Counter Terror Business 41

Page 1 | ISSUE 41






BAPCO 2020


Bringing the entire public safety sector together under one roof to discuss the latest communications issues


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BAPCO 2020

PUBLIC SAFETY SOLUTIONS Bringing the entire public safety sector together under one roof to discuss the latest communications issues

SENTENCING AND SENSIBILITY As we go to print, ministers are trying to pass emergency legislation to block the automatic early release of convicted terror offenders at the end of this month. This is the result of 20-year-old Sudesh Amman having been freed automatically halfway through his sentence and put under 24-hour police surveillance, before attacking people in Streatham on 2 February. It also follows the government’s urgent review into the licence conditions of 74 terror offenders who had been released early from prison in November. The two incidents point to both the importance of learning from past events and looking forward to how we prevent more attacks in the future. Despite some knee-jerk, populist government action, the two go hand-in-hand. Sentencing does not deter terrorism, but better security planning and joint-working across industry can. In light of this, I encourage you to read Samantha Newbery’s article on page 46 on realistic expectations for improving counter terrorism, as well as the views of Anthony Glees on page 54 on security post-Brexit.

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As always, we are grateful to our contributors to this issue in particular BAPCO and Counter Terror Expo, which remain important events in the counter terrorism calendar. Michael Lyons, editor

ONLINE // MOBILE // FACE TO FACE To register for your FREE Digital Subscription of Counter Terror Business, go to: or contact Public Sector Information, 226 High Road, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 PUBLISHED BY PUBLIC SECTOR INFORMATION LIMITED

226 High Rd, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 Web: EDITOR Michael Lyons PRODUCTION MANAGER Dan Kanolik PRODUCTION DESIGN Joanna Golding PRODUCTION CONTROL Lucy Maynard WEB PRODUCTION Victoria Casey BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER Martin Freedman PUBLISHER Jake Deadman ADMINISTRATION Charlotte Boudaboussa

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© 2020 Public Sector Information Limited. No part of this publication can be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any other means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the prior written permission of the publisher. Whilst every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the editorial content the publisher cannot be held responsible for errors or omissions. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the publisher. ISSN 2399-4533




CONTENTS CTB 41 10 COUNTER TERROR AWARDS The Counter Terror Awards acknowledge excellence in the global fight against terrorism. In spite of current challenges, policies, practices and solutions are being created to counter the threat something our shortlisted entries can all be proud of. Here, we list them.

14 COUNTER TERROR EXPO The UK’s leading Counter Terror and Emergency Preparedness, Resilience and Response (EPRR) event is returning to ExCeL London, on 19-21 May 2020. Counter Terror Business looks ahead to the Counter Terror Expo, the mustattend event in the security calendar.

18 INDUSTRY SURVEY In the build up to Counter Terror Expo, the show organisers have released a snapshot barometer of the main issues facing the counter terror and security industry. As Premier Media Partner to the Expo, Counter Terror Business shares the findings.

Sponsored by 25 BAPCO 2020 BAPCO 2020 will bring together the entire public safety communications sector to source the latest equipment and systems, develop important business relationships, and generate new business opportunities.

34 CYBER SECURITY Simon Newman, the head of Cyber and Business Services at the Police Digital Security Centre, shares his top tips for SMEs to review and adopt simple digital security practices for their business.

38 DIGITAL TERRORISM Dr David Lowe, from Leeds Beckett University’s Law School, examines how terrorist groups are using and exploiting the various forms of electronic communication to promote their cause, recruit individuals or plan attacks.

42 CTB INTERVIEW CTB talks to Duncan Worsell, Assistant Chief Constable of the Civil Nuclear Constabulary, the man responsible for all operational deployments, armed or otherwise, at civil nuclear power stations in the UK.

44 PUBLIC SAFETY A layered approach to physical security barriers is an effective way of thwarting vehicle-borne attacks on Critical National Infrastructure and public spaces. Here, Iain Entwistle looks at some of the options available.

55 CT STRATEGY Expectations of what can be achieved when lessons are sought on improving counter terrorism must be realistic, writes Dr Samantha Newbery, reader in International Security at the University of Salford.

Counter Terror Business magazine // ISSUE 41 | COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS MAGAZINE



Streatham attacker surveillance operation defended by Met

Metropolitan Police commissioner Cressida Dick has defended the surveillance operation that was tailing Streatham attacker Sudesh Amman. Dick, responding to questions from London Assembly members, said it was not possible for the police to prevent




No release for terror offenders without review

‘No magic test’ to stop reoffending, says adviser

Following the knife attack in Streatham on 2 February, the government has announced sweeping legal changes to prevent the automatic release of terrorist offenders. The Justice Secretary Robert Buckland made a House of Commons statement outlining plans for emergency legislation that would stop any terror offenders being released without parole board risk assessments. The proposals would apply to existing and future offenders, meaning prisoners currently due for release halfway through their sentence could now face years more in prison. It follows the news that neither the police nor the parole board were able to stop the release of 20-year-old Sudesh Amman, who was shot dead by police after he stabbed two people in south London. He was released one week before his attack.


every attack and that police are ‘not providing man-to-man marking’ when conducting covert surveillance. Amman had been released from prison less than two weeks before he carried out the Streatham attack, having served time for terrorism offences.

Wearing a fake suicide belt, he stole a knife from a shop on Streatham High Road and stabbed two bystanders before being shot dead by officers. It has since been revealed that the 20-year-old Amman was jailed for three years and four months in December 2018 for possessing and distributing terrorist documents, but was freed automatically halfway through his sentence and put under 24-hour police surveillance. Dick said: “I wish I could assure the public that everybody who poses a risk on the streets could be subject to some sort of thing that would stop them being able to stab anybody ever, but it is clearly not possible.”

Buckland said: “Yesterday’s [Sunday’s] appalling incident makes the case plainly for immediate action. We cannot have the situation, as we saw tragically in yesterday’s case, where an offender – a known risk to innocent members of the public – is released early by automatic process of law without any oversight by the Parole Board. “We will be doing everything we can to protect the public, that is our primary duty. We will, therefore, introduce emergency legislation to ensure an end to terrorist offenders getting released automatically having served half of their sentence with no check or review. The underlying principle has to be that offenders will no longer be released early automatically and that any release before the end of their sentence will be dependent on risk assessment by the Parole Board. We face an unprecedented situation of severe gravity, and as such it demands the government responds immediately and that this legislation will apply to serving prisoners.” However, Lord Carlile, the former reviewer of terror legislation, has warned that the plans may be in breach of the law and are likely to face a legal challenge. The human rights group Liberty also immediately questioned the legality of a retrospective change to sentence conditions.



Jonathan Hall QC, the government’s adviser on terror legislation, has stressed that there is ‘no magic test’ to determine the risks posed by a terrorist on release from prison. Adding to the wave of criticism voiced after the government announced proposals to examine terrorist offenders with lie detectors, Hall said that it remains ‘impossible to guard against all risks’ of violent reoffending and that any system which handed over release decisions to ‘risk experts’ using polygraphs or any other method would be unacceptable. Home Secretary Priti Patel announced on 21 January that convicted terrorists will face lie-detector tests, similar to the use within sex offender and domestic abuse trials. Hall went on to say that terror sentencing decisions made by trial judges should not be minimised in favour of alternatives. In a speech to the Henry Jackson Society, he warned that the Home Office pledge that convicted terrorists serve their full term behind bars could only have a limited effect, given that those eligible for release had usually not committed violent acts - such as possession of a document, or providing funds to a proscribed group.



Government review of official UK threat levels called for Following the recent terrorist attack in London, which took place just 15 days after the official UK threat level was lowered, Resilience First is calling on the government to review the current threat level framework. The threat level framework has been in place for more than a decade, originally following the 7/7 bombings in 2005, with the not-for-profit organisation arguing that over time it has become less meaningful and relevant as a tool to warn the general public. As such, ministers are being asked to consider introducing a revised system that is simpler to understand, more relevant to citizens and more likely to generate the required vigilance than the existing system. A simpler system, such as the two-levels used by the US Department of Homeland

Security (Elevated and Imminent) or three levels of flood warning used by the Environment Agency, could be combined with action-orientated messaging aimed at the wider community to generate more relevant citizen responses. Resilience First has written to Security



Over 250 people flagged over extremist concerns in Wales

Met begins operational use of Live Facial Recognition tech

Home Office figures show that more than 250 people in Wales were flagged up to police and councils over concerns about extremism. Right-wing extremism accounts for 24 per cent of all referrals, while 15 per cent are related to Islamist extremism. In total, just under half of those flagged up were aged 20 or younger. Estyn, the education and training inspectorate for Wales, has stressed that radicalisation and extremism are ‘real risks’ to pupils in all schools. The watchdog warned that some schools could miss early opportunities to address extremism because they do not think it is relevant. The figures are highlighted in a report by which says most schools do not do enough within their curriculum to build pupils’ resilience against extremist influences. Schools are required to protect pupils from radicalisation and the Welsh Government said Wales’ new curriculum will teach youngsters to ‘critically evaluate’ information they are exposed to.


The Metropolitan Police Service has announced that it will begin the operational use of Live Facial Recognition (LFR) technology in specific locations across London. The use of live facial recognition technology will be intelligence-led, with senior police claiming that it will help tackle serious crime and protect the vulnerable. Police will begin operationally deploying LFR at locations where intelligence suggests we are most likely to locate serious offenders. Each deployment will have a bespoke ‘watch list’, made up of images of wanted individuals, predominantly those wanted for serious and violent offences. The Met has stressed that the announcement is not a case of

Minister Brandon Lewis asking him to include this topic in the already announced government review of the UK’s defence and security strategy.


technology taking over from traditional policing, but instead a system which simply gives police officers a ‘prompt’. The cameras will be clearly signposted and officers deployed to the operation will hand out leaflets about the activity. The technology, which is a standalone system, is not linked to any other imaging system, such as CCTV, body worn video or ANPR. Police say the cameras identified 70 per cent of wanted suspects and only generated false alerts in one in 1,000 cases. Read more about facial recognition on page 51.




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3-5 March 2020 Farnborough International Exhibition Centre

19-21 May 2020 ExCel London

This official government event is a world-class opportunity to meet, network and discuss the latest advances in delivering national security and resilience with UK suppliers, colleagues and government officials. The next event will take place 3 – 5 March 2020 and visitors can register to attend for free now. Security and Policing 2020 will provide an exciting backdrop to enable over 300 exhibitors to showcase their solutions and technologies in live settings, giving visitors the chance to access and test some of the most innovative solutions in the security and law enforcement sectors.

Now in its 12th year, the Counter Terror Expo (CTX) is the UK’s leading networking event for security professionals from industry, infrastructure, government and policing. It’s where they come to discover new ideas and technology to improve security and aid in the fight against terrorism. In partnership with its sister events the World Counter Terror Congress, Forensics Europe Expo and Ambition, CTX brings together the world of security, preparedness, resilience and response under one roof. As the Premier Media and Content Partner for the event, CTB previews the conference sessions, keynote speakers and the latest product developments and innovations. Read more on page 14.



10-11 March 2020 Ricoh Arena, Coventry

10-11 June 2020 Royal Airforce Museum, London

The BAPCO Annual Conference & Exhibition is a crucial event for everyone that is involved in critical communications and public safety solutions. Taking place in conjunction with TCCA’s Critical Communications Europe (CC Europe) at the Ricoh Arena, Coventry, UK, on the 10-11 March 2020. Alongside a plethora of the latest technology and solutions from top suppliers and expert led conference sessions on the latest topics, BAPCO with CC Europe 2020 will have more interactive features than ever. As a key media partner for the event, CTB previews the show, the keynote speakers and sessions on page 25.

The threat to sporting, music and other large-scale entertainment venues, transportation networks, retail parks, hotels, museums, tourist attractions and crowded spaces is becoming increasingly complex and diverse. Accordingly, the security industry needs to evolve to protect itself from terrorist, criminal and other forms of attack and those working in the industry must acquire the necessary skill sets to detect the subtle signs of negative intent and learn how to deal with the threat accordingly. Green Light is delighted to announce the third edition of the Behavioural Analysis conference. Following its launch in Cardiff in 2018, and an exciting second edition in 2019 at Mall of America, Minneapolis, the conference will be landing in London in June 2020.




The Counter Terror Awards acknowledge excellence in the global fight against terrorism. For the last two years, organisations and individuals from the UK and overseas have been recognised across 20 categories for their contributions to reducing the threat of global terrorism

RECOGNISING THOSE STANDING UP AGAINST TERRORISM IN THE UK T his year, in a shorter category list, Counter Terror Business, organisers of the Awards, again looks to share appreciation and celebrate the people and organisations who are making the country a safer place to live. From communications and cyber security efforts, to policing on the front line and educating pupils against radicalisation, the shortlisted entries have been chosen for their actions in the last year, where the threat of terrorism has again grown. Despite the threat level in the UK reduced to substantial in November 2019, meaning an attack is likely, incidents have been



witnessed up and down the country. In the same month that the terrorism threat level was downgraded to ‘Substantial’, London Bridge played scene to another incident when 28-year-old Usman Khan started attacking people with a knife and was then shot by police. Only this month, Sudesh Amman stabbed people in Streatham a week after being released from prison after serving half of his sentence of three years and four months for terror offences. The 2019 Global Terrorism Index has revealed that deaths from terrorism have halved in the last four years, but the number of countries affected by terrorism continues

