Anything required to make the exhibition function on the first floor can simply be connected from below. Likewise, office premises for professional activities could simply be connected-suspended from beneath, including any air-conditioning devices and related installations. The infrastructure installations of the building have similarly been used as a method of design in the Lloyds building in London. This comparison can be related to the Beaubourg Museum designed by both Rogers and Piano, and to their work in general, since they often create similar pure spaces and use the “impurities” of infrastructure as design. The Lloyds building has infrastructure connections on the façade, whereas in the present Museum of Contemporary Art they are suspended underneath. The area beneath the museum becomes a pedestrian square of contrasting atmosphere and quality.


pro~elja faรงades

103 OBITELJSKA KU]A s bazenom Zagreb, 1999.

FAMILY HOUSE with Swimming Pool AP-92 d.o.o., Zagreb 102

Obiteljska ku}a s bazenom Family House with Swimming Pool

Zagreb, 1999


pogled iz atrija view from the atrium

tlocrt prizemlja 1:250 ground-floor plan 1:250

situacija 1:2.000 site plan 1:2,000

AT PRESENT The plot in question is currently bare. The ground is grassed with a line of cypresses stretching along the edge of the prominent part of the plot (30 cypresses in all). Bor~ec Road is asphalted, narrow and of unequal profile, although this street is due to be reconstructed in the future. AS PLANNED The plot will be occupied by a family house, its grounds and a driveway adapted to the new road which is planned to be reconstructed. SHAPE AND SIZE OF PLOT The family house will be situated on a plot in Bor~ec, Zagreb. The plot is roughly triangular in shape, stretching out from the road up to the top of a small plateau. Northward, beyond the plot, lie the slopes of the nearby massive of Medvednica Mountain. To the south, the plot has the City of Zagreb in full view. The area of the plot is 2,400 square metres. Due to the expected widening of Bor~ec Road, the plot will be reduced so that its border will be 4.5 meters from the axis of the widened road. In other words, the area of the plot will be 150 sq m less, resulting in a total area of 2,250 sq m. The ratio between the footprint of the building amounting to 332.17 sq m and the 2,250 sq m area of the plot amounts to 0.148 (15%). The gross area of the house is 397.84 sq m. The plot utilisation index comes to 397.84 sq m / 2,250 sq m = 0.177

POSTOJE]E STANJE Postoje}e stanje je neizgra|ena parcela. Teren je zatravljen, s drvoredom tuja (~empresa) uz ve}i dio granice parcele (30 komada). Postoje}a ulica Bor~ec je asfaltirana, uska i nejednakih profila, ali se predvi|a njezina rekonstrukcija u budu}nosti. NOVO STANJE Novo stanje je obiteljska ku}a s ure|enim okoli{em i prilaznim putem prilago|enim budu}oj rekonstruiranoj ulici. OBLIK I VELI^INA PARCELE Obiteljska ku}a se nalazi na parceli u Bor~ecu, Zagreb. Parcela je pribli‘no trokutastog oblika. Izdu‘ena je od podno‘ja ulice do vrha bre‘uljka odnosno male zaravni. Iza parcele, prema sjeveru, nastavljaju se obronci obli‘njeg masiva planine Medvednice. Prema jugu, parcela je potpuno otvorena prema vizuri grada Zagreba. Povr{ina parcele iznosi 2400 m2. Zbog budu}eg pro{irenja ulice Bor~ec parcela }e se skratiti na 4,5 m od osi ceste, odnosno, smanjit }e se za 150 m2. Dakle nova povr{ina parcele iznosi 2250 m2. Izgra|enost parcele: 332,17 m2/2250 m2 = 0,148 (15%).

104

Obiteljska ku}a s bazenom Family House with Swimming Pool

DESIGNATED PURPOSE The structure is a family house. The ground floor is the main part of the house with a swimming pool and an external atrium encompassed within the boundaries of the house itself. The attic contains two more rooms and a bathroom. The garage, storerooms and the boiler room are located in a detached facility (excluded from the heating system).

105

Obiteljska ku}a s bazenom Family House with Swimming Pool


presjeci 1:250 sections 1:250

Brutto razvijena povr{ina objekta: BRP 397,84 m2. Koeficijent iskoristivosti parcele: 397,84 m2/2250 m2 = 0,177

A

NAMJENA GRA\EVINE Gra|evina je obiteljska ku}a. Prizemlje je glavni prostor stanovanja, s bazenom i vanjskim atrijem ugra|enim u gabarit ku}e. U potkrovlju su dodatne dvije sobe s kupaonicom. Gara‘a, spremi{ta i kotlovnica nalaze se u izdvojenom objektu (negrijani prostor).

C

VELI^INA I POVR[INA GRA\EVINE Brutto razvijena povr{ina ku}e je 397,84 m2. Ku}a ima 3 eta‘e: PO+PR+POT. Tlocrtna dimenzija glavnog objekta ku}e iznosi 13,5-17,0 x 19,45 m, visine 3,95 - 5,95 m. Tlocrtna dimenzija gara‘e i servisnih prostora je 6,58 x 8,77 m, visine 3,10 m. Izme|u njih je stakleni vjetrobran dimenzije 2,2 x 2,2 m, visine 2,2 m.

B

E

F

D 106

Obiteljska ku}a s bazenom Family House with Swimming Pool

SMJE[TAJ GRA\EVINE NA PARCELI Ku}a je smje{tena na sredini parcele na vrhu prirodne zaravni bre‘uljka, na koti 103,50 MNV. Udaljenost ku}e od ulice je 30 metara. Na sjevernom rubu se ku}a pribli‘ava na 3 m od ruba parcele. Prilazni put je s ju‘ne strane. OBLIKOVANJE GRA\EVINE Ku}a je modernisti~ka gra|evina koja slijedi najbolje primjere Zagreba~ke {kole arhitekture. Tako|er je nastala kao kopija ili ambiciozan poku{aj realizacije ku}e “Villa Savoye” - u Zagrebu, najljep{e ku}e XX stolje}a, arhitekta Le Corbusiera. Ku}a je na istaknutoj poziciji vrha bre`uljka, zbog ~ega je pa`ljivo projektirana tako da ne str{i. Uglavnom je prizemna gra|evina s manjim dijelom tlocrta povi{enim u potkrovlje. Gara`a i servisne prostorije su u izdvojenom objektu s podrumom. Najva‘niji dio je atrij “ugra|en” u gabaritvolumen ku}e. On je zapravo produ‘etak dnevnog 107

Obiteljska ku}a s bazenom Family House with Swimming Pool

BUILDING SIZE AND AREA The gross area of the house is 397.84 sq m. The house has three levels: basement + ground floor + attic. The ground plan dimensions of the house proper equal 13.5 -17.0 x 19.45 m, with a height ranging from 3.95 to 5.95 m. The ground plan dimensions of the garage and service area amount to 6.58 x 8.77 m with a height of 3.10 m. The garage and service area are divided by a glazed windshield measuring 2.2 x 2.2 m, rising to 2.2 m in height. THE BUILDING’S POSITION ON THE PLOT The house is situated at the centre of the plot, at the top of a naturally formed plateau on a hill, at an elevation point of 103.50 metres above sea level. The house is 30 metres away from the road. The northern edge of the house is three metres away from the boundary of the plot. The driveway is in the southern part of the plot. DESIGN

The house is a Modernist building modelled on some of the best examples of the Zagreb School of Architecture. Moreover, it has been created as a copy of, or as an ambitious attempt in producing a Zagreb version of, “Villa Savoye” - the most beautiful house of the 20th century designed by Le Corbusier. The house occupies a prominent position at the top of the hill and has been carefully designed in order not to stand out disproportionately. The house is mostly a ground-floor structure, with a small section raised into an attic. The garage and the service premises are located in a separate facility with a basement. The most important feature of the house is the atrium which has been “embedded” into the footprint, i.e., into the volume of the house. The atrium actually constitutes an extension of the living room into an outdoor area. The space is surrounded by a high wall containing a strip-like perforation


pro~elja 1:250 elevations 1:250

kontekst context

boravka u vanjski prostor. Prostor je ogra|en visokim zidom s trakastim procjepom koji maksimalno kadrira izvanredan panoramski pogled na Zagreb. Bazen nije uklju~en u kontakt s atrijem. Njegov veliki prozor je va‘an akcent na ulaznom pro~elju. URE\ENJE PARCELE Obzirom na pitomi podsljemenski okoli{, parcela }e osim izgra|ene ku}e i prilaznog puta uglavnom ostati ista. Postoje}i travnjak }e se sa~uvati i obnoviti na mjestima gra|evinskih iskopa i zatrpavanja. Hortikulturnim rje{enjem je predvi|ena sadnja nekoliko grmova i stabala vo}aka. JAVNI PUT I SMJE[TAJ VOZILA Na ju‘nom uglu parcele }e se izgraditi kolni i pje{a~ki ulaz na parcelu, s pro{irenjem za kratkotrajno zaustavljanje vozila prije ulaznih vratiju. Ulazni prostor se nastavlja u prilazni put, odnosno rampu djelomi~no ukopanu u teren, nagiba 15%, {irine tri metra. Put vodi do gara‘e na sjevernom dijelu s dva gara‘na mjesta. Uz gara‘u je pro{irenje asfaltirane povr{ine za manipulacijski prostor vozila, s dodatnim pro{irenjem na poplo~enje ozelenjenim betonskim oplo~nicima.

108

Obiteljska ku}a s bazenom Family House with Swimming Pool

109

Obiteljska ku}a s bazenom Family House with Swimming Pool

which frames to the maximum extent the extraordinary panoramic vista of Zagreb. The swimming pool is not in contact with the atrium. A large window above the pool forms an important accent on the front façade. LANDSCAPING Given the gentle landscape beneath Sljeme, except for the house and the driveway, the plot will largely remain unaltered. The existing lawn will be preserved and replanted where needed following the construction works. The landscape gardening project provides for the planting of several bushes and fruit-trees. DRIVEWAY AND PARKING An entrance for vehicles and pedestrians will be built in the southern corner of the plot, with a space in front of the gate for vehicles entering the estate. Beyond the gate stretches a driveway as a three metres wide ramp, partly entrenched in the ground, with a 15% incline.The driveway leads to the garage in the northern part of the plot, which has space for two vehicles. Next to the garage there is a wide asphalted area allowing for the movement of vehicles, which spreads onto a pavement made of concrete prisms dappled with grass.


