Counter Terror Business 40

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THE REALITIES OF TERROR How does it feel to become a victim of terror? This is just one question set to be answered at the International Security Expo

Ambipar Response – the Response Organization of choice Ambipar Response has earned a global reputation for quality and effectiveness in delivering incident preparedness, management and response services In this interview, C.E.O. of Ambipar Response UK and European operations, Zäl Rustom, talks through the history of the company from its early routes in oil spill response in South Wales as DV Howells, through its development with Braemar Seascope and Braemar Shipping, to its recent acquisition by the Brazilian multi‑sector operator Grupo Ambipar, to form one of the world’s largest Commercial Response Organizations. Ambipar Response is a specialist and niche service provider that acts in support of the government, local authority, emergency services, industry, commerce and those responsible for safeguarding critical national infrastructure. Zäl explains that while Ambipar Response is primarily a response organization, a significant part of their scope of work involves a wider engagement cycle of risk and threat identification and assessment. This brings in areas of emergency management preparedness, response, control and event mitigation, with experienced personnel also T: +44 (0)203 981 4388 E:

providing essential Business Continuity guidance to enable speedy recovery from an adverse incident or event and return to normal operating. Ambipar Response undertakes training and competency building at each of these stages. For more than 70 years, working at Government, Corporate and Operational levels, Ambipar Response has helped build resilient organizations and communities. Its global experience has provided a unique understanding of all that is required to successfully prepare for and respond to a diverse range of incidents. In this next step in its development, Ambipar Response intends to become the Commercial Response Organization of choice.

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A theme running though this year’s International Security Expo is the ‘realities of terror’.







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THE REALITIES OF TERROR How does it feel to become a victim of terror? This is just one question set to be answered at the International Security Expo

Figen Murray, a mother devastated by the loss of her son in the Manchester Arena bombing, is the headline speaker of the show, sharing her experience with delegates. Open to all attendees, her keynote will also see her present her campaign for more rigorous checks at venues, under the name Martyn’s Law. Find out more on page 13. Alongside our partnership to the main show, Counter Terror Business is the Lead Media Partner to the Global Counter Terrorism Summit, an application only event looking at current priorities, the changing nature of counter terrorism in the UK and the pressures on those keeping us safe. Within this issue we also have interviews with Chris Tsikolis, head of Security & Business Resilience at the Victoria & Victoria Westminster Business Improvement Districts, and Darren Henaghan, managing director at Borough Market, about their presentations at the International Security Expo. Read the interviews on pages 19 and 25 respectively. Make sure to come and see us on Stand A82 on 3 December. Michael Lyons, editor

ONLINE // MOBILE // FACE TO FACE To register for your FREE Digital Subscription of Counter Terror Business, go to: or contact Public Sector Information, 226 High Road, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 PUBLISHED BY PUBLIC SECTOR INFORMATION LIMITED

226 High Rd, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 Web: EDITOR Michael Lyons PRODUCTION MANAGER Dan Kanolik PRODUCTION DESIGN Joanna Golding PRODUCTION CONTROL Lucy Maynard WEB PRODUCTION Victoria Casey BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER Martin Freedman PUBLISHER Jake Deadman ADMINISTRATION Charlotte Boudaboussa

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CONTENTS CTB 40 06 CTB NEWS The UK’s terrorism threat level has been reduced to Substantial; plus the government’s independent advisor on extremism has called on the leaders of the three main political parties to make a clear commitment to challenging hateful extremism

13 ISE 2019 Sponsored By International Security Expo is fast approaching, with the show returning to London’s Olympia in December. With a month until the event begins, Philip Ingram provides an update on what content streams will be dominant and what sessions to look out for

19 ISE 2019 Sponsored By Ahead of the International Security Expo, Counter Terror Business talks to Chris Tsikolis, head of Security & Business Resilience at the Victoria & Victoria Westminster Business Improvement Districts, about collaboration and business continuity

25 ISE 2019 Sponsored By Each type of crowded place brings with it its own unique challenges when it comes to protecting the public and remaining open. Darren Henaghan, managing director at Borough Market, discusses protecting crowded places

31 TERRORISM IN THE UK Steven Greer, Professor of Human Rights at the University of Bristol Law School, looks at the development of countering terrorism in the UK, from the ‘Troubles’ in Northern Ireland to the Islamic Jihadi threat

36 PERIMETER SECURITY Perimeter Protection, the international exhibition for perimeter protection, fencing and building security, will be held for the sixth time at the Exhibition Centre Nuremberg in January 2020. Counter Terror Business previews the show

39 PHYSICAL SECURITY With the Extinction Rebellion protests dominating headlines recently, Iain Moran discusses how physical security solutions can protect nonviolent protestors without unduly draining public resources

43 CYBER SECURITY Sponsored By When is a group classified as a terrorist and when is the online activity defined as terrorism? Dr Tine Munk, lecturer in Criminology at Middlesex University’s School of Law, discusses

47 ONLINE CONTENT Amy-Louise Watkin and Joe Whittaker look at the interface between terrorism and the internet, and whether big tech companies should be doing more to to tackle online propaganda and the rise in digital radicalisation

Counter Terror Business magazine // ISSUE 39 | COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS MAGAZINE



Terrorism threat downgraded to ‘substantial’ The Home Office has announced that the UK threat level from terrorism has been reduced to Substantial - meaning an attack is likely. The UK was last at Substantial level in August 2014. Since then it has been at Severe, rising briefly to Critical on two occasions in May and September 2017 following terrorist attacks on UK soil, notably after the Manchester Arena bombing on 22 May 2017. The decision to lower the assessment from Severe – meaning an attack is highly likely - was made by the Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre, an independent body of experts who evaluate available intelligence alongside terrorist capability and intentions. In July this year the threat level system was changed to reflect all forms of

and, coupled with an election, our towns and cities will be extremely busy. So we appeal to everyone to please remain vigilant and if you see something that doesn’t seem right, act and contact police at In an emergency always call 999. Officers will continue to monitor the threat locally and respond appropriately. There will not be any change to our levels of commitment when it comes to protecting our communities.” Substantial is the third of five ratings at which the threat level can stand. The separate terrorism threat level for Northern Ireland remains Severe.




Leaders must commit to challenging hateful extremism

Call for evidence launched on improving cyber security

Sara Khan, the government’s independent advisor on extremism, has called on the leaders of the three main political parties to make a clear commitment to challenging hateful extremism. Following the recent release of the Commission for Countering Extremism’s report Challenging Hateful Extremism, Khan has written to Boris Johnson, Jeremy Corbyn and Jo Swinson arguing that the ‘country’s response to hateful extremism is weak, insufficient and often ineffective’. The aforementioned report, published in October, lifted the lid on the deep harm to individuals, communities and society caused by those who incite or amplify hatred, engage in persistent hatred or who make the moral case for violence. Khan describes this as hateful extremism, and argues that we need to be quicker to identify hateful extremism, get better at protecting victims and do more to


terrorism,including from right and left wing terrorism. Assistant Commissioner Neil Basu, who leads on Counter Terrorism Policing, said: “The reduction to ‘Substantial’ indicates positive developments in reducing the threat from terrorism but still means an attack is likely. Counter Terrorism Policing has around 800 live CT investigations nationally and 24 attack plots have been thwarted since the atrocity in Westminster in March 2017. So it is vital that we all maintain a high level of vigilance and continue to invest in strong protective security measures to deter future attacks. “Police need the continued support of the public and all our partners. The festive period is fast approaching

challenge hateful extremists themselves. Polling carried out by the Commission for Countering Extremism last year found that 73 per cent of people want to see more done to challenge extremism. In the letter Sara Khan sets out the threat of hateful extremism: “Hateful extremism is undermining the social fabric of our country and is having a devastating impact on the lives of individuals, communities and the country as a whole. Having gathered extensive research from across the country over the last 18 months, my report Challenging Hateful Extremism makes clear inaction is quite simply not an option. My independent Commission has put forward recommendations for how to do more to tackle it that your party should adopt in government.”



As part of the government’s current review of cyber security incentives and regulations, Digital Minister Matt Warman has launched a call for evidence to seek views from across the industry. The review will look at how the government can help organisations protect themselves online, and aims to understand the barriers which prevent organisations from improving their cyber security, the effectiveness of existing regulations and guidance including GDPR and NIS, as well as develop a range of policy proposals to address any gaps. Warman said: “Good cyber security is an absolute necessity but recent research shows less than a fifth of company boards understand the impact associated with cyber threat. I hope this review will encourage the industry to think about what government could do to help and what incentives might encourage firms and businesses to manage their cyber risk. By driving cyber security improvements across the whole economy we can help make the UK the safest place to live and do business online.”



MI5 investigation suspension ‘of legitimate concern’

The chief coroner for England and Wales has said that the suspension of priority MI5 investigations into the ringleader of the London Bridge attacks before the atrocity is a matter of ‘legitimate public concern’. Mark Lucraft QC’s prevention of future deaths report raises a number of other concerns about the actions

of the security services before the attacks, as well as the response by emergency services on the night. MI5 had been been investigating lead attacker Khuram Butt since 2015 over concerns he wanted to stage an attack. But the investigation was suspended twice, in 2016 and again



MI5 to increase monitoring after death of ISIS leader British intelligence agencies are carrying out increased monitoring of subjects of interest after the death of the Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, to safeguard against the possibility of revenge attacks in the UK. On 28 October, US President Donald Trump told press outside the White House that Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, who came to prominence in Iraq and Syria in 2014, detonated his suicide vest after fleeing into a tunnel, chased by US military dogs. The announcement has seen as a major victory for the US, UK and all of their allies, at a time when Trump faces heavy criticism for his decision to pull US troops out of northern Syria. The response to his death by MI5 is believed to cover approximately 3,000 people in the UK and abroad who are believed by the intelligence agency to have connections to ISIS or who could be inspired by the group to launch terrorist attacks in Britain. Despite the heightened surveillance, there are no plans to adjust the overall threat level, which remains at severe, to critical, when an attack is deemed ‘highly likely in the near future’. This means that a terrorist attack is still considered highly likely by the intelligence agencies. ISIS remains the most prominent threat to the UK, even though it had already been dramatically weakened before the death of Baghdadi.


from 21 March to 4 May 2017, weeks before the attacks. The 27-year-old then drove a van into pedestrians on London Bridge and then began stabbing people in a 10-minute rampage. Lucraft has recommended: fresh laws on possessing the most serious material that glorifies or encourages terrorism; improving communications and co-working between MI5 and counterterrorism police officers working on the same investigation; improving facilities for translating communications received from foreign security and intelligence services; increasing flexibility of the emergency response to marauding terrorist attacks; and enhancing the first aid capabilities and equipment of either police officers generally or certain categories of officers.