COUNTER TERROR AWARDS to grow, and, in the UK, the Home Office has announced that funding for counter terrorism policing will grow to £906 million in 2020 to 2021 - highlighting the scale of problem and the resources needed to ebb the terrorist flow. In spite of the challenges, policies, practices and solutions are being created to counter the threat - something our shortlisted entries can all be proud of. So, with no further ado, we provide our 2020 Counter Terror Awards shortlisted nominations: COMMUNICATIONS AWARD The Communications Award recognises communication systems and their potential to assist organisations in both threat detection and post-terrorism communication between governmental and emergency service organisations. In previous years, this award has recognised the use of Body Worn Video technology and real-time footage from UAVs, and this year will be won by one of three organisations. In December, a counter terrorism training course was made available to the public for the first time. Devised by counter terrorism officers and security experts, the ACT Awareness eLearning package was previously only available to staff working in crowded places, such as shopping centres and entertainment venues. However, Counter Terrorism Policing has decided to open up the training to anyone who wants to become a CT Citizen so they can learn how to spot the signs of suspicious behaviour and understand what to do in the event of a major incident. Also using an interactive online platform to provide secure expert counter terrorism advice, a collaboration between Pool Re and the Joint Security and Resilience Centre has been shortlisted for its efforts to provide businesses holistic access to timely and accurate information in the event of an attack. Completing the three-strong shortlist is the Metropolitan Police, for their work with Facebook to improve the social network’s ability to detect live streaming of terrorism and potentially better alert officers about an attack. This was launched following the Christchurch terrorist attack, in which a live stream video showing the New Zealand mosque shootings was watched about 4,000 times in total before being removed. CYBER SECURITY AWARD The Cyber Security Award is presented to an organisation which has developed effective technologies to protect against the threat of cyber terrorism. The first organisation shortlisted in this category is the Cyber Threats Research Centre at Swansea University, which seeks to provide further understanding of cyber terorism through its Cyberterrorism Project. The researchers based at CYTREC are not afraid to ask difficult questions or engage in topics that push the boundaries. In the last year this has involved research into whether online content removal might actually be aiding terrorists. The National Police Chiefs Council have been shortlisted for their efforts to ensure

that every police force in England and Wales have a dedicated cyber crime unit in place. Starting last year, police forces have been able to access £7 million worth of funding to build the cyber crime units - including recruiting specialist officers and staff to the units and investing in technology, equipment and training. Prior to the roll out of the force units by the NPCC, only 31 per cent of forces had a dedicated cyber capability. The move ensures that all forces will have specialist officers and staff in place to investigate cyber crime and ensure victims receive a consistent response and receive contact and prevention advice from police following a report. Completing the Cyber Security Award shortlist is the Counter Terrorism Internet Referral Unit. From January to November 2018, almost 1,300 reports of concern were made to the CTIRU, which helps investigate and remove terrorist propaganda and information online. As well as assessing reports, officers from the unit scour the internet on a daily basis to find terrorist content themselves and have worked to get more than 310,000 pieces of extremist online material removed in the last decade. EMERGENCY SERVICES AWARD The work that the emergency services do to keep our nation safe often goes unrecognised. It is for that reason that categories like the Emergency Services Award are presented, acknowledging how the police, fire and ambulance services have implemented and tested a strategy to cope with a terrorist attack. Ross McKibbin, the Metropolitan Police officer in overall command of the emergency services’ response on the night of the London Bridge attacks, rightfully told the inquest into the London Bridge incident that the emergency services performed exceptionally in what was ‘a war zone on the streets of London’. Despite the delay in London Ambulance staff attending to some of the most seriously injured coming under scrutiny during the inquest, the work that was achieved, and the speed in which it was carried out, is remarkable, especially give the array of confused information from hundreds of unverified reports. London has unfortunately fallen victim to numerous terrorist attacks in the last few years, and while the police have successfully prevented many incidents, on the occasions that assailants have caused harm, London Ambulance Service have responded and performed exceptionally. Collaboration is crucial when reacting to a terrorist threat or live situation, especially among the blue light services. West Midlands Police, together with partner emergency services, have gone above and beyond in ensuring that staff are given invaluable training and experience, should an attack strike the region. One such training session was held in May 2019 and saw an exercise take place at a number of locations across the West Midlands, including the empty Woodlands School in Coventry, a residential street in Birmingham, abandoned farm complex E



COUNTER TERROR AWARDS  in Warwickshire and ended at Wolverhampton Racecourse. The exercise highlighted the strong working relationships between West Midlands Police, West Midlands Fire Service, West Midlands Ambulance Service and wider Counter Terrorism Policing agencies. A similar-style event was held in the north east, where nursing students from Northumbria University took part in a staged firearms training event designed to give doctors and paramedics a taste of working in a mass casualty terrorist incident. Great North Air Ambulance Service and Northumbria Police ran the simulated learning experience, which was being run for clinicians from around the country as part of an annual training course. In total, six paramedics and six doctors took part in the live training event, featuring dozens of casualties displaying signs of blast and gunshot injuries. Their efforts conclude the shortlist for the Emergency Services Award. PERIMETER SECURITY AWARD This category recognises an organisation which has designed or installed physical security measures to protect buildings and individuals from terrorism. Originally launched in July 2017, the Home Office’s Improving Crowd Resilience competition forms part of the government’s efforts to do more with the private sector to encourage them to help tackle the security challenges facing the UK. As a result of that competition, a new app, called The Krowd, was launched early last year to keep people safe in crowded places. Created by KrowdThink, the app allows people in crowded places to speak directly with on-site security teams, allowing visitors to report suspicious activity in real-time using their phones. Images are then sent instantly from the crowd and can assist the security team to assess a threat. The second shortlisted organisation is Thames Water, who have heavily invested in two perimeter protection contracts for the protection of seven of its sites, with the second contract awarded for physical security around 11km of perimeter for four of the seven sites. Thames Water manages more than 4,500 sites that require security to protect the water supply to over 14 million people. The work, awarded to Zaun, forms part of the AMP6 programme to bring Thames Water’s estate up to Defra standards and fully prepare for any security eventuality. Making up the three-strong shortlist is Manchester City Council, who have recently announced that it will act on proposals that will enshrine the principles of Martyn’s Law into future regulations to ensure the safety of all Manchester residents. A terrorist bomb


attack at the Manchester Arena on 22 May 2017 claimed the lives of 22 people, and seriously injured dozens more. Martyn Hett was one of those who died. Since his death, Martyn’s mother Figen Murray has campaigned to have the government introduce legislation to improve security at all public venues, calling it ‘Martyn’s Law’. Manchester City Council has now said that it will review the way in which it licences venues in order to ensure high safety standards are in place across the whole of the city. Initially this will have to be voluntary changes made by the owners of licensed premises. However, given the significance of the terror attack on Manchester, and the depth of feeling in the wake of the attack, the authority says that it hopes that the practices will be taken up with enthusiasm. COUNTER TERRORISM EDUCATION PROJECT AWARD Merging two previous awards, the Counter Terrorism Project Award and the Education Project Award, this award will recognise a governmental organisation or public/private partnership which has developed and implemented an effective counter terrorism strategy or awareness campaign. The ACT Awareness eLearning package recently scooped the top prize at a prestigious European business resilience awards event, and has also successfully made our shortlist here. Counter Terrorism Policing announced last year that the counter terrorism training course is being made available to the public for the first time so that anyone who wants to become a CT Citizen so they can learn how to spot the signs of suspicious behaviour and understand what to do in the event of a major incident. The online learning is available free of charge to anyone who wants to take part. The PSHE Association is also being recognised as a potential winner in this category for its counter extremism training programme. Aimed at providing teachers with the confidence and skills to address key extremismrelated topics in the classroom to bring into PSHE lessons, the programme also helps equip pupils with better awareness and understanding of extremist behaviour. A bespoke evaluation survey, carried out by the Home Office’s Building a Stronger Britain Together programme, found that the training and supporting resources led to significantly increased levels of confidence and improved skills in covering extremismrelated topics in the classroom among teacher participants. Also funded through the Building a Stronger Britain Together programme, The Feast brings together teenagers from different faiths and cultures to


network and experience meaningful discussions about religion and faith and further counter global trends towards fear and division. At the end of 2018, the charity launched the ‘In Faith, We Dare to Imagine’ strategy, recognising the global trend of terrorism and hate crime, but also ‘community isolation and increased fears and stereotyping of people different from ourselves’. Such efforts make a real difference to the lives of young people across the UK. TRANSPORT SECURITY AWARD Airports dominate the Transport Security Award this year. First to make the shortlist is Gatwick Airport, who announced in September that facial recognition technology was set to be rolled out at eight departure gates, following a successful trial with easyJet. Instead of humans checking passports and boarding passes, the technology scans passengers’ faces and compares it to the picture on their passports, and the name on their boarding pass, both of which are also scanned. It not only speeds up boarding, but also increases security on site. Meanwhile, London’s Heathrow Airport, Europe’s busiest travel hub, has deployed a ‘bespoke set of anti-drone systems’ designed to block unmanned aerial vehicles from entering its airspace following a string of recent attempts. Designed by UKbased firm Operational Solutions, the system detects and tracks drones in surrounding airspace, with the ability to locate the drone pilot and show their location, using technology from several manufacturers. The airport has said the fast and accurate detention of drones would keep passengers and staff safe, and minimise delays. The final shortlisted entry for this award is the Department for Transport and the British Vehicle Rental & Leasing Association (BVRLA), who launched a Rental Vehicle Security Scheme to increase counter terrorism awareness and mitigate the risk of rental vehicles being used as weapons in acts of terror. Outlined in a 10point Code of Practice, the partners require participating firms to meet a set of requirements, including a commitment to lawfully share data and information with law enforcement, train staff to identify and report suspicious behaviour and appoint a recognised security contact. COUNTER TERROR POLICING AWARD City of London Police are the first organisation to be recognised in the Counter Terror Policing Award category, which recognises the efforts of the police sector in combatting domestic terrorism through prevention strategies and operational excellence. Under Project Servator, an initiative launched by the City of London


Police in 2014, 37 per cent of stop and searches carried out in 2018/19 resulted in a positive outcome, such as weapons or illegal drugs being found or an arrest. This is compared to a national average positive outcome rate of 17 per cent across UK police forces in 2018/19. The tactics involve the use of highly visible but unpredictable deployments of specially trained officers (both uniformed and plain clothed) in operations to disrupt would-be criminals and terrorists, whilst encouraging vigilance and acting as a deterrent. Its success also relies on the support of businesses and the wider community to create a network of vigilance. Also shortlisted is Leicestershire Police, who has begun trialling Project Servator at East Midlands Airport, which will see local police, business and the public working together to disrupt a range of criminal activity, including terrorism. The policing tactic sees the deployment of both highly visible and plain-clothed police officers, supported by other resources such as dogs, firearms officers, vehicle checkpoints, Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) and livemonitored CCTV. The trial is being carried out with the intention of adding another layer of security to existing

policing methods at the airport. The third shortlisted entry is for Counter Terrorism Policing for their ‘Summer Security’ initiative. Launched last summer, police reached out to festival-goers who attended live events via the #BeSafeBeSound social media campaign. Led by Deputy Assistant Commissioner Lucy D’Orsi, the police worked with UK Music to reach the hundreds of thousands of people who attended live events last summer, releasing a number of videos on social media and providing key advice before and during the events. OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTION TO COUNTER TERRORISM Recognising an organisation or individual from either the private or government sector whose contribution to worldwide counter terrorism efforts has been outstanding, the Outstanding Contribution to Counter Terrorism Award is considered the stand-out category. In the inaugural Counter Terror Awards, Mark Rowley, then the Assistant Commissioner for the Metropolitan Police, was the recipient, and last year the award was split between public sector contribution, won by Chief Superintendent Keith Gilert, Senior Police Adviser at the Defence Science and Research Laboratory, and private sector contribution, won

by SecuriGroup’s Allan Burnett. This year, the category shortlist begins with Assistant Commissioner Neil Basu, who succeeded Rowley in March 2018. Unlike Rowley, Basu has spent his whole career serving with the Metropolitan Police. The 52-yearold, never trained as a firearms officer himself, was the commander in charge of armed policing between 2013 and 2014, before being appointed Deputy Assistant Commissioner in 2015. Basu’s first counter terror operation was to respond to the Novichok poisonings in Salisbury, and, having previously been shy in front of the camera, Basu stepped forward last year in stressing how a no-deal Brexit deal would harm the UK’s safety and security. Basu also led the investigation following the terrorist incident on London Bridge last November, as well as the incident at the start of this month. “As the mother of a victim of terror, I don’t have the power to prevent other parents or families having to bury their loved ones like I did. But you do.” Those were the words of Figen Murray, the mother of Manchester Arena attack victim Martyn Hett, as she opened the third annual Step Change Summit at the Farnborough Exhibition Centre in March last year. Speaking to a 300-strong audience of business leaders and security experts, Mrs Murray explained the devastating personal consequences of the attack at the Arianna Grande concert providing a heart-wrenching reminder why the Step Change Programme is so important. She also provided the keynote address at the International Security Expo in December, introducing Martyn’s Law in memory of her son and has grown into a vocal advocate for better security measures across the UK event venue scene. Completing the shortlist for this award is Deputy Assistant Commissioner Lucy D’Orsi. Having joined the police force in 1992, D’Orsi has a background in covert firearms operations and leading policing for London boroughs. At the end of 2016, she was promoted to Deputy Assistant posted to Specialist Operations, leading on Protection and Security, including Royalty and Specialist Protection, Parliamentary and Diplomatic Protection, Aviation Policing and Protective Security Operations. For the last few years, her job has led on Counter Terrorism Policing’s engagement with private businesses, Operation Temperer, protective security and preparedness. L





EVENT PREVIEW The UK’s leading Counter Terror and Emergency Preparedness, Resilience and Response (EPRR) event is returning to ExCeL London, on 19 - 21 May 2020. As CTB is Premier Media Partner and Content Partner to the show, Clarion Events writes about the Counter Terror Expo



ow in its 12th year, Counter Terror Expo (CTX) is the UK’s principal networking event for the counter terror and security sector. Thanks to its close relationship with UK policing and the Home Office, CTX’s content programme is structured around the latest and emerging developments in the fight against terrorism – making CTX 2020 a critical event in the counter terror event calendar for industry, policing, academia and government professionals. CONFERENCE OVERVIEW CTX’s conference and feature programme is aligned to its core themes of protection of people, critical infrastructure and emergency preparedness. With four theatres, each featuring experts from across government, industry and academia, the carefully curated content is designed to attract and



engage an audience of high-level UK and international professionals, seeking the latest thinking on counter terror and EPRR. Our Protecting People Theatre is orientated towards how to identify and mitigate the latest threats to individuals in public spaces, sports venues, festivals and other crowded places. Key topics will include: the UK Ministry of Defence’s perspective on countering drones and explosive ordinance; strategies and urban design consideration for hostile vehicle mitigation (HVM) given the continued use of vehicles as a weapon of attack; ways that events, public spaces, borders after Brexit and transport are protected from terrorist activity; and an insight into the latest developments in event and venue security. Confirmed speakers include Bert Appleton, assistant head at the Counter-Explosive E




