Counter Terror Business 39

Page 1 | ISSUE 39



ISE 2019


EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Looking at the ways in which emerging technologies are improving the operational effectiveness of blue light services





ISE 2019

TACKLING TERROR THREATS IN THE UK Counter Terror Business is pleased to announce its partnership with the Global Counter-Terrorism Summit this December. Part of the International Security Expo, taking place on 3-4 December, the high-level summit has UK Home Office and Counter Terrror Policing involvement at its core. Looking at current priorities, the changing nature of counter terror in the UK and the pressures on those keeping us safe.



Looking at the ways in which emerging technologies are improving the operational effectiveness of blue light services

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A family affected by the Manchester Bombing, experiences of a Terrorist Hostage and perspectives from a Senior Special FBI Agent are among the keynote highlights. Ensuring the messages are delivered and the topics are covered in depth is one of the country’s leading broadcasters on foreign affairs, diplomacy and security, Alistair Bunkall, Sky News. The Global Counter Terrorism Summit is by application only. You will also need to be registered for International Security Expo 2019 to attend. Find out more about both events on page 35. Michael Lyons, editor

ONLINE // MOBILE // FACE TO FACE To register for your FREE Digital Subscription of Counter Terror Business, go to: or contact Public Sector Information, 226 High Road, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 PUBLISHED BY PUBLIC SECTOR INFORMATION LIMITED

226 High Rd, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 Web: EDITOR Michael Lyons PRODUCTION MANAGER Dan Kanolik PRODUCTION DESIGN Joanna Golding PRODUCTION CONTROL Lucy Maynard WEB PRODUCTION Victoria Casey BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER Martin Freedman PUBLISHER Jake Deadman ADMINISTRATION Charlotte Boudaboussa

Counter Terror Business would like to thank the following organisations for their support:

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© 2019 Public Sector Information Limited. No part of this publication can be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any other means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the prior written permission of the publisher. Whilst every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the editorial content the publisher cannot be held responsible for errors or omissions. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the publisher. ISSN 2399-4533



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CONTENTS CTB 39 Supported by

13 BIOMETRICS With police forces across the country facing increasing cost pressures – funding has fallen 19 per cent in the last eight years – biometrics are rapidly making their way into government policy as the final frontier in safeguarding the public whilst reducing costs

16 PEOPLE PROTECTION The threat of terrorism towards businesses and crowded places has evolved significantly over the years. As new technologies emerge and shifts in the social and political context occur, this is unlikely to change, writes Gareth Hulmes

21 RETAIL SECURITY Six actions contribute to a comprehensive risk and resilience strategy for dealing with terrorism risk: understand; assess; mitigate; manage; transfer; and accept. Ed Butler discusses how businesses can be better prepared and proactive in protecting themselves against the risk of terrorism

28 SURVEILLANCE While traditional barrier mounted sensors and free-standing sensors have served the perimeter market well for a number of years, wide area surveillance is now becoming a viable option, particularly for larger sites

35 ISE 2019 We are in a period of political turmoil with a new Prime Minister, the looming no deal Brexit anxiety and a country still smarting over its outing for the Skripal attack. We must ask, are our defences creaking?

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25 PERIMETER SECURITY Paul Jeffrey, chairman of the Perimeter Security Suppliers Association, analyses the role that perimeter security can have in ensuring the safety of large groups of people, in the light of the prominence of vehicular attacks in recent years

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43 EMERGENCY SERVICES SHOW How emerging technologies are improving the efficiency and operational effectiveness of emergency response is set to be the key focus of this year’s Emergency Services Show, taking place from 18 September

49 DSEI The upcoming DSEI will mark 20 years since the event was first established. Returning on 10-13 September, DSEI now encompasses the entire defence audience and has grown in both size and content

55 UAVS Risto Talas and Tom Ellis, from the University of Portsmouth, discuss the application of UAVs in port security with a view to enhancing security and complimenting existing security regimes

Counter Terror Business magazine // ISSUE 39 | COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS MAGAZINE



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Muslim detention at airports seen as ‘structural Islamophobia’ Muslims are being detained at ports and airports for up to six hours by law enforcement using controversial counter‑terrorism laws in an Islamophobic manner. Human rights group Cage suggests the stops at ports, under the use of Schedule 7 powers, disproportionately target Muslim travellers, with growing anecdotal evidence highlighting that Muslim women are being forced to remove their headscarves when stopped, even though the rate that such stops lead to a conviction is 0.007 per cent. Cage has made a complaint to the Independent Office for Police Conduct, the policing regulator, and has also written to MPs on the allparty group on British Muslims to spell out the extent of its concerns with so-called schedule 7 stops. The Schedule 7: Harassment at Borders

report says that the Schedule 7 law is not only ineffective, but it is deeply counterproductive. Therefore, it recommends that the government repeal Schedule 7 TACT and Schedule 3 of the CounterTerrorism Border Security Act with immediate effect, and failing this, that civil society act to document the use of new Schedule 3 powers to target individuals and groups on a more overtly political basis and, within the emergent framing of political movements as ‘hostile activity’, continue to call attention to the danger this law poses to community relations and society as a whole. Muhammad Rabbani, International Director for CAGE, said: “The discrimination faced by Muslim travellers highlights how embedded Islamophobia is in Schedule 7, and in broader counter terrorism powers. Officers routinely ask intrusive questions

about religion and practice, which amounts to a modern day inquisition. “Over the last decade alone, Schedule 7 has seen over 400,000 people stopped, 99.993 per cent were co innocent of any wrongdoing. This highlights the disproportionate use the power and illustrates its abuse with devastating consequences for thousands of people. The practice amounts to the most exhaustive racial profiling strategy witnessed in modern times. Our report evidences the severe discrimination faced by Muslims at UK borders. Islamophobia must be challenged at every level and it is for this reason that we have been compelled to send our research to the APPG on British Muslims and seek an urgent investigation.”




£9 million to get ports ready for Brexit

Guidance to stop terrorists accessing vehicles for attacks

Local Government Secretary Robert Jenrick has announced that £5 million will be given to local councils which either have or are near to a major air, land or sea port. Local authorities in Kent will receive over £2.6 million in recognition of the county being home to a number of the significant and busiest ports in the area including the Port of Dover, Eurotunnel, Ashford and Ebbsfleet. Kent County Council will receive £1 million, and £1.6 million will be shared between a further 13 local authorities in the county. The allocations of the ports funding have been based on a number of factors including the expected impact on the local area, the amount of EU goods received by port areas into the country and the areas wider importance to the UK’s trade network. The Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government said that the remaining £4 million will be shared out to local resilience forums (LRFs), partnerships made up of representatives

from local public services, across England to support them in their preparations. This can be used by local areas to support the development of robust Brexit plans for their areas and for continued preparedness activities, including additional staffing costs. Jenrick said: “From keeping our supply chains running and ensuring goods continue to flow into the country, to putting robust plans in place for every community, local government is playing a vital role in preparing the country to be fully ready to leave the EU on 31 October. We have stepped up our preparedness significantly in recent weeks, including by asking every council to appoint a Brexit Lead Officer. Now we are releasing an additional £9 million of additional funding today to help local areas get ready for Brexit, whatever the circumstances.”


The Department for Transport (DfT) has issued new guidance to help prevent terrorists getting access to commercial vehicles to be used in attacks. In the last five years, changes in attack methodology has meant that commercial vehicles have become one of the deadliest weapons used by terrorists across Europe. In 2017, vehicles were used in three of the five attacks which took place in London and Manchester. The DfT has worked alongside security experts from Counter Terrorism Policing to create an industry-specific guidance document to help transport businesses, operators, managers and drivers mitigate the threat of their vehicles being used in an attack. The guidance covers all aspects of vehicle and site security, including a checklist for vehicle security for commercial drivers. Read more about the guidance on page 31.