£2m contracts to counter hostile drone threats

The Defence and Security Accelerator has announced it has awarded nearly £2 million to develop new capabilities to detect, disrupt, and defeat the hostile and malicious use of drones. In total, 18 bids have been funded as part of the Countering Drones competition launched earlier this year by the former Defence Secretary. Among the proposal being developed are methods for detecting 4G and 5G controlled drones, cutting edge applications of machine learning and artificial intelligence for sensors to automatically identify UAVs, and low risk methods of stopping drones through novel electronic defeat or interceptor solutions. The competition has also been supported by the Department for Transport and NATO to counter the rapidly evolving threats from UAS. The high level of interest from industry has led to a doubling of initial

funding from around £1 million to around £2 million being awarded to organisations in Phase 1. David Lugton, competition technical lead, said: “The introduction of Unmanned Air Systems (UAS), often referred to as drones, has been one of the most significant technological advances of recent years and represents a shift in capability of potential adversaries. “The threat from UAS has evolved rapidly and we are seeing the use of hostile improvised UAS threats in overseas theatres of operation. There is a similar problem in the UK with the malicious or accidental use of drones becoming a security challenge at events, affecting critical infrastructure and public establishments; including prisons and major UK airports.”




Drones: the new emergency service resource Drones have the potential to support emergency services and counter terrorism operations. However, to reach their full potential and support both planned events and emergencies they must be able to communicate with the authorities responsible for airspace operations and respond to airspace changes in real-time Frequentis has over 70 years of safetycritical communications experience for a number of domains, including public safety and air traffic management (ATM). Getting flight plans approved may appear extremely complicated, but by understanding flight procedures and regulations it is possible to connect the public safety control room with air traffic control, to enable adhoc flight permissions with a high degree of automation. One of the ways this is achieved is with Frequentis’ partner, drone integration service provider, Altitude Angel, who developed the GuardianUTM

(unmanned traffic management) platform as a gateway for drone operators to access the airspace and interface with air traffic control and pilots in real-time. It is also possible for flight requests to be automatically permitted or rejected in the application, based pre-defined flight zones. Such applications can be integrated into Frequentis’ communication, situational awareness and control room solutions. This allows both normal drone functionality, including live streaming, communication, and location tracking, as well as flight plan management to be completed by one system at the touch of a button.




19-20 November 2019, Paris-Nord, Villepinte

10-11 March 2020 Ricoh Arena, Coventry

Milipol Paris is the leading event dedicated to homeland security and safety. The 21st edition will be held on 19-22 November 2019 at Paris-Nord Villepinte Exhibition Centre. In 2017, the event attracted no fewer than 1,005 exhibitors from 53 countries, 29,939 visitors from 151 countries and 161 official delegations from 77 countries. The event is organised under the auspices of the French Ministry of Interior in partnership with several governmental bodies. For many decades Milipol Paris has enjoyed a worldwide status as the leading event dedicated to the security profession. It provides the perfect forum for presenting the latest technological innovations in the area, effectively meeting the needs of the sector as a whole and also addressing current threats and dangers.

INTERNATIONAL SECURITY EXPO 3-4 December 2019, Olympia, London

International Security Expo, formerly UK Security Expo showcases over 1,000 of the latest innovative security products to help you improve your security. The show is free-to-attend and unites the entire security community allowing shared learning and collaboration from government, CNI, law enforcement, military, major events, transport and borders, cyber security, facilities and public and private sectors. Featured over the two days are 13 free to attend, CPD certified conferences and workshops covering every major sector of the security industry. 2018 saw ground-breaking, innovative features including the 300 SQM Protecting Urban Spaces Demonstrator designed to help every security professional understand how best to protect crowded spaces.

The BAPCO Annual Conference & Exhibition is a crucial event for everyone that is involved in critical communications and public safety solutions. Taking place in conjunction with TCCA’s Critical Communications Europe (CC Europe) at the Ricoh Arena, Coventry, UK, on the 10-11 March 2020. Alongside a plethora of the latest technology and solutions from top suppliers and expert led conference sessions on the latest topics, BAPCO with CC Europe 2020 will have more interactive features than ever. As a key media partner for the event, CTB previews the show, the keynote speakers and sessions.

COUNTER TERROR EXPO 19-21 May 2020 ExCel London

Now in its 12th year, the Counter Terror Expo (CTX) is the UK’s leading networking event for security professionals from industry, infrastructure, government and policing. It’s where they come to discover new ideas and technology to improve security and aid in the fight against terrorism. In partnership with its sister events the World Counter Terror Congress, Forensics Europe Expo and Ambition, CTX brings together the world of security, preparedness, resilience and response under one roof. As the Premier Media and Content Partner for the event, CTB previews the conference sessions, keynote speakers and the latest product developments and innovations that we can expect from the globally recognised exhibitors.





BEST PRACTICES TO ENSURE NO-ONE IS LEFT BEHIND IN AN ATTACK During a terrorist incident where there is a threat to life it is vital that the authorities communicate effectively with the affected population, in order to minimise injury or loss of life and facilitate an effective response and recovery plan In fact, this is no longer an option since December 2018 when Article 110 of the European Electronics Communication Code (EECC) was passed. The Code requires each EU Member State to implement a Public Warning System (PWS) by June 2022 and specifically requires the system to be capable of reaching 95 per cent of the population using the mobile phone network, targeting the affected population to avoid widespread panic, delivering messages without the need for opt-in, communicating with overseas visitors in their local language and allowing for easy two-way communication. In response to terrorism and other threats, several European countries have taken steps to implement a national public warning system. Yet, most countries do not have a system in place. The clock is ticking and with the likelihood of further terrorist activity and the increase in extreme weather events across Europe there are many compelling reasons for governments to act now. So how can public agencies, PSAP’s, mobile network operators and technology providers collaborate to meet the deadline? Today, countries that currently rely on opted-in mobile apps or social media for

public warning are not compliant with the code and are not providing an effective PWS. If the objective is to ‘leave no-one behind’ when a major incident is declared, then best practice would suggest it should allow for communication across all phases of an incident from planning the response to sending the all clear. At each stage addressing these questions: Who can help? Who is Impacted? Who needs to know? For example, it might be necessary to evacuate but what about citizens with special needs e.g. the elderly or those who cannot leave their homes? Managing the response and being able to identify and reach the people with the right skills and request the right equipment at the right time will ensure that resources are deployed quickly and effectively – and not unnecessarily. To achieve this requires a holistic approach and experts agree that no single communication method should be relied on. According to the latest report from the European Electronic Number Association (EENA): “For the delivery of public warning, there appears to be no single solution that fits all the requirements for the timely notification of an emergency incident or situation. Therefore, a Public Warning System ought to be a blend of the best attributes of the existing technologies, adapted to the particular demands of the country or territory in question.” PUBLIC WARNING SYSTEMS Communication via mobile phones is a requirement of the EECC Directive and sending alerts to mobile phones can be done in two ways. Cell Broadcast is fast but cannot reliably reach all mobile users. LocationBased SMS can reach 100 per cent of mobile devices and with two-way communication but is not as fast as Cell Broadcast. However, it is possible with Location-Based SMS to determine how many people are in an area and monitor movements over time helping to assess the success of evacuations. So, given these constraints of mobile

phone alerts we need a change in current thinking away from simply choosing a national PWS based on Cell Broadcast or Location-Based SMS. A platform approach that combines the capabilities of all channels is the best way forward. Firstly, it is vital that countries consider the type of incidents that are most likely to occur regionally or nationally based on their national risk register, then plan for communications with all stakeholders at each phase of the incident. An effective PWS will combine all sources of data, including national registers, opted in services as well as cell broadcast or locationbased SMS capabilities, email, voice messages and apps. Then technology like that provided by Everbridge can calculates and automate the best way to send out public warning messages to the right people at the right time using a mix of those communications technologies. CONCLUSION Whatever channels are used, the Public Warning System should operate seamlessly and reliably for the agencies who send the public warning messages and the public who receives them. The Everbridge public warning platform is used by more countries than any other provider including Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Greece, Singapore, India and Australia to respond to major incidents and keep their populations safe. To help project teams understand the requirements of the EECC Code and best practices for public warning we’ve prepared a useful guide, Public Warning Systems: Reaching People When It Matters Most’. To request your copy or for more information, visit us during the International Security Expo or email the address below. L

Everbridge Stand G80




Heavy investment enables Eagle to soar • 01992 524800 • The Clarke deal along with the earlier acquisition of IP rights to the APT Security PAS68-rated and impact-tested security systems has extended Eagle’s range to a full portfolio of gates, barriers, blockers, bollards, turnstiles, street furniture and even cycle hoops. Investment in global relationships has seen Eagle deliver solutions throughout Australasia, UAE, South East Asia, North America and the UK in the past 12 months.

An unrivalled range of accredited high security products is the promise Eagle Automation Systems has made to the counter terror community, governments, security forces, architects and security consultants combatting the threat of terrorism. Perimeter protection manufacturer Eagle has invested heavily in acquisitions, new products, a new factory, global relationships and accreditation testing to ensure they are always moving forward and reacting to market needs and client expectations. Eagle’s new 430sqm factory, a third unit at their Essex headquarters, includes a 5-tonne overhead gantry crane and ample space for increased production capacity and multiple product factory tests. Indeed, just this month the first 50mph PAS68 gate rolled off the new assembly line before heading to Singapore for installation. Earlier this year, Eagle bought the intellectual property (IP) rights for a range of SR1, 2, 3 and 4 and CPNI rated turnstiles from the Clarke Instruments administration. Eagle MD David Ashby says: “Clarke was a great business with the widest range of rated turnstiles and, to be frank, the industry would be at a loss without it. So, we are currently going through the audits with the Buildings Research Establishment (BRE) to novate the ratings across to Eagle, including an SR5 turnstile that Clarke never got Red Book listed, and intend to launch the full range at the International Security Expo (ISEC) at Kensington Olympia in December.” The new range of turnstiles will be both on Eagle’s stand at ISEC and feature as part of the BRE’s Live Attack Zone.