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COUNTER TERROR EXPO  Ordnance Defence Engagement (CEDE) Office, UK MoD; Ian Hughes, assistant director (Highways) for the City of London Corporation; and Dr Katy Hayward, reader at the School of Social Sciences, Education and Social Work, Queen’s University Belfast. The Protecting Infrastructure Theatre explores how critical national infrastructure, industry and business can safeguard against emerging threats. Key topics will include: the latest techniques and technology to protect Critical National Infrastructure and other sites; surveillance technology and methods, including human-centred techniques; as well as the threat posed by malicious social media activity. Confirmed speakers include: Tony Porter QPM LLB, Surveillance Camera Commissioner for England and Wales at Home Office Independent Government Regulator; Superintendent Helen Isaac, head of Project Servator, which aims to deter, detect and disrupt a range of criminal activity, including terrorism; and Malcolm Warr, chair of CNI Scotland. AMBITION CONFERENCE & ZONE The Ambition Conference and Zone takes place alongside the Counter Terror Expo and focuses on bringing together the EPRR community. The event works with exhibitors and key partners to deliver thought-provoking content both on the show floor and in the Ambition theatre. Ambition brings together key stakeholders from senior emergency planners to operational first responders from the ambulance services, fire/rescue police, military and government. Key topics will include: dealing with mass casualty incidents; case studies and best practice on response from the strategic to the tactical level; preparing for and mitigating terrorist attacks; and coordinated approaches for cross-force CBRN first responders. Confirmed speakers include: Inspector Donal O’Driscoll, Special Tactics & Operations Command, An Garda Síochána, Ireland’s National Police and Security Service; Dr Claire Park MBE RAMC, Medical Advisor to Specialist Firearms Command SCO19, Metropolitan Police; Dr Matthieu Langois, Chief Doctor of RAID, French National Police; and Deputy Chief Constable Paul Netherton, National Police Lead for Civil Contingencies, National Police Chiefs Council. WORLD COUNTER TERROR CONGRESS Alongside our free content, we have the internationally-renowned World Counter Terror Congress (WCTC), a closed door, paid for conference. WCTC’s exclusive content programme brings together over 200 internationally recognised senior government, law


enforcement and intelligence services thought-leaders who will provide updates on today’s counter terror strategy, operations and policy. The congress will also examine key areas of prevention, pursuit and protection against international terror threats. With the common goal of sharing best practice and reducing the risk of terrorist attack to our nations, the World Counter Terror Congress will place particular focus on countering violent extremism, including understanding the threat picture, CVE at the local level, deradicalisation strategies as well as detecting and disrupting extremism in the online space. The second day of WCTC seeks to examine the protective security challenges posed by terrorism, considering requirements for strengthening physical security, situational awareness, and detection of threats posed by dangerous individuals and groups. Early confirmed speakers include: Deputy Assistant Commissioner Dean Haydon, Senior National Coordinator (SNC) for Counter Terrorism, National

CT Policing; Russell Travers, director of the National Counterterrorism Centre, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, United States; and Vijay Padmanabhan, Lead, Countering Violent Extremism & Hate Speech, Google. Haydon and Travers will also collaborate for a counter terror UK/ USA joint question and answer session. COLOCATED EVENTS For 2020, CTX, Ambition and the WCTC have expanded into ExCeL London, to co-locate with IFSEC International creating the UK’s largest security and EPRR event. Taking place over three days the co-location will allow visitors to: benchmark their strategies with thousands of security and EPRR professionals; earn CPD accreditation for their conference attendance; and gain from three days of learning and networking opportunities. L





COUNTER TERROR EXPO In the build up to Counter Terror Expo, the show organisers have released a snapshot barometer of the main issues facing the counter terror and security industry. As Premier Media Partner to the Expo, Counter Terror Business shares the findings


he first Counter Terror Report presents the findings of a survey carried out by CTX in November 2019, in which respondents were given the chance to provide opinions on current readiness levels across the UK to prevent and respond to the terror threat, the threat level itself, and government counter-terror strategies. The value in the report is in the ‘state of the union’ conversation it initiates, giving industry insiders a common ground from where considerations and plans of action can begin as we look toward the May conference and exhibition. It effectively drops a pin on the map and says ‘this is where we are now, where do we go from here and how do we get there?’ It is hoped that not only will the report give industry a better handle on what its customers are looking for, but also helps those customers better frame the issues at hand within the context of the current counter terror climate, and should instigate collaboration among players who are aligned with common goals. Collaboration is a key theme of CTX 2020, and with this report the team behind the event have kicked things off on the right foot. In his foreword to the report, Scott Wilson, the former National Co-ordinator of Protect and Prepare for National Counter Terrorism Policing, said that there is a requirement to be flexible and resilient to change, building a greater awareness amongst business and the security industry. He also stresses that private and public security must support one another, share information and learning, train together, support the police and embrace counter terrorism awareness products. COMPARING PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR When compared to the government, private sector respondents felt that UK industry was generally less well prepared for certain terror attacks, with the lowest weighted scores of preparedness noted as UAV/drone and suicide attacks. This extends to being poorly



prepared for the economic impact of terror attacks, as well as the impending impact of Brexit in security related issues. The four areas highlighted by respondents were the high levels of concern over supply chain, terrorist activity in Northern Ireland, data sharing between EU agencies and border security. The private sector respondents represent a broad spread of organisation types, with the majority providing consulting services, followed by surveillance and CCTV. The average sales revenue for those private sector organisations involved in the supply of security related products and services is £5.3 million. For private sector organisations involved in the area of purchasing, the average purchasing budget is £4.3 million. Throughout 2020, expectation is that demand for security related products and services will increase, reflected by 74 per cent of respondents. For the public sector, whose respondents predominantly represent police and law enforcement, ambulance, fire and rescue and the military, the top three areas flagged for industry investment are: cyber security, counter terror awareness and education, and counter drone technology. In comparison, for the private sector the top three investment areas are: counter terror awareness and education, cyber security, threat analysis and artificial intelligence. The public sector respondents also suggested that further attention is required in cyber fraud, hacking and, poignantly given recent attacks, counter radicalisation. Regarding funding, only 31 per cent of security personnel from these organisation expect ‘significantly more budget’ or ‘slightly more budget’ this year compared to last. CONTEST STRATEGY A survey respondent commented: “There is a real risk that prevention often is based on what has happened, not on what might happen current and future. As a result, just like the well-known comment - ‘a new war always starts by using the E




Protecting People and Infrastructure through Partnerships

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MORE THAN 70 PER CENT OF RESPONDENTS TO THE SURVEY WERE CONCERNED OR VERY CONCERNED BY THE RELIANCE OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN AFTER THE UK LEAVES THE EUROPEAN UNION  methods of fighting the last war’ - defence against terror and infrastructure disruption is playing catch-up.” The aim of the government’s CONTEST strategy is to reduce the risk to the UK and its citizens and interests overseas from terrorism, so that people can go about their lives freely and with confidence. It is split into four work-streams that are known within the counter terrorism community as the ‘four Ps’: Prevent, Pursue, Protect, and Prepare. The ‘Prevent’ strategy, which has publicly provoked notable controversy, aims to stop people from becoming terrorists or supporting terrorism. The purpose of Pursue is to stop terrorist attacks by detecting, prosecuting, and disrupting those who plot to carry out attacks. Protect seeks to strengthen protection against terrorist attacks in the UK or its interests overseas and thus reduce vulnerability. The purpose of Prepare is to mitigate the impact of a terrorist attack in an event whereby that attack cannot be stopped. The survey found that 24 per cent of public sector stakeholders are not aware of the CONTEST strategy, alongside seven per cent who chose the ‘don’t know’ response to the question, In the private sector 39 per cent were not aware of the programme, complimented by five per cent who were unsure. Asked how successful the CONTEST strategy’s four ‘strands’ were at safeguarding people and communities, the majority opted to offer a successful viewpoint. While only a minority responded to a few areas of the strategy as ‘very unsuccessful’, unsuccessful was dominant when respondents discussed the success of Prevent in stopping people becoming terrorists or supporting terrorism. This was the viewpoint of approximately a quarter of people in the private sector and just under 20 per cent of the public sector stakeholders. Within the private sector, similar thoughts were given to the success of police and the government mitigating against the impact of a terrorist attack under the Prepare strand. TYPES OF ATTACK AND PREPAREDNESS Respondents to the Counter Terror Industry Survey were asked how well they feel the UK government and UK business sector are prepared for a number of possible attacks. For both industries, the threat of a UAV attack was deemed the scenario in which the UK is most unprepared, with only 20 per cent of respondents saying that the government is ‘prepared’ or ‘very prepared’, only slightly more than thought the government was ‘very unprepared’. Regarding business preparedness, nearly half felt that the industry was unprepared for a drone attack, and roughly 25 per cent very unprepared. The government was considered to be most prepared for a bombing or explosion, followed by a hostile vehicle attack and then suicide attack. UK business and industry was deemed to be most prepared for a hostile vehicle attack or a terrorist attack on critical infrastructure. Appropriately, a respondent commented that the biggest challenges will not come from a single source, but, more likely, from ‘the amalgamation of several technologies’, societal changes and ‘a lack of preparedness by political institutions’ and slow response to the events caused by the first two sources.

BREXIT AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION The buzzword that continues to dominate all news, both inside and outside of Westminster, respondents were asked about the levels of concern they hold towards the impact of Brexit. On the whole, respondents were more concerned than unconcerned on all six issues raised in the survey. More than 70 per cent were concerned or very concerned by the reliance of the supply chain after the UK leaves the European Union, followed by terrorist activity in Northern Ireland. Of least concern, but still deemed more worrying than unconcerning, were the security industry’s ability to trade across borders and the resilience of national infrastructure. Countries throughout the world will face many challenges as terrorist organisations develop increased technological capabilities that will see less reliance on the need to mount human operations at scene, but from drone and cyber attacks from distance. The survey showcases that radicalisation and far-right extremism were deemed by respondents as the factors most likely to contribute to the UK’s overall threat level, followed closely by returnees from conflict, which still was the view of more than 70 per cent of survey recipients. Asked what areas the industry would like more information or education on, the report found that the evolving threat landscape and intelligence sharing between public and private sector where of most importance this year, both just shy of 80 per cent. Also over 50 per cent were improvised attack methodology, crisis management and resilience planning. As a respondent said: “Public awareness and education will create the foundation for successful counter terrorism and could create prospective future partnerships and clients.” L

FURTHER INFORMATION counter-terror-industry-survey

The complete x-ray security solution

3DX-RAY Ltd is a global market and technology leader in line‑scan x-ray imaging systems for security inspection, having supplied systems worldwide directly and through partners, agents and distributors. The company’s systems combine high image quality with ease of use and competitive pricing. Portable, mobile and fixed systems are offered to meet a wide range of inspection needs and 3DX-RAY’s quality management system is certified to ISO 9001:2015. The portable ThreatScan® systems allows bomb technicians to perform rapid and accurate threat assessment in a wide range of operational scenarios. Each system consists of a generator, a detection panel and an imaging station as

standard. The detector panel is lightweight and incredibly thin, and is available in a large format imaging area of 600 x 460mm, or a compact imaging area of 462 x 273mm. The complete system can penetrate up to 34mm steel at 120kV while producing high quality, sub‑millimetre resolution images. ThreatScan® can be used to inspect suspect bags and packages in mass transit areas as well as general security inspection by first responders such as police, military and private and government security agencies. Specialising in x-ray inspection. When it matters most, 3DX-RAY Ltd has the insight you need. FURTHER INFORMATION



RADARPOINT Radar sensor system

RADARPOINT The RADARPOINT is prepared for wall or post assembly

Direction dependant detection Object localisation 1,5m-5m Detection range up to 300m 45° horizontal opening angle 24 GHz Radar technology

Made to work Stand-Alone and/or in combination with MASTER CENTRAL CONTROL

To monitor wide areas and pinpoint intruders or objects With the new RADARPOINT300 SYSCO have developed a completely new solution for open area security. Securing and monitoring large open areas with these discretely located devices, which can cover all areas in question, can be achieved in a cost effective fashion compared to the expenditure required using other wide area monitoring technologies. Consequently this new technology is suitable for the high-level security areas as well as for industrial applications. The new devices invisibly monitors big free areas and potential intruders locations can be identified exactly. The modern software allows the exact setting of detection parameters depending on size, direction, position and speed. The electronics are housed in a robust case which is equiped with a Vesa connection and a universal holder for masts, walls or other objects. A number of interfaces are available to integrate the devices into an integrated security infrastructure. Thus the electronics are able to interface directly to the security system via a LAN-Network or with an RS485 data line. For smaller systems the radar electronics of course are also able to be connected individually . Two free dry relay contacts can be used as alarm outputs or to control external devices. In addition, the RADAR Point evaluator is equiped with inputs to monitor external contacts (such as gate contacts, IR-beams etc.). The RADAR Point system setup can be configured through the above mentioned data interfaces as well as an USB connection. On request a puttable WLAN-Stick is available, so that the settings comfortably also wirelessly can be carried out.


• • • • • • • • •

Compact weather protection case Transmitter and receiver in one case Big detection range Localisation of objects possibly Detection dependent on direction possible Detection dependent on speed possible Free adjustable detection segments possible LAN-and RS485 connection IO‘s integrated

Delivering certainty. Perimeter Detection Systems Security consultation Costumer Service

Technical data Working range up to 300m Opening angle appr. 45° horicontal Object localisation 1,5-5m Voltage supply 12-48 VDC (10W) Case protection IP65 Case Material ABS / Aluminium Dimensions (without Vesa) 280x250x110 (HxWxD)

UNIFYING CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS FOR PUBLIC SAFETY Tait Unified Critical Communications help Public Safety and Transport organisations around the world keep their communities safe. Developing a deeper understanding of our clients’ needs, we improve situational awareness, worker safety and organisational efficiency. Our innovative solutions enable unified personal and vehicle area networks. Tait Unified Vehicle and Tait TeamPTT combine leading-edge communication technologies LTE, Bluetooth™ and WiFi, with digital private mobile radio and computing capability. Tait is proud to be a Silver Sponsor of BAPCO 2020. Book a guided tour at our stand D40 & D50 to see how these innovative solutions can help you. Don’t miss our presentations on 11th of March in the Conference Area and learn about the digital transformation of Transport for London’s (TfL) surface fleet and our Fireground Solution for East Sussex FRS. Read more and book your stand tour at

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STAND D40 & D50, RICOH ARENA, COVENTRY, 10-11 March, 2020!

BAPCO 2020

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s ever, the BAPCO Annual Conference and Exhibition will bring together the entire public safety communications sector to source the latest equipment and systems, develop important business relationships, and generate new business opportunities. With the rapid evolution of technologies, and the constant shift of policy and challenging requirements of users, it is now more important than ever to stay abreast of the issues that affect you. BAPCO 2020 is the must-attend annual event for those involved in public safety communications in the UK. It will enable visitors to: network with the communications industry’s biggest suppliers; compare and source new comms methods, products and services; receive free expert advice on the implementation

and management of equipment and technologies; attend best-practice conference sessions and pose questions to the experts at the industry’s forefront; learn how to increase service efficiency and reduce costs; and do business, make new contacts, and place orders face-to-face. Keep up to date with cutting-edge talks on a diverse range of key topics such as Next Generation 999, as well as the use of artificial intelligence and drones in the public safety context within the conference section of the show. A key highlight of the Tuesday session will undoubtedly be the annual Emergency Services Network progress update, as delivered by ESN director Bryan Clark. This is arguably the most important year for the programme so far, and BAPCO 2020 visitors will be the first to E



Mission critical communication solutions Powerful voice and data networks to enhance security and improve efficiency.