Ambipar Response – the Response Organization of choice Ambipar Response has earned a global reputation for quality and effectiveness in delivering incident preparedness, management and response services In this interview, C.E.O. of Ambipar Response UK and European operations, Zäl Rustom, talks through the history of the company from its early routes in oil spill response in South Wales as DV Howells, through its development with Braemar Seascope and Braemar Shipping, to its recent acquisition by the Brazilian multi‑sector operator Grupo Ambipar, to form one of the world’s largest Commercial Response Organizations. Ambipar Response is a specialist and niche service provider that acts in support of the government, local authority, emergency services, industry, commerce and those responsible for safeguarding critical national infrastructure. Zäl explains that while Ambipar Response is primarily a response organization, a significant part of their scope of work involves a wider engagement cycle of risk and threat identification and assessment. This brings in areas of emergency management preparedness, response, control and event mitigation, with experienced personnel also T: +44 (0)203 981 4388 E:

providing essential Business Continuity guidance to enable speedy recovery from an adverse incident or event and return to normal operating. Ambipar Response undertakes training and competency building at each of these stages. For more than 70 years, working at Government, Corporate and Operational levels, Ambipar Response has helped build resilient organizations and communities. Its global experience has provided a unique understanding of all that is required to successfully prepare for and respond to a diverse range of incidents. In this next step in its development, Ambipar Response intends to become the Commercial Response Organization of choice.

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Prevent is ‘best chance’ of reducing the threat from terrorism

The national head of Counter Terrorism Policing has stressed that the Prevent programme is the UK’s ‘best chance’ of reducing the threat from terrorism. Assistant Commissioner Neil Basu said that without better support for the Prevent

part of the government’s CONTEST strategy, the UK is likely to continue facing a SEVERE threat level (meaning an attack is highly likely) for years to come. Prevent aims to safeguard and support those most at risk of




Emergency stop and search restrictions lifted

Lord Carlile to lead independent review of Prevent

The government has announced that Lord Carlile has been appointed as the Independent Reviewer of the Prevent programme, which safeguards vulnerable people from being drawn into terrorism. In January, the government announced the creation of the

radicalisation through early intervention and enable those who have already engaged in terrorism to disengage and rehabilitate. Counter Terror Policing is currently working on a record number of investigations, just under 800, and since March 2017, the police and intelligence services have stopped 19 attacks – 14 being Islamist related and five Extreme Right Wing (XRW). Basu also recognised that a lack of communication in the earlier years of the Prevent strategy had allowed critics to gain too strong a voice, urging for ‘better communication, more transparency and no longer allowing an information vacuum to give people opportunity to attack Prevent without any rebuttal’.

Independent Review of Prevent as part of the Counter-Terrorism and Border Security Act. Prevent is one of the four strands of the government’s counter-terrorism strategy, CONTEST, and aims to safeguard vulnerable people from becoming terrorists or supporting terrorism by engaging with those who are identified as being vulnerable to radicalisation or targeting by terrorist recruiters. The review will focus on the current delivery of the Prevent programme and make recommendations for the future and is expected to report to Parliament by August 2020. Lord Carlile said: “The nature of the terrorist threat is ever-changing and government policy must evolve in order to tackle it. I look forward in my new role to seeing Prevent work in action and hearing views from supporters, critics and everyone in between to see the evidence of what is and isn’t working. The review will be strongly evidence based. “As the former Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation, I have a strong track record of asserting and sustaining my independence of government in assessing the effectiveness of legislation, and this role will be no different.”


The Home Office has revealed that a stop and search pilot has been rolled out to all 43 forces in England and Wales. Home Secretary Priti Patel, who is aiming to eradicate increasing knife crime rates, is empowering more than 8,000 police officers to authorise enhanced stop and search powers. The Home Office is making it simpler for all forces in England and Wales to use Section 60 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act, which empowers officers to stop and search anyone in a designated area without needing reasonable grounds for suspicion if serious violence is anticipated. The rollout will see the Home Secretary lift all conditions in the voluntary Best Use of Stop and Search Scheme over the use of Section 60 by: reducing the level of authorisation needed for officers to deploy and extend Section 60 from senior officers to inspectors and superintendents; lowering the degree of certainty required by the authorising officer so they must reasonably believe an incident involving serious violence ‘may’, rather than ‘will’, occur; and extending the initial period a Section 60 can be in force from 15 hours to 24, and extending the overall period an extension can be in place from 39 to 48 hours.




The control room of the future is ready now Emergency and security services play a vital role in keeping the public safe and secure. As the gap between available resources and the number of incidents that require support grows, we see a greater need for solutions that improve officer and operator efficiency and effectiveness When lives are at stake and every second counts, emergency services must have the best tools at their disposal to effectively respond to incidents. These tools must be robust, reliable and available when a call for help comes in. During an incident, the critical data and information needed to make the right decision must be presented in a highly intuitive, user-friendly interface. Being able to support the co-location of resources is another requirement in an increasing mobile and virtual world, allowing enhanced communications as well as preparedness for

large scale events or incidents that require shared resources or shared situational awareness. The capability to receive voice, data and video is vital. A multimedia communications platform for the control and special operations room that can manage and respond to all kinds of communication paths will increase the flexibility and ease of use for public emergency contact and also assist operator and emergency response times. All Frequentis products were designed using real‑world emergency operations management criteria.




10-13 September 2019, ExCel, London

19-20 November 2019, Paris-Nord, Villepinte

Now entering its 20th year, DSEI is respected and commended by the industry it serves.The event presents a pivotal point in the calendar to explore international business opportunities with an audience that is unrivalled, both in terms of the scale and seniority of those that attend. With over 1,600 exhibitors from 69 countries, DSEI is your best opportunity in 2019 to see the latest products and innovations from the full spectrum of global defence suppliers, from Primes to SMEs. However, divided into five key zones: Aerospace, Land, Naval, Security and Joint, DSEI is known to be ‘best in class’ in terms of the range and quality of the companies that feature. There are also a broad range of opportunities for high and low-level networking during DSEI, including a variety of receptions, hospitality packages and ‘Meet the Supply Chain’ events.

EMERGENCY SERVICES SHOW 18-19 September 2019, NEC, Birmingham

This two-day event brings together all disciplines from the emergency services sector to discover innovative technologies and operational solutions, share their experiences and unite in their collaborative approach to public safety. The exhibition features over 450 exhibiting companies including leading names in vehicles and fleet, communications, technology, medical and fire fighting equipment, search and rescue, extrication, water rescue, first response, protective clothing and uniforms, public safety, vehicle equipment, training, community safety and station facilities. New technology on display will include connected vehicles that serve as mobile communications hubs, satellite communications, ruggedised mobile computers tablets and phones, data, cloud storage, wearable tech, connectivity, UAVs or drones, hybrid and electric vehicles, body-worn cameras and other video capture systems.

Milipol Paris is the leading event dedicated to homeland security and safety. The 21st edition will be held on 19-22 November 2019 at Paris-Nord Villepinte Exhibition Centre. In 2017, the event attracted no fewer than 1,005 exhibitors from 53 countries, 29,939 visitors from 151 countries and 161 official delegations from 77 countries. The event is organised under the auspices of the French Ministry of Interior in partnership with several governmental bodies. For many decades Milipol Paris has enjoyed a worldwide status as the leading event dedicated to the security profession. It provides the perfect forum for presenting the latest technological innovations in the area, effectively meeting the needs of the sector as a whole and also addressing current threats and dangers.

INTERNATIONAL SECURITY EXPO 3-4 December 2019, Olympia, London

International Security Expo, formerly UK Security Expo showcases over 1,000 of the latest innovative security products to help you improve your security. The show is free-to-attend and unites the entire security community allowing shared learning and collaboration from government, CNI, law enforcement, military, major events, transport and borders, cyber security, facilities and public and private sectors. Featured over the two days are 13 free to attend, CPD certified conferences and workshops covering every major sector of the security industry. 2018 saw ground-breaking, innovative features including the 300 SQM Protecting Urban Spaces Demonstrator designed to help every security professional understand how best to protect crowded spaces.