pro~elja 1:500 elevations 1:500

111 SPORTSKA DVORANA dogradnja {kole Marku{evac, 2000.

AP-92 d.o.o., Zagreb

110

Sportska dvorana Sports Hall

SPORTS HALL Addition to School Marku{evac, 2000


situacija 1:2.000 site plan 1:2,000

pti~je perspektive bird’s-eye view

OBLIK I VELI^INA PARCELE [kola se nalazi na parceli br.kat.~. 11448, k.o. Marku{evac, povr{ine 26584 m2. Tlocrtna povr{ina prizemlja postoje}e {kole je 1056 m2 BP. Tlocrtna povr{ina prizemlja nove dvorane je 981,46 m2 BP. Navedene povr{ine objekata su “tlocrtna izgra|enost parcele” iz GUPa Zagreba, koja }e novom izgradnjom ukupno iznositi 2037,46 m2. NAMJENA GRA\EVINE Dvorana je prvenstveno {kolska i sportska kao sastavni dio {kole, uz dodatno predvi|enu mogu}nost kori{tenja za lokalno stanovni{tvo. Unutarnja (svijetla) dimenzija dvorane-igrali{ta je 32x22x7 m. Varijante kori{tenja su: - jednodjelna dvorana za ko{arka{ko igrali{te 28x15 m (puna dimenzija) - jednodjelna dvorana za rukometno igrali{te 30x20 m (skra}ena dimenzija) - dvodjelna dvorana za dva ko{arka{ka igrali{ta 20x15 m (skra}ene dimenzije) - te ostale sportove ~ija su igrali{ta manja ili jednaka: odbojka i sl. Dvorana ima direktnu-toplu vezu s postoje}im ulaznim hallom {kole. U prate}im prostorima dvorane smje{tene su ~etiri svla~ionice s po dva sanitarna ~vora, u koje se istovremeno mogu smjestiti dva razreda u~enika u varijanti dvodjelnog kori{tenja dvorane. U istom traktu prostorija nalazi se spremi{te i prostorija za nastavnike sa sanitarijama. Vanjskim korisnicima omogu}en je direktni prilaz i ulaz u spojni hodnik {kole i dvorane. Time je omogu}eno odvojeno funkcioniranje dvorane od {kole. Isti je prilaz usmjeren na postoje}e vanjsko igrali{te uz dvoranu. Tako je, osim za dvoranu, omogu}eno kori{tenje svla~ionica i za vanjska igrali{ta. Vanjske terase i prilazni putevi organizirani su tako da upotpune postoje}e pje{a~ke veze prema glavnom ulazu, igrali{tu i prema nasipu i koritu potoka [tefanovec. Iznad trakta pomo}nih prostorija nalazi se gledali{te koje pro{iruje namjenu

UVOD

Uz postoje}u osnovnu {kolu Marku{evac namjerava se izgraditi sportska dvorana prema sljede}em projektnom zadatku: “...O[ Marku{evac izgra|ena je 1965. godine, {kola ima 30 odjela sa cca 600 u~enika ... [kola nema nikakvog zatvorenog {portskog prostora. Prostor s isto~ne strane... dostatan je za izgradnju dvodjelne dvorane... s prate}im prostorima, koja bi zadovoljila minimalne uvjete nastave TZK i dijelom potrebe lokalnog stanovni{tva za {portom i {portskom rekreacijom.” (“Izvje{}e s prijedlogom O[ Marku{evac”; Milan ^oli} prof, Darko Ga`an Gradski ured za obrazovanje i {port, 15.4.1999.) POSTOJE]E STANJE Postoje}e stanje je gra|evina osnovne {kole bez sportske dvorane. [kola je nedovr{ena jer joj nedostaje jedan trakt prostorija, odnosno ~etvrto krilo gra|evine, na mjestu kojeg je ostao nedovr{en zabatni zid. Teren je travnat, djelomi~no ure|en, s asfaltiranim stazama i igrali{tem. NOVO STANJE Novo stanje je nova sportska dvorana uz postoje}u {kolu s ure|enim vanjskim prilazima, terasama i vanjskim igrali{tima. 112

Sportska dvorana Sports Hall

113

Sportska dvorana Sports Hall

BACKGROUND Next to the existing Marku{evac Primary School a sports hall is planned to be built according to the project requirements: “... Marku{evac Primary School was built in 1965. The school has 30 classes with approximately 600 pupils... The school has no indoor sports hall. The space on the eastern side... is large enough to have a two-part sports hall built on it... with related premises. The hall should meet the minimum requirements of the physical exercise curricula and should in part satisfy the needs of the local population for sports and recreation” (an excerpt from the “Report containing a Proposal of the Marku{evac Primary School; Milan ^oli}, Prof. Darko Ga`an - City Office for Education and Sports, 15 April 1999). AT PRESENT At present the primary school building has no sports hall. The school is unfinished as it lacks one tract of premises, that is to say, the fourth wing of the building, on the site of which there is an unfinished gable wall. The terrain is grassed and partly covered by asphalted paths and a playing field. AS PLANNED A new sports hall is planned to be erected next to the existing school building, together with outdoor access lanes, terraces and outdoor playing fields. SHAPE AND SIZE OF PLOT The school occupies a plot comprising an area of 26,584 sq m. The footprint of the existing school building has a gross area of 1,056 sq m. The footprint of the new sports hall has a gross area of 981.46 sq m. The mentioned areas of the two facilities meet the percentage of construction on the plot as defined by the Zagreb Master Plan and the facilities will together cover an area of 2,037.46 sq m.


presjek 1:500 cross section 1:500

tlocrt 1:500 ground-floor plan 1:500

dvorane za ve}e skupove ljudi prilikom sportskih natjecanja i kulturnih priredbi. Vanjsko igrali{te trebalo bi doasfaltiranjem dovesti u pravokutnu formu paralelnu sjverozapadnom zidu nove dvorane, koja }e omogu}iti tlocrtnu dispoziciju tri ko{arka{ka igrali{ta (28x15 m) u popre~nom i rukometno igrali{te (40x20 m) u uzdu‘nom smjeru. U sklopu zahvata predvi|a se i nova oprema: ko{evi, golovi i klupe za sjedenje uz igrali{te.

DESIGNATED PURPOSE The facility in question is primarily intended as a school sports hall, but may sometimes be used for public purposes by the local population. The internal (net) dimensions of the hall amount to 32 x 22 x 7 metres. The hall may be variably used as follows: - a basketball court of 28 x 15 m (full dimensions) - a handball court of 30 x 20 m (reduced dimensions) - a two-part hall for two basketball courts of 20 x 15 m (reduced dimensions) - and for other sports requiring playing areas of equal or smaller dimensions: volleyball, etc. The hall has a direct/indoor connection with the existing school entrance hall. The hall’s ancillary premises include four dressing rooms, each having two toilet and shower facilities, which can receive two classes of pupils at one time in the event of the hall being used for two playing areas. A storage room is situated in the same tract of the premises, as well as a staff room with toilet and shower facilities. External users are provided with direct access through the corridor connecting the school with the hall. This allows the sports hall to function independently of the school. The same access leads to the existing outdoor playing field next to the hall. This way, dressing rooms can be used both by those playing in the hall and by those using the outdoor playing fields. Outdoor terraces and access lanes have been arranged in such a way as to complement the existing pedestrian communications leading to the main entrance, the playing field and the embankment and the bed of [tefanovec creek. The tract of ancillary premises supports an auditorium which enables the hall to be used for many different purposes, including larger gatherings of people for sporting and cultural events. The outdoor playing field should be additionally asphalted into a rectangular shape, running parallel to the north-western wall of the new sports hall. As such, the plan layout of the playing field would allow for three basketball courts (28x15m) transversally and one handball court

VELI^INA I POVR[INA GRA\EVINE Dvorana je dimenzije 32,80x28,00 m i visine 11,00 m. Uz dvoranu je stakleni spojni hodnik du‘ine 31,65 m i visine 2,70 m, s vjetrobranom dimenzija 3,45x3,60 m direktno spojenim na zid postoje}e {kole. Povr{ina gra|evine obuhva}a dvoranu od 918,40 m2 te spojni hodnik i vjetrobran od 63,00 m2, {to ukupno iznosi 981,40 m2 BP. Ukupna brutto razvijena povr{ina gra|evine iznosi 1147,86 m2 BRP. SMJE[TAJ GRA\EVINE NA PARCELI Dvorana je smje{tena uz sjeveroisto~ni zid postoje}e {kole. Od {kole je odmaknuta za 5,20 m. Unutar tog razmaka nalazi se spoj dvorane i {kole – stakleni hodnik, koji je istovremeno i vjetrobran s direktnim vanjskim ulazom. Isto~nim rubom dvorana dodiruje nasip potoka, a jednim kutom se pribli‘ava na 5,00 m udaljenosti od ruba parcele. OBLIKOVANJE Dvorana je gra|evina jednostavnih i ~istih oblika. Ona slijedi duh {kole i podsljemenskog Marku{evca koji se nakon obilaska lokacije mo‘e prikazati rije~ima: skromnost i prirodnost. Uz {kolu te~e i potok [tefanovec koji dopunjuje ugo|aj. Postoje}a {kola je nepretenciozna modernisti~ka gra|evina iz 60-tih godina, vrlo kvalitetnih prostora

114

Sportska dvorana Sports Hall

115

Sportska dvorana Sports Hall

(40x20m) longitudinally. The intervention in the outdoor playing field would also include the installation of new equipment: baskets, goals and benches along the playing field. SIZE AND AREA OF BUILDING The sports hall is 32.8 x 28 metres and is 11 metres high. Next to the hall there is a glazed connecting corridor 31.65 metres long and 2.7 metres high, with a 3.45 x 3.6 m windshield box positioned against the existing school wall. The area of the building is as follows: the sports hall equals 918.40 sq m, the connecting corridor and the windshield box equal 63.00 sq m, totalling 981.40 sq m of gross area. The total indexed gross area of the building is 1,147.86 sq m. THE BUILDING’S POSITION ON THE PLOT The sports hall is situated along the northeastern wall of the existing school building and is 5.20 metres away from the school. This space between the two facilities is occupied by the glazed corridor connecting the hall with the school, which simultaneously serves as a windshield with a direct external entrance. To the east, the sports hall flanks the embankment of the creek and one of its corners is only 5.00 metres away from the edge of the plot. DESIGN The sports hall is a building of simple and clear forms. It has been designed in accordance with the spirit of the school and of the suburb of Marku{evac below Sljeme Mountain, and can be described as modest and natural. The [tefanovec creek flowing by the school adds to the general ambience. The existing school building is an unpretentious Modernist structure dating from the 60s. The premises are of good quality thanks to the high standards of architecture and urbanism in force at the time. Today, such a building constitutes a pleasant surprise, since a drive from the centre of Zagreb to the Marku{evac area provides a vivid illustration of the notion of “environment-polluting building projects”.


fotografija postoje}eg stanja at present

prozor prema potoku window overlooking the creek

zbog visokih standarda arhitekture i urbanizma koji su tada vladali. Danas takva gra|evina mo‘e ugodno iznenaditi, jer je vo‘nja putem od centra Zagreba do Marku{evca slikovit primjer pojma ”zaga|enje okoli{a gra|enjem”. Prema idejnom projektu {kole T.D. 802 od travnja 1962. koji su izradili ing. arh. Selinger i ing. arh. Kova~evi}, na mjestu projektirane dvorane predvi|ena je zgrada manjih dimenzija (vjerojatno dvorana). Na zapadu je predvi|eno neizgra|eno ~etvrto krilo {kole koje je trebalo formirati kru‘ni tlocrt. Ovaj projekt dvorane slijedi idejno rje{enje i mogu}nost dogradnje {kole u budu}nosti, odnosno dovr{enja sklopa zgrada {kole {to je bli‘e mogu}e idejnom rje{enju iz 1962. godine. Dvorana je puno ve}a nego {to je to bilo predvi|eno. Zbog toga su pomo}ne prostorije dvorane minimalne, i cijela je gra|evina svedena na najosnovnije elemente. Uostalom, to je i bio jedan od zahtjeva u projektnom zadatku. Dvorana je pravokutna gra|evina AB nosive konstrukcije sa zidanom ispunom. Krov nose ~eli~ni re{etkasti nosa~i raspona 28 m i visine 2,86 m. Re{etka bi bila izvedena od {tapova i greda “L” i “T” profila, 116