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BAPCO 2020  hear about all the latest developments. The day’s other keynote comes from Microsoft’s Jimmy Cockerton, who will be discussing ‘The Digital Frontline’. Day two offers another plethora of compelling presentations, with topics including wearables to monitor the health of frontline operatives, and the use of technology to deliver real-time situational awareness during masscasualty incidents. As with the first conference session, day two opens with an update on the development of a national public safety broadband network, this time VIRVE 2.0 in Finland. This presentation will be delivered by Jarmo Vinkvist of Finnish government operator State Security Networks Group Finland (Erillisverkot). Another highlight – and bringing an international flavour – will be the Colorado 9-1-1 Resource Centre’s Monica Million discussing the new skills required for those in public safety communications and IT. Alternatively, visit the Drone Zone on both days of the event to see UAVs in action, and to hear about the latest emergency services use-cases for this transformative technology. Come and find out how drones could revolutionise your organisation in the years to come, as well as best practice to help your organisation get ready for a drone-enabled future.

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Demonstrations within the zone will highlight numerous potential cases for use of the technology by public safety organisations. This could include increasing situational awareness during large-scale incidents or observing suspected criminal operation locations from the air. Drones are now also becoming integral to the hunt for missing or injured persons. The UAVs will be taking off in a purpose-built flight zone, feeding back live imagery and telematics to the pilot on the ground. Attendees will be able to compare the solutions offered by different providers. CONFERENCE HIGHLIGHTS The BAPCO 2020 conference will offer visitors a host of best-practice-orientated presentations, delivered by some of the key thought leaders in the industry. Among this year’s many highlights will be a keynote address on the progress of the Emergency Services Network, presented

by Bryan Clark, programme director for the network at the UK Home Office. Bryan will provide an overview of the work which has taken place on the UK’s new nationwide emergency services broadband network, in the time since his presentation to conference last year. He will describe technical developments, collaboration and partnering with suppliers, as well as collaborative work with emergency services users themselves. Following his presentation, Bryan will be available for questions from the floor. Visitors will also have the opportunity to meet the ESN team at their stand in the BAPCO 2020 exhibition. The team will also be running themed seminars targeted at emergency services users. Another standout session will see Pippa Malmgren, co-founder of H-Robotics, provide a presentation on the best use of drones and autonomous vehicles in policing. Pippa’s presentation will consist of a deep-dive into the practical uses E




Technology that improves emergency contact Emergency and security services play a vital role in keeping the public safe and secure. As the gap between available resources and the number of incidents that require support grows, we see a greater need for solutions that improve officer and operator efficiency and effectiveness The London Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) is upgrading its Command and Control system to a flexible system that captures emergency communication from the public and subsequently coordinates deployment of officers to incidents, pre-planned events, and other operations.

tools at their disposal to effectively respond to incidents. These tools must be robust, reliable and available when a call for help comes in.

As a key contractor to Leidos, Frequentis is providing its multimedia communication platform, LifeX™, which will ensure the control room can manage and respond to all kinds of communication paths, presenting them in a unified and manageable display.

The capability to receive voice, data and video is becoming vital and a multimedia communications platform for control and special operations rooms that can handle all kinds of communication paths will increase the flexibility and ease of use for operators, while reducing emergency response times and simplifying public emergency contact.

When lives are at stake and every second counts, emergency services must have the best

Find out more at BAPCO, 10-11 March, at the Ricoh Arena, Coventry, stand E1.

BAPCO 2020 2020  of cutting edge autonomous technology by the emergency services. This includes mapping, as well as communications for increasingly effective search and rescue operations. Speaking of this, she said: “The utility of a drone is not the flying – it is in the acquisition, assimilation and analysis of data. Policing must adapt to a world that is already converting atoms of reality into bits of data. The policing of the future won’t be in pieces of paper but in point clouds and persistent digital assets. Drones are no longer to be thought of as the toys that a few officers have the skill to handle, and which the British weather regularly defeats. They are tools that run themselves in ways that allow the police to keep doing their job without needing to be distracted by operating additional equipment.” Giving the special lecture and discussion, Huw Saunders, director of Network Infrastructure at Ofcom, will analyse

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THE UTILITY OF A DRONE IS NOT THE FLYING – IT IS IN THE ACQUISITION, ASSIMILATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA. POLICING MUST ADAPT TO A WORLD THAT IS ALREADY CONVERTING ATOMS OF REALITY INTO BITS OF DATA the benefits and challenges of changes to the UK telecoms network. Huw will speak about the migration of the UK’s telephone network from public switched telephone network (PSTN) to Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology. This industry-led change will see PSTN permanently switched-off in 2025, but with the migration of customer lines beginning well in advance. He will discuss the implications for all PSTN users, including the potential impact on critical national infrastructure, lifedependent devices and other services that are key to the UK economy.

Discussing his presentation and the implications of the switchoff for all users, Huw said: “Some communications providers are offering testing facilities for downstream service providers to see if their equipment will continue to work effectively over VoIP. End users and service providers should contact their service or equipment suppliers to consider whether equipment needs to be upgraded, re-configured or replaced and plan appropriate action.” Transport for London’s surface radio network digital transformation: E




Leading supplier of public safety comms

Krowdthink – making crowded places safer

Sepura is a global leader in the design, development and supply of mission critical communication solutions, including market leading, powerful radios, complementary accessories, intelligent applications and intuitive programming tools. Trusted by hundreds of police forces around the world, Sepura’s specialist communication solutions provide highly secure voice and data encrypted communications, crystal clear coverage in any environment, and instantaneous communication with other emergency services and civil protection agencies. Based in the Cambridge technology hub, Sepura is a trusted partner for public

Krowdthink is defining new methods to make crowded places safer, by pro-actively seeking the support of the crowd as active participants in the safety and security objective. The company’s talk at 13.45 on Tuesday 10 March will open your eyes to the potential of digital place-based engagement and discuss how it can be used to prevent serious events occurring in venues such as stadia and retail malls or high streets. Krowdthink will also discuss lessons learned from Marauding Terror Attack trials and how it has new evidence to support the call from Kerslake (who

safety and commercial users across the globe. Since it was founded in 2002 Sepura has led innovation in its industry to create compelling solutions led by users in over 100 countries to address the demanding operational challenges that they face every day. Visit the Sepura website or call in on the company’s mission critical communications showcase at the BAPCO Show 2020 to see how it can enhance your organisation’s communications capability. FURTHER INFORMATION

delivered the Manchester Arena response review) on treating the crowd as a ‘force multiplier’ in the response phase of a major incident and lockdown scenario. There is heightened alertness of people in crowded places today, that can be leveraged to gain their support and assistance, but it needs a careful balance of digital engagement methods and an understanding of crowd psychology, together with appropriate localised controls of the platform. FURTHER INFORMATION

Frequentis – BAPCO Member

Tait Communications at Bapco 2020

Frequentis Public Safety communication and information solutions leverage more than seventy years of safety-critical communications experience. During this time, we have been focused on control centres in support of emergency management organisations. Cross-industry expertise gained from voice communications solutions developed for the aviation, public transport, defence and maritime industries set the foundation for supporting multiple customer segments with different requirements. The business unit aligns this insight with the individual requirements of its customers.

Tait has been providing Mission Critical Communications for 50 years. The company’s clients protect communities, save lives, move citizens and power cities all over the world. Tait works with them to create, support and unify the critical communication solutions they depend on to do their jobs. Tait’s Unified Solutions portfolio enables the convergence of narrow and broadband technologies, both in the vehicle and on the person. Tait Communications is proud of being a Silver Sponsor at Bapco 2020. This year Tait is presenting its latest innovations, incorporating products and software from its trusted partners Logic Wireless, Omnitronics and Sonim Technologies. Join Tait at stand D40 and D50 where you will get the opportunity to experience Tait’s holistic solution to Fireground communications and hear from thought leaders how they

As communications technology evolves to more open standards and platforms; Frequentis is leading the way through active participation to define and implement these standards in industry organisations. FURTHER INFORMATION

+43 1 811500


have applied Tait technology for Transport for London to enhance communications. Experience Tait TeamPTT, an integrated PTToC solution working in conjunction with Sonim smart devices. Learn how Tait Unified Vehicle can dramatically improve efficiency in your organisation. Last but not least, Tait will introduce its new portable radios Multimode TP9500 & P25 TP9600 to the UK market at Bapco 2020. Book your stand tour and learn more. FURTHER INFORMATION

BAPCO 2020

 Enabling individual and group-based communications, will be presented by Thomas Brewster, service delivery manager for Surface Technology and Data, Transport for London, and Jamie Bishop, general manager for the Transportation Sector at Tait Communications. Jamie and Thomas will present on the roll-out of Transport for London’s futureproof digital platform for surface transport comms, as provided by Tait Communications. This involved the replacement of the legacy analogue system for buses, as well as ensuring connectivity to smart devices, enabling group and individual communications using Push to Talk over cellular. According to a spokesperson: “At the core of the project wasn’t just the technology but also stakeholder

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engagement, effective service development and piloting of the proposed solutions to enable user adoption. In addition, [there needed to be] engagement with recent regulatory changes such as GDPR, alongside awareness of the implications that arise when working with ‘bring your own devices’ versus corporate personal issue smart devices/traditional pooled radios.” THE BAPCO ANNUAL DINNER The BAPCO Annual Dinner is a must-attend event for all those working within UK public safety critical communications, providing a unique opportunity for the sector to come together in a laidback yet elegant environment.

As ever, attendees will be able to enjoy fantastic food and drink as well as top-class entertainment as they relax after the finish of the conference and exhibition’s first day. There will also be the chance to network with some of the most important and influential people within the sector, first via the drinks reception and then in the bar once the festivities have ended. The Annual Dinner is a key part of the BAPCO 2020 experience and should not be missed. L

BAPCO 2020 will take place at the Ricoh Arena, a venue unlike any other in the UK, being a pioneer in the world of business, entertainment and sport. Home to Premiership Rugby team Wasps, and Coventry City Football Club, this world-class destination in Coventry has provided a catalyst for urban regeneration and economic development since it opened in 2005. The award-winning venue has a mix of state-of-the-art conference, training, banqueting, exhibition, hotel, music and sports facilities. There is more than 20,000 sqm of space along with 2,000 onsite car parking bays, two restaurants, a hotel and one of the UK’s largest casinos, which is perfect for post-event entertainment.





NaCTSO Crowded Places Guidance in action Integrating public engagement & CCTV

The Crowd as a Security Asset Geoff Revill, CEO of Krowdthink gives CTB a preview of his address at the BAPCO Annual Conference & Exhibition At the BAPCO 2020 conference Krowdthink will be presenting a challenge to mainstream security thinking; that the crowd can be an asset in keeping themselves safe. As NaCTSO’s own crowded places guidance says on personal security: “No-one has more responsibility for your personal safety than you.” The trick is to harness that instinct, magnify it, and make it an asset for crowd safety. This is the essence of the reason for Krowdthink’s competitive innovation award from the Home Office and Office of Security and Counter-Terrorism - to ‘Improve Crowd Resilience’. This government competition was ably managed by DASA (Defence and Security Accelerator) and fostered 67 competitive tenders. It followed the Manchester bomb and other 2017 terror incidents, which prompted some soul searching on how to make crowded places safer. Krowdthink delivered the resultant solution in early 2019, and this conference paper will outline the experiences of deploying this innovation.

The concept is not really new, it has been in play at UK transport hubs for several years; we are all familiar with ‘See it, Say it, Sorted’. The real question is how well that initiative works? where does it fit into the security objective? And perhaps more importantly how could it be enhanced in our digital world and facilitated for adoption in commercial venues? Martyn’s law is on the horizon, and the terror threat is waxing not waning, so we have to up our game. One stadia manager acted after the horrors of the Manchester bombing by doubling their match day stewards from 500 to 1,000! Is throwing more bodies at the issue the best solution? Is it efficient? Is adding ever more surveillance such as facial recognition, audio recording or other techniques the best way forward? Will your customers and visitors welcome such moves? Is regulatory tightening going to undermine such investments over time? Perhaps it’s time to step back and think out of the box to enhance security.

Making the crowd a participatory threat sensor and responder

The public are not the only resource major public spaces should consider as assets. Why employ 500 more stewards when the eyes and ears of all your other staff, in ticketing, concession stalls, catering, cleaning and on-site contracting can also be recruited to the security agenda? Without any training! Although it never harms to guide them through the publically available and excellent ACT program. Such staff are even more motivated than the visiting public to participate and are more readily guidable to do so. We live in a digital world, everyone has a mobile device, but who downloads a security app just in case they see something? Few, and even if they did, do they remember it at an appropriate time? Digital engagement technology adoption needs a new way of thinking if it’s to add to the security objective and foster the crowd’s active participation. The issues they worry about are probably not terror issues, but they may worry about a lost child, or they may be strongly motivated to assist in stamping out racist chanting or homophobic abuse in public spaces. More likely they’ll want access to venue offers, live news feeds, social interaction - these are the things that primarily motivate the digital generation. But they are also increasingly a generation that does not want to ‘get involved’, so only by understanding crowd behavior can we properly introduce a new way of enhancing our safe spaces. Only by doing so inline with current legislation can we invest in solutions that have longevity. The OSCT’s funding award unlocked the doors to that investment and we will provide more details at the BAPCO conference. This is a prevent solution, like See It, Say It, Sorted, - It creates a hostile environment to hostiles when its’ use is publicized. You may hide from the cameras but you cannot hide from the crowd. But it’s also a public service, a way of differentiating the responsiveness of a venue to issues, and consumer expectations are very high in this regard. More and more security teams are recognizing the role they play in making the venue welcoming, so that safety is ‘felt’, comfort includes a sense of security, yet at the same time, unobtrusive and non-threatening, but is visible, accessible and reassuring at the same time. Digital solutions have to match this emerging ethic.

Can we go beyond Prevent?