Eagle has just completed placing a range of PAS68 solutions amid challenging ground conditions in Queensland, Australia, to secure King George Square, in front of Brisbane City Hall, which hosts so many of Brisbane’s major public events. (pictured top left) Similarly, the new Dubai Arena, a multipurpose indoor arena that can house an audience of 20,000, is protected by a combination of 600 Eagle static and removable PAS68 bollards. Eagle has secured a series of critical sites in Singapore with local partners after the Infrastructure Protection Act was passed a year or so ago: bollards for Singapore Power; PAS68 gates for SingTel; and a major data centre project, where Eagle was the only manufacturer with bi-folding gates that give less than 1m penetration at both 40mph and 50mph impact in independent PAS68 tests. It is also producing similar PAS68 bi‑folding gates to MI Crime Lab in the USA and is currently manufacturing its iconic Lockdown gates for the Toronto Maple Leafs MLSE Stadium in Canada. That technology is a variant of the ‘Westminster Lockdown’ hostile vehicle mitigation (HVM) gates which were first deployed last year to protect

Managing Di rector of Eagle Autom ation Ltd

more than 50 international leaders attending the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. They have since been deployed for a number of Westminster ceremonial occasions, not least June’s State visit by US President Donald Trump and previously the Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM). The measures are being expanded as part of a wider ceremonial streetscape project across Westminster as interest grows in aesthetic and innovative designs to counter the Vehicle As a Weapon (VAW) threat without turning cities into fortresses. Ashby says: “Our brief was to create a simple, low-cost lockdown gate to block a road up to 8m wide and that could blend in beautifully in any architectural environment. They also wanted the hanging and closing posts to be removable, so the gates could be either permanent or temporary.” The technology has also been used elsewhere in London, in historic Windsor, in Solihull and in Australia.Elsewhere in the UK, Eagle has protected the expected 30million annual visitors to the newlyopened £600m extension to Westfield London with bollards and road blockers, (pictured below) and are currently in the process of delivering Manchester Airport’s extension with bollards and Lockdown gates and has been awarded a contract to secure an EFL Championship stadium with Lockdown gates. Ashby concludes: “We will continue to invest heavily in research and development in response to changing terror threats and customer needs. And we promise to keep growing our unrivalled range of HVM products for our counter-terror, government, consultant and architect customers.”


The 2019 iteration of International Security Expo is fast approaching, with the show returning to London’s Olympia on 3 December. With less than a month until the event begins, Philip Ingram provides an update

INTERNATIONAL SECURITY EXPO: IT IS UNMISSABLE E xhibitions and conferences are great to bring the widest possible security community together to see the latest equipment, discuss the latest policies and share case studies. But at the end of the day, the measurement of success for a security or counter terror professional is when nothing happens. So, what is it like when terror strikes at the very heart of your being? How does it make you feel as a human being when you become a victim of terror? How do you deal with it at the time and rebuild your life back to a semblance of normality after life changing events? A theme running though this year’s International Security Expo in London Olympic on 3-4 December 2019, is the ‘realities of terror.’ Figen Murry, a mother devastated by the loss of her son, Martyn, in the Manchester Arena bombing. Peter Cooke, taken hostage whilst a contractor in Iraq. Helen Scott, living under Pan Am Flight 103 that came down

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on Lockerbie all those years ago. They are all victims of the horror that terror causes, they will all put the innovation, best practice and technologies on display, into the context of the human cost if it goes wrong. They are the reason why this is a must attend event; they put into context all of the effort and work security professionals, public or private, embody and they are the reason why the measurement of success in the security industry is nothing happens. They all in some way were failed. The realities of terror theme is merely one theme and this year’s extensive content programme contains two high level summits on Global Counter Terrorism followed by International Serious and Organised Crime. Led by the organisations responsible for dealing with and advising on these issues, Counter Terror Police UK, the FBI, the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, the Cabinet Office, National Crime Agency, RUSI and more. E



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 CONTENT-DRIVEN CONFERENCES Complementing the high-level summits are a series of conferences covering International Forensics, Cyber Security, Aviation and Transport Security, Protecting Crowded Places, Designing in Security and Crisis Management and Business Continuity. Again, organisations responsible are taking a leading role in setting the foundation for these conferences with the likes of the Home Office Forensic Science Regulator, the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC), Department for Transport (DfT), Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), International Maritime Organisation (IMO), Her Majesty’s Prison and Probation Service (HMPPS) and more, all taking leading roles. However, that’s not all of the content. A two-day dedicated Drone workshop will hear developments in drone and almost more importantly counter drone technologies from those that provide them and all of the other technologies and capabilities on display have the opportunity to speak in a dedicated technology workshop. Talking about tech is not always the answer and from the moment people arrive at Olympia the entrance security processes will be demonstrating solutions with technology designed by Rapiscan and the methodology behind the demonstrator provided by the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure’s (CPNI). This is the first of the live

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capabilities being demonstrated whilst also providing secure access to the event. An old favourite, the LPCB Live Product Test Lab, will be drilling, cutting and smashing physical security products throughout the two days of the show; demonstrating the capability of properly designed security products which have undergone the rigorous

testing and passed the assessments conducted by LPCB experts. Border Force demonstrator will showcase an immersive life-sized sea container unveiling the ingenuous realities of how serious and organised criminal entities frequently exploit containers to move illicit goods across border. Dealing with terror realities is the subject of the Counter Explosive Ordinance demonstrator which will engage a practical view of what the bomb disposal operators call ‘The Long Walk’. This immersive training demonstrator will bring reality closer than ever before. Through a series of virtual reality training scenarios visitors will be able to immerse themselves in a crime scene carefully looking for and collecting evidence in the latest tool to help train professionals, fielded by Leicestershire Fire on a national remit. All of this is great if the audience is right. Many events struggle to keep fresh numbers dwindle but not with the International Security Expo. Year on year since its launch it has grow; grown in content, grown in exhibitors and grown in visitors with the international percentage of visitors steadily creeping up. There will be formal delegations from over 50 countries, brought to the event and hosted by the Department for International Trade, Defence and Security Organisation (DIT DSO). International content will filter throughout the exhibition coming from Europe, Australia, the USA, Canada, Nigeria and more, with country pavilions from Canada, the USA and the EU. How critical are our trade relations with their areas in a possible immediate post Brexit era?E




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A memorial to the victims of the Manchester Arena attack, in which 22 people died. Figen Murry, who lost her son Martyn in the attack, will be speaking at the show.

 DIT DSO is merely one element of a huge amount of government support and almost every level of related government departments and many organisations and agencies will be at the event, not just visiting, but with a presence on the expo floor, in the Government and Agency Zone, ready to engage with visitors to learn about new capabilities and update on their requirements. Such is the commitment of many of the government departments and organisations, they are happy to be ‘partners’ of the event and we are confident that the Government and Agency zone is the largest, best represented in any open security related event. In addition to many of the organisations that have been mentioned already, we see representation from the Cabinet Office through the Home Office and JSaRC, NaCTSO, British Transport Police (BTP), the Civil Nuclear Constabulary (CNC), Defence and Security Accelerator (DASA), Defence Scientific and Technical Laboratories (DSTL) and so many more. OPPORTUNITIES GALORE The event partners with many of the security industries professional bodies, including ASIS with its international reach, and The Security Institute who are offering CPD credits for attending and are once again brining their ‘NextGen’ initiative to the event. 50 or so police cadets who are still at school will be taken on a hosted tour to show these potential security professionals of the future the vast range of opportunities from the technical through to law enforcement all available under the banner of Security. With the realities of terror and innovation threads running through the overarching theme of Design, Secure, Respond, over 375 exhibitors are expected at Olympia for the two days of the event. Those exhibitors, the international delegations and the

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COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS IS THE LEAD MEDIA PARTNER FOR THE GLOBAL COUNTER TERROR SUMMIT ON 3 DECEMBER 2019 AT OLYMPIA, AS PART OF THE INTERNATIONAL SECURITY EXPO wider ranging content programme are expected to attract over 13,000 visitors. The two summits are ‘by application only’ so early registration and application to attend is essential. They are expected to be very heavily oversubscribed. Last year many of the conferences were standing room only and numbers meant there were queues. The new CPNI designed entrance will deal with those but early registration and early attendance on each day are the only ways to deal with the others. It is worth noting that the International Security Expo is co-located with the International Disaster Response Expo, launched last year but focusing on the massive good delivered across the globe by DFID and International Non-Government Organisations (INGOs). Whilst a separate event with its own conferences and exhibition, the cross over in technologies and processes is huge in some areas, communications, critical event planning and drones are all perfect examples of this. The good thing is one ticket gets free access to both events. The International Security Expo with the co-located International Disaster Response Expo complement the suite of events now owned by the Nineteen Group. The new The Security Event at the NEC in Birmingham, launched this year, has already massively outgrown its launch footprint and has brought an event focused on the channel market back to the heart of the UK in Birmingham. It has co-located Fire, Health and Safety and Facilities events and the most recent acquisition by the Nineteen Group was the Emergency Services Show - another Midlands

based event that ensures a mutually complementary suite of exhibitions and conferences delivering real effect. Peter Jones, the CEO of the Nineteen Group sums up the reason why he has built the Nineteen Group this way when he said in a recent interview: “My main motivation is to add something back, helping make the world a little bit safer for my family and in reality, for everyone. It makes leaving the house each morning to do something that helps pay the mortgage a pleasure, rather than a necessity.” It is that ethos of making a difference that is what the International Security Expo and the others are all about. The question is not ‘am I available on 3-4 Dec 2019 to attend the International Security Expo’, it is ‘how many of my team can I take to cover the fantastic content and make best use of the huge number of exhibitors and visitors’. There won’t be another opportunity to get so many relevant contacts in one place. Can you afford not to be there? L

Counter Terror Business is the lead media partner for the Global Counter Terror Summit on 3 December 2019 at Olympia, as part of the International Security Expo. Many of the issues raised here will be put into context by some of the country’s leading counter terror personnel, from both the Home Office and Counter Terror Police. The FBI will also bring an international angle to discussions.