Sportska dvorana Sports Hall

fotografije postoje}eg stanja at present

{to manjih dimenzija. Krov je plitki dvostre{ni s pokrovom od trapeznog Al lima. Veza s postoje}om {kolom ostvarena je ostakljenim hodnikom i vjetrobranom. Iznad pomo}nih prostorija prote‘e se AB tribina gledali{ta. Glavno osvjetljenje dvorane je kroz staklene zidove na zabatnim staklenimcopilit zidovima u visini re{etkastog nosa~a. Uzdizanje konstrukcije gledali{ta iskori{teno je za direktno osvjetljenje i prozra~ivanje svla~ionica koje su ispod. Posebno su nagla{ene terase uz dvoranu kao va‘an dio gra|evine. Ulazna terasa rje{ava kontakt dvorane i {kole te prilaza ve}eg broja ljudi. Terasa uz potok posebnog je, simboli~kog karaktera, budu}i da nagla{ava vezu dvorane prema vodi i prirodi. Zbog terase je u dvorani otvoren niski duga~ki prozor koji gleda na nju. Terasa zavr{ava stepenicama - imitacijom unutra{njih tribina koje simboli~ki produ‘uju unutarnji prostor u vanjski. I stepenice terase namijenjene su oblikovanju nasipa uz potok i privla~enju {eta~a.

According to the preliminary design of the school developed by the architects Selinger and Kova~evi} in 1962, a sports hall is envisaged on the present site, although smaller in dimensions. To the west, a fourth wing of the school was envisaged to be built and to form a ground plan in the form of a cross. In the planning of the sports hall the above preliminary design has been followed. The possibility of adding another structure to the school in the future has been left open, in order to allow the school complex to be finished by following the 1962 preliminary design as closely as possible. The hall is much larger than envisaged. For this reason, the hall’s ancillary premises have been reduced to the minimum and the entire building has been reduced to the essentials. After all, this was one of the requirements contained in the project assignment. The sports hall is a rectangular building resting on a ferro-concrete supporting construction fleshed out with brick. The roof is supported by a steel lattice with a span of 28 metres and a height of 2.86 metres. The lattice is made of “L”- and “T”- shaped strips and beams as small in dimensions as possible. The roof is shallow and two-eaved, coated by trapezoid 117

Sportska dvorana Sports Hall

vjetrobran i “ne~isti” hodnik windshield and “dirty” corridor

aluminium sheets. The corridor and the windshield box connecting the hall with the school are glazed. The auditorium resting on the ancillary part of the premises is made of ferro-concrete. The hall’s main source of illumination are gable walls made of stretched glass, rising up to the level of the lattice. The auditorium construction has been elevated in order to allow natural illumination and ventilation for the dressing rooms below. Particular emphasis has been placed on the terraces running along the sports hall as an important part of the building: the entrance terrace is a point of contact between the sports hall and the school, as well as an access area for a large number of people. The terrace next to the creek is of special symbolic character, its purpose being to highlight the hall’s connection with water and nature. To this effect, the wall of the sports hall facing this terrace has been opened through a low elongated window. The terrace ends in steps mimicking those of the indoor auditorium, thus symbolically extending the indoor area into the outdoor one. The terrace steps also serve to articulate the embankment of the creek and to attract strollers.


situacija 1:1.000 site plan 1:1,000

ju`no pro~elje 1:250 southern elevation 1:250

prostorne simulacije 3D studies

119 TRI OBITELJSKE KU]E Zagreb, 2000.

THREE FAMILY HOUSES Zagreb, 2000

AP-92 d.o.o., Zagreb 118

Tri obiteljske ku}e Three Family Houses


tlocrt 1. kata 1:200 1st floor plan 1:200

UVOD

U skladu s Izvodom iz prostornog plana, predmetna parcela bi se podijelila na 4 parcele. Parcela 1 bila bi zajedni~ki prilazni put direktno vezan na prolaz kroz parcelu za koji je investitor dobio pravno rje{enje. Parcele 2, 3 i 4 bile bi gra|evinske. NOVO STANJE Parcelacija je prilago|ena izgradnji tri jednake obiteljske ku}e na zasebnim parcelama. Pojedina ku}a imala bi dvije eta‘e: PR+1, tlocrtne dimenzije 11,10m x12,00m = 133,20 m2. Prilaz do svake ku}e je {irine tri metra, a vodi do gara‘e s dva mjesta. NAMJENA GRA\EVINE Obiteljska ku}a s jednim stanom na dvije eta‘e, PR+1. U prizemlju su dnevni boravak, blagovaonica i kuhinja. Na katu je glavni ulaz s gara‘om, spavaonice i sanitarije. KONSTRUKCIJA I MATERIJALI Gra|evina je zidana konstrukcija, s AB plo~ama, horizontalnim i vertikalnim serkla‘ima. Nosivi zidovi su od modularne opeke debljine 38 i 20 cm, a pregradni od opeke debljine 12 cm. Zidovi su obra|eni ‘bukom u bijeloj boji. Krov je jednostre{na drvena konstrukcija s pokrovom od tegole. OBLIKOVANJE Oblikovanje ku}a je prilago|eno okoli{u i nagibu terena, koji je jednak nagibu krovnih jednostre{nih ploha od 10º. Krov ima istaknutu strehu u skladu s ambijentom podsljemenske zone Zagreba. Pro~elja su jednostavna modernisti~ka, slijede Zagreba~ku {kolu arhitekture. Tri ku}e predstavljaju pa‘ljivo slo‘enu kompoziciju - mali urbanisti~ki ambijent koji u daljnjoj razradi treba sa~uvati humano mjerilo i odnos s podsljemenskim okoli{em uz cjelovito parkovno ure|enje parcela. 120

Tri obiteljske ku}e Three Family Houses

tlocrt prizemlja 1:200 ground-floor plan 1:200

BACKGROUND In line with the Zagreb Physical Plan, this plot will be subdivided into four plots. Plot 1 will serve as a joint driveway directly connected with the road, the necessary authorisation for which has been obtained by the investor from the local authorities. Plots 2, 3 and 4 will be occupied by family houses. THE PROJECT The plot will be parcelled to suit the requirements for the construction of three equal family houses on separate parcels of land. Each of the houses will have two floors: the ground floor and the first floor. The dimensions of the plan are 11.10 m x 12.00 m, totalling 133.20 square metres. The houses will each have a driveway 3 metres wide and a garage for two vehicles. DESIGNATED PURPOSE A duplex family house with a living room, a dining room and a kitchen on the ground floor. The main entrance is at the level of the first floor, along with the garage, bedrooms and bathroom/toilet facilities. CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL The building is a bricked construction with ferro-concrete slabs and frames. The supporting walls consist of 38 cm and 20 cm modular brick, whereas the partition walls contain 12 cm brick. The walls are treated with white plaster. The roof is a one-eaved wooden construction covered with shingle tile. DESIGN The design of the houses has been adapted to the surrounding area and to the 10-degree inclination of the terrain, mimicked by the slope of the oneeaved roof. The roof has protruding eaves to match the ambiance of the Zagreb hills below Sljeme Mountain. The façades are simple and modernist, following the model of the Zagreb School of Architecture. The three houses constitute a carefully assembled composition - a small urban setting which, when further elaborated, ought to preserve its human scale and its relation to the environment below Sljeme, with particular attention being paid to the landscaping of the entire plot. 121

Tri obiteljske ku}e Three Family Houses

presjek 1:200 cross section 1:200

pro~elje 1:200 elevation 1:200


prostorne simulacije 3D studies

123

situacija 1:1.000 site plan 1:1,000

AP-92 d.o.o., Zagreb

URBANA INTERPOLACIJA Zagreb, 2000.

URBAN INTERPOLATION Zagreb, 2000

122

Urbana interpolacija Urban Interpolation


tlocrt prizemlja 1:200 ground-floor plan 1:200

tlocrt kata 1:200 1st floor plan 1:200

UVOD

Namjerava se izgraditi zamjenska stambeno poslovna gra|evina u ulici Pali} u Zagrebu prema lokacijskoj dozvoli. POSTOJE]E STANJE Postoje}e stanje je djelomi~no podrumljena prizemnica tlocrtnog “L” oblika. NOVO STANJE Novo stanje je stambeno poslovna gra|evina sa stomatolo{kom ordinacijom i dva stana (PO+PR+2K), tlocrtnog “L” oblika. OBLIK I VELI^INA PARCELE Postoje}a parcela je pravokutnik cca 10 x 18,7 m. Brutto razvijena povr{ina objekta iznosi BRP 338,56 m2. NAMJENA GRA\EVINE Stambeni objekt - dva stana, s javnom namjenom u prizemlju - stomatolo{ka ordinacija s prate}im prostorima. U podrumu su spremi{ta stanara. 124

Urbana interpolacija Urban Interpolation

presjek 1:200 cross section 1:200

glavno pro~elje 1:200 front façade 1:200

KONSTRUKCIJA I MATERIJALI Gra|evina je zidana konstrukcija s “Fert” plo~ama i AB horizontalnim i vertikalnim serkla`ima. Podrumski zidovi i strop su AB. Nosivi zidovi su od modularne opeke debljine 29 i 19 cm. SMJE[TAJ GRA\EVINE NA PARCELI Podrum i prizemlje ku}e s du‘om osi u smjeru sjever - jug nalaze se 5,03 m od koridora budu}e pro{irene ulice, uz isto~nu me|u. Uli~no pro~elje stambenog dijela ku}e definira gra|evni pravac 3,59 m ispred pro~elja prizemlja, a prote‘e se od zapadne do isto~ne me|e. Prilazni put na parcelu je uz zapadnu me|u (kao prolaz). Nova regulacijska linija ulice Pali} udaljena je otprilike 1,45 m od gra|evne linije. OBLIKOVANJE GRA\EVINE Oblikovanje slijedi tradiciju i modernu arhitekturu. Objekt je pozicioniran na gra|evinski pravac ulice Pali} i projektiran kao interpolacija. Na uli~nom pro~elju uo~ljiva je vertikalna podjela na javni i stambeni dio. Ku}a je vizualno smanjena objedinjavanjem prozora dvaju stambenih eta‘a u jedinstvenu perforaciju. Dvori{ni dio je u‘i kako bi se osigurala bo~na rasvjeta i privatnost vrta. Kosi krov je nevidljiv. Fasade su bijele i plasti~no oblikovane varijacijom konzolnih istaka i uvla~enja koja stvaraju zasjenjenje. URE\ENJE PARCELE Sjeverni, djelomi~no natkriveni dio parcele oplo~it }e se betonskim kockama, a ju‘ni hortikulturno urediti kao travnjak s jednim stablom.