A communication platform that enables public engagement with venue security has potential other uses, in prepare/response for example. If it allows crowd engagement with one another, how would the crowd use it in an emergency, for example in a Marauding Terror Attack? Kerslake, in his review of the Manchester arena response, highlighted that what held true in the 7/7 attack in 2005 held true in Manchester too, but we don’t seem to have acted on either recommendation yet! i.e. the crowd should be considered as a force multiplier, an asset to leverage as ground zero responders who can manage things before first responders are on the scene, and as an information asset once first responders are on the scene. There are plenty of mass notification systems – we are not talking about that, we are talking about crowd communication, two-way broadcast communication across the crowd. Live trials of venues under such attack show that crisis creates community, but that community cannot form unless the communication doors are open, and in a venue lockdown that becomes problematic. What’s needed is the ability for the community under attack to be able to communicate with one another. In our BAPCO talk we’ll highlight some of the key lessons learned from such trials and explain how crowds in crisis actually respond when enabled to communicate.

Live deployment lessons

The first and foremost lesson learned in live deployments is that every venue and venue type is different. Sounds obvious, but the interesting thing is how some things are common. Engaging shopkeepers and shoppers in a retail mall is a very different proposition to engaging fans and stadia staff on a sports match day. Their primary engagement motivators differ significantly, yet their basic interest in communication and receiving good service from a venue remains the same, as does their expectations from a digital/social messaging platform in either place-based context. The staff make up of every venue is a convoluted mix of full and part-time staff, spread across multiple operational areas, supported by contract staff that can be semi-permanent or temporary. The challenge is to enable their engagement, alongside the public, because ‘they are there’. Resolving the ‘check-in’ challenge so that the crowds and venue staff are connected is the key to unlocking the engagement value proposition by turning your visitors and wider organisation into a safety and security asset.


BUSINESS RESILIENCE Simon Newman, the head of Cyber and Business Services at the Police Digital Security Centre, shares his top tips for SMEs to review and adopt simple digital security practices for their business

PROTECTING YOUR BUSINESS SHOULDN’T BE HARD A ccording to recent figures published by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), 32 per cent of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) suffered at least one cyber attack or breach in the past 12 months. With an average cost of £4,180 for each incident, the impact on SMEs can be catastrophic, yet the overwhelming majority of cyber crime can be prevented by implementing basic controls. So why are businesses still falling victim to it and what should they be doing to reduce their vulnerability? One of the biggest challenges we see among SMEs is that they don’t believe they will fall victim. They often fail to understand how cyber criminals see the value of the information they hold or that they are vulnerable to random attacks. Furthermore, many businesses we speak to see cyber security as an IT issue rather than something that should be dealt with



as part of their normal risk management regime, much in the same way they would deal with a flood or fire. Many businesses also find cyber security confusing. It’s a rapidly developing area with new threats being discovered all the time as criminals find ways to exploit vulnerabilities, making it difficult for SMEs to keep up. This is particularly true with the more sophisticated attacker – nation state actors and organised crime groups now specifically target SMEs as a way of gaining access to larger companies. Focusing on weaker links within the supply chain poses a significant threat to both SMEs and larger companies. Finally, what can often be difficult for SMEs is their ability to find a cyber security provider who can meet their needs. The cyber security industry has grown massively in the past few years. Finding someone they can trust and who will implement a solution that is right for them is becoming harder. E





Titan Vision Critical Infrastructure Device (CID) is the next generation of threat protection Titan CID is the first layer of protection for your sensitive or vulnerable remote surveillance sites from the threat of cyber attacks or malicious interference. Reducing the attack surface with the flexibility to be deployed at your remote sites as well as on your corporate networks Titan CID protects against internal and external unauthorised access with multiple layers of security to defend your assets against the most persistent of attackers. A key tool as part of your overall threat management policies. Bespoke operating system that does not require any updates or security patches. Centralised policy and device management from a single pane of glass. Zero touch deployment once configured and deployed, the Titan CID will operate independently or as part of the overall corporate landscape. System encryption to the exacting standards as detailed by the UK and US governments, all communication is encrypted to AES 256. Public and private security key for additional device authorisation.

In addition to the high-level cyber security protocols, Titan CID is also a multi-layer Surveillance Management System. NVR manager for managing and storage of fully encrypted mirrored paired system recordings; Alarm manager for receiving events or passing commands to connected IDS system’s; Cause and Effect manager for system actions; Communication manager for WAN/ LAN or Cellular correctivity; GPI/O connectors. Cyber attacks are no longer a Hollywood story line. Businesses rely completely on live communication and secure data, using Titan CID will give you the peace of mind that your corporate data is being protected end to end.

CYBER SECURITY  Together, these challenges mean that cyber security can become a secondary consideration for SMEs with many of them ignoring the threat until they fall victim, by which stage, it may be too late. Lost revenue, reputational damage and huge recovery costs await those SMEs who fail to act. Therefore, it is imperative for SMEs to have a sense of awareness regarding their existing controls. This allows them to analyse and locate where the weaknesses lie within their systems and subsequently implement appropriate security measures. SMEs can adopt a variety of security assessments provided by third-party services. For example, carrying out a vulnerability scan is a good start. This is a tool designed to create an inventory of the complete system, which enables the identification of any known weaknesses on computers, networks or applications that the SME has. For a more extensive approach, some thirdparty service providers can perform a penetration test of the system. Vulnerability scans are included, but ‘pen testers’ apply more intrusive methods which a potential hacker could use to access their systems. However, while carrying out penetration testing can help expose vulnerabilities, the information in reports is often complex, containing significant technical information that needs to be interpreted by an expert. It also doesn’t help the business understand what they need to do to overcome specific vulnerabilities. THE IMPORTANCE OF AWARENESS Using technical tools to protect SMEs like the ones described above can help them understand where and how they are vulnerable to a cyber attack. However, the importance of education and awareness in preventing cyber crime mustn’t be underestimated. Building an organisational culture that encourages and rewards staff to report suspicious emails, links or websites is a positive step that all SMEs should consider doing as part of their overall approach to security. We know that telling people to take action isn’t always effective. Instead, we need to focus on helping SMEs understand how cyber crime can impact them and why taking active steps to maintain good cyber security is beneficial for their business. We need to demonstrate that it can help them innovate, win contracts in new markets and build confidence with their customers. At PDSC, we are firm believers that businesses who spend time to understand their exposure to cyber risks, and put in place controls to reduce their vulnerability to the most common types of cyber crime, should be recognised. That’s why we have

WHAT CAN OFTEN BE DIFFICULT FOR SMES IS THEIR ABILITY TO FIND A CYBER SECURITY PROVIDER WHO CAN MEET THEIR NEEDS recently introduced a new certification scheme to help SMEs demonstrate to their customers and staff that they take cyber security seriously. Our Digitally Aware award is based on the National Cyber Security Centre’s (NCSC) Small Business Guide and has been developed in collaboration with the British Standards Institution (BSI). It is the very first step for SMEs on their cyber security journey and is aimed at those with a low risk to cyber crime. Applicants can download practical advice, guidance and checklists that they can use to implement basic security controls. For businesses with a higher exposure to risk, we have introduced a new award called Digitally Resilient. This is about having the appropriate controls in place to match their level of risk. Both certificates are designed to increase demand for the Government’s flagship Cyber Essentials scheme. Our top ten tips for any business looking to achieve a basic level of security are:

6. Use two factor authentication where possible to add an extra hurdle before accessing data. This can be in the form of a onetime numeric code sent to a phone or produced by an app, which is required in addition to the standard username and password during the authentication process. 7. Restrict who has access to sensitive information to only those who need it for their job role. If too many staff have access, information can become easily lost or stolen. 8. Train staff to identify suspicious activity and report it to prevent others from falling victim. 9. Develop an incident response plan to outline actions in the event of a breach.

1. Update software to fix vulnerabilities. Your devices can be set to download and install updates automatically to ensure crucial fixes are not missed.

10. Develop technical security policies to enforce requirements, behaviours and responsibilities of staff when working online.

2. Install and activate antivirus to identify and remove threats from systems. 3. Back up data regularly and test it often, to be confident the information saved will restore when it is needed the most. In the event of an attack it will support efficient business continuity and speed up recovery. 4. Configure a firewall to monitor connections to the internet and block any that are unauthorised.

5. Use strong passwords to prevent unauthorised access to information and systems. Default passwords must be changed upon initial installation, as they are easy to obtain online. A passphrase of three random words is recommended because it is virtually unbreakable.

The threat to businesses is constantly changing as criminals find new ways to exploit weaknesses. Regularly reviewing your security posture, implementing appropriate technical controls and improving awareness among staff and customers will always be the most effective way of improving security, making SMEs a less attractive target for criminals. L





COMMUNICATIONS Dr David Lowe, senior research fellow at Leeds Beckett University’s Law School, examines how terrorists and terrorist groups are using and exploiting the various forms of electronic communication to promote their cause, recruit individuals or plan attacks

TERRORISTS’ USE OF ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS A s technology becomes more sophisticated, it is important that law enforcement agencies not only have the technical means to monitor terrorists’ use of communications, but they do so legally in a way that balances the needs of state security with the protection of citizens’ rights. Lewis and Callahan’s 2018 study of the digital world found that 4.3 billion people use the internet, 3.9 people use a mobile internet and 3.4 billion people use various forms of social media. Their study found that every 60 seconds: one million people log into Facebook; 3.7 million Google search enquiries are made; 4.3 million videos are viewed on YouTube; 18 million text



messages are sent; 38 million WhatsApp messages are sent; and 187 emails are sent. This study did not include Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, Skype and other social media use, but it does reveal how widespread global electronic digital communication use is and the enormity of the task facing security service and policing agencies in monitoring communication between terrorists. TERRORISTS USE OF OPEN SOURCES At its height Islamic State was the most effective in using various forms of electronic communications to promote its cause. For example, Europol, the EU’s policing agency,

DIGITAL TERRORISM revealed in 2015 that the group had up to 50,000 Twitter accounts tweeting up to 100,000 messages a day covering religious instruction, interpersonal communications between the account holder and individuals they were trying to recruit to their cause and tourism to encourage people to emigrate to their self-proclaimed caliphate. While using other forms of communication, Islamic State’s media ministry’s Twitter and Instagram use was effective. By decentralising Twitter and Instagram accounts to its members enabled them to promote its cause in over 40 languages. With the average age of its members being 24, having grown up with social media, using social media platforms like Twitter and Instagram came easily to them. It is not just Islamist inspired terrorist groups who use electronic communication to great effect. At a global level the far-right and extreme far-right (neo-Nazis) have also exploited electronic communications to promote their cause. Until they were proscribed as a terrorist group, the UK’s neo-Nazi group National Action promoted their cause on open social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter and YouTube containing anti-democratic, racist, anti-Semitic and homophobic content. When the group began to glorify and promote violence the UK government decided they had crossed the boundary between legitimate political commentary and violent extremism.

This has not prevented other UK neo-Nazi groups forming. Based mainly in Wales, System Resistance Network’s activity in 2019 led to Welsh MP’s requesting that the Home office also proscribe this group. While far-right and neo-Nazi groups promote nationalism, one anomaly is the increased internationalisation of these groups. The UK neo-Nazi group Sonnentag Division is linked with the US neo-Nazi group Atomwaffen and similar groups in Europe and Australia who use electronic communications and social media to support each other globally as well as promote their cause in order to attract recruits. During the March 2019 Christchurch attacks at the two mosques, the first 17 minutes was live streamed on Facebook by the alleged offender with posts encouraging the attacker from extreme far-right supporters from Australia, Europe and North America. Terrorists’ communications use has posed a problem for open source communications companies such as Twitter, Facebook, YouTube and Reddit, especially in relation to the far-right and extreme far-right in determining what is legitimate political/religious commentary under freedom of expression to what amounts to extremist content encouraging individuals to carry out terrorist attacks that should be removed. It is not the role of such companies to determine the parameters of what content is within

or exceeds acceptable free speech. Rather than state governments castigating them, having a consistent legislative approach among states as to what amounts to acceptable free speech would provide a baseline to assist in determining what should and should not be removed.d. THE MOVE TO THE DARKNET As open social media sites continue to close down terrorist inspired sites, most terrorist organisations have moved to more deeply encrypted sites. WhatsApp and Gab are popular sites for both terrorists and criminals involved in organised crime. As the darknet promotes a world of complete freedom and anonymity where users can say and do what they like uncensored, unregulated and outside society’s norms, terrorist groups have increasingly moved to the darknet to communicate. For example, Islamic State use the darknet marketplace Silk Road to raise funds, sell books on how to carry out jihad, make bombs and homemade firearms, as well as purchase weaponry. A popular darknet site used by terrorists is Tor, a virtual private network that protects the identity of the user by wrapping layers around the communication, a process referred to as ‘onion rooting’. As such, Tor hides the location and identity of its users and allows terrorists and extremists to have various forums and to communicate freely without detection. E



Sorinteq Academy are an established provider of Cyber Investigative, Vocational and Academic training courses to the law enforcement sector in the United Kingdom. Courses delivered are written for the practitioner investigator, through to Managers, to address the key objectives of prevent, detect, deter and response to criminality and threat. Typically, investigators trained by Sorinteq Academy will investigate such categories as terrorism, serious and organised crime, paedophilia, cyber enabled and cyber dependant crime, localised crime etc. Courses enable the delegate to undertake unit blocks of learning which are related to role, specialism, function and purpose, whilst not being away from their day-time job for long periods. SORINTEQ ACADEMY TRAINING MODULES This publication details courses grouped into clusters for convenience, although it is absolutely the case that delegates may embark on a selection of courses from each cluster. Courses for Counter Terrorism Officers

1. Cyber Terrorism – An overview of the use of the Internet by Terrorists and extremists. 2. Investigating Lone Actors. 3. Considerations when dealing with Radicalisation. 4. Psychology of the terrorist. Considerations when dealing with extreme belief systems.

Targeting the Internet Usage of Offenders

Targeting the Offender

1. Open source Investigation courses Options include; Introduction, Foundation, Advanced. 2. Internet Investigations for managers Option include; Foundation and Advanced. 3. Network Investigator Course. 4. Investigating the Darknet. 5. Virtual currencies. 6. Account Access – Lawful access of subject internet-based accounts.

1. Hacking the Human. 2. Assuming on-line identities. 3. Tradecraft 1 - Legend building for covert operations. 4. Tradecraft 2 - Infiltration and identity development. 5. Forensic Linguistics. 6. Law module. 7. Advanced i3 (Internet Intelligence & Investigation) Ops.

Targeting Devices of the Offender

Targeting Internet Connectivity Modules

1. Introduction to Forensics for Internet Investigators. 2. Using forensic material to enhance internet investigations. 3. Advanced covert forensics. 4. Physical Tradecraft in covert forensic acquisition.