SECURITY SECONDARY GLAZING – THE UNSEEN LEVEL OF PROTECTION It seems that nearly every day we hear a story of a break-in and threats of terrorism. It is unnerving and affects all of us, as we could all be at risk. Selectaglaze secondary glazing can provide an unseen level of security to any property. It creates a second barrier of protection from the inside that can prevent the most determined thief or protect the occupants from the effects of bomb blast PHYSICAL ATTACK Under physical attack secondary glazing works by providing a second barrier to entry. At lower risk levels it must prevent manipulation of the locks and catches or removal of the glass or glazed panels. As the performance increases it must resist levering or use of cutting tools including penetration of the glazing, which at higher risk levels will be a sophisticated combination of glass, resin and polycarbonate. It is also worth noting that the attacker will have to break through the primary window first then work through the breached opening to attack the secondary glazing, by which time any vibration alarms will have been activated. BLAST MITIGATION Secondary glazing can protect occupants and contents from the effects of an explosion by containing the flying shards of glass from the breakup of the primary window under the blast load. Fixings, frame, locks and glass are all designed to absorb the blast wave. PVB interlayers are used in the laminated glass composition to stretch and contain the blast. BALLISTIC Protection from firearm attack is achieved by several layers of glass of various thicknesses laminated together. The front layers of glass are designed to shatter, thereby absorbing the initial impact energy, the subsequent glass and interlayers absorb the lower level shock waves. Lighter, thinner bullet resistant glass can be produced by the use of polycarbonate in the lamination. However, bullet resistant glass is not enough

on its own as the same performance is required from all the components of the frame including any joints and junctions. FIRE Fire resistant glazing provides a protected escape route for occupants. Specialist glass, together with fire and intumescent seals set within appropriate framing, resists the intense heat of a fire. CLEAN ENVIRONMENTS Secondary glazing with its high-performance seals and easy clean surfaces can provide an efficiently sealed envelope in clean, antibacterial and positive or negative pressured environments. Fitted on the inside of primary windows or in partitions, it can be used to stop the ingress of dust and grime and provide a protected space for blinds. SECURITY Banqueting House, London was treated with Selectaglaze blast units to provide ample levels of security to protect the Rubens ceiling painting, historic architectural features and those who visit/use the Royal Palace. The security window installations were part of the first phase of works to repair and restore this stunning Grade I Listed building. The design replaced the blast net curtains and allows daylight once again to flood into the Main Hall, as well as providing a significant level of noise insulation to ensure visitors peace and tranquillity when viewing the Rubens. Selectaglaze knew it had products certified to the requirement, but they had never

been specified to these sizes. The Main Hall window openings were 3.6m high and 2.0m wide. Two years ago, testing was carried out for what turned out to be the largest ever single casement to be blast tested in the UK. The results were a success and planning for the installation began. In all, 39 units were installed. Newark and Sherwood District Council was awarded Heritage Lottery Funding to restore and transform the Old Magnus Buildings into a new museum and National Civil War Centre. Home to many important historical artefacts and some graffiti dating back to early 1600s; security was high on the agenda when plans were first made for the buildings restoration. As the buildings are listed any security measures taken had to be sympathetic to the buildings elegance and historical significance. The Architects Purcell and the Main Contractor Woodhead Heritage turned to Selectaglaze to provide protection to the vulnerable window openings. Selectaglaze treated 45 window openings with six different product styles including curved units in four different colours. Varying levels of security were provided, using products certified to Loss Prevention standard LPS 1175 level SR3 and those meeting the security standards of PAS24, all accredited to Secured by Design. Besides added protection, Selectaglaze’s secondary glazing provides important environmental benefits such as improvements in a building’s energy performance and a marked reduction in draughts.

Selectaglaze will be exhibiting at the International Security Expo on the 3-4 December and can be found at Stand K64, as well as taking part in a live physical attack test at the BRE Live Lab on Tuesday 3 December at 1.00pm.




ISE 2019

Ahead of the International Security Expo, Counter Terror Business talks to Chris Tsikolis, head of Security & Business Resilience at the Victoria & Victoria Westminster Business Improvement Districts, about collaboration and business continuity


hris Tsikolis is head of Security & Business Resilience at the Victoria & Victoria Westminster Business Improvement District. The Victoria Business Improvement District (BID), first established in April 2010, is a businessled and business-funded body formed to support economic growth in Victoria and to create a vibrant destination for those who work, visit or live in the area. As part of this role, Chris is responsible for security and resilience related

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projects in Victoria Westminster Business District, acting as a link between law enforcement agencies, government bodies and the business community. Chris will be speaking on 4 December in the Crisis Management & Business Continuity conference at International Security Expo. For businesses this is the one conference that will give insights in planning for the event of security failing, and the importance for businesses that crisis management and business needs continue. E



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CT: The core principles of good crisis/ reputation management remain largely unchanged. However, in today’s hyperconnected digital age the requirements and capabilities continue to evolve. It is actually the application of the rules that have changed dramatically in concert with the changing speed and expectations of this digital age. The need for speed is far greater today as opposed to 10 or even five years ago. Business organisations can improve response to a crisis by investing in better communications with their staff, neighbouring businesses and suppliers/ external stakeholders. Organisations need to maintain an active readiness capability that is equal-parts experienced and agile. Information and speed are of the essence. Businesses could benefit before, during and after a crisis by harnessing the technological advancements to push out information and communicate in a timely fashion using a variety of channels. This of course means that they need to look at planning and establishing platforms of communication that incorporate these characteristics.

CTB: PART OF YOUR JOB ROLE AT THE VICTORIA WESTMINSTER BID INVOLVES LIAISING BETWEEN LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, GOVERNMENT BODIES AND THE BUSINESS COMMUNITY. IN WHAT WAY CAN THESE LINKS BE IMPROVED TO ENSURE THAT ALL ARE PREPARED FOR AND READY TO RESPOND TO A TERRORIST ATTACK? CT: The BID acts as a collective voice for businesses and is also the nexus between law enforcement agencies (LEAs), the government and the business community. Over the past couple of years public bodies realised the value and expertise the BIDs can

add to a number of projects, from contributing to the development of educational/awareness material or new workshops, to the roll out of more specific projects like Project Servator. BIDs can contribute to the enhancement of business resilience through a number of ways and LEAs need to see them as trusted working partners and a vehicle to a sustainable security culture. It is a slow process but a number of steps towards the right direction have already been taken. It is not just for responding to a terrorist attack but addressing a number of different major emergencies and civil contingencies. The communications channels are in place; all LEAs have to do is use them… E


CTB: YOU WILL BE SPEAKING ABOUT BUILDING A RESILIENT LONDON ON DAY TWO OF THE SHOW. IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING THE SPATE OF ATTACKS IN 2017, MI5 AND COUNTER TERROR POLICING LAUNCHED A NUMBER OF REVIEWS AND LORD HARRIS UNDERTOOK A REPORT ON IMPROVING LONDON’S TERROR PREPAREDNESS. DO YOU THINK ENOUGH HAS BEEN DONE OVER THE LAST FEW YEARS TO QUANTIFY BETTER PREPAREDNESS IN THE CAPITAL? CT: A number of projects have been undertaken over the course of the last two years. However, there is always space for improvement and more can be done; public bodies and law enforcement agencies need to step up their game to keep pace with the evolving nature of threats and technological advancements. The ACT product suite is a useful tool and so are the more specific products developed by CPNI (eg. SCaN). The ‘educational’ element if you like has progressed significantly. The CT Step Change Programme is another promising initiative as it was opened up to the business sector and some interesting projects are already underway.

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CT: The Victoria Emergency Notification System (Victoria ENS) is an app based platform that combines SMS alert notification, SMS to voice, mass emailing and two way in-app messaging which forms a very complete mass alert system. As an emergency notification system the ‘Multi-Alert’ feature is used to flood alert the phone numbers and email addresses of our business members in case of an emergency in the area, regardless of whether they have the app installed on their devices.

by industry, which means that BID can support hotels, night time economy, retailers etc. with alerts that are relevant to them, rather than a blanket mass message. The software engine is called SENTINEL (developed by YUDU Media) and it was white-labelled and branded as the Victoria Emergency Notification System (VENS). Business Members know that this is a local, Victoria-centred initiative from their BID, who are giving them this platform as part of their membership service. Since implementing VENS in January 2019, we have sent 80 broadcasts to members. We were able to minimise the impact of 2019’s political and environmental protests by alerting our 255 members to disruption to traffic and local businesses. The most notable

BUSINESS ORGANISATIONS CAN IMPROVE THEIR RESPONSE TO A CRISIS BY INVESTING IN BETTER COMMUNICATIONS WITH THEIR STAFF, NEIGHBOURING BUSINESSES AND SUPPLIERS It is linked up with a government department which gives us the advantage of having access to critical information in a timely manner. By having access to critical information you can reduce the severity of a crisis, trigger your business continuity plan and take all necessary steps to protect your staff and organisation if need be. Victoria ENS allows the BID to communicate with all its member businesses in a matter of seconds. The BID team can also send out yes/ no questions (e.g. Is your building on lockdown?) and see the responses in real time. Members can also be grouped

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event was the Extinction Rebellion 10 day protest in April 2019 across multiple Westminster locations; we were able to use Victoria ENS to keep our members informed with key messages and mitigate the impact on the area. In the recent London BIDs Against Crime (LBAC) ‘Safe and Secure Report’, it has been recommended that ‘to protect visitors, commuters and businesses in urban areas across the UK in the event of a major emergency - The Home Office are encouraged to consider developing a version of Victoria BID’s Emergency Notification System to a national standard’.

CTB: THE UK HAS MAINTAINED IT’S SEVERE LEVEL OF THREAT, MEANING AN ATTACK IS HIGHLY LIKELY. WHAT WOULD YOU SAY IS THE CURRENT STATE OF SECURITY IN UK? AND, SPECIFICALLY IN LONDON, ARE BUSINESSES READY FOR AN ATTACK? CT: In my opinion it is highly unlikely that the threat level will go down to Substantial. Since March 2017, 22 attack plots have been foiled which means that the threat is still out there; and it’s probably evolving or examining different ways to inflict harm. Seven of those plots were right wing which is another worrying aspect of the terrorism spectrum and this is on the rise… Because of these two elements the security across the UK is heightened; especially in cities like London and areas with high profile targets. Despite the heightened state, we had the attack at London Bridge and Borough Market in June 2017. It was then when businesses started realising more seriously that they have a part to play in protecting their people, their assets and their communities. BIDs can play a vital role in this as they bring businesses in a specific geographic area together. In other words, there is a paradigm shift happening from silo thinking to collective security. Some businesses are more ready for an attack, some others are less ready. What matters most in these cases is the power to recover from an attack or a crisis and businesses can recover more quickly if they work in partnership. L




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ISE 2019

Each type of crowded place brings with it its own unique challenges when it comes to protecting the public and remaining open. Ahead of his talk at International Security Expo, Darren Henaghan, managing director at Borough Market, talks to CTB about protecting crowded places


arren Henaghan is managing director at Borough Market. Darren will be speaking on 3 December in the Protecting Crowded Places Conference at International Security Expo. For businesses this is the conference stream that will allow delegates to learn from previous attacks and hear common challenges when protecting religious centres, hotels, shopping centres, public buildings and well-publicised events.

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 and after the London Bridge attack, I have a very particular insight into the protection of people in crowded places from the threat or the actuality of terrorism. At the core of any response to an incident has to be a comprehensive Major Emergency Response Plan. For many of our team members, key stakeholders, traders, and local police forces, counter terrorism is built into their everyday working lives - we live and breathe it. I will be discussing some of the learnings from the London Bridge attack and how they have shaped our planning.