BACKGROUND A new residential building with an office is planned to be built at Pali} Street in the place of another building, as provided for by a provisional building permit. AT PRESENT Currently the plot is occupied by an Lshaped ground-floor structure, a part of which has a basement. AS PLANNED The planned result is an L-shaped residential and commercial building with a dentist’s office and two flats (basement + ground floor + 1st and 2nd floors). SHAPE AND AREA OF THE PLOT The existing plot is a rectangle of approximately 10 x 18.7 m. The gross area of the structure amounts to 338.56 square metres. PROGRAMME A dwelling consisting of two flats and a dentist’s office with related facilities on the ground 125

Urbana interpolacija Urban Interpolation

floor. The basement is to serve as storage space for residents. CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL The building material includes bricks, prefabricated ceilings and ferro-concrete frames. The walls and the ceiling in the basement are made of reinforced concrete. The supporting walls consist of 29 cm and 19 cm modular bricks. THE BUILDING’S POSITION ON THE PLOT The basement and the ground floor of the house, whose longer axis stretches out in a northsouth direction, are located 5.03 metres from the future expanded corridor of the street, along the eastern boundary. The street-facing façade of the residential section of the house is defined by the front property line of the street and protrudes 3.59 metres from the ground floor façade, stretching out from the western to the eastern boundary. The driveway to the plot runs along the western boundary (as a passage). The newly regulated line of Pali} Street lies at approximately 1.45 metres from the building. DESIGN The design follows both tradition and modern architecture. The structure is positioned along the front property line of Pali} Street and is designed as an interpolation. The street-facing façade clearly points to a vertical division of the building into residential and public sections. The windows of the two residential floors are united into a single perforation, which visually scales the house down. The side facing the yard is narrower in order to secure lateral lighting and privacy for the garden. The sloping roof is hidden to the eye. The façades are white and plastically shaped due to the alternation of protruding and retracting elements which create a shading effect. PLOT ARTICULATION The partly sheltered northern section of the plot will be paved with concrete blocks, whereas the southern section will be landscaped into a lawn with a single tree.


razglednica grada postcard view of Makarska

situacija 1:2.000 site plan 1:2,000

127 SPORTSKO KONCERTNA DVORANA natje~ajni projekt, Makarska, 2000.

SPORTS AND CONCERT HALL Competition Project, Makarska, 2000

AP-92 d.o.o., Zagreb

126

Sportsko koncertna dvorana Sports and Concert Hall


tlocrt podruma 1:1.000 basement plan 1:1,000

tlocrt prizemlja 1:1.000 ground-floor plan 1:1,000

ARHITEKTONSKO-URBANISTI^KA KONCEPCIJA Predlo‘ena lokacija dvorane u Makarskoj nalazi se na kontaktu starog i novog grada, na kontaktu parkovne {ume koja presijeca grad i na jednoj od zna~ajnih dijagonala usmjerenih prema gradskoj rivi-luci, optere}ena kri‘i{tem osiju grada gotovo u svim smjerovima. Takvo kri‘i{te je posljedica kvalitetne urbanisti~ke jasno}e kontaktnih zona grada. Dodatno optere}enje situacije je postoje}a {kola koja svojom blizinom dominira. [kola je kvalitetna gra|evina, ali izuzetno hermeti~na 128

Sportsko koncertna dvorana Sports and Concert Hall

tlocrt tribina - donji nivo 1:1.000 lower stand plan 1:1,000

u smislu mogu}nosti bliske urbanisti~ke dogradnje. Ipak, najve}e izvori{te zahtjevnosti zadatka je veliki program povr{ina dvorane za koji na zadanoj parceli ima vrlo malo mjesta, drugim rije~ima: za tra‘enu dvoranu ostavljeno je premalo mjesta. Kompleksnost zadatka je u ovom rje{enju proizvela koncept kruga. On rje{ava kri‘i{te osiju grada, daje opravdani akcent dvorani u “slici grada”, uz istodobni kompromis “nesmetanja” sa susjednom {kolom, grobljem i prometno kompliciranim peterokrakim raskr{}em. Radi

tlocrt tribina - gornji nivo 1:1.000 upper stand plan 1:1,000

ARCHITECTURAL AND URBAN CONCEPT The suggested site for the sports and concert hall in Makarska is located at the point of contact between the old and the new part of the town, the contact point with a wooded park intersecting the town and with one of the important diagonals running toward the harbour. It is at this site that the axes of the town pointing in all directions meet. This intersection is a result of the urban clarity of the town’s contact zones. The complexity of the location is further enhanced by a 129

Sportsko koncertna dvorana Sports and Concert Hall

nearby school which dominates the zone. The school is a structure of quality, but is extremely hermetical in the sense that it does not allow any close urban development. Still, the element posing the greatest challenge to the task of planning is the required large area of the sports/concert hall in contrast to the scarcity of space available on the plot. In other words: there is too little space for the required hall. It is from the complexity of this assignment that the concept of the circle stems. This concept addresses the intersection of the town’s axes, properly


prostorni prikaz - kontekst 3D view - context

ostvarenja slobodnih povr{ina oko dvorane svi prate}i prostori smje{teni su ispod borili{ta, odnosno, dvorana je dignuta na kat. Takvim pristupom dvorana je postala kompaktna gra|evina na otvorenoj plohi partera, uo~ljiva i fukcionalno prepoznatljiva, Gradska. ARHITEKTONSKO OBLIKOVANJE Nakon {to je osmi{ljena kru`na gra|evina kao rje{enje opravdano urbanisti~kom situacijom, slijedilo je rje{avanje upisivanja pravokutnog borili{ta u kru‘ni tlocrt-arenu. Pravocrtne uzdu‘ne tribine su upisivanjem u krug dobile povoljnu amfiteatralnu zaobljenost. Izbacivanjem jo{ jedne koncentri~ne kru‘nice dobivena je prstenasta zona za smje{taj obostranih prilaznih stepenica, te galerijski ophodni prostor kru‘ne veze izme|u sjeverne i ju‘ne tribine. Takvim rje{enjem ostvarena je mogu}nost za tre}e stubi{te u komunikacijskoj jezgri s dizalom. Ono svojom postavom koncentrira prate}e sadr‘aje dvorane na suprotnu stranu od koncentracije gledatelja, {to razrje{uje mnoge komunikacijske veze. ^isto}u amfiteatra dvorane slijedi i prizemlje, svojim forsiranim uzdu‘nim hodnicima popre~no vezanim u prstenove kru‘nih veza. Hodni~ke veze ujedno slu‘e i kao jasno funkcionalno razdvajanje pojedinih sklopova prostorija. To je proizvelo i ~itljivost ulaza u dvoranu, kao i u prate}e prostore, ovisno u funkciji, odnosno vrsti korisnika. Pro~elju je nakon tako izrazitog slijeda prostorne logike ostalo dovoljno da samo dopuni ideju. Krug dignut u tre}u dimenziju postao je cilindar kojem je na povr{inu pri~vr{}en ornament - ukrasna mre‘a - brisolej. Jedini minimalni oblikovni akcenti koji daju naznake funkcije su spu{tanje odnosno dizanje mre‘e za jedno polje (50x50cm), na mjestima nasuprotnih isto~nih i zapadnih ulaza, te tlocrtno uvla~enje odnosno izvla~enje staklene stijene prizemlja.

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Sportsko koncertna dvorana Sports and Concert Hall

accentuates the sports/concert hall in the “image of the town” and, at the same time, offers a compromise of “non-interference” with the nearby school, a cemetery and the five-armed crossing where traffic is difficult to regulate. In order to have some free outdoor space around the hall, all the ancillary premises have been placed under the sports area. In other words, the hall has been raised to the first floor. In this way, the hall is a compact structure on an open ground-floor area, clearly visible and functionally recognisable, urban. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN A circular structure has been conceived, justified by the general urban context. The next step has been to integrate the rectangular sports area into the circular plan - arena. Being placed in the circle, the straight longitudinal auditorium stands have gained the quality of amphitheatrical roundness. By forming another concentric circle, a ring-shaped zone has been obtained accommodating access staircases on both sides and a gallery serving as a circular connection between the northern and the southern stands. Such a layout has made it possible to place a third staircase in the communicating section containing an elevator, as a communicating channel for the ancillary premises clearly divided from the one for spectators. The purity of the amphitheatre of the hall is mirrored by the ground-floor layout, where longitudinal corridors transversally connected into rings allow for the circular communication between different premises. At the same time, these corridors serve to make a clear functional division between individual sets of premises. Thus, one can clearly perceive different entrances into the hall and into the ancillary premises, depending on their function and on the type of users. Once such an explicit sequence of spatial logic has been achieved, the façade can only round up the entire idea. A circle lifted into the third dimension has become a cylinder clad in an ornament - a decorative mesh of the brise-soleil.

MATERIJALI Gra|evina je primarno armiranobetonska konstrukcija zidova i plo~a debljine cca 30 cm, s metalnom prostornom re{etkom krovne konstrukcije. Pregradni zidovi prostorija u prizemlju su zidani modularnom opekom debljine 19 ili 12 cm. Vanjski zidovi prizemlja su staklene stijene s aluminijskom bravarijom, kao i zidni prozori dvorane. Krovni pokrov je aluminijski lim u blagom nagibu. Krovne kupole su plasti~ne, neprozirne. Interieur dvorane bi bio krajnje jednostavan: goli betonski zidovi s terrazzo podovima. Odabir boje plasti~nih sjedalica bio bi zna~ajan. ^eli~na (mero) prostorna krovna re{etka bila bi otvorena 131

Sportsko koncertna dvorana Sports and Concert Hall

The only minimal design accents hinting at the function of the structure are the points where the mesh is lowered or lifted by one field (50 x 50 cm) on the spot opposite the eastern and western entrances, as well as the recession or the projection of the glazed wall of the ground-floor level. MATERIAL The building is primarily a ferro-concrete construction of walls and slabs approximately 30 cm thick, with a roof construction of metal lattice. The partition walls of the rooms on the ground floor consist of 19 or 12 cm modular bricks. The exterior walls of the ground floor are glazed and


maketa model

interieur the interior

i s ugra|enim instalacijama. Iznad nje bi se razvila ploha podgleda od obi~ne da{~ane oplate. Zidovi bi se ‘bukali jedino u prizemlju, izuzev mokrih prostorija gdje bi se obradili terrazzom jednako kao i podovi. Unutarnja stolarija bi tako|er bila aluminijska. Vanjska fasadna mre‘a bila bi metalna u rasteru 50x50 cm, ovje{ena na metalne konzole, dilatirana za cca 30 cm od betonskog zida. PARTERNO I HORTIKULTURNO RJE[ENJE Smje{tanjem svih pomo}nih prostora ispod dvorane oslobo|en je veliki vanjski prostor parkirali{ta i pje{a~kih prilaza sa svih strana gra|evine. Slijede}i ideju fasade, parter je minimalno oblikovan. Ravna ploha je jednostavno ornamentirana oplo~enjem betonskim oplo~nicima. Parkirali{te je oplo~eno {upljim betonskim oplo~nicima, ozelenjenim travom. Time je izbjegnut asfalt, nepovoljan za ljetne vru}ine, a dobivena je mogu}nost geometrizacije partera. Osim (zelene) trave, na parceli je predvi|ena sadnja dva drvoreda palmi koje zna~ajno sudjeluju kao “vanjski” ornament pro~elja dvorane, na pozadini metalne