1. Radio Frequency (RF) exploitation. 2. Advanced RF exploitation. 3. Basic Hacking. 4. Promiscuous Tools

SORINTEQ ACADEMY Blended learning enables the student to learn through distance learning, tasks set, lecture materials, practial exercises, self and group reflection. For further enquiries, please email or call the Sorinteq contact details. International Clients Sorinteq has experience of providing training globally to international law enforcement organisations. We will work closely to understand localised context, legislation and application. Sorinteq also provide training needs analysis and the creation of bespoke training to support client requirements. We will only work with those countries where a business relationship exists through the Foreign and Commonwealth office and the United Kingdom Trade and Industry.

DIGITAL TERRORISM  LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES AND MONITORING As communications technology advances, law enforcement agencies must constantly develop systems and protocols to monitor terrorists’ use of electronic communications in a manner that balances both the need to protect citizens and individual’s data protection. Concern was raised following the Edward Snowden revelations on how the US’ National Security Agency and the UK’s General Communications Headquarters were monitoring citizens’ communications in 2013. Since then most western states have introduced legislation aimed at ensuring a balance between both those needs. In the seven years since those revelations, technology has advanced with terrorists taking advantage of ever more sophisticated methods of electronic communication and, as such, law enforcement agencies have to develop equally sophisticated methods of communications surveillance with the state legislators having to ensure that statutes granting agencies powers to carry communications surveillance does not become dated. LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS An example of this was the UK’s Investigatory Powers Act 2016 that repealed parts of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 as it was seen as an analogue law for a digital age. The 2016 Act allows the security services and the police powers to monitor communications use ranging from targeted interception and examination warrants on specified persons or organisations to more controversial powers such as authorisation to obtain communications data from internet and communications service providers, and, equipment interference/examination warrants (i.e. lawful hacking) on specified persons, organisations or locations. When granting such warrants, the judiciary must ensure the powers are necessary in order to protect citizens’ rights. In determining if the powers are necessary, the most pertinent grounds in terrorism investigations is if it is in the interests of national security, will prevent or detect crime, or, is in the interests of public safety. Other states have similar legislative provisions to assist law enforcement agencies investigating terrorist related activity. Examples include the US’ Freedom Act 2015 that was introduced after the Snowden revelations to tighten up protection of citizens’ rights and prevent abuse of powers by the agencies. Australia’s Telecommunications (Interception and Access) Act 1979 was amended in 2016 to allow warrants being granted to law enforcement agencies to intercept

communications that are or is likely to be used by a person engaged in activities prejudicial to security, and this can also include specified premises where it is suspected such activity is occurring. Canada’s AntiTerrorism Act 2015 provides powers to access communications related to activities provided the provision of those powers are consistent with the Canadian Charter of Rights. Even the EU introduced the 2016 Directive on protecting personal data processed for the purposes of preventing, investigating, detecting or prosecuting criminal matters, that includes terrorist offences As discussed above, with terrorists, groups and organisations communicating at international level, it is important that the law enforcement agencies operate under similar legislative provisions to facilitate intelligence exchange that could be admissible as evidence in other states’ jurisdictions be it between the Five Eyes states of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the UK and the US or between these states with EU Member State law enforcement agencies. CONCLUSION While there is understandable concern, certainly that expressed by various human rights groups, that law

enforcement agencies are being given wide powers to ‘snoop’ on citizens’ communications, due to how terrorists and terrorist groups are increasingly being more sophisticated in how they use and exploit various methods of electronic communication these powers are necessary. The legislative powers are fettered having due regard to human rights issues related to surveillance. As the main aim of counter-terrorism investigators is to prevent attacks from occurring, wide powers are needed to ensure the most important human right, the right to life, is preserved for all in society. L

Dr David Lowe runs his own consultancy business providing expert witness work in terrorism and security and policing. He is also a senior research fellow at Leeds Beckett University’s Law School. You can read the issues he raises in more depth in his books ‘Terrorism and State Surveillance of Communications’ and ‘Terrorism: Law and Policy’ both published by Routledge in 2019 and 2018 respectively.





NUCLEAR FACILITIES Counter Terror Business (CTB) talks to Duncan Worsell (DW), Assistant Chief Constable of the Civil Nuclear Constabulary, the man responsible for all operational deployments, armed or otherwise, at civil nuclear power stations in the UK

NUCLEAR FACILITIES AND TERRORISM CTB: HOW DOES THE CIVIL NUCLEAR SECTOR WORK TO SECURE OUR NUCLEAR FACILITIES FROM THE THREAT OF TERRORISM? DW: Each element of the civil nuclear sector must be licensed by the government, and the license holder is termed as the duty-holder, and the overall responsibility and legal accountability for the safety and security of every site falls to its duty-holder. Each duty-holder will have a Nuclear Site Security Plan which, among many other things,


will detail the arrangements for deterring, preventing and responding to the threat of terrorism. The plans are drawn against a postulated threat and where they include a dedicated armed response, they will detail the arrangements for the deployment and activation of the Civil Nuclear Constabulary. Intelligence and deterrence play a key role in keeping the industry secure, as do the physical security infrastructure, personnel security, and access control arrangements. In the highly unlikely event that these elements are compromised then the Civil Nuclear Constabulary


will respond to deny access to and defend nuclear facilities, and to recover control should this ever be necessary.


CTB INTERVIEW DW: The primary objective has stayed the same. It is correct to say that the threat has diversified, and it was perhaps the realisation that the terrorist is not only deadly and determined but is also prepared to sacrifice their own life in the name of their cause that directed the most significant change in thinking to address that objective. The emergence of the cyber threat, like other capabilities that have preceded it, has undoubtedly focused our attention, and it is the blending or mixing of these capabilities in innovative and unpredictable ways that poses the hardest challenge. The Civil Nuclear Constabulary, like all of the best organisations with a remit to meet the threat of terrorism, must remain vigilant and agile, our response must be effective and robust, and the protection of the public, through safeguarding nuclear material, remains our primary aim. CTB: AMONGST THE 20182021 CNC PRIORITIES IS A LINE STATING THAT ‘MAXIMISING THE FULL POTENTIAL OF OUR NEW TACTICAL TRAINING CENTRE WILL BE KEY’. COULD YOU EXPAND ON WHY THIS IS THE CASE?

A PARTICULAR CHALLENGE WHEN CONSIDERING HOW TO IMPROVE THE COLLECTION OF INTELLIGENCE IS RESOURCES DW: The Griffin Park Tactical Training Centre will become the centre of excellence for all CNC firearms training, it is where our armed police officers will learn and test their skills. Not only will the training for our officers, and therefore their capability become more effective, the nature of the facility is such that we will be able to do this in a much more efficient way, having multiple training areas in use within the same building for concurrent training activities. CTB: AROUND THE WORLD, NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS ARE CAREFULLY GUARDED, BUT ARMED POLICE OFFICERS ARE STILL NOT COMMON IN THE UK. HOW IMPORTANT IS TRAINING AND PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT IN MAKING SURE THAT THE CNC RETAINS ITS ROLE IN PROTECTING UK SITES? DW: CNC officers are trained to UK College of Policing (CoP) standards, our facilities, training staff, training

content and associated processes are subject to regular and intrusive assurance checks by the CoP and we are fully licensed to conduct our role. Achieving and maintaining this standard is vital, it assures HM Government, the nuclear regulator, other stakeholders and the general public that the CNC is a fit for purpose organisation and that the service we provide is aligned to the high standards that the public and others expect of any UK policing organisation. Actively engaging and assuring the public of this is often a challenge, we engage to as greater degree as we can, and we are now making much more use of social media to put our message of professionalism, excellence and reassurance as far and as wide as we are able. L

FURTHER INFORMATION organisations/civil-nuclear constabulary




CRITCAL NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE A layered approach to physical security barriers is an effective way of thwarting vehicle-borne attacks on Critical National Infrastructure and public spaces. Here, Iain Entwistle looks at some of the options available

A LAYERED APPROACH TO PUBLIC SAFETY P hysical security barriers are designed to provide perimeter protection to a defined area and can control vehicular access, even those driven at speed by people with wilful intent. These Hostile Vehicle Mitigation (HVM) solutions can be deployed around Critical National Infrastructure assets, buildings and public spaces. They encompass a wide range of products of varying designs, including bollards, track sliding gates, quick bi-folding gates and road blockers. Vehicle-borne threats can be anything from criminal activity through to serious terrorist incidents. If terrorists choose a vehicle with a load-carrying capability it can be either packed with payload to increase its destructive force, loaded with explosives or, more worryingly hijacked and used as a means of attacking innocent people. It is not just premises that are vulnerable to these kinds of threats, but as we have seen with recent events, public spaces, where there are large numbers of



people, are all vulnerable. HVM solutions therefore need to be able to withstand these threats, and there are several internationally recognised approvals that apply when specifying these products, including PAS68, IWA14-1 and ASTM. Protection of Critical National Infrastructure (CNI) is a priority for governments, especially as terrorism is now viewed as a threat that will exist over the long term. CNI such as banking, finance, telecommunications, data centres, emergency services, transport systems, healthcare, food processing/manufacturing, energy and water supplies all require a joined-up approach to security. An attack in just one of these areas would cause immediate chaos that could potentially spread to other sectors. For example, knocking out a transport network may prevent delivery of medicines. It is little wonder that protection of these critical areas of infrastructure using HVM solutions has advanced considerable in recent years.


PROTECTING CRITICAL NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE Prevention is at the core of decisions around how best to protect the public and Critical National Infrastructure. One of the most effective ways of preventing vehicle attack, either aimed at buildings and their contents, or people, is to install Hostile Vehicle Mitigation (HVM) measures at the perimeter. Criminals will use a variety of techniques to breach a perimeter barrier, not just vehicle-borne attack; false documents, encroachment (tailgating an authorised vehicle), duress or a combination of attack methods on the physical barrier using mechanical tools. Increasingly, and more worryingly, the threat of a vehicle-borne attack appears to be increasing considering recent events in London. When calculating the most appropriate HVM for these scenarios there are several specific factors that need to be considered – type and weight of the vehicle, and speed. PAS68, IWA14-1, ASTM and CPNI offer guidance and there are useful industry websites such as Perimeter Security Suppliers Association (PSSA) HVM Hub and Secured by Design. There are other factors that security specifiers and architects need to consider, too. For instance, many vulnerable locations are public spaces, and so aesthetics, access, traffic management, health and safety and cost all form part of the decision process. The threats obviously need to be addressed, although it should be done in a way that ensures the public space remains open and inclusive, or that the premises don’t appear too fortress-like.

With events in London and around the world highlighting the real threat from vehicle-borne terrorism, we entered an agreement with Perimeter Protection Group (PPG) to supply and install their HVM solutions in the UK. The HVM products meet PAS 68 (British Standard), IWA14-1 (International Standard) and ASTM (American Standard). Security works best when it is part of a layered approach, starting at the perimeter with Hostile Vehicle Mitigation measures. The next layer would be the entrance to the building, with LPS1175 Issue 8 Security Portals or Security Revolving Door. Meeting this important standard demonstrates that the Security Portal or Revolving Door can withstand a forced attack using a range of tools, should perpetrators proceed on foot past the HVM measures. For low to medium secure areas, standard Security Portals or Speed Gates provide a single-person authenticated entry that prevents tailgating. In combination, this layered approach is designed to delay any attack as it advances towards the asset, meaning, ultimately, they are prevented from ever reaching their target. THE ANSWER Disrupting our way of life is something that all terrorists are intent on achieving. Irrespective of whether they carry out an attack, they take some satisfaction from knowing that more security checks, longer delays and a fearful public is somehow an achievement. However, careful choice of HVM as part of a layered approach can help mitigate some of these consequences and without being obtrusive or causing inconvenience to people.

The likelihood of a vehicle ramming attack is often underestimated, although recent events have proven that it is more common than it should be and when it happens it can have very serious consequences. Taking steps now by deploying HVM measures can harden your perimeter to vehicle-borne attack, whilst still maintaining an open and inclusive aesthetic as part of a proportionate and risk based approach to security. HVM solutions are now routinely specified to provide perimeter protection for a wide range of applications from government, utility, logistics centres, data centres through to stadiums. Vehicle borne attacks appear to be on the rise, which is why a multi-layered approach to security is the best way of slowing and ultimately thwarting criminals and terrorists before they reach the intended asset. The key to choosing the appropriate HVM is to take a methodical and risk-assessed approach to determine project objectives and highlight security vulnerabilities. This is where a qualified specialist security consultant can provide further advice as there may be other factors that should be considered. Based on the outcome of this assessment, it is then possible to specify a range of HVM solutions that can form part of a layered approach as part of a wider security strategy. L

Iain Entwistle is product marketing manager at Meesons A.I. Ltd.





IDENTIFYING LESSONS Expectations of what can be achieved when lessons are sought on improving counter terrorism must be realistic, writes Dr Samantha Newbery, reader in International Security at the University of Salford

LEARNING LESSONS: IMPROVING COUNTER TERRORISM T wenty-two terror plots were foiled in the UK between March 2017 and September 2019. But not all terror attacks are stopped: 2017 saw attacks take place in Westminster, Manchester, London Bridge and Finsbury Park. After an attack, commendable efforts are made to identify lessons for the emergency services, MI5 and other organisations involved with counter terrorism. Nine reviews into the 2017 attacks were carried out by MI5 and Counter Terrorism Policing. Yet when changes are found to be necessary, implementing those changes is not as straightforward as might be hoped: lessons might be overlooked and therefore not identified at all; implementing lessons can take time; and constraints on resources constitutes a challenge that



must be taken into account. Expectations of what can be achieved when lessons are sought, and when efforts are made to implement those lessons, must be realistic.