CTB: THE LONDON BRIDGE ATTACK ON 3 JUNE 2017, IN WHICH EIGHT CIVILIANS DIED, PROMPTED COUNTER TERROR POLICING TO REAWAKEN THEIR ‘RUN, HIDE, TELL’ GUIDANCE. FOR STAFF WORKING DURING AN ATTACK, HOW IMPORTANT IS TRAINING AND HOW IS THIS BEST CARRIED OUT? DH: Training staff via workshops and through scenario planning is critical to getting the response right during a major incident. Knowing their duties and responsibilities, how to access the right information, and an understanding of command structures is essential. In the case of Borough Market, this is not just about building staff into our team but also our traders, who are a key component of any response.


DH: There are many specific challenges for outdoor crowded places which will depend on the nature of the terror threat or attack. Key is to have the command structures and planning in place, enabling those critical decisions around public safety - such as evacuation or invacuation - to be taken quickly and appropriately. It is also important that we create accessible spaces where staff, traders, visitors can go to hide, and places where the injured can be treated, if necessary, close to the scene. CTB: WHAT ARE THE CURRENT DIFFICULTIES WITH BALANCING PROTECTION AND VISITOR EXPERIENCE? AT WHAT POINT DOES PHYSICAL SECURITY IMPEDE ON THE PUBLIC’S DESIRE TO VISIT PLACES SUCH AS BOROUGH MARKET?

DH: Our traders and our customers, whether Londoners or tourists, are used to dealing with levels of security. In looking at our approach to handling counter terrorism we have to find that balance between physical protection and visitor experience.


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We don’t want visitors to be aware of our precise procedures in the event of a threat or an attack, but we would hope they have a degree of confidence that those procedures do exist and have been worked through, and constantly updated, in tandem with the emergency response services. As we discovered in the aftermath of the London Bridge attack, the public support for the Borough Market community was overwhelming and our footfall recovered quickly. We would hope that we never have to build physical security that impedes on the desire of people to visit. CTB: WHICH BRINGS US TO OUR LAST QUESTION: HOW DO WE DESIGN SECURITY IN AND TERROR OUT?

DH: Terrorism can come in many forms and usually its goal, by definition, is to create terror among people. As we have seen around the world, there is no simple solution that keeps terror out. But clearly there have been developments in recent years which are making vehicle attacks, for example, more difficult at particular venues and sites. It is not the job of Borough Market to fight terror, but it is vital that the security apparatus exists to provide those critical reassurances to people staff, traders, customers - in the event of an incident. We must play our part by ensuring that we have the right emergency response policies in place and that we are constantly reviewing and updating our security. L




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Steven Greer, Professor of Human Rights at the University of Bristol Law School, looks at the development of countering terrorism in the UK, from the ‘Troubles’ in Northern Ireland to the Islamic Jihadi threat


ifty years ago this summer the British army was deployed in Northern Ireland, initially to protect Catholic/Nationalist communities from attacks by loyalist mobs, a task the Royal Ulster Constabulary had performed neither effectively nor impartially. A symbolic milestone for the onset of 30 years of violent unrest, which the locals euphemistically call ‘the Troubles’, was thereby provided. In 1998 the Good Friday/Belfast Agreement finally extinguished all but a few smouldering embers of this tragic conflict which claimed over 3,000 lives. 2003 was the last year annual fatalities reached double figures. Yet, by an unfortunate quirk of fate, a mere three years after the Belfast Agreement was signed, the events of 9/11 provided a grimly spectacular milestone for another species of terrorism, the jihadi or Islamist brand. In

2005, 56 people, including four bombers, were killed and hundreds injured in London by those committed to this cause, a domestic fatality rate which has almost doubled since. The UK has also experienced other forms of terrorism on its own turf. However, in spite of current concerns about the increasing threat from the far right, none has yet had anything like the deadly impact of the Troubles or jihadi varieties. Yet, while each of these is a species of the same phenomenon – violent activity by politically weak but highly motivated militants targeting civilians, and public institutions, processes and services – they have almost nothing else in common. The respective environments, grievances, ideologies and modes of mobilisation could hardly be more different. The Troubles were essentially a local conflict over whether Northern Ireland E




 should be part of the UK or the Republic of Ireland, conducted within the parameters of modern European liberal democracy by protagonists who, in spite of their protestations to the contrary, share a great deal in common. By contrast, intending to establish a particularly cruel, uncompromising and ultimately global Islamic caliphate, UK-jihadi terrorism is a national manifestation of an international phenomenon involving Muslims from many races, ethnicities, languages, and nationalities. However, attaining this objective has been compromised and undermined by tribal, sectarian and other rivalries pitting Muslims against each other as much as, if not more than, Muslims are divided from everyone else. By contrast, over the past 50 years, counter terrorism in the UK has


UK-JIHADI TERRORISM IS A NATIONAL MANIFESTATION OF AN INTERNATIONAL PHENOMENON INVOLVING MUSLIMS FROM MANY RACES, ETHNICITIES AND NATIONALITIES exhibited a complex mix of continuity and discontinuity. Continuity has been maintained by, amongst other things, the consolidation of the piecemeal counterterrorist legislation of the Troubles in a single UK-wide statute, the Terrorism Act 2000, a mere ten months before the events of 9/11, another irony of history. The collection, processing and use of intelligence have also remained central. Yet, in spite of improvements in relevant technology, management and oversight, perennial concerns about


privacy nevertheless remain. Detention without trial was used, and failed, in both contexts and excluding terrorist suspects from all or part of the UK has also been a feature of each. Although perceptions to the contrary have proven remarkably difficult to dispel, there is, however, no credible evidence that ‘the Irish’ or ‘the Muslims’ were ever systematically ‘securitised’ by counter terrorist processes in either context. Since the days of the Troubles, domestic counter terrorism has been characterised


by greatly enhanced international cooperation and the growing profusion, scope and complexity of relevant law and policy including half a dozen major pieces of post-9/11 legislation. Mechanisms of accountability, especially those provided by the Human Rights Act 1998, have also improved, and there has been a more sustained official attempt to integrate the various elements around the ‘four Ps’ – Prepare, Protect, Prevent and Pursue – of CONTEST, the post-9/11 counter terrorist strategy. Government policy, with respect to jihadi terrorism, has also decisively shifted from an attempt to ‘hold the ring’ until a political settlement is found, as during the Troubles, to managing risk and increasing public resilience on the assumption that no domestic political or security solutions are available. There are also significant differences between the extent to which everyday life was ‘securitised’ in Northern Ireland at the height of the Troubles compared with the current much more low-key approach in the UK as a whole.

TWO COMPETING SETS OF RISK The characteristics of the two conflicts have also resulted in differences in preventive strategies. During the Troubles, the emphasis was upon the deterrent effects of criminalisation and punishment. Suicide bombing has, however, made this untenable post9/11, prompting more formal policies of ‘counter’ and ‘de-radicalisation’. Although there have been attempts in both contexts to disrupt, interdict, and restrict dangerous people and activities, these have also taken different forms in each. For example, while house arrest and the deportation of foreign terrorist suspects have had a high public profile post-9/11, they did not feature in the Troubles at all. By further contrast, in the UK-jihadi context there has been no suspension

GOVERNMENT POLICY HAS DECISIVELY SHIFTED FROM AN ATTEMPT TO ‘HOLD THE RING’ UNTIL A POLITICAL SETTLEMENT IS FOUND, TO MANAGING RISK ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT NO DOMESTIC POLITICAL OR SECURITY SOLUTIONS ARE AVAILABLE of jury trial, no targeted assassination controversy, and no allegations of collusion between the security forces and terrorist organisations sympathetic to the state. Nor, as during the Troubles, has there been any contemporary counterpart to the extraction of confessions by the systematic mistreatment of suspects, nor any notorious miscarriages of justice comparable to those of the Birmingham Six and Guildford Four. The trial of dozens of accused on the courtroom testimony of a series of ‘supergrasses’, their alleged former accomplices, has not been replicated in the current crisis either. Whatever the type of terrorism, the key challenge in any liberal democracy lies in the effective management of two competing sets of risk. On one hand, relevant law and policy must be as efficacious and efficient as possible in prevention and protection, and in dealing with suspects and accused. On the other, human rights, democratic, constitutional, and rule of law standards must be respected and the legitimate interests of liberal cosmopolitan society safeguarded in order, amongst other things, to avoid alienating minority communities. Public bodies must also ensure that their own activities are as transparent as possible and that communication with society is as effective and distortion-free as it can be. All this depends upon the simultaneous management of many elements on multiple dimensions: political, policing, criminal justice, social

justice, ideological, cultural, educational, communal, and so on. While there is also plenty of scope for debate about the details, there is no credible case for jettisoning the broad CONTEST framework, not least because no remotely viable, coherent and legitimate alternative has yet been conceived. Finally, we all share various social, political and legal responsibilities with respect to any kind of terrorism. These include refraining from participating in, supporting, encouraging, advocating or celebrating it, contributing to maintaining cosmopolitan community cohesion, and engaging constructively, if critically, with relevant law and policy, particularly on the preventive front. But there is no place in the mature debate for sterile denunciation – which typically rests upon prejudice, myth, misconception, misinformation and muddled thinking – much less for the kind of boycott and ‘resistance’ some advocate. The focus for all serious contributions must instead be upon the more subtle question of whether the blurred line between legitimate and illegitimate official responses has been crossed, a matter upon which reasonable people equally committed to the same goals and core humane and democratic values may reasonably disagree. L




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To monitor wide areas and pinpoint intruders or objects With the new RADARPOINT300 SYSCO have developed a completely new solution for open area security. Securing and monitoring large open areas with these discretely located devices, which can cover all areas in question, can be achieved in a cost effective fashion compared to the expenditure required using other wide area monitoring technologies. Consequently this new technology is suitable for the high-level security areas as well as for industrial applications. The new devices invisibly monitors big free areas and potential intruders locations can be identified exactly. The modern software allows the exact setting of detection parameters depending on size, direction, position and speed. The electronics are housed in a robust case which is equiped with a Vesa connection and a universal holder for masts, walls or other objects. A number of interfaces are available to integrate the devices into an integrated security infrastructure. Thus the electronics are able to interface directly to the security system via a LAN-Network or with an RS485 data line. For smaller systems the radar electronics of course are also able to be connected individually . Two free dry relay contacts can be used as alarm outputs or to control external devices. In addition, the RADAR Point evaluator is equiped with inputs to monitor external contacts (such as gate contacts, IR-beams etc.). The RADAR Point system setup can be configured through the above mentioned data interfaces as well as an USB connection. On request a puttable WLAN-Stick is available, so that the settings comfortably also wirelessly can be carried out.