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Jason Tooley comments on how to turn the tide of public acceptance and implement the most effective digital policing strategy


ressida Dick, the Met Police Commissioner, recently stated that crime solving rates in certain areas are ‘woefully low.’ These controversial comments came only weeks after she commented that ‘facial recognition is ‘very useful’ within law enforcement and that

the technology needs to make its way towards public acceptance or Britain risks being ‘really, really, really left behind.’ With police forces across the country facing increasing cost pressures – funding has fallen 19 per cent in the last eight years – biometrics are rapidly making E



BIOMETRICS  their way into government policy as the final frontier in safeguarding the public whilst reducing costs. While technological advancements are making new forms of biometric techniques available, such as behavioural biometrics, digital fingerprint based authentication is still regarded as having the highest level of maturity. Fingerprint technology has an implicit acceptance linked to the identity of the individual and delivers a lower false positive result. Facial recognition, however, when used as a stand-alone biometric, suffers from the risk of challenge and public consent to accept usage based on scenario as seen in the case of the South Wales Police pilot program. In addition, gender and racial bias as well as external factors, such as poor lighting and wearing accessories, impact on reliability and are likely to therefore be challenged more frequently. As technology matures, there is clearly a need to focus on how biometrics as a whole can support identity verification at scale and gain widespread public acceptance as part of a broader digital policing and security initiative. While it has been recognised by the Home Office that biometrics can be used as an effective way of linking people to their records at key decision points, data from a single biometric technique is rarely, if ever, used as the sole source of evidence in sensitive decision making. It’s also important to note that the legal validity is often dependent on the way in which biometric data is collected, handled and processed. Gaining public consent in the creation of a broader digital identity program is one of the critical success factors however this can more easily be achieved by tapping into the consumer acceptance of the use of biometric techniques and the individual’s digital identity on their own consumer technology. GOING BACK TO BASICS Because of these points, it is essential to take a strategic approach when embracing biometric technology. This entails going back to the basics and understanding the needs of the end user, whether employee or customer, and then taking an open approach to selecting the right biometric technique, for the right use case, based on the scenario. For example, processing a passport application is very different to crime scene DNA collection. Understandable concerns around street crime and public security are further amplified on a national level due to the potential catastrophic consequences of failed security checks. One of the most important places this can be seen is at airport security checks, with both the general public and employees keen to see security measures improve. More rigorous identification must be enforced that


THE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COMMITTEE HAS EXPRESSED CONCERN REGARDING THE CURRENT STATE OF THE GOVERNMENT’S APPROACH TO BIOMETRICS AND FORENSICS, THE LATEST IN A LONG LINE OF COMPLAINTS AGAINST THE ONGOING USE OF FACIAL RECOGNITION begins from the onboarding process, as currently passport and visa applications are based on outdated techniques such as physical IDs or even third-person referrals. This is an area where a digital identity program with high adoption levels can gain consent. The ability to gain consent really lies in providing the combination of a great digital user experience on mobile whilst ensuring a highly secure experience for the individual. Consent is easily gained if this balance can be achieved. Many public sector services still rely heavily on a combination of passwords and hardware technologies to create a One Time Passcode, despite a drive towards adopting Bring Your Own Device strategies, in which employees can access corporate data


through personal technology. This, in combination with biometrics, can achieve the digital identity required to enhance user experience and productivity, whilst increasing the security for the user and enterprise. The reliance on passwords and the costs associated with the peripheral technologies like tokens or the use of SMS to deliver the One Time Passcode capabilities is an area that organisations have recognised as a weakness in their security strategy. Delivering stronger authentication capabilities without the higher costs is a common goal. Yet despite a big push from the government to adopt both biometrics and widely used consumer technology, the use of mobile and biometrics to increase


security remains unfulfilled. It presents a great opportunity to embed a security transformation within a wider digital transformation. Whether focusing on employees or the public, a security transformation is required. Expectations are linked to digital, mobile and ease of use creating productivity. Organisations have the opportunity to take advantage of some of the work done within the biometrics test programs to date, but by taking a multifactor approach focusing on consent, mobile and user experience, significant progress can be achieved. In short, the opportunity to transform and leverage widespread consumer adoption will drive greater acceptance. The user experience today has become the single most important factor in security, as the connection with productivity and performance has long since been proven. Taking advantage of these market and individual requirements remains the key to improved security and ultimately will accelerate any digital identity program. FACIAL RECOGNITION TRIALS Former Home Secretary Sajid Javid gave his backing to the police in their trials of

facial recognition cameras, despite the technology facing a legal challenge. The surveillance software has been trialled by several forces, including the Metropolitan Police, at football matches, festivals and parades. It is designed to help spot suspects in public spaces. Javid has stated that it is important that police are able to make use of the latest tools to help them solve crimes. The high-definition cameras detect faces and compare them with existing police photographs. Since trials began, the innovation has been heavily criticised by livil liberty campaigners, who not only claim that it infringes on rights, but also that the technology is currently too inaccurate, especially when identifying black and ethnic minority people. There is also no specific regulation governing how police use the software or manage the data gathered. Javid said: “I back the police in looking at technology and trialling it and... different types of facial recognition technology is being trialled especially by the Met at the moment and I think it’s right they look at that.” Meanwhile, the Science and Technology Committee has expressed concern regarding the current state

of the government’s approach to biometrics and forensics. The concerns raised by MPs is the latest in a long line of complaints against the planned and ongoing use of facial recognition. In the year since the committee published its last report on biometrics and forensics, MPs claim that very little has been achieved by the government, with minsters failing to show leadership and pass what is ultimately an uncontroversial piece of legislation. The committee added there should be no further trials of the tech until relevant regulations were in place, highlighting genuine concerns over accuracy and bias of the technology. Saying that the government seems unaware that there is a problem, the report further warned that police forces were failing to edit a database of custody images to remove pictures of unconvicted individuals. L

Jason Tooley is chief revenue officer at Veridium and a board member at techUK.





PEOPLE PROTECTION The threat of terrorism towards businesses and crowded places has evolved significantly over the years. As new technologies emerge and shifts in the social and political context occur, this is unlikely to change, writes Gareth Hulmes

COUNTER TERRORISM RESILIENCE FOR CROWDED PLACES T errorism has the potential to make people feel very vulnerable when they are in public places, at work or away from home. In fact, a recent survey conducted by BRE Global revealed that approximately two thirds of participants believed recent acts of terrorism have made them more security-conscious when out and about. Furthermore, the majority of participants considered security a factor when deciding: whether to attend an event, concert or festival; when deciding which hotel they will stay in; and when deciding which property to rent or buy. This anxiety rightly raises questions (both of and from) those involved in the management and operations of buildings, infrastructure and public places dealing with issues of security and counter terrorism resilience.



Like any other risk-based business issue, security demands a holistic, evidence-based approach in order to provide assurance to end users. Simple questions, such as ‘Are we a target?’ or ‘Are we secure?’, can be difficult to answer objectively without a structured approach in place. Those asking such questions are typically seeking assurance, some confidence that the arrangements in place (or planned) are likely to address the current (or envisaged) threat. Understandably, business leaders have a range of competing issues to address to make their businesses successful. However, if a business values security and the benefits it can bring to the organisation, it needs to place security high on the agenda and commit to operating securely for the benefit of staff, customers and other valued stakeholders. 