IDENTIFYING AND ACTING ON LESSONS At the time of the Manchester Arena attack of May 2017, perpetrator Salman Abedi was not one of MI5’s 3,000 active Subjects of Interest (SOI). He was not, therefore, being monitored. Abedi had briefly been an SOI in 2014 and again in 2015 but was classified as no longer posing a threat. David Anderson QC, formerly the UK’s Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation, concluded in his report on the 2017 attacks that when Abedi travelled to Libya in mid-April 2017, MI5 ought to have initiated the procedure to

CT STRATEGY have him arrested under the Terrorism Act 2000 on his return to the UK. MI5 went on to acknowledge the need to be more alert to ‘closed’ SOIs re-emerging as threats when, in June 2019, they introduced ‘tripwires’ designed to provide warning when any of their 20,000 closed SOIs are at risk of becoming more of a threat, such as if they become unemployed. In the face of the continued threat from terrorism, this change, although undoubtedly worthwhile, seems to have been implemented slowly. Whether the change was made within a reasonable period of time is difficult to judge without more information. Improving the way that organisations and their personnel communicate with one another is a change that is likely to take time. Expectations concerning timescales must be realistic. As Anderson noted, the sharing of intelligence between MI5 and the police is envied around the world. Intelligence sharing is crucial, as intelligence work involves combining many small pieces to form an inevitably incomplete picture. That doesn’t mean to say no improvements can be made: indeed, the chief coroner’s 2019 report into the London Bridge attacks praised ongoing efforts to improve communication and coworking between MI5 and the police. Differences in organisational culture and the difficulty of establishing robust communications procedures are just two of the challenges that organisations face when seeking to improve coordination. As well as the need for the police and MI5 to share intelligence that might help prevent an attack, there must be robust procedures for responding to an attack in a coordinated fashion. The value of having effective systems in place to call on Authorised Firearms Officers (AFOs), for example, was demonstrated during the London Bridge attack when armed police arrived within eight minutes and shot the three attackers who were wearing what turned out to be fake suicide vests. Within 13 minutes of the attack in Manchester 14 AFOs had arrived. Coordination with neighbouring police forces and the military allowed for a total of 106 AFOs to arrive in Greater Manchester within the hour. These officers carried out vital duties by searching the Arena and providing protection to other responders. This swift deployment was a success and illustrates that there are times when positive lessons can, and should, be identified. TRAINING EXERCISES Counter terrorism exercises are a key part of training. Exercise SOCRATES, for instance, was a successful suicide bombing and marauding

A PARTICULAR CHALLENGE WHEN CONSIDERING HOW TO IMPROVE THE COLLECTION OF INTELLIGENCE IS RESOURCES terrorist firearm attack simulation at Manchester Airport held just weeks before the Arena attack. When the Greater Manchester NHS Partnership Mass Casualty Plan had to be used, it was fresh in the minds of the exercise’s participants as a result of that simulation. Reviews of exercises must identify positive lessons such as these, as well as any necessary improvements. The Kerslake Review of 2018 into the preparedness for and response to the Manchester Arena attack found that problems with the call-out procedures through which support from the military is requested had been identified during exercises. Sadly, these problems had not yet been solved, with the effect that when the Force Duty Officer phoned the military around 20 minutes after the bombing, he was put on hold for four minutes, diverting his attention from other urgent tasks. Simply identifying areas ripe for improvement is not enough: these improvements should be implemented as promptly as possible. When that doesn’t happen, explanations should be sought. Weaknesses in communications and procedures delayed the Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service’s deployment to the Manchester Arena. The stretchers they had that were suited to the rapid extraction of casualties were not, therefore, immediately available, though Anderson is careful to note that it was not within the remit of his review to determine what difference this might have made. Questions should be asked about why these weaknesses weren’t identified and rectified after Exercise Winchester Accord, a counter-terrorism simulation at a shopping centre in Manchester in May 2016. This highlights the danger that lessons are not always identified when they should be, whether that be after an exercise or after an attack. RESOURCES A particular challenge when considering how to improve the collection of intelligence is resources. Monitoring CCTV cameras, for instance, requires a great deal of manpower. As the case of Khuram Butt, one of the London Bridge attackers suggests, more resources can help prevent attacks. He was under active investigation as an SOI at the time, yet this did not expose the plans for the attack. This is not entirely surprising, as intelligence has its limits. It is not always the case that

all the relevant intelligence needed to prevent an attack is collected. If it is collected, it must also be analysed, disseminated and acted upon in time. An MI5 officer told the June 2019 inquest for the London Bridge attack victims that despite its size, MI5 did not have the resources to have Butt under surveillance on the day of the attack. Yet at that point in time MI5’s work on SOIs and closed SOIs was already at an unprecedented level. Resource constraints do not always frustrate intelligence work. Informers have been proved to be valuable. For instance, the extreme right-wing terrorist group National Action’s plot to kill MP Rosie Cooper was foiled by a whistleblower who turned against the group and passed information to Hope not Hate, who in turn passed it to the police. Informers act in this way at great risk to themselves, as their exposure as informers can lead to their deaths at the hands of those they inform on. Members of the community can also provide valuable intelligence, however, as was the case when Hisham Muhammad’s landlord reported seeing knives, a soldering iron and wires in his home. Muhammad has since been charged with engaging in conduct in preparation for acts of terrorism. Obtaining intelligence from the public in this way requires few resources, other than those invested in campaigns designed to encourage the public to provide this kind of information, such as Counter Terrorism Policing’s ‘Action Counters Terrorism’ (ACT). CONCLUSION Successful communication within and between organisations, wellplanned training exercises, the timely sharing of intelligence, and access to sources of intelligence are just some of the diverse requirements for effective counter terrorism. They should also be evaluated, both by the organisations concerned and by independent reviewers. These evaluations should identify what has gone well in addition to what might be improved, and prompt efforts should be made to roll-out the required changes. However, while there may be times when criticisms of slow progress are justified, there may be others when expectations should be adjusted to become more realistic. L





RE-EVALUATING OUR UNDERSTANDING OF KNIFE ATTACKS We can all recall several well documented knife attacks in London in recent years. But why are these vicious and merciless individuals turning more and more to edged weapon? Robert Kaiser explores

Before I go into more detailed aspects of knife crimes, attacks and subsequent injuries, please let me state one single thing that is of utmost importance when facing anyone with a knife, regardless of the person’s appearance. There are a handful of highly trained people out there that could disarm you, take your knife and stab you several times before you have realised you weren’t holding the knife anymore, So, if you are facing someone threating you with an edged weapon, then running away is a truly good option you might wish to take. We must understand that a hardly noticeable one-inch cut can potentially, with no trouble, lead to rapid blood loss and shock, and subsequently be the final curtain in someone’s life. However, I also fully understand that running away is not always possible. This fact might most likely be dictated by two factors, one being your environment and the other your precise occupation. I believe that you or your officers belong to that group of professionals. If that’s the case, then please allow me to help you re-evaluate your current understanding of knife attacks and its subsequent injuries. WHY ARE SO MANY TERRORISTS AND CRIMINALS TURNING TO EDGED WEAPON? The U.S. publication Law Enforcement Today published an article on 2 October 2019, titled: ‘FBI: More people killed with knives, hammers, clubs and even feet than rifles in 2018’. The FBI is making very clear that edged weapons represent a greater danger in today’s society than firearms. A statement reads: “Nearly four times as many people were stabbed to death as killed with rifles in 2017.” Over recent years we can clearly see a massive rise in the most violent type of knife attacks in countries around the world. In 2016, two soldiers were attacked by a man with a knife in Belgium, and in 2018 a prisoner on a day holiday stabbed two police officers On the 20 July 2018, at least 14 people have reportedly been wounded in a knife attack on a bus in Germany.


On the 13 May 2018, four people were injured and one was killed when a knife‑wielding assailant shouting ‘Allahu akbar’ attacked them in France. Two students stabbed a policeman to death in Italy in July 2019 after an alleged drug deal went wrong. And we all will remember the 29 November 2019, when five people were stabbed (two fatally) by Usman Khan in Central London. This was an attack with the most basic plan, which could easily be replicated by literally anyone whose intentions it is to inflict death and injury. Khan’s weapons of choice were two knives. He targeted a well‑attended conference, which was held in the Fishmongers Hall to maximise the damage he could cause to the multiple victims in an enclosed space, with the intention to continue to so in the packed area of London Bridge. I believe we all can recall several other well documented knife attacks in London in recent years. But back to the question of why those vicious and merciless individuals turn more and more to edged weapon. Well, obtaining, selling or buying firearms, exporting or importing firearms, and carrying or transporting them comes with a real risk these


days. Due to the threat of global terrorism, Intelligence Services and Law Enforcement Agencies around the world are keeping a very close eye on everything that is capable of firing rounds aiming to kill people. The risk of being arrested during the planning stages of an attack is just too high for most terrorists or criminals. Due to these factor and the UK’s CONTEST strategy of the ‘four P’s’ Prevent, Pursue, Protect and Prepare countering the causes and effects of terrorism, it has become extremely difficult for terrorists to plan and execute a large-scale attack here in the UK. However, London is an extremely busy capital city and determined terrorists have learned to understand that keeping a low profile, working alone, staying under the intelligence radar during the planning stage, choosing a weapon which will go unnoticed and picking a busy location will ultimately increase their chances of ‘success’. They no longer require bombs or full-automatic weapons. Edged weapons, knives and machetes have become the weapon of choice for many so called ‘lone-wolf’ attackers, partly due the low planning required (whether against an individual or mass group).

ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE We also need to accept that knives are commonly available, and this is not going to change, no matter what the law says or will say in the future. We cannot stop people from walking into the kitchen or the local hardware store, grabbing a knife and randomly stabbing other human beings. If one has the intentions to cause harm to others using an edged weapon, then Intelligence Services and Law Enforcement Agencies will always struggle to prevent such atrocity. Knives are also much more concealable which reduces the risk of detection prior to any planned attack, and no real training is required if one’s intention is to randomly attack, harm and kill innocent people. Firing a gun and hitting moving targets from a reasonable distance is not as easy as many might believe. Grabbing a well concealed knife and randomly stabbing people in a confined space is unfortunately ‘simple’. Establishing the REAL operational risks It is an unquestionable fact that operational risks and threats have partly been established based on an incorrect understanding of knife attacks, the incorrect reporting of it, as well as incorrect conclusion or interpretation of medical statements. Historically ‘knife injuries’ have been reported as ‘stab injuries’, hence we have been made to misbelieve that both mean the very same. This means one could argue the result of some risk assessments can be deemed as ‘questionable’, which subsequently at that time would have highlighted a need for stab resistant body armour in order to mitigate that precise risk. But is that really all that clear and simple? Ian Horsfall and Mathew Arnold, of the Impact and Armour Group within the Department of Engineering and Applied Science at Cranfield University (Defence Academy of the United Kingdom) wrote a comprehensive piece on ‘Protecting From Slash Knife Attacks’. A statement within this article reads: “A retrospective survey of hospital admissions data that contributed to the development of the standard suggested that 63 per cent of wounds attributable to sharp edged weapons were SLASH events.” The intention of an attacker was most likely and will most likely always be to stab a victim, however, due to the motion and movement of both the attacker and the defending person that attack is most likely to result in a slash injury! The Journal of Clinical Forensic Medicine featured an exceptionally interesting article by A. Bleetman, C. H. Watson, I. Horsfall and S. M. Champion in 2003, titled: ‘Wounding patterns and human performance in knife attacks: optimising the protection provided by knife-resistant body armour’. The following is an extract from this article: “Knife wounds to the chest comprised less than a quarter of knife wounds in the victims of edged weapon assault described in this study. Therefore, most stab wounds will not be prevented by current armour systems.” The article continues stating: “The high incidence of serious injury to the left loin is perhaps influenced by the defensive stance of the victim, who has presented the nondominant side of the body towards the

assailant… it is clear from the distribution of wounds in real-life knife attacks that antislash protection is required for the arms, neck, shoulders, and thighs. It will clearly not be possible to provide armour of any standard to protect the face and head for routine wear.” Of course, homeland security as well as private security professionals in London should be issued with conventional body armour or stab resistant vests. However, these statements and findings clearly highlight an additional operational need for slash resistant clothing, effectively protecting key arteries, muscle and tendons from laceration. The cutting of a key artery can, in fact will most likely lead to rapid blood loss, subsequent shock and ultimate death. The cutting of a specific muscle or tendon can lead to immediate immobility and leave the officer in a totally defenceless position. Slash resistant clothing can make a real difference. Offering tested, thoroughly field tested and dependable cut protection they significantly improve the personal safety of those who protect us, our infrastructure and events. From the point of the employer, cut injuries can lead to severe legal and financial repercussions. From the point of the injured professional, and depending on the level of cut injury, it can also lead to long-lasting emotional scars, ongoing distress, physical pain, and in the very worst-case scenario, death. Unless they have undergone extensive edged weapon training, most frontline professionals will, by instinct, lift their arms and hands during a potential hostile situation, in order to protect the face and head. This is nothing to be ashamed of, it is normal,

and only highly trained operators would respond differently and more effectively. However, we must understand that this very natural reaction alone will expose extremely vulnerable areas, and this is precisely where slash resistant clothing can make a potentially lifesaving difference to the wearer. RISK ASSESSMENTS Understanding the fact that being ‘slashed’ is a real operational risk and the fact that slash resistant clothing (which does not look confrontational, offensive or authoritative) is mitigating this specific risk, should most certainly be considered when conducting any future risk assessments. Each policing unit in the UK has a unique job to do and as a result there are numerous uniform entitlements for specialist roles. Requests for other items of clothing might however require the completion of another risk assessment for the activity carried out by the specialist unit, which should be endorsed by the appropriate Commander and forwarded to ‘Clothing and Equipment Group’ for consideration. Frontline professionals must of course dress appropriately for their specific job role, especially individuals engaged in covert operations where their identity must be concealed may dress to suit the circumstances. Wearing slash resistant clothing is precisely that, ‘dressing appropriately’. L





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Counter Terror Business looks at the rise and fall of facial recognition technology to improve security, and why balance is key if consent, and public acceptance, is to be reached

THE DEBATE THAT EVERYONE HAS THEIR EYES ON I n July last year, the Science and Technology Committee voiced its concern over the current state of the government’s approach to biometrics and forensics. Now, this is not a new issue, but it has undoubtedly become a more noticeable one in the last 12-18 months. In September, judges controversially ruled against a shopper who brought a legal challenge against police use of automated facial recognition technology. Ed Bridges claimed that his human rights were breached when he was photographed while Christmas shopping, echoing calls from several human rights and civil rights campaign groups that facial recognition capture is on par with the unregulated taking of DNA or fingerprints without consent.