• • • • • • • • •

Compact weather protection case Transmitter and receiver in one case Big detection range Localisation of objects possibly Detection dependent on direction possible Detection dependent on speed possible Free adjustable detection segments possible LAN-and RS485 connection IO‘s integrated

Delivering certainty. Perimeter Detection Systems Security consultation Costumer Service

Technical data Working range up to 300m Opening angle appr. 45° horicontal Object localisation 1,5-5m Voltage supply 12-48 VDC (10W) Case protection IP65 Case Material ABS / Aluminium Dimensions (without Vesa) 280x250x110 (HxWxD)


Perimeter Protection, the International Exhibition for perimeter protection, fencing and building security, will be held for the sixth time at the Exhibition Centre Nuremberg from 14 January 2020


erimeter Protection is once again set to demonstrate that its clear focus on security for perimeter zones and outdoor areas hits just the right nerve in the sector. Awaiting the trade visitors is an event that will reflect the entire spectrum of mechanical, electrical, and electronic security solutions for perimeter protection. More than 155 exhibitors (2018: 135) will present the entire range of products and services from fences, fencing systems, gates, gate systems, personnel and vehicle access barriers, electronic alarm systems, exterior lighting and ballistic protected products and systems to tools, machinery and drone detection and defence. How can property be protected against vandalism, theft or industrial espionage? More than 3,600 security officers from the fields of local and long-distance transport, airports, football stadiums, industry, power stations, police, armed forces, architects and planners of building services source information on the latest developments in perimeter protection, fencing systems and building security every two years. A first in 2020 will be a specialist forum with free entry, integrated into the exhibition and providing accumulated expert knowledge on all kinds of security-related topics. The thematic focus for the exhibition will be on the current issue of drone detection and defence. A new partner joining the exhibition this year is the Akademie für Sicherheit (Academy for Security) and its event, the Nuremberg Security Conference.



PREPARATIONS RUNNING AT FULL SPEED Alexander Stein, director of Perimeter Protection at NürnbergMesse, can offer a very positive outlook: “The numbers are putting us in a good frame of mind. We have long overtaken the amount of exhibition space used last year, visitors can look forward to more than 54 new exhibitors, and international registrants already account for more than 45 per cent of the companies that have registered. That confirms once again that our strategy is just right for the European market.” Something that is only of tangential interest at other exhibitions is a key focus in Nuremberg: the fact that Perimeter Protection is the only exhibition to focus on the security of perimeter zones and outdoor areas, and presents the combination of mechanical, electrical and electronic security technology more comprehensively than any other event creates many advantages. Stein continues: “Of particular relevance is the intensive, personal contact both between ourselves as organisers and the industry, and between the experts and decision-makers. By clearly focusing the exhibition in this way, we ensure a high level of quality and avoid missing any of our targets. In 2018, for example, 91 per cent of the trade visitors were directly involved in the decision-making processes within their companies. For an exhibition, that represents huge value. We know exactly what moves the industry and can home in on the latest topics of interest, thanks also


to our honorary sponsor, of course, the Gütegemeinschaft Metallzauntechnik (Metal Fence Technology Association), and our partner, the Verband für Sicherheitstechnik (Association for Security Technology, VfS).” FOCUS ON DRONE DETECTION AND DEFENCE One of these special topics is the monitoring and securing of air space against unmanned flying objects. In response to the massive growth in drones and their range of abilities, the field of drone detection and defence has been selected as the thematic focus for Perimeter Protection 2020, offering comprehensive information on recognising, identifying and defending against drones. There’s no doubt that reliable perimeter protection begins with solid fencing systems, adequate video surveillance as well as door and gate technologies. In the light of current threat scenarios, it is no longer enough to simply secure the grounds as such using active and passive systems. There’s an almost immeasurable threat emanating from the air above us, because unmanned flying objects that are barely visible to the naked eye, or are only spotted when it’s too late, can approach the grounds that need to be protected. This is why Perimeter

Protection will be presenting the latest developments in drone defence. Due to the increasing urgency of this issue, our focus topic in 2020 will be: Systems for UAV detection, elimination and deflection as well as accessories. Get to know the wide range of systems available, compare the products with your needs and find the best solutions to meet your customers’ requirements. LATEST DEVELOPMENTS Established in collaboration with VfS, the new specialist forum at Perimeter Protection 2020, integrated into the main exhibition, will offer even more expert knowledge in condensed form in a single location. The conjunction with VfS ensures that the presentations cover topical issues and put the spotlight on innovative approaches and novel solutions. The specialist forum will provide an opportunity to discuss topics of current interest, innovative approaches and novel solutions in the areas of perimeter protection, fencing and building security with prominent industry experts on all three days of the exhibition. The programme ranges from process optimisation through the use of perimeter systems to demands on access protection and access barriers, innovations involving drones, detection systems, remote servicing and integrated

security solutions. On the first two days of the exhibition from 10:00-14:00 the forum will be staged exclusively by VfS. On the third day, and from 14:00 on the other two days, exhibitors or associations/ institutions will be able to present their offerings to the exhibition audience. IMPORTANT INFORMATION Making the best use of synergy effects: the third Nuremberg Security Conference, organised by the Academy for Security, will take place on 15 January 2020 to coincide with Perimeter Protection. The event will feature top-level speakers on the latest themes in the area of security and an accompanying exhibition. The Perimeter Protection website offers all the information and tools you need to prepare for your visit to the trade fair. In addition to the exhibitor and product database in which you can filter by product groups or innovations you will also find further information on the thematic focus, the specialist forum and the security conference. Exhibitors can easily register online and be a part of Perimeter Protection 2020. L





With the Extinction Rebellion protests dominating headlines recently, Iain Moran discusses how physical security solutions can protect non-violent protestors without unduly draining public resources


on-violent protests have been a prominent feature of 2019, with demonstrators calling for the declaration of a climate emergency, the delivery of Brexit and even expressing their displeasure at the arrival of President Trump. While preserving freedom of speech and legitimate protest is of course imperative, attention must be paid to how both policing and protecting protests impacts increasingly-stretched police budgets. Indeed, it was recently revealed that Extinction Rebellion protests have cost the Metropolitan Police ÂŁ37 million so far in 2019; more than double what is spent each year trying to reduce violent crime in London. This has highlighted the need for alternative security solutions that local authorities can implement to protect non-violent protests, while also preserving valuable police resources.

WHAT ARE THE CURRENT SECURITY RISKS? Crowd management is the primary focus of policing at large-scale national and regional events, whether it’s a protest or a football match for example. This is because crowded events present a wide range of potential hazards, including people being crushed (against both fixed structures and one another), people falling and being trampled on, and risky behaviour such as people climbing onto structures or throwing objects. There is also a high likelihood of illegal behaviour, including criminal damage and the obstruction of highways, along with the possibility of fights breaking out. This is a particular issue with protests, as there can be clashes between protesters and the general public. Large groups of people are also unfortunately a potential target for terrorist activity, including hostile vehicle attacks. E



PHYSICAL SECURITY î † These attacks, in which a perpetrator deliberately rams a vehicle into a crowd of people, have the potential to cause significant casualties and are particularly dangerous as they can be very hard to predict. As a result, large crowds of people such as protestors are not only a danger to themselves; they also put passers-by and any police presence at risk.


HOW ARE PROTESTS POLICED? While recent events have been met with some frustration, with calls for the police to use greater force against demonstrators, peaceful protests are legal and can be an effective means of inspiring positive social change. The right to peacefully protest is protected under the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR), with Articles


10 and 11 outlining an individual’s right to freedom of expression and assembly, through participation in static protests, marches, parades, processions, demonstrations and rallies. However, while the ECHR does not protect participation in violent protests, even peaceful protests can cause serious disruption to local communities and businesses. This puts extreme pressure

PHYSICAL SECURITY on police resources and leaves them to conduct a difficult balancing act. ECHR Article 11 clearly outlines the duties of the police when it comes to maintaining public order at peaceful assemblies. They must work to facilitate peaceful protests wherever possible and maintain an open and constructive dialogue with demonstrators. On the other hand, section 12 and section 14 of the Public Order Act 1986 do allow the police to impose conditions on a public assembly if they believe that it may result in serious public disorder, serious damage to property, serious disruption to the community, or that the purpose of those organising it is the intimidation of others. In addition to general powers to arrest those suspected to have broken criminal law, in this situation they can issue conditions on a protest which direct where it should take place, for how long it should last, and how many people can be involved. The police exercised these powers to restrict protests in October 2019, when conditions were put in place asserting that any assembly linked to the controversial Extinction Rebellion ‘Autumn Uprising’ had to cease by a particular date and time. Police resorted to these firmer measures after previous conditions, which stated Extinction Rebellion could lawfully protest in the pedestrianised area of Trafalgar Square, were repeatedly breached over a nine-day period. The decision was described by the police as ‘proportionate and reasonable’, with the aim of helping them to ‘get London moving again’. TEMPORARY PHYSICAL SECURITY With it looking likely that we will continue to see frequent protests taking place across the UK in the coming months, the police and local authorities must work closely together to ensure the safety of all in the vicinity, while also preserving stretched police budgets as much as possible. The greater implementation of physical security solutions could help greatly in both regards. In many cases, police and local authorities have advance warning about the location of a protest, or route of a march. In others, as in April and October 2019, they are able to restrict assemblies to designated areas and contain protestors to some extent. This makes it possible for local authorities to put in place temporary security measures, such as barriers and bollards, in order to pedestrianise the areas and help to manage crowd movement. Previously, local authorities would not have been able to erect effective barrier systems at such short notice due to their design. In city centres, the most common type of temporary security product used to protect crowded events

IN MANY CASES, POLICE AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES HAVE ADVANCE WARNING ABOUT THE LOCATION OF A PROTEST, OR ROUTE OF A MARCH. IN OTHERS, AS IN APRIL AND OCTOBER 2019, THEY ARE ABLE TO RESTRICT ASSEMBLIES TO DESIGNATED AREAS AND CONTAIN PROTESTORS TO SOME EXTENT tended to be large, surface mounted concrete barriers. While these do not require any kind of foundation, so can be installed relatively quickly and easily, they have some significant flaws which make them far from the ideal choice. The design of the blocks means that points of entry and exit are extremely limited, with people only able to walk through certain designated gaps in the perimeter. This severely restricts the flow of pedestrians and can result in large queues and crowds of people on both sides of the barriers. Not only does this leave any people queuing on the outside vulnerable to attack, but it has been shown that some of these blocks slide on impact, which means they have the potential to create a crushing effect that would be incredibly dangerous for those on the inside too. CONTROLLING FLOW IN BOTH DIRECTIONS Fortunately, there are now a range of temporary surface-mounted bollards and barriers available that have been specifically designed to protect crowds from external threats, such as vehicle attacks, and can be deployed by just a few people in a matter of hours. These lightweight systems can be rented for either short-term or longer-

term leasing, making them suitable for all local authorities, whether they need to deploy them regularly or on a one-off basis, and their compact, modular design means that they are easy to transport and store as needed. The barriers are designed to allow people to flow in and out of an area with minimal disruption, which prevents the unnecessary build-up of queues and crowds. Vehicle access points can also often be added to allow authorised emergency service vehicles to gain access in just minutes in the event of an emergency. As an additional benefit, while all barriers should be physically supervised and are not a substitute for police presence, the use of barriers can reduce the number of police required. Deploying temporary physical security measures is just one of the ways that local authorities can support police officers when it comes to securing nonviolent protests. Ensuring the safety and security of all involved – whether part of the protest or not – should be a key priority, and will help to keep disruption to the community to a minimum. L