132

Sportsko koncertna dvorana Sports and Concert Hall

fitted with aluminium frames. The same is true for the windows of the hall. The roof is made of aluminium sheets and is gently sloped. The cupolas on the roof are plastic and translucent. The hall’s interior is extremely simple: bare concrete walls with terrazzo floors. The choice of colour for the plastic seats is highly significant. A 3D steel roof lattice is open and contains installations. Above it, the ceiling would be finished in regular wood panelling. Only the walls on the ground floor would be plastered, except for the toilets and washrooms where the walls would be treated with terrazzo, just like the floors. The wainscoting would also be of aluminium. The exterior façade mesh would be made of a 50 x 50 cm metal grid, suspended on metal cantilevers and placed some 30 cm away from the concrete wall.

re{etke-mre`e... unato~ obli`njoj gustoj borovoj {umi u sklopu susjednog groblja. PROMETNO RJE[ENJE (pje{a~ko, kolno i promet u mirovanju) Na slobodnom prostoru terena oko dvorane ostvareno je 97 parkirali{nih mjesta za automobile i 6 mjesta za autobuse. Kolni ulaz na parcelu je s ulice Oca Petra Perice. Iz oblikovnih kao i funkcionalnih razloga, oko dvorane je formirana kru‘na prometnica {irine {est metara. Ona je djelomi~no u funkciji prilaza parkirali{nim mjestima, a djelomi~no je pje{a~ka. Dijelovi prometnice pregra|eni su popre~nim ogradamarampama ili stupi}ima, s mogu}no{}u uklanjanja u posebnim prilikama funkcije dvorane. Tlocrtnim uvla~enjem zida prizemlja, isto~ni dio dvorane okru‘en je trijemom koji stvara pje{a~ki plo~nik okrenut prema dijelu kru‘ne prometnice koji se koristi za parkirali{te. Na taj na~in ostvarena je velika proto~nost posjetitelja oko dvorane s jasnim sagledavanjem i pristupom prema ulazima. Ulazi su razmje{teni logikom glavnih prema ulici i pomo}nih prema dvori{tu-parkirali{tu.

PAVING AND LANDSCAPE GARDENING The placement of all the ancillary premises beneath the hall has left a large outdoor area free for parking spaces and pedestrian paths accessing the building from all sides. Mirroring the idea of the façade, the design of the floor is minimal: a flat surface with simple ornamentation consisting of concrete prisms. The parking lot is paved with hollow concrete prisms dappled with grass. The use of asphalt has been avoided as it would be unsuitable during the summer heat, and so the possibility of articulating the ground has thus been opened. Apart from the grass, two lines of palm trees have been planned which will play an important role as an “exterior” ornament of the hall’s façade against the metal grid-mesh... despite the nearby dense pine wood belonging to the neighbouring cemetery. TRAFFIC REGULATION (for pedestrians, moving vehicles and parked vehicles) The area around the hall has 97 parking spaces for cars and 6 parking spaces for buses. The driveway connects the plot with Oca Petra Perice Street. For the sake of the design, as well as for functional reasons, a circular lane 6 metres wide has been formed around the hall. It partly serves to access the parking spaces and partly as a pedestrian path. Certain sections of the lane are partitioned off by transversal fences/swing-gates or posts which can be removed when so required by the special functions of the hall. Thanks to the recessed wall on the ground floor, the eastern part of the hall is surrounded by a porch formed by the pedestrian sidewalk facing the section of the circular lane used as a parking lot. In this way visitors can move freely around the sports/concert hall and have a clear perception of the location and unimpeded access to the entrances. The entrances have been laid out so that the main entrances face the street and the auxiliary ones the courtyard/ parking lot.

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Sportsko koncertna dvorana Sports and Concert Hall


no}na slika Pe{kera by night

135 PE[KERA novo naselje u Pore~u s turisti~kom lukom Natje~ajni projekt zajedno s arh. A. Krebel-Kostren~i} i A. Kostren~i}, 2. nagrada, Pore~, 2000.

AP-92 d.o.o., Zagreb + Kostren~i} i Krebel - arhitekti d.o.o., Zagreb 134

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PE[KERA New Development with a Tourist Harbour in Pore~ Competition Project in collaboration with architects A. Krebel-Kostren~i} and A. Kostren~i}, 2nd prize, Pore~, 2000


pogled iz zraka arial view

situacija 1:40.000 site plan 1:40,000

situacija 1:20.000 site plan 1:20,000

MAPIRANJE Prvi korak u postavljanju metode rada jest mapiranje – uo~avanje i prepoznavanje elemenata urbotopografije, odnosno generiraju}ih procesa.

PROCES Sagledavanje bilo kakvog urbanog konglomerata danas je gotovo jedino mogu}e kroz kompleksan niz procesa koji se u njemu doga|aju. Promi{ljanje novog dijela grada zahtijeva uo~avanje i razumijevanje upravo tih postoje}ih procesa.

ELEMENTI URBOTOPOGRAFIJE Obala, odnosno linija obale, svojom razvedeno{}u predstavlja izraziti prostorni element, i u smislu prepoznatljivosti lokaliteta i u smislu do‘ivljajne kvalitete. Intervencijom u uvali Pe{kera takav se prostorni kontinuitet ne smije izgubiti. Rubovi/granice – specifi~nost izgradnje na Pore{tini je jasna definiranost izgra|enih naselja u odnosu na zelenu, neizgra|enu zonu. Ovakvom izgradnjom izbjegla se tipi~na suburbana disperziranost u kojoj i grad i pejsa‘ gube svoj identitet. Ovdje postignuta kontrola izgradnje omogu}uje prostorni i vremenski identitet izgra|enog sloja. Svaki takav “otok” ima sa~uvano mjerilo. Matrica – prepoznatljivost matrice grada pokazatelj je njegovog urbaniteta. Matrica - osim kao aparat planerske kontrole nad doga|anjima u prostoru - ima i svoju oblikovnu ulogu, te reprezentira odre|enu urbanu filozofiju i zeitgeist. Matricom se kontrolira mjera grada. Osi, iako virtualni elementi u smislu formiranja vizure i prepoznatljivih veduta, predstavljaju izuzetno va‘nu komponentu oblikovanja. Definiraju glavne autoritete, rubove izgradnje te prostorne cezure. PROGRAMIRANJE Slijede}i korak unutar metode jest stvaranje algoritma pomo}u kojeg se mogu obuhvatiti svi ti kompleksni procesi. Algoritam sa~injavaju projektni zadatak, odnosno ‘elje i namjere investitora – naru~ioca, prostorno-vremenski kontekst te autorski operativni model. Na osnovu postavljenog algoritma dolazi do novog kodiranja elemenata urbotopografije te uspostavljanja novih prostornih odnosa.

136

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137

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A PROCESS Nowadays it seems possible to study an urban agglomeration only through a complex series of processes unfolding therein. When planning a new town quarter, these same processes need to be identified and understood. MAPPING Mapping is the first step in the process of defining the method of work, with a view to identifying and recognising the elements of urban topography, that is, the generating processes. ELEMENTS OF URBAN TOPOGRAPHY The coast, or rather the coastline, is well indented and as such constitutes a strong spatial element both in terms of being easily distinguishable and highly attractive. No interventions in Pe{kera Bay should disturb its spatial continuity. Borders/boundaries - The urban development of the Pore~ area is specific in that its neighbourhoods are clearly defined against the green undeveloped zone. Such a building policy has made it possible to avoid the typical suburban dispersion where both the town and the countryside lose their identities. The level of control over building projects helps to preserve the physical and temporal identity of the different layers of built structures. Every such “island” has preserved its own scale. Matrix - the more distinguishable the matrix of a town, the higher the level of its urban character. Aside from being a planner’s control mechanism in building processes, the matrix has a design role and represents specific urban philosophy and zeitgeist. The matrix serves to control the scale of a town. Axes, although virtual elements forming perspectives and distinguishable vistas, constitute an extremely important component of design. They define the main authorities, the borders of urban development and the spatial boundaries.


situacija - osi 1:10.000 site plan - axes 1:10,000

pogled iz zraka arial view

OBALA

Osnovna dva elementa u prostornoj organizaciji ~ine napeta, konveksna linija obale (rive) i pravocrtni, oblikovno apstraktni mol. Oblik rive proiza{ao je iz lokaliteta i kontinuiteta postoje}e rive, dok je mol artificijelni element. Osnovna kompozicija bazirana je upravo na kontrastnosti ta dva elementa. Opravdanost oblika i dimenzije mola sadr‘ana je u njegovoj dvojakoj funkciji (turisti~ka luka i trg). Centralitet istog ritmizira {etnju (lungo mare), ~iji akcenti su: multikulturalni centar, mol kao turisti~ka luka i trg, hotel i akvarij (sve na ravnomjernim prostorno-vremenskim distancama) ali i balansira intenzitet sadr‘aja. Mol “povla~i” trg prema moru i omogu}uje pje{a~ku dostupnost sasvim novoj vizuri iz centra uvale koja je dosad bila dostupna samo iz plovila.

PREKODIRANJE (HYPERTEXT) Koriste}i se Windows metodom copy & paste, iz postoje}ih i prepoznatljivih autohtonih elemenata stvorena je sasvim nova cjelina koja uspostavljanjem druga~ijeg odnosa izme|u elemenata na koje se referira posti‘e novu prostornu kvalitetu. Za razliku od metode “kola‘a” (Colin Rowe) koji je dvodimenzionalan i stati~an, ovo je metoda hypertexta koji je dinami~an, otvoren i interaktivan. 138

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RUBOVI I GRANICE Nova izgradnja tretirana je kao dovr{ena cjelina jasno definiranih rubova i granica da bi ostala dosljedna principu postoje}e strukture grada. Novi prostor sa svojim specifi~nim identitetom ostaje unutar svojih granica, bez namjere za daljnjim pro{irenjem. Na taj na~in ne mijenja se identitet ostalih dijelova grada, ve} se u {irem smislu dodaje jedan novi sloj s karakteristikama svog vremena. ^itanje prostora ostaje slojevito i zanimljivo. S ju‘ne strane formira se zelena cezura kao logi~ni slijed postoje}eg parka i stvara prirodnu i najbitniju dilataciju u odnosu na stari grad. Ulaz u novi dio grada “markira” {koljkasta forma multikulturalnog centra, kao jasni znak novog. Prelazak iz novog u staro, kao i obrnuto, uvijek ima svoju procesualnost.

PROGRAMMING The next step envisaged by the method is to create an algorithm which can encompass all these complex processes. The algorithm is constituted by the competition requirements, that is, the investor’s wishes and intentions, by the spatial and temporal context and by the author’s operative model. Based on the defined algorithm, a new coding of the elements of urban topography is made. As a result, new spatial relations are established.