Considered to be the first time any court in the world had considered the use of the technology, the court refused the judicial review, held in May, on all grounds, finding South Wales Police had followed the rules and their use of AFR was justified. As well as claiming that South Wales Police has been using facial recognition indiscriminately against thousands of innocent people, the argument that most stuck with the press was that the technology seriously undermines privacy in favour of government surveillance. The same issue arose the following month, when the Information Commissioner’s Office launched an investigation into the use of live facial recognition around London’s King’s Cross Estate after the technology was used without the public’s knowledge. Information E



BIOMETRICS  Commissioner Elizabeth Denham stated that she was ‘deeply concerned’ by the growing use of facial recognition in public spaces by both law enforcement agencies and the private sector. Across the pond, California has passed a bill placing a moratorium on the use of facial recognition technology by state law enforcement for the next three years. Setting a precedent for facial recognition and biometric tech use in law enforcement, the Body Camera Accountability Act seeks to prevent the misuse of body cameras, particularly through face and biometric surveillance. San Francisco and Oakland passed similar



bills previously, setting a precedent for state-wide legislation to pass. Closer to home, it was revealed at the start of 2020 that the European Union could legislate the temporary ban of facial recognition technology use in public places amid fears about creeping surveillance of European citizens. In early draft of a European commission white paper contains the option of a three-five year prohibition, to manage the risks said to be posed by the speed at which the software is being adopted. It means the technology could not be used at train stations, sport stadiums and shopping centres across the continent. The paper, seen by the news website Euractiv, states that the ‘use of facial recognition technology by private or public actors in public spaces would be prohibited for a definite period during which a sound methodology for assessing the impacts of this technology and possible risk management measures could be identified and developed’. More recently again, the Metropolitan Police Service announced that it will


begin the operational use of Live Facial Recognition (LFR) technology in specific locations across London. The use of live facial recognition technology will be intelligence-led, with senior police claiming that it will help tackle serious crime and protect the vulnerable. Police will begin operationally deploying LFR at locations where intelligence suggests we are most likely to locate serious offenders. Each deployment will have a bespoke ‘watch list’, made up of images of wanted individuals, predominantly those wanted for serious and violent offences. The Met has stressed that the announcement is not a case of technology taking over from traditional policing, but instead a system which simply gives police officers a ‘prompt’. The cameras will be clearly signposted and officers deployed to the operation will hand out leaflets about the activity. The technology, which is a standalone system, is not linked to any other imaging system, such as CCTV, body worn video or ANPR. Police say the

BIOMETRICS cameras identified 70 per cent of wanted suspects and only generated false alerts in one in 1,000 cases. However, the use of facial recognition does have its supporters. When he held the office of Home Secretary, Chancellor Sajid Javid gave his backing to the police in their trials of facial recognition cameras, despite the technology facing a legal challenge. Designed to help spot suspects in public spaces, Javid favoured the opinion that it was key that police are able to make use of the latest tools to help them solve crimes. Therefore, it was trialled by several forces, including the Metropolitan Police, at football matches, festivals and parades. Away from large organised gatherings at major events, the technology is also being rolled out at eight departure gates at Gatwick after a successful trial with easyJet. More than 20,000 passengers have already used the technology as part of that trial last year, with the airport claiming that more than 90 per cent of people interviewed by airport staff said it sped up boarding and was

THE METROPOLITAN POLICE SERVICE HAS ANNOUNCED THAT IT WILL BEGIN THE OPERATIONAL USE OF LIVE FACIAL RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY IN SPECIFIC LOCATIONS ACROSS LONDON easy to use. The airport plans to roll the technology out at eight departure gates in the North Terminal by 2022, when an extension to Pier 6 will be open. HOW IMPORTANT IS CONSENT? The difference here is the customer experience and the issue of permission. At Gatwick, the technology scans passengers’ faces and compares it to the picture on their passports, and the name on their boarding pass, both of which are also scanned. The whole process, aside from being smoother and more efficient, keeps the public in control of events. They are informed, kept aware and present during the facial scanning. The issue when the technology is used

to capture faces on CCTV to be checked in real time against watch lists, often compiled by police, is that it infringes on an individual’s right to privacy. While technological advancements are making new forms of biometric techniques available, such as behavioural biometrics, digital fingerprint based authentication is still regarded as having the highest level of maturity. Fingerprint technology has an implicit acceptance linked to the identity of the individual and delivers a lower false positive result. Facial recognition, however, when used as a stand-alone biometric, suffers from the risk of challenge and public consent to accept usage based on scenario, as seen in the case of the South Wales Police pilot program. It is essential to take a strategic approach when embracing biometric technology. This entails going back to the basics and understanding the needs of the end user, whether employee or customer, and then taking an open approach to selecting the right biometric technique, for the right use case, based on the scenario. For example, as we have established, processing a passport application is very different to crime scene DNA collection. Understandable concerns around street crime and public security are further amplified on a national level due to the potential catastrophic consequences of failed security checks. One of the most important places this can be seen is at airport security checks, with both the general public and employees keen to see security measures improve. More rigorous identification must be enforced that begins from the onboarding process, as currently passport and visa applications are based on outdated techniques such as physical IDs or even third-person referrals. This is an area where a digital identity program with high adoption levels can gain consent. The ability to gain consent really lies in providing the combination of a great digital user experience on mobile whilst ensuring a highly secure experience for the individual. The key here is that consent is easily gained if this balance can be achieved. L

This article first appeared for the Counter Terror Expo, as part of the CTB media partnership.





BREXIT Professor Anthony Glees, from the University of Buckingham, considers the various security tools the new government will have at its disposal after 31 December 2020

SECURE OR NOT SECURE? UK SECURITY IN 2020 A ny survey of the current security threats facing the UK (and how best they are to be countered after the UK has left the EU) must begin with the fixed truth that Brexit or no Brexit, the delivery of national security is one of the few core tasks of government, and if it fails to deliver it, its effectiveness and competence will (properly) be called into serious doubt. This is well understood by those hostile state and sub-state actors who aim to do us damage and is, after all, why they threaten and attack us: it is to rock governments and undermine the confidence of the public in their ability to keep us safe. It has also been well understood by every UK government since the London attacks of 2005 and, we should assume, by the new government led by Boris Johnson, after his landslide victory against Labour’s Jeremy Corbyn. It is not fanciful to see that Corbyn’s clear sympathy for groups that many British people regard as terrorist or revolutionary



played a key part in his ignominious defeat, itself a key indicator of the importance of security in our national life. After reflecting on the nature of the current and potential threats facing the UK at the start of a new decade, we move to consider the various security tools the new government will have at its disposal after 31 December 2020 (the likely date of our full departure from the European Union which will also entail our formal exit from numerous EU-facilitated security institutions and data sharing platforms: Europol, Eurojust, the European Arrest Warrant or EAW, Passenger Name Record Data, INTCEN, ECRIS, SIS I & II, Prum, and several others). There will be those who will insist that because national security was not an EU competence (as the Lisbon Treaty makes plain) and because many intelligence-led arrangements are bilateral and, in any case, the UK prospers from its ongoing participation in the ‘Five Eyes’ intelligence sharing partnership, Brexit itself

NATIONAL SECURITY makes no difference to our national security position. Indeed, a few angry voices, such as those of Sir Richard Dearlove, former head of SIS or Richard Walton, former Met chief, either insisted the UK would be more secure postBrexit or that tools we shared via our EU membership, for example Europol, would be unaffected. The current Home Secretary, Priti Patel, has suggested that Europol could easily be replaced by Interpol as an agency promoting police intelligence sharing after 2020. As we shall see, the argument that Brexit may make little difference to our security toolkit is perhaps not incorrect but not because such ‘ourselves alone’ claims are correct (they are not) but because the delivery of national security is so vital to any government, however ideological, that when push comes to shove it is unthinkable that the new tools that have been constructed over the past decade together with our former EU partners will not, in some form or another, be given new life. There are very few current security or intelligence chiefs who have not spoken out in favour of very close sharing relationships post-Brexit, including the outgoing heads of MI5 and SIS, and for a very good reason. THE SCALE OF THE THREAT First, however, key incidents over the past year or so demonstrate beyond any question that the UK faces major national security threats (officially described currently as ‘substantial’

rather than ‘severe’, a change made, somewhat fatefully just before the second Islamist attack at London Bridge at the end of November 2019). They emanate from internal and external sources, from home-grown and foreign actors, from domestic subversive organisations as well as state actors, in particular (as our intelligence chiefs state publicly) Russia (responsible for the attack on Sergei Skripal in Salisbury in early 2018), Iran and China - albeit all behaving differently when it comes to killings in the UK but in similar ways where digital subversive activity is concerned. What we can see at once is that foreign states impact gravely on our national security coming at us from outside our own borders, not least (but also not only) in cyber space. In the case of Russia, its intelligence officers feel entitled to come to our shores and assassinate their targets over here (the Salisbury attack is but one in a long and depressing series over the past decade). At a stroke it becomes plain that to counter this, our foreign intelligence service, SIS, is as much part of the picture as our domestic one, MI5 and why it is that both must work intimately with our cyber intelligence agency, GCHQ and with the counter-terror police. But we are not talking only about states. Sub-state networks and individuals from home and abroad, both Islamist and neo-Nazi, represent real threats to our national security.

In today’s global environment, linked by digital highways by electronic media, an evil individual in one country can be inspired to murder and maim by real-time video shots of killings by another individual whom they do not know on the other side of the world. The neoNazi ideology (grounded in Fascist Hitler worship) is as dangerous as (if mercifully less widespread) than Islamist ideology (grounded in a cult of violence and killing). The message for the new interconnected decade is all current threats exist in a domestic and foreign context, and all are international and transnational in all key respects. ‘Home and abroad’ have lost all meaning in this sphere. In January 2020 a 17-year-old man (who cannot be named) was jailed for six years for planning a neoNazi terror attack in Durham which included setting fire to synagogues. He was inspired by Anders Breivik the Norwegian neo-Nazi who murdered 77 people in 2011, and was obsessed with the history of the Third Reich. Just a few weeks earlier, at the end of November 2019, a British Muslim, Usman Khan, killed two on London Bridge. Khan had been jailed in 2012 for being a member of a nine-man Al Qaeda group (inspired by Osama Bin Laden) that had planned to bomb the Stock Exchange (this followed the 2017 London Bridge attack in which five victims and three attackers died). E



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NATIONAL SECURITY  THE EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE Beyond our shores, a lone Islamist attacker in Paris killed one person and wounded another almost exactly five years after the 2015 attack on the Charlie Hebdo magazine when two Islamist brothers killed twelve, itself preceded by the Bataclan attack two years earlier that had killed 60 in Paris. In the Autumn of 2019, Germany had to confront the murder of two people at a synagogue in Halle, eastern Germany, by a neo-Nazi gunman whilst the trial began in Chemnitz, also in eastern Germany, of eight neo-Nazis who were planning a rampage in Berlin. In Hungary, a neo-Nazi mob attacked a Jewish centre in Budapest. It is not surprising that we were told (in May 2019) by the then Home Secretary Sajid Javid and the UK’s counter-terror chief, Neil Basu, that ‘the tempo of terror attacks is increasing’, that in the period 2017-2019, 19 major attacks had been thwarted, of which 14 were Islamist and five neo-Nazi. Just two years earlier, Sir Andrew Parker the director general of MI5 stated that 20 terror attacks had been foiled in the previous four years, many through ‘early intervention’ and that 379 terror related arrests had been in the same period. He added that seven attacks had been disrupted in the previous seven months, of which four had been Islamist and one neo-Nazi. 3,000 individuals were being investigated in 500 ‘live’ operations at that time. Noting that ‘terror breeds terror’ Parker concluded that this was a ‘scale and pace we have not seen before’ and that this was a ‘long haul for the UK’. Various estimates suggest there are from 23,000-35,000 potential jihadists in the UK; some 30,000 European Muslims travelled to fight for the so-called Islamic State (of whom 5-6,000 came from the UK, of these some 30 per cent had returned to the UK; yet only 25 per cent of the returnees were investigated and a handful restrained in some way). Whilst it would be right to point out that, individually, none of these terror attacks resulted in large-scale deaths and even more important to emphasise that the vast majority of terror attacks in Europe were successfully disrupted by security forces before they could be launched, it is equally correct to highlight the fact that terror attacks, from Islamists and neo-Nazis are rapidly becoming established as serious national security threats across Europe. Small wonder then that the UK’s key current and former security heads (of MI5, SIS and GCHQ) have made speeches since Brexit stressing the importance of transnational cooperation and the need to recreate existing EU tools after 2021 precisely because they are convinced

they are needed. Even Sajid Javid (by this stage an ardent Brexiter) made it clear in his May 2019 speech that ‘whatever the outcome from Brexit we will continue to work together with partners’ adding that ‘in the event of a no-deal Brexit the UK and Germany would intensify cooperation and swiftly conclude any necessary bilateral security arrangements’. It is obvious that when the UK has finally left the EU, almost certainly on 31 December 2020, we will have to find effective and robust ways of replicating these key relationships that are consistent with the decision to quit the EU. Assuming that the deal negotiated by Boris Johnson is in most respect similar to Theresa May’s (we cannot yet be certain) what must be re-invented over the next year (a very tall order) will include: re-entry into Europol (perhaps as a third country under a bespoke agreement) to provide access to its data-sharing systems, SIENA I & II and its extradition arrangements, especially the European Arrest Warrant (the EAW). 40 per cent of Europol’s case work has a UK focus, some 2,500 UK cases have cross-border implications; the UK (in 2018) was involved in 40 major joint Europol investigations; from 2009-2017 the UK extradited 8,000 EU citizens via the EAW, receiving almost 1,000 by the same process of whom 300 were UK nationals. Without the EAW extradition would take three times as long and cost four times as much. The UK accessed the SIENA systems, which had 76,000,000 alerts on it, 539,000,000 times in 2017, and it registered 9,832 UK hits of which 94 per cent involved terrorists and sex offenders. In 2016 alone ECRIS, the criminal investigation data base passed to the UK 155,000 cases of criminal

convictions handed down outside the UK but of interest to the UK. It is of course true that the EU27 have benefited hugely from the UK contribution; the UK spends a vast amount on its intelligence and security work and has shared the fruits very generously with them. In 2019 alone the UK sent 30,000 conviction notices to ECRIS (receiving 16,000 in return). Whilst things do not always flow smoothly (we have been told that for five years errors in the system meant we failed to send the system notices of 75,000 convictions) in general the UK is regarded as a key partner. For every one person arrested under the EAW issued to the UK, eight are arrested by the UK for the EU; and the UK has had the largest single liaison bureau in Europol (with seventeen full time officers). As we look to the post-Brexit future, only a fool could believe that the institutions developed on a platform provided by the EU had not helped keep us safe and were not worth preserving in one form or another. As the previous Prime Minister, Theresa May, concluded at the Munich Security Conference on 17 February 2018 ‘our ability to keep people safe depends ever more on our working together’. Even if this contradicted the Brexit narrative at the time, to ignore this would not just be to defy common sense and ignore the evidence, it would increase, dramatically, the risk to our people. Our security community has done a relatively good job to keep us ever more safe since 2005. This should not be thrown away. L




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