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Stay Safe with Energetics Technology Established in 2010 by Dr Peter Jemmett, Derbyshire based Energetics Technology Ltd (ETL) is very active in creating new products for the security and counter terror industries. ETL centres on the research and development of energetic materials, and pyrotechnic products for the successful integration of its products into ordnance systems. The company offers the design and manufacturing of specialist energetic products and research and development into pyrotechnic compositions and explosives, explosives and weapon system evaluations, CIED training and the supply of EOD equipment. Flexible UK manufacturing facilities render ETL capable of providing fast responses and able to cater for any level of specificity the customer may require. With the specialist defence product market increasing notably, ETL have grown to offer a variety of solutions. ETL’s experience and knowledge in energetic compositions also enables the company to create products that protect against such compositions. This knowledge is used in the development and manufacture of its blast protection products. ETL’s Kevin Springthorpe tells us that “Every product we design and manufacture has been physically tested with the explosive charge we market the product as protecting against.” ETL has recently launched its HALO 80 Plus, an all-new blast resistant litter bin, an improvement on the HALO 80, an already popular product for dealing with public area threats. The HALO 80 Plus offers an

improved protective performance against explosions and overpressures. It also has increased protection from high velocity primary fragments and is reshaping the blast protection capabilities of a small sized bin. The bin does not need to permanently fixed to the ground, thus saving on expensive installation costs and rendering the bin easily transportable should the location of the threat change. The HALO 80 Plus provides seven star rated blast mitigation and it is functional and easily emptied. It incorporates SABREMAT technology which, enables all-round horizontal protection. Additionally, the Halo 80 Plus has very low maintenance costs, all equating in the bin being vastly superior to other similar products. As well as being excellent in its function, the HALO 80 Plus can be fitted with accessories and optional extras. It can be fitted with a powder coated sleeve that can meet any standard RAL colour, or a perforated stainless steel sleeve. Buyers can also choose from recycling lids, section dividers and rain cover lids, vinyl labels for recycling information, logos or branding and cigarette stubber plates. ETL can also offer standard isolation units and threat mitigation units for use in airport baggage areas, police stations, commercial offices, academic institutions and embassies. ETL also offers bespoke solutions to customers needing security or counter terrorism products tailored to specific needs. The bespoke options are

usually based on pre-existing designs in order to adhere to an already proven level of safety, durability and reliability. The company plans on future expansion, with a new manufacturing facility opening soon and the continuous release of more energetics products and blast protecting products as a result of the company’s extensive research and development. For more information on ETL, its products and services, visit its website below. T 01283 732339 Kevin.springthorpe


When is a group classified as a terrorist and when is the online activity defined as terrorism? Dr Tine Munk, lecturer in Criminology at Middlesex University’s School of Law, discusses


yber terrorism is an emerging problem. Defining and categorising a diverse set of politically-motivated online crimes is a complicated task. New means and methods are constantly developed and tested to reach a political, ideological or religious goal. It is only their imagination and technological capabilities that limit their activities. In recent years, various political groupings have expanded their online presence. However, the use of cyber space and computer technologies to promote politicallymotivated crimes and past events has not prompted policymakers to define the area and identify precisely what cyber terrorism is

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and what distinguishes this area from other types of politically-motivated cyber crime. Cyber terrorism is included in the UK Terrorism Act 2000, and other UK counter terrorism legislation and strategies have extended the scope. The CONTEST strategy and the Prevent strand consists of a conceptualisation of groups that falls under the terrorism definitions, i.e. international terrorism, Northern Ireland-related terrorism, extreme right-wing terrorism and other types of terrorism which can be both religious or political. The current legislation is clear about proscribed terrorist groups, such as E




 Islamic States (IS) and the neoNazi group, National Action. Therefore, these groups’ online activities are included in the regulation. Yet, it becomes more problematic defining groups outside this list — for example, hacking groups or statesponsored groups targeting the UK. Some politically-motivated cyber attacks will be considered under the counter terrorism legislation, whereas other forms of politically-motivated cyber crime are managed using more lenient cyber crime laws despite using the same means and methods. DEFINED TERRORIST ORGANISATION Several terrorist organisations have a significant online presence, and the use of cyber-space will increase. For example, the use of the Internet and social media are instrumental for the offline actions of IS. The group has mastered the online environment in a way that separated them from other conventional terrorist organisations. The group and its followers are on the UK terrorist list, so there are no definitional problems related to the activities of IS. The terrorist organisation uses cyber space and computer technologies to raise awareness, communicate and distribute its ideology through encrypted forums, webpages and social media. So far, there has not been a devastating large-scale cyber attack originating from this group. Yet, the group has demonstrated their ability to disrupt online traffic by using Distributed-Denial-of–Service (DDoS)


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THE ARCHITECTURE AND THE ECOSYSTEM OF THE INTERNET, SOCIAL MEDIA, ENCRYPTION AND ONLINE SPACES, SUCH AS THE DARK WEB, ARE CRUCIAL FOR PROMOTING AND ENABLE POLITICALLY-MOTIVATED CYBER ACTION attacks against governmental targets in Egypt, Jordan, Yemen and Iraq. Of course, the group has lost territory on the ground, and as a result, the group are likely to enhance its online activities using the borderless structure and anonymity of cyber space. Thus, the threat against the UK will increase. A future scenario would be IS targeting UK critical infrastructure, critical information infrastructure as well as information and communication technologies. The architecture and the ecosystem of the Internet, social media, encryption and online spaces, such as the Dark Web, are crucial for promoting and enable politically-motivated cyber actions. There has been a rise in the online presence of far-right groups in the UK and aboard. Far-right groups’ modus operandi is similar to IS in the use of the Internet and cyber-space to promote a political end. Forums, such as the 4chan, the 8chan, Endchan and other anon sites, are increasingly used to spread the political message of these groups and individuals. Attacks, such as the Christchurch attack in New Zealand in 2019, are live-streamed directly to these

chans. The online presence of these groups is vital for their political activities and recruitments. The legislation and the CONTEST strategy are clear about the link between these groups activities and terrorism, but there is a lack of clarity and understanding of similar areas, such as to hacktivism and state-sponsored groups. OTHER POLITICALLYMOTIVATED CYBER ATTACKS There is a rise in activities by other politically-motivated cyber groups. Some of these groups act individually; other groups are closely linked to a national state and the state apparatus. The state-sponsored groups are not clearly defined in the context of terrorism, and there is a tendency to look at these actors from either warfare or a cybercrime perspective. Whereas hacktivism is predominately linked to cyber crime. The UK legislation and the CONTEST strategy are unclear about the typology of hacktivism and state-sponsored attacks – and whether these should be considered under the counter terrorism legislation or cyber crime legislation: Do they belong to ‘other terrorist groups’ or


are they classified completely different? As a result of that, can these groups’ activities only be viewed as ordinary cyber crime? If these groups were directly linked to the state, their activities could be classified as cyber warfare. Yet, this is a very unclear area, and these groups tend to promote themselves as a hacktivist group or a hacking group. Hacktivism is defined as a digital protest where the motivation is not economical. Instead, these activities are carried out to make a political statement – often through ‘virtual sit-in’ or DDoS attacks disrupting data traffic for a short while. However, these activities are seen as less severe and as being a part of citizens’ right-to-protest. However, this area becomes problematic when a growing number of politically-motivated cyber-crimes are committed by actors claiming to belong to a hacktivist group. But in reality, the actors have close ties to a state promoting a patriotic or nationalistic-political agenda. Fake news, trolling, spying, hacking are areas deeply integrated into a broader political agenda promoted by certain groups. During the 2016 UK Brexit referendum, several hacking groups were significantly active fuelled by patriotic enthusiasm. These groups were supported by foreign state actors who wanted to use the referendum to influence internal politics. Russian and Iranian Twitter accounts as well as Russian state media, RT, were used to spread misleading information online. This was a technique that was

simultaneously used during the 2016 US Presidential Election campaign. Yet, it is clear that these groups are only able to carry out these activities if they are either directly sponsored or supported by a state. During the US Presidential Election campaign in 2016, hacking groups, such as ‘Cozy Bear’, ‘New World Hackers’ and ‘Fancy Bear’ interfered significantly by spreading propaganda and influence voters. This method has proven very successful and therefore, it is likely to be repeated in the 2020 US election – as well as any upcoming UK elections. Following on from 2018 novichok attack on the Skripals in Salisbury, it became clear that Russia has adopted a comprehensive propaganda and misuse of information strategy using non-state actors to circulate misinformation. This is a strategy very similar to the IS’s use of the Internet to spread their political agenda. Adding to the complexity, the 2017 WannaCry and NotPetya ransomware attacks targeting various countries, such as Ukraine, The US and the UK are perceived to be governmentally approved attacks covered up as a ‘traditional’ cyber crime. If Russia and North Korea are behind these attacks, then the sideeffects of the definition deficit where counties and actors are manoeuvring in the shadow of the current definition of cyber crime vs cyber terrorism will create problems in the future. This is an area that is likely to increase. Yet, it is not clear how these statesponsored groups should be classified

and managed. By looking at the means and methods, it is evident that these activities fall under the scope of the traditional terrorism definition. CONCLUSION When is a group/individual classified as a terrorist and when is the online activity defined as terrorism? In recent years, politically-motivated cyber crimes have developed significantly in a way that continually challenges the boundaries of the cyber terrorism vs cyber crime definitions. The inconsistent perception of these different politicallymotivated crimes and attacks can be lead back to the definitional problems. The various groups are using the same pathways, but they are fundamentally reviewed differently and therefore, these activities are captured in the gap between counter terrorism and cyber crime. The number of illegal activities and attacks have developed in magnitude, and the likelihood of potential disturbing and damaging attacks are increasing. The question is whether the UK counter terrorism framework is broadly enough formulated to contain these new directions of online politically-motivated actors and activities or whether the whole area should be reviewed and interpreted in a new way to ensure consistency across the spectrum? L