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CROWDED PLACES  Businesses already doing this are readily identifiable in specific sectors such as energy, aviation and communications; those where security is core to the success of the business activity. These organisations appreciate that the failure to establish effective policy, compliance procedures and give stakeholders confidence in their ability to operate safely and securely, could jeopardise the future of the business. These businesses are recognisable by their corporate strategies, financial reporting, and the transparency they exercise when communicating the security credentials they hold. In other sectors, where security is not a principle service offering and is considered to be lower on the agenda, there will naturally be a less



integrated and more ad-hoc approach to security, with greater focus on operating profit and loss. However, given the evolving threat, and the recent push for greater legislation around protective security - specifically at ‘crowded places’ as proposed by ‘Martyn’s Law’ - can any organisation, irrespective of their size or sector, afford to ignore the business risks associated with today’s security challenges? All businesses from SMEs to large corporates need to be security conscious for a range of reasons, not least due to the health, safety and data protection legislation which apply to all. As a result, security performance, like finances, should be monitored, assessed, evaluated and reported. HOW CAN WE IMPROVE? The following points apply whichever type of organisation you represent. They will help you assess your current situation and what might need to be done in the future. Understand your security needs It’s vital to document the factors associated with your business and/or


estate that contribute to your security profile. This will inevitably include, but not be limited to, considerations such as: the assets to be protected; the activities taking place at your facilities and the associated operational requirements; who needs access to your premises; and whether there are any requirements filtered down from regulators. Understand your security risks With the contributing factors identified, you will be better placed to document the threats and associated risks facing your organisation. This may require consideration of: whether the geographical location and local context of premises could influence the likelihood of an incident; whether your premises are iconic or have attributes that make them attractive targets; who might target you, when and how; the vulnerability of your premises to these types of incidents; and the consequences that may result from these types of incidents. Through the analysis of these issues, you will be in a position to determine whether any action is required. If you have not considered these factors,

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CROWDED PLACES then there can be little assurance that your security is appropriate, proportionate and effective, or that investment in security arrangements will deliver real improvement. Security managers will also be in a better position to communicate the need for action to senior management, should they find themselves in an organisation reluctant to invest. WHAT SECURITY IMPROVEMENTS SHOULD YOU IMPLEMENT? Your approach to securing your premises will naturally be dependent on the results of your risk assessment and should be focused on reducing vulnerabilities and consequences. Never implement security for security’s sake. Doing so will not lead to improved security, will deprive the organisation of valuable resources and may even lead to the creation of a false sense of security. Remember, if in doubt, you should always seek professional advice. At BRE Global, our experience in supporting organisations to improve their approach to security has identified a number of common characteristics amongst top performers:


Focused Many organisations hold a policy for ‘Health & Safety’, ‘Quality’ and ‘Environment’. Security should be treated no differently. By maintaining a written security policy and a supporting security strategy, setting out what you are trying to achieve, helps to ensure that security measures continue to meet operational requirements. This will allow you to remain focused on your objectives and ultimately measure and improve performance. An integrated approach Be sure to examine the benefits of adopting physical or technical solutions over personnel and procedural solutions. Whilst often effective, physical and technical solutions can quickly absorb your available security budget. Recent events have shown how quickly the threat can change, and how you might be attacked tomorrow may be very different to the methods used previously. It is therefore important to balance the deployment of physical and personnel security; the latter of which can be reconfigured more quickly and easily, and usually at less cost. Whatever solution you arrive at should be demonstrably suitable for the risk it is designed to address and complementary to organisation’s operational needs. Systematic approach Establishing a security risk management system will help you get the most out of your security budget. It will provide a framework for effective security and enable you to evidence the steps you have taken to mitigate risks. In a security conscious organisation, there may be an enterprise level risk management system. In this case, your local management system should be aligned with that of the organisation. Where this is not the case, you may wish to establish your own system. Incident management & recovery Far too often, security planning stops at the point of incident detection or an incident plan may rely solely on the police for incident response. It is important that having detected suspicious behaviour or a loss at a facility, that there is appropriate infrastructure and procedures in place to communicate and manage an incident to a successful conclusion. Assurance Having invested significant time and resources in mitigating security risks,

it is important that you are able to communicate your facility’s security credentials and provide stakeholders with assurance of your capability. This might be required internally within some organisations, it may be a regulatory requirement for your sector or act as a differentiator that offers competitive advantage. INDUSTRY SOLUTIONS BRE Global has developed SABRE, a security assurance scheme to help organisations demonstrate their commitment to security. Launched in 2017, SABRE is complementary to the ‘Protect’ strand of the government’s counter terrorism strategy, CONTEST, in seeking to help premises’ owners reduce their security risks - including those posed by terrorism - so that people can go about their lives freely and with confidence. The SABRE approach can be adopted in two ways: Self-assessment Organisations may self-assess their premises using the SABRE Online platform. This enables the end user to understand current likely performance against the SABRE standard and target improvement as necessary before identifying premises suitable to take forward to certification. SABRE Online can also be used to measure and compare performance across a portfolio, with a built-in function for internal reporting. Certification This involves third party verification of your security management system and provides the most robust form of approval available. Certification is suitable for those wishing to communicate performance externally or to interested parties (such as tenants, regulators and insurers) and is the approach many organisations adopt for approval of management systems. Assessment is delivered by independent SABRE Registered Assessors, with supporting advice available from SABRE Registered Professionals – a list of which is available at L





Ed Butler, chief resilience officer at Pool Re, discusses how businesses can be better prepared and proactive in protecting themselves against the risk of terrorism

TERRORISM RISK STRATEGIES: MITIGATE, MANAGE, TRANSFER W e have come a long way over the past 40 years in our efforts to combat terrorism risks. Experiences gained by UK authorities and security agencies during the Troubles in Northern Ireland placed the UK in a stronger position than many other countries who had to deal with the chaotic aftermath of global Islamic terrorism post 9/11. Yet counter terrorism experts and security organisations that work tirelessly to reduce the impact of terrorism are in a constant arms race with terrorist threat actors who employ a wide range of attack methodologies to inflict mass casualties. The constantly evolving threat landscape exposes new vulnerabilities for businesses, especially SMEs, during the ‘new age’ of terrorism which has emerged since 2014. It is therefore essential to adopt

a rigorous, analytical, and realistic approach to this peril, one that minimises the full spectrum of the downside consequences. A strategy comprising six components can be extremely effective when organisations are confronted with terrorism risk. An organisation may not be directly targeted by a terrorist group or an individual attack but may instead suffer the indirect consequences of a cordon set up after the attack, or loss of attraction following a nearby attack, or contagion risks associated with terrorist activities in another area. Variation in vulnerability now lies primarily in the degree of likelihood that a threat will manifest (a probability which, unfortunately, is frustratingly difficult to calculate). Therefore, all organisations should consider the potential impacts of any terrorist attack E



RETAIL SECURITY  happening on their doorstep (and within their systems, since cyber terrorism is a growing threat), and how best to minimise them. Six actions contribute to a comprehensive risk and resilience strategy for dealing with terrorism risk: understand; assess; mitigate; manage; transfer; and accept. UNDERSTANDING Developing risk awareness and knowledge are the critical first steps. Having a basic understanding of the threat an organisation might be exposed to goes a long way in protecting its assets, people, and shareholder value. Unfortunately, too many people still say ‘it will never happen here’. As has been demonstrated over the last four years, contemporary terrorists prefer soft and easy targets, and those which have little physical security in place. Increased protection of transportation hubs and iconic buildings has driven attackers towards urban markets, seaside promenades, and concerts for youth. Post-event reflections on ‘why were we caught up in all this horror’ do not form the basis of a sound security plan.

HAVING A BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE THREAT AN ORGANISATION MIGHT BE EXPOSED TO GOES A LONG WAY IN PROTECTING ITS ASSETS, PEOPLE, AND SHAREHOLDER VALUE. UNFORTUNATELY, TOO MANY PEOPLE STILL SAY ‘IT WILL NEVER HAPPEN HERE’. MITIGATE, MANAGE Each action taken in the treatment of an organisation’s identified risks will fall under one of the remaining four components of a terrorism risk programme. The four must be assessed and carefully balanced within the context of the organisation’s risk profile and appetite, its resources, and its goals. Risk mitigation comprises essentially the avoidance of risks. Ocean-going

RISK ASSESSMENT ADVANCES Assessment is the second essential underpinning of any effort to manage terrorism risk. A general understanding of terrorist threats and their changing nature goes a long way, but these threats must be matched against a company’s vulnerability assessment. A comprehensive risk assessment will provide this. VSAT, Pool Re’s Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool, provides an easy and simple way to assess potential terrorism exposures and business continuity threats. It delivers a risk score, alongside practical advice to treat identified risks and vulnerabilities. Other terrorism risk assessment tools include blast and explosion analysis (which considers the impact of bomb attacks on specific buildings); structural stability and progressive collapse analysis (an engineering-driven process); and assessment of chemical, biological, nuclear, and radiological threats. Advances in blast modelling have made the assessment of specific buildings’ vulnerability to explosions much more accurate. Pool Re’s model, calibrated by experts at Cranfield University, uses Computational Fluid Dynamics to show where and how blast waves travel. The technique predicts the changing flow of blast pressure following an explosion as it radiates down roads and alleys, and swirls between and bounces off buildings. It allows much greater risk analysis than simple radial or 3-D line-of-sight modelling.



vessels have long practised risk mitigation when piracy makes certain sea routes less safe than usual: they simply sail around high risk sea channels (in extreme cases this decade, passing the Cape of Good Hope rather than risk dangerous waters beyond the Suez Canal), or employ on-board armed security guards. Similarly, recent, possibly state-backed bombings of vessels in the Gulf of Hormuz have

RETAIL SECURITY prompted some masters and owners to take alternate routes where possible. The potential to suffer terrorism at the hands of activists has led some companies to withdraw from certain activities, including vivisection. However, risk mitigation is often not an option. Risk management is essential in the many cases where terrorism risk cannot be avoided through mitigating actions. It includes actions taken to reduce the likelihood that risk transform into loss events. Measures range from the installation of barriers that prevent vehicles from entering pedestrianised areas, to the development of emergency response plans intended to reduce the impact of an attack which has not been avoided or thwarted. Many activities lie in between, such as instructing staff on threat identification, and bag searches for anyone entering a building.