MATRICA Analizom matrice Starog grada Pore~a, poku{alo se ustanoviti “zrno” (Ch. N. Schultz) grada. Tra`enjem “zajedni~kog nazivnika” parcela u Starom gradu i postoje}ih parcela stambene izgradnje Pe{kere, ustanovljena je dimenzija od 720 cm. Parcele na Pe{keri su {irine cca 15 m, 139

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HYPERTEXT By using the Windows method of copy & paste, a completely new unity has been made from the existing and distinguishable autochthonous elements. This unity produces new spatial quality by establishing different inter-relations between its component elements. As opposed to the method of “collage” (Colin Rowe), which is two-dimensional and static, this is a method of hypertext which is dynamic, open and interactive. COAST

The tense convex coastline (shore) and the straight, abstractly shaped pier constitute the two basic elements in the organisation of space. The shape of the shore stems from the locality and the continuity of the existing coastline, whereas the pier is an artificial element. The main composition is based on the contrast between the two elements. The shape and the dimensions of the pier are justified by its twofold function (a tourist habour and a square). The central position of the pier imposes a rhythm on the strollers (lungomare), the highlights being a multicultural centre, the pier as a tourist habour and a square, a hotel and an aquarium (situated at even spatial and temporal distances), but it also balances the intensity of these amenities. The pier “pulls” the square towards the sea and provides pedestrians with a completely new vista from the centre of the bay, which up to now could only be enjoyed from a boat. BORDERS AND BOUNDARIES The new development has been treated as a complete ensemble with clearly defined borders and boundaries, fully in line with the principle of the existing structure of the town. The new facilities, possessing their own specific identities, remain within the defined boundaries with no intention of crossing them. In this way, the identities of other parts of the town remain unchanged, except that, in general, a new layer has been added to them, bearing the traits of its own particular times. The general physical


situacija - promet 1:5.000 site plan - traffic 1:5,000

te rubno ulica G. Kal~i}a, definiraju najbitnije longitudinalne elemente izgradnje. Te ulice pripadaju lokalitetu (one su na|ene) i njihova je linija nepravilna, dok su novoformirane ulice rezultat planiranja, te svojim redom i ortogonalno{}u predstavljaju kontrast i protute‘u u prostoru. Popre~ne (istok – zapad) ulice kadriraju pogled na more, dok su servisne ulice pozicionirane na na~in da uvijek imaju zatvorenu vizuru. Uzdu‘ne i popre~ne ulice zajedno formiraju mre‘u (raster) praznog u punom (masi bloka). BLOK

{to odgovara dvostrukom modulu. Drugi kriterij za uspostavljanje matrice bila je analiza tipologije izgradnje u na{im obalnim gradovima, te izgradnje Mediterana op}enito od Portugala i [panjolske preko Italije do Gr~ke. Osnovne karakteristike su gusta i vertikalna izgradnja (male parcele s velikom izgra|eno{}u). Karakter i centralitet lokacije upravo to i zahtijeva. Matrica je formirana veli~inom parcele i prilagodbom rastera postoje}oj situaciji te ulicama koje su jasno definirane otvoreno{}u pogleda na more ili svojom zatvoreno{}u. Riva, ulica N.Tesle 140

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context can still be “read” as multi-layered and interesting. A green boundary has been formed at the southern part of this ensemble as a logical continuation of the existing park and as a natural, and the most important, zone dividing the new development from the old town. Entry to this new part of the town is “marked” by the shell-shaped multicultural centre, as a clear sign of new things to come. The transition from the new to the old, and vice versa, is always a process.

Zbog specifi~nosti lokaliteta, kao i programa, postoji nu‘nost postizanja visoko urbanog karaktera centra grada, {to podrazumijeva multifunkcionalnost na cijelom prostoru te veliku gusto}u izgra|enosti, kao i funkcioniranje 24 sata na dan. Pitanje je kakva tipologija mo‘e zadovoljiti te uvjete. Analizom geneze bloka poku{alo se na}i odgovor. Za~eci blokovske izgradnje u formi kakvu i danas poznajemo poti~u od rimskog bloka (insula). Njegova introvertiranost i podre|enost matrici grada predstavljaju temeljne pretpostavke urbaniteta kakvog danas poznajemo. Kroz povijest pratimo njegovo narastanje i deformacije koje kulminiraju u XX stolje}u eksplozijom bloka u modernisti~ku {tapi~astu izgradnju koja stvara neizdiferenciran prostor nesaglediv s pozicije pje{aka, u kojem ulice i trgovi vi{e ne postoje. Kod takvog vida urbanizma gubi se mjerilo ~ovjeka. Osnovna pretpostavka urbanizma u ovom specifi~nom slu~aju Pe{kere je uspostavljanje mjerila pje{aka. Raster ulica i mjera bloka podre|eni su tom principu. Osnovna je teza bila u jasnom formiranju vanjskih rubova bloka koji tada definiraju specifi~ni profil ulice. Tradicionalni blok formira vanjsku fasadu i unutarnje dvori{te. Stvaranje odnosa van bloka unutar bloka, odnosno odnosa privatno – javno, rezultira nekontroliranom unutra{njo{}u tj. problemom vlasni{tva (parcelacija) i naj~e{}e dodatnom izgradnjom unutar bloka, 141

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MATRIX

An analysis of the matrix of the Old Town of Pore~ has been carried out in order to identify the “grain” (Ch. N. Schultz) of the town. By finding the “common denominator” of the plots situated in the Old Town, and the plots occupied by the housing development of Pe{kera, the dimension of 720 cm has been reached. The Pe{kera plots are approximately 15 metres wide, corresponding to a double module. The second criterion for the identification of the matrix includes an analysis of the building typology of the coastal towns of Croatia and of the Mediterranean in general: from Portugal and Spain to Italy and Greece. The basic characteristics include dense vertical development (small plots with a high percentage of construction). The nature and the central position of the location in question have the very same requirements. The matrix is defined by the size of the plots, by the way in which the grid of the town’s urban plan is adapted to the status quo, by the streets clearly defined either as being open and having a view of the sea or as being closed. The quay, Nikola Tesla Street and G. Kal~i}a Street define the most important longitudinal structures. These streets are immanent to the locality (they were found here from before) and theirs is an irregular line. On the other hand, the newly formed streets are a result of planning and their order and orthogonality constitute a contrast and a counterbalance in space. The transversal streets (running east-west) frame the view of the sea, while the service lanes are always enclosed by structures. Longitudinal and transversal streets together form a grid of void amidst the solid (volume of blocks). BLOCK

Due to the specific requirements of both the locality and the designated purpose, the Pe{kera development has to have a highly urban character inherent in the centre of the town, including the multifunctional character of the entire development, the high density of construction and round-the-clock operability.


situacija po segmentima 1:2.500 site plans by segments 1:2,500

142

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143

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karakteristi~ni presjeci 1:2.500 typical sections 1:2,500

{to je vidljivo i u samom Pore~u. Projektiraju}i tradicionalni “{uplji” blok, izla‘emo se opasnosti nekontrolirane (divlje) izgradnje u njegovoj unutra{njosti. Iz tog razloga predlo‘eno je rje{enje s maksimalnom iskoristivo{}u parcele, pa je nekontrolirana izgradnja postala kontrolirana. Rezultat toga je “defragmentiranje” jedne velike zajedni~ke {upljine bloka u puno manjih privatnih atrija. Atriji omogu}uju duboku izgradnju, odnosno maksimalnu iskoristivost parcele, pa se u krajnjoj varijanti unutra{njost bloka svodi na servisnu ulicu. Pomicanjem atrija u poziciju unutarnjeg ruba izgradnje dolazi do pro{irenja interne, servisne ulice, pa {upljina bloka postaje ve}a. U na~elu, {to }e se de{avati u unutra{njosti bloka rezultat je odluke investitora, pod uvjetom da se po{tuju 144

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vanjski rubovi i granice. Blok je niz dvostrano orjentiranih vi{ekatnica s atrijem, {to omogu}ava obostrani ulaz i smje{taj lokala. Prioritet oblikovanja je cjelina, ne pojedini objekt. Time je postignuta kontrola gra|evinskog volumena – mase. Unato~ razli~itim arhitektonskim tretmanima pojedinih parcela, zadr‘at }e se ambijentalna cjelina. URBANA PRAVILA Ovim planom definiraju se tri nivoa rje{enja; jedan dio je regulacija koja ~ini obavezni dio (jasno su definirani gra|evinski pravci), drugi nivo rje{enja je definiranje maksimalne izgra|enosti. Ona predstavlja gornji limit koji se mo‘e, ali ne mora ispuniti. Tre}i nivo je tipologija, koja je projektantski sugerirani dio, te predstavlja idealno

The question is what sort of building typology can meet these requirements. In order to find an answer, the genesis of the block has been analysed. The beginnings of block-type construction as we know it today date back to the Roman block (insula). Its introverted quality and subordination to the town’s matrix represent the fundamental prerequisites for present-day urbanism. We have been following its development and its deformation in history, reaching a climax in the 20th century with a boom of blocks transformed into Modernist rod-like structures and creating undifferentiated space far too large for the pedestrian scale, where streets and squares cease to exist. With such urbanism, the human scale disappears. In the specific case of Pe{kera, the establishment of the pedestrian 145

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scale is the main prerequisite for urbanism. The grid of streets and the scale of blocks are subordinated to this principle. The point is to create clear outer edges of the block, defining the specific profile of the street. The traditional block forms the outer façade and the courtyard. If a relationship is created between what is outside the block and what is inside the block, that is, between the private and the public, what is inside can no longer be controlled, in other words, property related problems arise (parcelling) and, most often, additional structures emerge within the block, examples of which can be found in Pore~ itself. By planning the traditional “hollow” block, we expose the structure to the threat of uncontrolled (illegal) construction in the space it encloses. For this reason, the plan


mol povla~i trg prema moru the pier pulling the square towards the sea

rje{enje za maksimalnu izgra|enost. Parcela je uzdu‘na, {irine 720 cm i variraju}e dubine. Gra|evinski pravac, odnosno fronta zgrade, mora se poklapati s uli~nim rubom parcele. Parcela smije biti izgra|ena u cijelom svom tlocrtnom gabaritu, uz uvjet da negdje ima pozicioniran atrij dimenzija 600 x 600 cm, koji ide od nivoa 1. kata ili prizemlja do vrha zgrade. Pri odre|ivanju katnosti, rukovodilo se analogijom sa starim gradom. U ve}em dijelu, katnost je P+3. Katnost i visine vijenca prilago|eni su visinskoj razlici terena u odnosu na obalnu zonu, koja iznosi tri metra. Taj je nedostatak iskori{ten za formiranje dodatne eta‘e na rivi, gdje je ona i najopravdanija (u ekonomskom smislu, ali i u smislu interpretacije lokalne morfologije). Zadnja eta‘a je uvu~ena u odnosu na vijenac. Zna~aj lokacije opravdava pove}anu katnost. 146