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SOCIAL MEDIA Amy-Louise Watkin and Joe Whittaker look at the interface between terrorism and the internet, and whether big tech companies should be doing more to to tackle online propaganda and the rise in digital radicalisation


t first glance, the removal of terrorist content online seems like an intuitive goal. In the heyday of the Islamic State’s virtual caliphate, the group was able to spread their message far and wide. Scholars found that online platforms were being used to spread propaganda, recruit potential terrorists, and disseminate instructional material. Far right terrorists, too, have abused platforms by disseminating content. The world watched in horror as the Christchurch attack was livestreamed on Facebook, and multiple attackers have posted their manifestos online. Although different countries have different freedom

of speech norms enshrined in law, there has been a widespread move towards removing terror content from the Internet, including the Christchurch Call, the UK Online Harms White Paper, and the German NetzDG law. Although they are sometimes maligned for not acting quickly enough, the big tech companies have, by and large, adopted policies which help to remove terror content from their platforms, as well as working together to share best practices, like in the case of the Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism and Tech Against Terrorism. There have been considerable successes to this approach; E



ONLINE CONTENT  many have documented the stark difference between the reach of groups like ISIS before tech companies took a more robust approach to content removal compared to after. It is clear that the degradation of the group’s online presence was, at least in part, caused by tech companies taking a proactive approach, however, the issue contains many complexities. Below we offer a number of considerations for the removal of content, including trade-offs, regulatory frameworks, and the capabilities and motivations of social media platforms. THE ONLINE EXTREMIST’S DILEMMA Although the removal of terrorist content has clear benefits, there may be significant trade-offs too. The move of Islamist groups like ISIS away from the larger platforms towards smaller and more secure ones, particularly Telegram, has been well documented. The unique selling point of these


platforms is their operational security. As such, turning terrorist actors away from mainstream platforms may inadvertently be helping them. Research has suggested that terrorists’ use of the Internet (including using social media to communicate with co-ideologues, accessing ideological content, and using the web to plan their attack) makes them less likely to succeed, while finding that the use of end-to-end encrypted platforms does not affect success. Similarly, it was also found that terrorists that use social media are more likely to be apprehended before their event than those who did not. This is what Clifford and Powell call the online extremist’s dilemma; the goals of outreach for recruitment and operational security are fundamentally at odds. There are clear and substantial benefits to removing terrorist content, but we must be honest about the trade-offs; terrorists have less opportunity to telegraph their actions and ideology to law enforcement.


TERRORISTS THAT USE SOCIAL MEDIA ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE APPREHENDED BEFORE THEIR EVENT THAN THOSE WHO DID NOT A RANGE OF PLATFORMS In addition to the complex tradeoffs of content removal, the creation of regulation requires some further considerations. One is the variety of services that terrorists and extremists are using and the finding that their use is interconnected yet not homogeneous. Weirman and Alexander revealed that ISIS have adapted to the policies of the major platforms. For example, instead of posting clearly violating content on Twitter, they post non-violating news sources that validate the group’s stance.

ONLINE CONTENT This research along with other studies have shown that the major platforms are also being used to post URL links that redirect followers to a range of file-sharing sites (which tend to be less censored), where large quantities of content (that would violate major platforms policies) are posted. Further to this, Clifford and Powell found that ISIS also use the major platforms to redirect to the previously mentioned online instant messaging service Telegram where followers can communicate with one another both in public channels and private group chats, post media and instructional guides. Therefore, regulation needs to consider that there are a range of social media platforms, file-sharing sites and instant messenger services being used with Tech Against Terrorism finding evidence of terrorist groups using more than 330 platforms with half of the top 50 most-used platforms by ISIS being small or micro-platforms.

A ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL APPROACH TO REGULATION IS UNLIKELY TO BE EFFECTIVE; HAVING A RANGE OF REGULATORY STRATEGIES TO DRAW FROM SHOULD GIVE MORE FLEXIBILITY AND ALLOW FOR A MORE TAILORED APPROACH Regulation also needs to recognise the different ways the platforms are used with some used to post currently non-violating content, others to signpost to other sites, and some as repositories or for communication. REGULATORY STRATEGIES The final consideration will look at the range of capabilities and resources, as well as motivations of the platforms, file-sharing sites and instant messenger services to counter this issue. The major platforms hire thousands of employees globally to work on safety and security, bring in large advertising revenuesxxi, and claim to invest heavily in an array of artificial intelligence technology that proactively searches for and removes terrorist content, despite the finding that this content can still be easily found on their sites. This is not typical, however, of smaller file-sharing sites, alternative platforms, and instant messenger services. Such services often only have a handful of employees, are based in just one country, and rely on strategies other than the selling of advertisements for revenue. For example, the file-sharing site does not have the resources and capabilities of larger platforms. However, it works with Tech Against Terrorism and the Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism to try to tackle terrorist use of their sites. Other platforms and sites are less cooperative with a heavy focus on free speech and user privacy. As a result of this variation, some regulatory strategies and penalties may be easily implementable for some companies but create struggles and vulnerabilities for others. Regulatory strategies are therefore going to have to focus on more than just the major platforms, fast content removal, and content that is typically considered violent or inciting. If regulation focuses on the major platforms – or platforms with a certain size user-base – then they will only be focusing on one small part of the online ecosystem used by terrorist and extremist groups. If regulation focuses on violent and inciteful content then groups will be able to continue to post non-violating content and URLs signposting followers elsewhere. It may also lead to the whacka-mole effect of groups migrating to sites that are less censored and more difficult for law enforcement to monitor. If regulation focuses on fast removals

then companies with an enormous volume of content and/or very few resources may feel pressured to err on the side of caution and make removal errors. Finally, regulation that focuses on fining companies who do not comply risks the major platforms treating them as just another business cost and may be difficult to enforce on companies that are registered outside of the jurisdiction. Regulation has recently moved in the direction of requiring social media platforms to proactively remove terrorist and extremist content as quickly as possible. However, this article argues that regulation should be acknowledging several considerations. First, regulation needs to include the enormous range of platforms (both large and alternative), , file-sharing sites, and instant messenger services that are used by terrorist and extremist groups instead of focusing on the major platforms, or platforms with a certain number of users. Secondly, they will need to address that the platforms and sites are not used homogeneously and therefore may require different strategies to one another. Third, they need to consider the differing levels of resources available to the companies, as well as their motivations to comply, and whether penalties, such as fines are going to have any success in incentivising compliance. Finally, regulation should acknowledge that although content removal has benefits, there are also trade-offs to this. Therefore, a one-size-fits-all approach to regulation is unlikely to be effective; having a range of regulatory strategies to draw from should give more flexibility and allow for a more tailored approach depending on the range of important differing factors that have been raised throughout. L

Amy-Louise Watkin is a PhD Candidate at Swansea University and a member of Cyber Threats Research Centre. Joe Whittaker is a joint PhD Candidate at Swansea University and Leiden University. He is also a research fellow at the International Centre for Counter-Terrorism and a member of the Cyber Threats Research Centre. Full references for this article can be found on the CTB website.




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NEW APPLICATIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR UAVS T he Defence and Security Accelerator has announced it has awarded nearly £2 million to develop new capabilities to detect, disrupt, and defeat the hostile and malicious use of drones. In total, 18 bids have been funded as part of the Countering Drones competition launched earlier this year by the former Defence Secretary. Among the proposal being developed are methods for detecting 4G and 5G controlled drones, cutting edge applications of machine learning and artificial intelligence for sensors to automatically identify UAVs, and low risk methods of stopping drones through novel electronic defeat or interceptor solutions. The competition has also been supported by the Department for Transport and NATO to counter the rapidly evolving threats from UAS. The high level of interest from industry has led to a doubling of initial funding from around £1 million to around £2 million being awarded to organisations in Phase 1.



Drones, if used in an unsafe manner, can cause security risks. In July this year, Singapore’s Civil Aviation Authority released a statement saying that 18 flights had been delayed, and seven flights diverted due to drones. This was after chaos was caused at Gatwick Airport last Christmas, as well as the incident of an exploding drone in Yemen around the same time.

THE COMMERCIAL UAV SHOW The UAV industry is an ever-changing, evergrowing sector and it can sometimes be difficult to keep track of the new technologies, players and regulations. With thousands of attendees, including hundreds of marketleading exhibitors and industry experts from all over the globe, the Commercial UAV Show is the place to be this November. Celebrating its sixth year in 2019, this free to attend show prides itself to be a one-stop event that brings the whole industry together.


Across both event days, 12-13 November, attendees will be able to find out about the latest this amazing industry has to offer and network with leading global and regional companies, such as: DJI, Airbus, NATO, the CAA, NATS, Shell, Bell, Network Rail, BP, Balfour Beatty, DNV - GL, BT, Laing O’Rourke, Gatwick Airport, Heathrow Airport, Flyability, and many more. WHAT’S ON? This year’s show will feature: a giant expo floor showcasing the market’s most exciting and ground-breaking UAV companies; a high-level conference featuring top industry experts from major organisations like Airbus, Bell, DJI, BAE Systems, etc.; industry specific seminars featuring interactive talks and workshops from our exhibitors, partners and industry aficionados; a brand-new Careers’ Zone designed to give participants all the tools necessary to break into or further their careers in this amazing industry; and the launch of the VIP UTM Summit. WHAT CAN YOU EXPECT FROM THE UTM SUMMIT? This invite-only event will be running in co-location with The Commercial UAV Show and will welcome senior representatives from all-across the sector in one place, offering them a dedicated space to meet, network and discuss current and futures industry challenges and solutions. The agenda will run across both event days and will cover topics such as traffic management, shared airspace, security, counter-drone technology, regulations and implementation and much more. Attendees include: NATO; Ministry of Defence; British Army; The Civil Aviation Authority; Drone Defence; Gatwick Airport; Heathrow Airport; Altitude Angel; AirMap; and Inmarsat. L


Tetra Drones: drones with a difference

Tetra Drones is a leading developer of bespoke UAV systems, designed and engineered in the UK to suit your project requirements. The company’s in-house production facilities allow Tetra to manufacture solutions for the most demanding applications and achieve your vision. This includes: bespoke design; company branding; sensor integration; weatherproof systems; water landing systems; heavy lift systems; fixed wing and multirotor; and payload development. The expertise of Tetra Drones in design and production allows it to create unique multi-rotor and fixed wing solutions for a vast range of industries from search and rescue through

to structural inspection with our background specialty being weatherproofing. Inhouse design, CNC machining, 3D Printing and composite moulding allows Tetra Drones to have complete control over the whole production process here in the UK. If you have a great idea or a tricky project where consumer drones will just not cut it then get in touch to see what Tetra Drones can do for you. The company has worked on projects for some of the industry’s most demanding applications in law enforcement and search and rescue supplying innovative solutions worldwide. FURTHER INFORMATION





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