RISK TRANSFER THROUGH INSURANCE Security agencies around the world have become highly proficient at averting terrorist atrocities, which has made them excellent anti-terrorism centre-forwards and goal keepers. However, they can never guarantee to interdict all terrorist plots, every time. Risk transfer – essentially, the purchase of insurance – is the next component. When risk mitigation and management measures fall short and terrorists are successful in their attacks, terrorism insurance is the underpinning backstop which ensures resilience. It allows organisations to get back to business within the shortest possible time, and with the minimum possible impact on their balance sheet. Terrorism risk transfer is Pool Re’s business. We provide, indirectly

through conventional insurance companies, the insurance backstop which provides cash indemnity and supporting services designed to ensure that organisations will have the resources necessary to recover as quickly as possible from a terrorist attack. We rely largely on our own capital and that of retrocessionaires – companies that provide reinsurance for reinsurers – but above that capital sits a loan facility from Her Majesty’s Treasury, which will cover reinsured terrorism losses that exceed the member retentions and our own capital pool (claims exceeding £9 billion). In the past only the largest companies were able to acquire insurance against terrorism risks, but today, in the UK and many other countries, cover is easily obtained through the usual insuring channels due to the involvement of statebacked terrorism reinsurance risk pools such as Pool Re. Insurance is now an essential part of any company’s terrorism risk strategy and business continuity planning and is an acceptance that we live in a changing terrorism threat landscape. In Britain terrorism insurance is now available and affordable for all organisations. Claims can be made for losses due to an act of terrorism even when a terrorist attack has done no physical damage. For example, customers were denied access to businesses trapped behind the police cordon at Borough Market for over a week following the London Bridge attack. Many small traders suffered considerable losses from a drop off in footfall and spoilage of consumables. Since the event, Pool Re has created affordable ‘non-damage business interruption’ coverage for terrorism related losses. The threat of terrorism is persistent, and it isn’t just about London. Small and medium sized organisations across the country are equally likely to be affected, either directly or indirectly. Taking a risk by not buying terrorism insurance, and instead adopting the belief ‘it will never happen here’ is a high-risk strategy in a world where terrorism is now, sadly, part of everyday life. Companies, large and small, can reduce the impact of terrorism by having a comprehensive risk strategy which covers all aspects of this diverse and unpredictable peril. An intelligence-led approach and plan will ensure effective and enduring resilience. Transferring risk through appropriate insurance is a must. L




Experts in Perimeter Protection Demarcation | Entrance control | Detection

Heras designs, manufactures, installs and services complete perimeter protection solutions across the UK. Experts in perimeter protection


Supported by

Paul Jeffrey, chairman of the Perimeter Security Suppliers Association, analyses the role that perimeter security can have in ensuring the safety of large groups of people, in the light of the prominence of vehicular attacks in recent years


e have all seen the media reports about terrorist attacks on crowded spaces whether by the use of vehicles as weapons, armed attack or suicide bombing (or a combination of all three). The results of these attacks are often mass casualty and invariably visibly shocking. As a result of this new approach to terrorist attacks, crowded spaces are now seen as high risk areas that need careful consideration when reviewing the safety of the public at venues or special events. These venues include (but are not limited to) stadia, concert halls, shopping centres, stations, airports, Christmas markets, festival sites etc. as well as any other location where crowds can gather.

The starting point for any public space security review is the completion of a detailed threat/risk assessment which is designed to identify and understand the types and levels of risk to public safety created by the use of the venue. This is often a complex process and can be eased by the use of specialist consultants to help identify and manage the risks within the operational and budget constraints. There is always plenty of help available for this from the regional Counter Terrorism Security Co-ordinators, Counter Terrorism Security Advisers’s or direct from CPNI. Once there is a detailed understanding and summary of the security risks, an Operational Requirements plan should be used to create a venue /event specific security plan. E




Supported by

 This would involve interaction with all stakeholders to ensure ‘buy-in’ and widespread acceptance. This will only benefit the planning as each stakeholder will generally have a priority focus. Input from all areas is essential to good planning. MULTI-LAYERED SOLUTIONS While security is everyone’s responsibility, the main over-arching stakeholders in protection of crowded spaces are the event organisers and space owners who will work with the government security teams to create a safer environment in and around the venue. Effective solutions to security risk should be multi-layered and would include weapon detection, physical barrier systems, suitably trained security personnel, incident response as well as command and control. The best solutions are generally ‘onion skin’ solutions using not only layers of differing security strategies but also concentric security perimeter rings. The consequences of ineffective planning are not only the failure to properly mitigate the risk but also the waste of precious budget funds. Any protection introduced to improve the levels of physical protection afforded to the public must be appropriate and proportionate and wherever possible should be a permanent solution using rated barriers tested by an independent test house (for example PAS68/IWA 14-1 tested active or static solutions). However, if permanent solutions are not practicable, affordable or suitable, there is a fast developing availability of a range of temporary/fast deployment barriers from PSSA members which should be considered (these barriers are often available to hire for short term events). Special care should always be taken when considering rated barriers and a full understanding of test results and how effective the barriers are likely to be is critical. PHYSICAL BARRIER SYSTEMS In addition to the crowded space itself, there is also a duty of care towards crowds travelling to and from an ‘island’ venue site (for example crowds converging on a football stadium) as it is often easier for attacks to occur en‑route to a venue than within a more centralised cordon zone. While security protection is often designed to control approach and entry to a venue, it is important to remember that attacks can occur on egress as well and this should be considered in the security planning. A well designed physical barrier system should provide effective protection for those on the secure side of the system however the use of any barrier systems to protect against vehicle as weapon (VAW) attacks should be risk assessed to fully understand the residual risk to public safety. This residual risk can include unmanned entry/exit points, second wave

EFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS TO SECURITY RISK SHOULD BE MULTI-LAYERED AND WOULD INCLUDE WEAPON DETECTION, PHYSICAL BARRIER SYSTEMS, SUITABLY TRAINED SECURITY PERSONNEL, INCIDENT RESPONSE AS WELL AS COMMAND AND CONTROL attack, slow speed (push) impact etc. Operational security personnel are the front line of public protection and must be well trained in countering terrorism. The key to their success in pre-empting and preventing attacks is observation and being able to identify unnatural behaviour. This is one of the fundamental elements of good security training. Obviously, identification is of no great benefit without good communication and command and control support. When hardening an area and restricting access to specific control points, it should be noted that the system implementation itself may create a greater hazard to locally positioned operational staff as well as surrounding buildings. The implementation may therefore create a duty of care to third parties and this should be considered as part of the Operational Requirements plan. Project command and control is critical to the effective running of a security project and encompasses all of

the real time information processing, contingency plans, co-ordination etc. needed to effectively manage the security of a venue. Obviously, without a central control system and protocol, the strategy is highly unlikely to work and a specialist review of this is advisable unless it is being managed by government security teams. It is always worth keeping abreast of the latest government security advice as there are relevant guidance documents available that would support the security planning by informing visitors to a venue or event of precautions, vigilance and what to do in an emergency (eg the Be Safe Be Sound Campaign – aimed at Festival goers). A review of relevant resources provided by CPNI is always a good starting point. L