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prostorni prikazi iz zraka aerial view

suggests that the plot be utilised as far as possible in order to exclude the possibility of uncontrolled development. As a result, one large common hollow of the block has been “defragmented” into many small private atriums. Atriums make it possible to have structures of great depth, thus utilising the plot as far as possible and reducing the interior of the block to a mere service lane. By placing the atrium at the inner edge of the development, the inner service lane is expanded and the hollow of the block enlarged. In principle, it is up to the investor to decide what purpose the interior of the block will serve, on condition that the outer edges and boundaries are observed. The block is a sequence of building units facing two directions and having an atrium, allowing for entrances and public-purpose premises to be placed on both sides. The priority of design is the entire ensemble,

rather than the individual structures. The aim of such an approach is to have control over the volume of construction. This way, despite the different architectural treatment of individual plots, the unity of the ensemble will be preserved. URBAN RULES This plan provides solutions on three levels: on one level the mandatory regulation is provided (the front property lines are clearly defined). On another level, the principle of the highest possible percentage of construction has been defined as the upper limit which may or may not be followed. Yet another level involves the suggested typology of design which can best meet the principle of the highest possible percentage of construction. Plots are longitudinal, 720 cm wide and of varied depth. The front property line has to coincide with the 147

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street border of the given plot. The plots can be fully occupied by the structure, on condition that they contain an atrium of 600 x 600 cm rising to the full height of the building from the level of the first floor or of the ground floor. In determining the number of floors, the model of the Old Town has been followed. Most of the structures have ground floors and three upper floors. The number of floors and the height of the cornice have been adapted to the three metres of difference in elevation between the underlying terrain and the coastal zone. This drawback was remedied by the creation of an additional floor on the coast, where it is most justified (in economic terms, but also in terms of interpreting local morphology). The highest floor is stepped back in respect of the cornice. The importance of the location justifies the increased number of floors.


isje~ci iz animacije animation frames

149 ALMERIA poslovno -stambeni blok

studija studija izvedivosti, izvedivosti, Zagreb, Zagreb, 2001. 2001.

ALMERIA Commercial and Residential Block AP-92 d.o.o., Zagreb 148

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Feasibility Feasibility Study, Study, Zagreb, Zagreb, 2001 2001


situacija 1:2.000 site plan 1:2,000

ZAGREB - GLAVNI GRAD HRVATSKE U Zagrebu ‘ivi 25% ukupnog stanovni{tva Hrvatske, otprilike milijun stanovnika. U njemu, kao glavnom gradu, koncentrirana je gospodarska i politi~ka snaga Hrvatske. SREDNJOEVROPSKI GRAD Prometno je Zagreb smje{ten na kri‘anju prometnica od sjevera prema Jadranskom moru i od zapada prema Balkanu. Geografski pozicioniran izme|u Budimpe{te, Be~a i Trsta, naslijedio je srednjoevropski karakter. URBANIZAM U prostoru Zagreba ~itljiva je srednjovjekovna jezgra, ~vrsta blokovska struktura 19. stolje}a i okolna nova izgradnja moderne 20. stolje}a, u koju spada i predmetna parcela. Novom izgradnjom ova lokacija je ve} postala dijelom centralnog podru~ja grada koje se {iri. [IRA SITUACIJA Parcela se nalazi u isto~nom dijelu centralnog gradskog podru~ja Zagreba. PROMETNE VEZE Osim {to parcela spada u centar grada, ona je prometno vrlo dobro povezana s glavnim gradskim komunikacijama. Va‘no je napomenuti da se novim urbanisti~kim planom predvi|a izgradnja novog mosta preko rijeke Save, {to }e znatno ubrzati va‘nu vezu s obilaznicom i aerodromom. VUKOVARSKA AVENIJA Parcela se nalazi uz glavnu gradsku prometnicu - Vukovarsku aveniju, koja se prote‘e u smjeru istok-zapad. REPREZENTATIVNA IZGRADNJA U svom sredi{njem dijelu ulica je formirana izgradnjom reprezentativnih gra|evina i jedna je od najljep{ih ulica Zagreba. POZICIJA PARCELE Parcela se nalazi na isto~nom dijelu avenije, gdje se o~ekuje nastavak sli~ne izgradnje. LANDMARK ZAGREBA Parcela se nalazi na kri‘anju dvije glavne gradske prometnice - Vukovarske avenije i 150

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Heinzelove ulice. Nedavnim dovr{enjem susjedne zgrade “Euroherc” s 10 eta‘a, uz postoje}i poslovni toranj “Chromos” sa 17 eta‘a, stvoren je prepoznatljivi landmark Zagreba i mikro-ambijent grada. Na taj na~in blok “Almeria” }e se uklopiti u postoje}i kontekst i tendenciju urbane obnove ovoga dijela grada, odnosno zamjene proizvodnih pogona upravnim poslovnim zgradama i sli~nim sadr‘ajima. OBLIK I VELI^INA PARCELE Parcela je trokutastog oblika. Ome|ena je dvjema ulicama i ‘eljezni~kim kolosjekom za povremeni dostavni promet. Povr{ina parcele iznosi 12 000 m2. Teren je ravan, s postoje}im objektima tvornice za proizvodnju ko‘e “Almeria” koji su predvi|eni za ru{enje. PRILAZI PARCELI Kolni prilazi ostvareni su novom servisnom ulicom koja spaja dvije glavne ulice. Spojevi su tipa uljev-izljev u dvije kolne trake istog smjera. Ostvaren je dvostruki izlaz u dva glavna gradska prometna smjera. Pje{a~ki prilazi ostvareni su sa svih strana i razvijaju se prolazima kroz unutra{nje dvori{te. Na Vukovarskoj aveniji, uz sjeverni dio parcele, nalazi se tramvajska stanica. PET OBJEKATA Predvi|a se izgradnja pet objekata koji tvore poluzatvoreni gradski blok. Glavni objekt na istaknutoj poziciji je neboder od 20-30 katova. Uz glavne prometnice ni‘u se ostale tri zgrade s osam katova, a uz servisnu ulicu nalazi se osmerokatna gara‘a. DVORI[TE U sredi{tu bloka nalazi se dvori{te, pje{a~ka zona ure|ena zelenilom. Unutar njega se nalaze tornjevi spiralne rampe i stubi{ta gara‘e. S obzirom na prioritet dolaska automobilom, dvori{te je va‘an prostor ulaska i ~itkosti prostorne dispozicije kompleksa. IZGRA\ENOST Povr{ina parcele: 12.000 m2 Tlocrtna izgra|enost parcele: 800+700+1100+900+2900 = 6.400 m2

ZAGREB - CAPITAL OF CROATIA Some 25% of Croatia’s population live in Zagreb - approx. 1,000,000 inhabitants. It is there that the economic and political power of Croatia is concentrated. CENTRAL-EUROPEAN CITY With regard to traffic communications, Zagreb is situated on an intersection of highways running from the north toward the Adriatic Sea and from the west toward the Balkans. Geographically positioned between Budapest, Vienna and Triest, it has developed a Central-European character. URBAN PLANNING In the Zagreb area a medieval nucleus can be discerned, as well as a firm block-type structure dating from the 19th century, while in the surrounding area there are buildings of 20th century modern architecture, which is where the land plot in question is situated. Thanks to the more recent buildings in the area, this particular location has already become part of a growing central area of the city. GENERAL LOCATION The land plot is situated in the eastern part of the central area of the City of Zagreb. TRAFFIC CONNECTIONS Apart from being located in the centre of the city, the plot is also very well connected with the main city communications. It must be noted that the new urban plan envisages the construction of a new bridge across the Sava River, which will help significantly to speed up the vital connection with the ring road and the airport. VUKOVARSKA AVENUE The plot flanks the main city communication - Vukovarska Avenue - running east-west. CORPORATE BUILDINGS In its central section, the above-mentioned street has been articulated by corporate buildings and is one of the most beautiful streets in Zagreb.

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3d prikaz kompozicije 3d view of the ensemble

Tlocrti 1:1.000 Plans 1:1,000

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C

D

Izgra|enost parcele: 6.400 m2/12.000 m2 = 53% Ukupna brutto povr{ina gra|evina: 78.500 m2 Koeficijent iskoristivosti parcele: 78.500 m2/12 000 m2 = 6,5 KOMPOZICIJA OBJEKATA Objekti svojim volumenima i tlocrtnom dispozicijom tvore jedinstvenu kompoziciju. Me|utim, svaki je objekt zasebna gra|evina {to omogu}uje faznost izvedbe. PRO^ELJA Objekti A, B, C i D monolitne su gra|evine, modernisti~ki reducirane, me|u kojima se isti~e toranj objekta A. Objekt E je otvorena gara‘a, transparentna, sa skulpturalno oblikovanim vertikalama stubi{ta i kolnim rampama u dvori{tu. TIPOLOGIJA Predlo‘eni objekti projektirani su po principu nizanja ureda (modularne dimenzije 3,6x5,0 m) uz fasadne zidove i kori{tenja centralne zone za smje{taj stubi{nih jezgara i servisnih prostorija.

POSITION OF THE PLOT The plot is located in the eastern part of the Avenue, where similar buildings are expected to be erected. LANDMARK OF ZAGREB The plot is situated on the crossing of two major city communications - Vukovarska Avenue and Heinzelova Street. The recently finished neighbouring ten-storey building of “Euroherc” and the existing 17-storey business tower of “Chromos” have created a recognisable Zagreb landmark and a micro-environment of a city. Thus, the Almeria Block will fit into the existing context where there is a clear tendency to reconstruct this part of town by replacing production plants with administrative commercial buildings and similar development. SHAPE AND SIZE OF THE PLOT The plot has the shape of a triangle. It is flanked by two streets and a railway track for occasional delivery traffic. The plot has an area of 12,000 sq m. The terrain is flat and contains facilities belonging to the “Almeria” factory for the manufacture of leather, which are planned to be demolished. ACCESS LANES There is a new connecting road linking the two main streets. The connections are of the inflowoutflow type with two lanes running in the same direction. In view of the fact that there are double exits, the plot can be exited into two main traffic directions. Pedestrian paths exist on all sides and spread out passing through an internal yard. There is a tram stop on Vukovarska Avenue, at the northern side of the plot. FIVE FACILITIES Five facilities are planned to be built, which will constitute a half-closed urban block. The main facility situated in a prominent position will be a skyscraper of some 20-30 storeys. Next to the major communication roads another three eightstorey buildings will be erected, while an eight-

PROGRAM Oblikovanje i tipologija proiza{li su iz pretpostavljenog programa - fleksibilne vi{enamjenske izgradnje u fazama i aktualnih urbanisti~kih uvjeta - zona izgradnje objekata poslovne namjene.