SURVEILLANCE Phillip Mann looks at the current development of wide area surveillance, which is allowing CCTV operators valuable time to carry out a real time threat assessment of potential threats

THE DEVELOPMENT OF WIDE AREA SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS W hile traditionally, barrier mounted sensors have been the de facto standard for fence mounted perimeter security systems for many years, this could now change due to both the new threat and emerging technology. While barrier mounted sensors and freestanding sensors have served the perimeter market well for a number of years, wide area surveillance is now becoming a viable option particularly for larger sites due mainly to the following reasons: object recognition and localisation; drone detection; geo referenced tracking; the ability to detect multiple targets before an actual security breach; and continual intruder tracking within the protected area should the perimeter be breached. In many instances wide area surveillance technology compliments traditional barrier mounted sensors by providing a pre alarm



prior to any fence sensor actuation allowing for an early response by the site security to both evaluate the threat and take appropriate action. Systems that utilise GPS positioning coordinates can automatically pass the coordinates to a mobile guard force, allowing for a much faster response by directing the guard force directly to the threat with continual updates of the movements of the intruder by real time tracking, and also allowing the central control personnel a real time threat analysis of the situation. As technology evolves, some manufactures of wide area surveillance system are now developing security drones which also utilise GPS coordinates to fly directly to the threat and monitor the ongoing situation with high definition on-board cameras. The drones can also update a mobile security force with real time video.


GROUND BASED SYSTEMS Other benefits of wide area surveillance can be realised in situations whereby the would-be threat penetrates the perimeter and gains access to the site. Larger sites which have many buildings and objects can provide the intruder with areas to hide and avoid detection therefore the benefits of continual real time tracking, and geo reference are obvious. Object recognition and localisation based on human recognition and tracking is not the only benefit of wide area surveillance. Drone detection is fast becoming a major concern for the security and protection of high values critical sites. As drone technology improves many drones can now carry a useful payload in addition to cameras. Early detection of hostile drones outside the perimeter is essential to allow a complete assessment of the threat. Many ground based wide area surveillance systems allow the user to pre-programme multiple detection zones as an example, outer zone

detection which require monitoring and inner zones which require direct action by a response force. In addition, wide area surveillance systems allow for multiple threats to be recognised and localised simultaneously. CONTINUAL SURVEILLANCE The development of wide area security surveillance system provides the user and operator of critical sites such as airports, power plants, military facilities and many other sites which may be critical to the National Infrastructure the benefits of all weather, day/night continual surveillance and geo referenced real time tracking of would be threats including hostile drones and multiple attacks. It would also be true to say that his technology is also a consideration for safety critical applications such as railways and other areas whereby localised sensors may not be an option due to safe access for ongoing maintenance and other considerations. There are many companies developing wide area surveillance and tracking

technology in various forms such as airborne surveillance, ground based radar and dual airborne/ground systems ranging from cost effective solutions for smaller and medium sites up to large scale military applications. In addition, the technology could be considered for internal on-site movements around critical areas where there is a need for continuous monitoring for both safety and security concerns. There is a wide choice of technology available on the security market and the development in wide area surveillance system continues to grow as the modern threat becomes more sophisticated and varied. Some manufactures are already including phone blocking technology for airborne security drones including phone recognition albeit mostly for government use. L




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Vehicles were used in three of the five terror attacks that took place in London and Manchester in 2017. To tackle this worrying trend, the Department for Transport (DfT) has released guidance for transport operators to prevent their vehicles being used as a weapon

COMMERCIAL VEHICLES: THE NEW WEAPON OF CHOICE IN TERROR ATTACKS? I n the last five years, commercial vehicles have become one of the deadliest weapons used by terrorists across Europe. In 2017, vehicles were used in three of the five attacks which took place in London and Manchester. It is therefore vital that transport businesses adopt a responsible approach to security. To support transport operators to mitigate the threat of their vehicles being used in an attack, the DfT has worked alongside security experts from Counter Terrorism Policing to create a guidance document. The guidance outlines the steps organisations can take to prevent their vehicles being used in a terror attack and covers all aspects of vehicle and site security, including a checklist for vehicle security for commercial drivers.

WHAT IS A VAW ATTACK? A vehicle can be used as a weapon intentionally to injure and kill people. This is referred to as a ‘vehicle as a weapon (VAW) attack’. VAW is a low complexity methodology requiring little or no training. With a plentiful source of vehicles on UK roads, it is therefore within the capability of individuals to try and steal one and use it in an attack. Crowded public spaces are targeted by this type of attack. There are a range of online terrorist and extremist materials aimed at inspiring terrorists to carry out VAW attacks and previous attacks have encouraged copycats, who now see VAW as a successful means to cause terror. Lorries and vans pose an increased risk if used in VAW attacks because of their size, profile and weight, all of which increase the potential impact. E




 EMBEDDING A SECURITY CULTURE Being vigilant and reporting suspicious behaviour increases the likelihood that people with hostile intentions will be detected or deterred. An organisation therefore needs to have procedures in place for reporting any unusual behaviour. The National Counter Terrorism Policing (NCTPHQ) Action Counters Terrorism (ACT) campaign urges people to report anything that could suggest a terrorist threat to the UK. Suspicious activity can be reported to the police by calling confidentially on 0800 789 321 or through the campaign page: Security responsibilities should be allocated to a staff member who has appropriate authority to make security related decisions and implement them.


The risks posed by an organisation’s vehicle operations should be assessed with the involvement of customers, shippers, freight forwarders, carriers, security service providers, and insurance experts, if possible. Identify possible solutions that will prevent one of your vehicles being used in an attack and get feedback from drivers. Any security plans should be reviewed regularly. COUNTERING THE INSIDER THREAT An insider is a person who exploits, or has the intention to exploit, their legitimate access to an organisation’s assets for unauthorised purposes. Insiders with access to an organisation’s processes and assets can be a source of threat. An insider could be a full time or part-time employee, a contractor or even a business partner. They could


deliberately join an organisation to gain access to its assets to mount an attack, or they may be triggered to act at some point during their employment. Consideration should be given to using British Standard 7858 (or equivalent) for security screening of employees. This standard involves conducting basic identity, financial, employment and criminal records checks. The guidance also recommends that a driver’s references and previous employment history (minimum of five years) is checked and that the employer speaks to previous employers. It suggests informing applicants that false details on application forms may lead to dismissal. Driving licences should be checked for validity and then at six-monthly intervals afterwards. Drivers should inform employers of any changes to their licence. Check if the applicant has any prosecutions pending or is waiting for sentencing by a court. For agency drivers, ensure that the agency has carried out all of these checks including criminal records checks. What’s more, only reputable recruitment agencies that are affiliated with a recognised UK trade organisation should be used. SITE SECURITY Effective security measures at operating centres and maintenance facilities can help to create a controlled environment to prevent vehicles being stolen and potentially used in terrorist attacks. Organisations can consult their local Counter Terrorism Security Advisers (CTSAs) to agree a system for reporting and dealing with suspicious vehicle incidents, and liaise with them regarding securing their sites. CTSAs work with businesses and the community to identify and assess sites that may be vulnerable


to terrorist or extremist attack. They also work with trade organisations and professional bodies to ensure counter terrorism protective security advice is incorporated into general crime prevention advice and guidance. Basic security measures can help to ensure that an item is not concealed on board a vehicle when in maintenance centres. Having clear signage in place can discourage unwanted access by vehicles and people. Other site security measures include fitting locks or tamper proof seals to lockers and equipment boxes. Access to operating centres should be controlled with appropriate security arrangements i.e. fences, gates, security codes. What’s more, vehicle keys should be stored in a secure locker with security codes. Keys should not be left in vehicles or on hooks in the office easily accessible to anyone All visitors and contractors accessing the premises should be required to report to reception or an individual in authority to notify their arrival. Visitors should sign-in, be issued visitor passes and have a legitimate reason for their visit. These identification passes should be worn and ‘be visible’ at all times, anyone not wearing a pass should be asked by a member of staff why they are not wearing a pass. Visitors should be escorted at all times when not in public areas. This process provides audit information, including sign in/out times and the purpose of the visit, and can be crucial in the event of an emergency evacuation of the premises. Visitors and contractors should be given a security awareness briefing, explaining that passes are displayed prominently at all times, and that anyone without a pass or in an unauthorised area will be challenged. They should be told that all doors should be properly closed when leaving, particularly doors leading to non-public areas, and to report any suspicious activity. If an organisation’s vehicles are repaired and maintained off site, site security must be appropriate. Maintenance staff, including subcontractors should be made aware of your company’s vehicle security policies and procedures. The maintenance agreement between the vehicle operator and the vehicle maintenance company should include a duty to secure the vehicles and keys correctly. CCTV is central to most modern security systems. Its primary purpose is to detect suspicious activity and act as a verification system for other security measures. CCTV can be a single or combination of systems and technologies to form the overall security solution. The DfT recommends using an electronic detection system assured by CPNI, which can be sourced from the CPNI Catalogue of Security Equipment

EFFECTIVE SECURITY MEASURES AT OPERATING CENTRES AND MAINTENANCE FACILITIES CAN HELP TO CREATE A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT TO PREVENT VEHICLES BEING STOLEN AND POTENTIALLY USED IN TERRORIST ATTACKS (CSE). Most of these work on the fiveminute rule. This assumes that each part of a perimeter or sensitive asset is viewed by either a guard or CCTV once every five minutes. This limits the potential time for an unauthorised activity and forces an attacker to act rapidly, making them more likely to trigger an electronic detection system. VEHICLE SECURITY Drivers should visually check their vehicle at the beginning and end of their journey, looking for any signs that something has been concealed or tampered with. At the start and end of a journey, during a comfort break or whilst parked as securely as possible, drivers should ensure that all the doors and windows are closed, engine switched off and ignition keys are taken with them. For vehicles not requiring ignition keys, drivers should ensure that they secure the vehicle appropriately before leaving. For vehicles that require the engine running to operate auxiliary equipment, the driver should take appropriate measures to ensure against theft of the vehicle; this could include the provision of a second key to lock the cab doors. Security features that keep the driver and vehicle safe and secure should be considered during the vehicle procurement process.

The decision will depend on what type of operations are being undertaken. A vehicle being used to multi-drop in a town centre might need to be fitted with an ignition immobiliser, while an international haulage operator might need to think about load space monitoring. The operator must decide what security and safety equipment is most appropriate for their vehicles, from sophisticated electronic engine immobilisers and in-cab cameras to simple steering locks: anything that deters the theft of the vehicle should be considered. If a vehicle is stolen, the driver should call 999 and explain the circumstances of the vehicle being stolen and a description of the vehicle including company name, registration details, aerial roof markings and any tracking software fitted in the vehicle. If the driver suspects that the vehicle has been stolen for a terrorist attack then make sure this is made clear to the call handler. Drivers should also immediately alert the company who will have procedures in place for stolen vehicles. L

FURTHER INFORMATION department-for-transport-issuescommercial-vehicle-guidance/



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ISE 2019

Ahead of the International Security Expo, taking place on 3-4 December at Olympia London, Philip Ingram provides an assessment on the current state of security in the UK

IS OUR CRITICAL NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE SAFE FROM ATTACK? I n recent weeks we have seen the baggage handling system at Heathrow break down, the BA check-in IT system fail, signals out of Euston station fail and then two power generating stations fail within two minutes of each other at rush hour on a Friday causing chaos in hospitals, with traffic lights in London, on the rail networks and it affected airports. UK Power Networks tweeted about the power cuts: ‘We are aware of a power cut affecting large parts of London and South East. We believe this is due to a failure on National Grid’s network, which is affecting our customers’. Looking at some of the commentary in the UK about the power outage, the power regulator Ofgem has asked for an ‘urgent details report’ to find out what went wrong.

Julian Leslie, head of National Control at National Grid ESO did a quick Twitter Vlog on the day of the outage to try and explain what happened. However, all he said was how when two generators (power company speak for whole power stations!) went off line simultaneously the ‘system protected itself by losing some demand’, the grid did what it should do and shut parts of itself down. He made no comment on what caused two completely different, geographically separated powers stations to fail at exactly the same time. All of the official commentary avoids that question. In addition, the two ‘generators’ were brought back online relatively quickly suggesting this wasn’t a mechanical failure but electronic or control. At best it highlights real weaknesses in our power network, E



Heavy investment enables Eagle to soar • 01992 524800 • The Clarke deal along with the earlier acquisition of IP rights to the APT Security PAS68-rated and impact-tested security systems has extended Eagle’s range to a full portfolio of gates, barriers, blockers, bollards, turnstiles, street furniture and even cycle hoops. Investment in global relationships has seen Eagle deliver solutions throughout Australasia, UAE, South East Asia, North America and the UK in the past 12 months.

An unrivalled range of accredited high security products is the promise Eagle Automation Systems has made to the counter terror community, governments, security forces, architects and security consultants combatting the threat of terrorism. Perimeter protection manufacturer Eagle has invested heavily in acquisitions, new products, a new factory, global relationships and accreditation testing to ensure they are always moving forward and reacting to market needs and client expectations. Eagle’s new 430sqm factory, a third unit at their Essex headquarters, includes a 5-tonne overhead gantry crane and ample space for increased production capacity and multiple product factory tests. Indeed, just this month the first 50mph PAS68 gate rolled off the new assembly line before heading to Singapore for installation. Earlier this year, Eagle bought the intellectual property (IP) rights for a range of SR1, 2, 3 and 4 and CPNI rated turnstiles from the Clarke Instruments administration. Eagle MD David Ashby says: “Clarke was a great business with the widest range of rated turnstiles and, to be frank, the industry would be at a loss without it. So, we are currently going through the audits with the Buildings Research Establishment (BRE) to novate the ratings across to Eagle, including an SR5 turnstile that Clarke never got Red Book listed, and intend to launch the full range at the International Security Expo (ISEC) at Kensington Olympia in December.” The new range of turnstiles will be both on Eagle’s stand at ISEC and feature as part of the BRE’s Live Attack Zone.

Eagle has just completed placing a range of PAS68 solutions amid challenging ground conditions in Queensland, Australia, to secure King George Square, in front of Brisbane City Hall, which hosts so many of Brisbane’s major public events. (pictured top left) Similarly, the new Dubai Arena, a multipurpose indoor arena that can house an audience of 20,000, is protected by a combination of 600 Eagle static and removable PAS68 bollards. Eagle has secured a series of critical sites in Singapore with local partners after the Infrastructure Protection Act was passed a year or so ago: bollards for Singapore Power; PAS68 gates for SingTel; and a major data centre project, where Eagle was the only manufacturer with bi-folding gates that give less than 1m penetration at both 40mph and 50mph impact in independent PAS68 tests. It is also producing similar PAS68 bi‑folding gates to MI Crime Lab in the USA and is currently manufacturing its iconic Lockdown gates for the Toronto Maple Leafs MLSE Stadium in Canada. That technology is a variant of the ‘Westminster Lockdown’ hostile vehicle mitigation (HVM) gates which were first deployed last year to protect

Managing Di rector of Eagle Autom ation Ltd

more than 50 international leaders attending the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. They have since been deployed for a number of Westminster ceremonial occasions, not least June’s State visit by US President Donald Trump and previously the Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM). The measures are being expanded as part of a wider ceremonial streetscape project across Westminster as interest grows in aesthetic and innovative designs to counter the Vehicle As a Weapon (VAW) threat without turning cities into fortresses. Ashby says: “Our brief was to create a simple, low-cost lockdown gate to block a road up to 8m wide and that could blend in beautifully in any architectural environment. They also wanted the hanging and closing posts to be removable, so the gates could be either permanent or temporary.” The technology has also been used elsewhere in London, in historic Windsor, in Solihull and in Australia.Elsewhere in the UK, Eagle has protected the expected 30million annual visitors to the newlyopened £600m extension to Westfield London with bollards and road blockers, (pictured below) and are currently in the process of delivering Manchester Airport’s extension with bollards and Lockdown gates and has been awarded a contract to secure an EFL Championship stadium with Lockdown gates. Ashby concludes: “We will continue to invest heavily in research and development in response to changing terror threats and customer needs. And we promise to keep growing our unrivalled range of HVM products for our counter-terror, government, consultant and architect customers.”