E

152

Almeria Almeria

153

Almeria Almeria

storey car park will be placed along the driveway. YARD There is a yard in the centre of the block - a pedestrian zone with greenery. Within it there are towers holding the spiral ramp and the staircase of the garage. Since cars are given priority of access, the yard is an important space of entry and an element of clarity in the disposition of space in the complex. PERCENTAGE OF CONSTRUCTION Area of plot: 12,000 sq m Footprint of building: 800+700+1100+900+2900 = 6,400 sq m Footprint of building/area of plot: 6,400 sq m / 12,000 m2 = 53% Total gross area of buildings: 78,500 sq m Index of plot utilisation: 78,500 sq m / 12,000 m² = 6.5 COMPOSITION OF BUILDINGS With their volumes and plans, the buildings constitute a unique composition. However, every facility is an independent building, allowing for the construction to be carried out in stages. FAÇADES The facilities A,B,C and D are monolithic buildings, of modernist minimalism, among which the tower of the A facility emerges. The E facility is an open and transparent garage, with a sculptureshaped vertical formed by the staircase and the ramp in the yard. TYPOLOGY The proposed facilities were designed with a series of offices of 3.6 x 5.0 m in modular dimensions along the façades, with the central tract consisting of service rooms and staircases. DESIGNATED PURPOSE The design and the typology have resulted from the designated purpose - flexible multi-purpose buildings - and from the urban plans which envisage a zone intended for commercial facilities.


ANDREJ RADMAN Mjesto i datum ro|enja Zagreb, 1. travanj 1968. Obrazovanje - 1982-1984. [KOLA PRIMIJENJENE UMJETNOSTI - 1984-1986. UNITED WORLD COLLEGE OF THE ADRIATIC, DUINO, ITALIJA - 1987-1992. ARHITEKTONSKI FAKULTET SVEU^ILI[TA U ZAGREBU IAESTE Program studentske razmjene - 1990., Kairo, Egipat - 1991., Bauru, Brazil ^lanstvo u profesionalnim udrugama - HRVATSKA KOMORA ARHITEKATA I IN@ENJERA U GRADITELJSTVU - UDRU@ENJE HRVATSKIH ARHITEKATA Radno iskustvo - 1993-1993., “RPK” d.o.o., Zagreb, grafi~ko-dizajnerski ured - 1993-1998., “APZ - IN@ENJERING” d.d., Zagreb, arhitektonski biro - 1998., “AP-92” d.o.o., Zagreb, arhitektonski biro Nagra|ivan na brojnim arhitektonskim natje~ajima u suradnji s arhitektom Igorom Vrbanekom - 1. nagrada za projekt FARMACEUTSKO-BIOKEMIJSKOG FAKULTETA u Zagrebu 1997. - 2. nagrada za projekt BRITANSKOG TRGA u Zagrebu 1997. - 1. nagrada za projekt VOJNOG ORDINARIJATA u Zagrebu 1997. - 2. nagrada za projekt POSLOVNO-STAMBENE ZGRADE NA[I^ANKA u Na{icama 1998. - 3. nagrada za projekt STAMBENO-POSLOVNOE ZGRADE ZVIJEZDA u Zagrebu 1998. (s arhitektom M. [osteri~) - 2. nagrada za projekt POSLOVNE ZGRADE KOMUNALAC u Samoboru 1998. - 2. nagrada za projekt PE[KERE, NOVOG NASELJA U PORE^U S TURISTI^KOM LUKOM u Pore~u, 2000. (s arhitektima A. Krebel-Kostren~i} i A. Kostren~i}) Publikacije - “^OVJEK I PROSTOR”, Izdava~: Udru`enje hrvatskih arhitekata, br. 1/2 1998. - “35. ZAGREBA^KI SALON”, 2000., Izdava~: Hrvatsko dru{tvo likovnih umjetnika, ISBN 953-6508-09-5 - “^OVJEK I PROSTOR”, Izdava~: Udru`enje hrvatskih arhitekata, br. 9/10 2000. - “ZGRAF 8” katalog me|unarodne izlo`be grafi~kog dizajna i vizualnih komunikacija, Izdava~: Hrvatsko udru`enje umjetnika primjenjenih umjetnosti, 1999. 154

Curriculum Vitae Curriculum Vitae

IGOR VRBANEK Mjesto i datum ro|enja Karlovac, 9. travanj 1967. Obrazovanje - 1982-1986. MATEMATI^KO-INFORMATI^KI OBRAZOVNI CENTAR - 1987-1993. ARHITEKTONSKI FAKULTET SVEU^ILI[TA U ZAGREBU ^lanstvo u profesionalnim udrugama - HRVATSKA KOMORA ARHITEKATA I IN@ENJERA U GRADITELJSTVU - UDRU@ENJE HRVATSKIH ARHITEKATA Radno iskustvo - 1993-1995., “MIT-in`eniring” d.o.o., Ljubljana, Slovenija, arhitektonski biro - 1996-1996., “Studio-KROG” d.o.o., Ljubljana, Slovenija, arhitektonski biro - 1996-1996., “BRICK” d.n.o., Metlika, Slovenija, arhitektonski biro - 1996-1998., “APZ-In`enjering” d.d., Zagreb, arhitektonski biro - 1998., “AP-92” d.o.o., Zagreb, arhitektonski biro Nagra|ivan na brojnim arhitektonskim natje~ajima u suradnji s arhitektom Andrejem Radmanom - 1. nagrada za projekt FARMACEUTSKO-BIOKEMIJSKOG FAKULTETA u Zagrebu 1997. - 2. nagrada za projekt BRITANSKOG TRGA u Zagrebu 1997. - 1. nagrada za projekt VOJNOG ORDINARIJATA u Zagrebu 1997. - 2. nagrada za projekt POSLOVNO-STAMBENE ZGRADE NA[I^ANKA u Na{icama 1998. - 3. nagrada za projekt STAMBENO-POSLOVNE ZGRADE ZVIJEZDA u Zagrebu 1998. (s arhitektom M. [osteri~) - 2. nagrada za projekt POSLOVNE ZGRADE KOMUNALAC u Samoboru 1998. - 2. nagrada za projekt PE[KERE, NOVOG NASELJA U PORE^U S TURISTI^KOM LUKOM u Pore~u, 2000. (s arhitektima A. Krebel-Kostren~i} i A. Kostren~i}) Sudjelovao na me|unarodnom urbanisti~kom seminaru “Okviri metropole” odr`anom u Zagrebu 1995., u organizaciji zagreba~kog Zavoda za planiranje i poslijediplomskog studija arhitekture Berlage. Publikacije: - “^OVJEK I PROSTOR”, Izdava~: Udru`enje hrvatskih arhitekata, br. 1/2 1998. - “35. ZAGREBA^KI SALON”, 2000., Izdava~: Hrvatsko dru{tvo likovnih umjetnika, ISBN 953-6508-09-5 - “^OVJEK I PROSTOR”, Izdava~: Udru`enje hrvatskih arhitekata, br. 9/10 2000.

ANDREJ RADMAN Place and date of birth Zagreb, 1 April 1968 Education: - 1982-1984 HIGH SCHOOL OF APPLIED ARTS, ZAGREB - 1984-1986 UNITED WORLD COLLEGE OF THE ADRIATIC, DUINO, ITALY - 1987-1992 FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB IAESTE Student Exchange Study Projects - 1990, Cairo, Egypt - 1991, Bauru, Brazil Membership in professional bodies - CHAMBER OF ARCHITECTS - CROATIAN ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS Professional Experience Record: - 1993, “RPK” d.o.o., Zagreb, design studio - 1993-1998, “APZ - IN@ENJERING” d.d., Zagreb, architectural office - 1998, “AP-92” d.o.o., Zagreb, architectural office Won a number of architectural competitions in collaboration with the architect Igor Vrbanek - 1st prize for the project of the FACULTY OF PHARMACY AND BIOCHEMISTRY in Zagreb, 1997 - 2nd prize for the project of the BRITANSKI SQUARE in Zagreb, 1997 - 1st prize for the project of the MILITARY ORDINARIATE BUILDING in Zagreb, 1997 - 2nd prize for the project of the NASICANKA RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL BUILDING in Nasice, 1997 - 3rd prize for the project of the ZVIJEZDA RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL BUILDING in Zagreb, 1998 (with the architect M. [osteri~) - 2nd prize for the project of the KOMUNALAC COMMERCIAL BUILDING in Samobor, 1998 - 2nd prize for the project of the PESKERA NEW DEVELOPMENT WITH A TOURIST HARBOUR IN PORE^, 2000 (with the architects A. Krebel-Kostren~i} and A. Kostren~i}) Publications - “^OVJEK I PROSTOR” Publisher: Croatian Association of Architects no. 1/2 1998. - “The 35th ZAGREBA^KI SALON”, 2000 Publisher: Croatian Association of Visual Artists - Catalogue ISBN 953-6508-09-5 - “^OVJEK I PROSTOR” Publisher: Croatian Association of Architects no. 9/10 2000 - “ZGRAF 8”, Catalogue of International exhibition of graphic design and visual communications, Publisher: Croatian Association of Applied Arts Artists, 1999 155

Curriculum Vitae Curriculum Vitae

IGOR VRBANEK Place and date of birth Karlovac, 9 April 1967 Education: - 1982-1984 HIGH SCHOOL FOR MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTER STUDIES, KARLOVAC - 1987-1993 FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB Membership in professional bodies - CHAMBER OF ARCHITECTS - CROATIAN ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS Professional Experience Record: - 1993-1995, “MIT-in`eniring” d.o.o., Ljubljana, Slovenia, architectural office - 1996-1996, “Studio-KROG” d.o.o., Ljubljana, Slovenia, architectural office - 1996-1996, “BRICK” d.n.o., Metlika, Slovenia, architectural office - 1996-1998, “APZ-In`enjering” d.d., Zagreb, architectural office - 1998, “AP-92” d.o.o., Zagreb, architectural office Won a number of architectural competitions in collaboration with the architect Andrej Radman - 1st prize for the project of the FACULTY OF PHARMACY AND BIOCHEMISTRY in Zagreb, 1997 - 2nd prize for the project of the BRITANSKI SQUARE in Zagreb, 1997 - 1st prize for the project of the MILITARY ORDINARIATE BUILDING in Zagreb, 1997 - 2nd prize for the project of the NASICANKA RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL BUILDING in Nasice, 1997 - 3rd prize for the project of the ZVIJEZDA RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL BUILDING in Zagreb, 1998 (with architect M. [osteri~) - 2nd prize for the project of the KOMUNALAC COMMERCIAL BUILDING in Samobor, 1998 - 2nd prize for the project of the PESKERA NEW DEVELOPMENT WITH A TOURIST HARBOUR IN PORE^, 2000 (with architects A. Krebel-Kostren~i} and A. Kostren~i}) Participated in the International Urban Planning Seminar “Frames of Metropolis” held in Zagreb in 1995, organised by the Zagreb Town Planning Institute and the Postgraduate School of Architecture in Berlage. Publications - “^OVJEK I PROSTOR” Publisher: Croatian Association of Architects no. 1/2 1998. - “The 35th ZAGREBA^KI SALON”, 2000 Publisher: Croatian Association of Visual Artists - Catalogue ISBN 953-6508-09-5 - “^OVJEK I PROSTOR” Publisher: Croatian Association of Architects no. 9/10 2000


AP-92 d.o.o., Zagreb www.ap-92.hr

Kamen Pazin d.o.o., Pazin www.kamen-pazin.hr

APZ - In`enjering d.d., Zagreb www.apz.hr

Wienerberger Ilovac d.d., Karlovac www.wienerberger.hr

156

Dega d.o.o., Vara`din www.dega.hr

Radman Vrbanek 1997-2002  

Stereography

Radman Vrbanek 1997-2002  

Stereography

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