ISE 2019  worst it could have been an attack from a hostile state or organisation. Why do I make that assumption? In June the BBC reported: “Russia has said it is ‘possible’ that its electrical grid is under cyber attack by the US. Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said reports that US cyber-soldiers had put computer viruses on its electrical grid was a ‘hypothetical possibility’. His comments came in response to a New York Times (NYT) story which claimed US military hackers were targeting Russian power plants.” That same month Wired reported: “Over the past several months, security analysts at the Electric Information Sharing and Analysis Centre (E-ISAC) and the critical-infrastructure security firm Dragos have been tracking a group of sophisticated hackers carrying out broad scans of dozens of US power grid targets, apparently looking for entry points into their networks.” Those sophisticated hackers were linked to the Russian Government.

However, the power outage incident was assessed by the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC), the public arm of GCHQ, as not cyber related, and their comment was very shortly after the incident and before formal investigations could have concluded. The question remains how vulnerable is our CNI if it is creaking to this degree through other reasons? Of some of the other incidents the NCSC said that ‘the Heathrow Baggage, BA check in and Euston signalling issues were not as we are aware caused by cyber incidents’. They added that they ‘have not attributed blame for the Gatwick incident yet’. HOW VULNERABLE IS OUR CNI? Of course, last year the Russians were infamously implicated in the use of Novichok nerve agent in Salisbury last year in an attack on the former Russian Intelligence Officer, Sergei Skripal, and his daughter Yulia, which resulted in the death of an unrelated civilian, Dawn Sturgess. A year after


that incident a very large Russian flag was mysteriously draped from scaffolding around Salisbury cathedral, no blame has been apportioned yet. In December 2018 Gatwick Airport was closed for 36 hours through, according to Superintendent Justin Burtenshaw the commander of the police force at Gatwick, ‘multiple simultaneous drone incursions’. This was just after a very sophisticated cyber attack on the airport which, as NCSC admitted, hasn’t been publicly attributed yet. Daesh have not gone away with the loss of territory in Iraq and Syria and, according to several analysts ,are in a transition phase. What is clear is they maintain significant support across the globe and Al Qaeda continue to aspire to a 9/11 style comeback. Closer to home, the rise in extreme right-wing terror has seen the responsibility for countering it has been passed to the Security Service (MI5) from the police and wrapped in with the increasingly active Irish Republican terrorism, still confined to the island of Ireland, but growing in its visibility. The incidents described suggest a pattern and any developing pattern warrants further investigation to see if they are linked or more likely are a series of unrelated one-off incidents. We have had a weapon of mass destruction used by a hostile state on E



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ISE 2019

 the streets of the UK, we have had incidents that have had an effect on many different elements of our Critical National Infrastructure, roads, rail, air, airports, hospitals and more. We have had examples of nation states accusing each other of deliberate actions. I have been suggesting a Russian connection through my analysis, why? Other countries like China, North Korea and Iran, as well as ISIS and Al Qaeda on-line hacking teams have the capability, why not them? The level of sophistication needed if any or all of these were cyber attacks probably precludes ISIS or Al Qaeda. China is building better trade relations with the UK and doesn’t want UK interference in Hong Kong so antagonising the UK would serve no purpose. North Korea is more regionally and US focused and has nothing to gain from attacking UK infrastructure. Post Salisbury, relations with Russia can only be described as frosty, Iran is in the spotlight with the Gibraltar Government seizing a tanker of Iranian oil and Iran seizing a British flagged tanker in the straits of Hurmuz. However, Britain is seen by Iran as a bridge between the US, who have just rejected the Iran nuclear deal and the rest of European nations supporting the Iran nuclear deal so further domestic antagonisation would not be in their national interest.

RUSSIA HAS THE CAPABILITY AND SEEMINGLY THE INTENT TO CARRY OUT ACTION IN THE UK (THE SKRIPAL ATTACK AND I PERSONALLY SUSPECT GATWICK DISRUPTION ARE REAL EXAMPLES) Therefore, my analysis would suggest that if any of these incidents were the result of state action then the most likely perpetrator would be Russia. Russia has the capability and seemingly the intent to carry out action in the UK (the Skripal attack and I personally suspect Gatwick disruption are real examples). WHY NOW? We are in a period of political turmoil with a new Prime Minister with a majority of only one in Parliament, the looming no deal Brexit anxiety and a very left leaning opposition and a country still smarting over its outing for the Skripal attack. So why not? It is a Russian tactic to ‘stir the pot’. The 2007 cyber attacks by Russia shutting Estonia down for a protracted period are a perfect example and there have been many more since. So, it is important to ask was it a hostile state or terrorist attack? Even though the

probable answer is no. The real positive that came out of this is if it were a hostile state action, it was defeated very quickly, and normality restored so our defensive processes clicked in quickly. But that is only a positive if it were a cyber attack. Form a scenario perspective to test our resilience levels against it couldn’t get better. The responsibility for protecting our Critical National Infrastructure lies with the Centre for the Protection of Critical National Infrastructure (CPNI) but when something goes wrong, as was shown with the Novichok attack in Salisbury, the responsibility for any associated police investigation, whether through terrorist cause or hostile nation seems to fall to the Counter Terror Police (CTP) who are already massively overstretched with 750 active investigations and 3,000 people on their immediate radar with another 20,000 on a watch list. Are our defences creaking? E



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ISE 2019  ORGANISED CRIME TAKES CENTRE STAGE Extreme right-wing terror is on the rise, and someone is paying for it. The Real IRA were identified by Forbes Israel in 2014 as being the ninth richest terror organisation globally, sandwiched between Boko Harem and Al Shabab. Their annual turnover of £32 million comes from somewhere. These organisations or ideologies are funded through serious and organised crime. The link between terror and organised crime is exactly at a friction point for who is responsible to deal with it. For terror it is the Security Service and Met Counter Terror Police, for Serious and Organised Crime it is the National Crime Agency, NCA. Where it crosses both boundaries there is a committee. The International Security Expo has covered protecting from terror


in depth over the year, looking at cyber, the transport sector, major events and crowed places in particular detail, and is developing its show focus areas even further this year. 2019 sees the launch of the Serious and Organised Crime Summit and International Forensics Conference, complementing all elements of the expo. The NCA have identified at least 181,000 offenders linked to serious and organised crime in the UK. Lynne Owens the CEO of the NCA said: “Serious and organised crime in the UK is chronic and corrosive, its scale is truly staggering. It kills more people every year than terrorism, war and natural disasters combined. SOC affects more UK citizens, more frequently than any other national security threat. And it costs the UK at least £37 billion a year – equivalent to nearly £2,000 per family.” Her analogy made the new content a must for the International Security Expo 2019, and features alongside the exciting return of the Global Counter Terrorism Summit which incorporates the highly successful, application only, Safer Cities Summit. With over 375 exhibitors bringing the latest innovative security solutions, more than 50 officially hosted country delegations and over 13,500 global visitors over the two days, the International Security Expo will scale new heights this year.

The Rt Hon Ben Wallace MP, the Minister for Security and Economic Crime, said at the Palace of Westminster: “As my portfolio gets broader and bigger so does the coverage of the International Security Expo. Expanding the International Security Expo to include Serious and Organised Crime, and international forensics alongside disaster response, is exactly what we the UK are in the business to deliver. We do it well and that is why I am delighted that we have this successful exhibition and that is why the government will continue to support it.”

Counter Terror Business is the lead media partner for the Global Counter Terror Summit on 3 December 2019 at Olympia, as part of the International Security Expo. Many to the issues raised here will be discussed and put into context by some of the country’s leading counter terror personnel both from the Home Office and Counter Terror Police. The FBI will bring an international angle and a several of the speakers will bring the reality home when it all goes wrong. This by application only summit will put what has been discussed into clearer context. L


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SIDOS can ensure a comprehensive and holistic approach to any project, whether that be National Infrastructure, a corporate organisation or an individual the team can respond with the same degree of attention providing considered and appropriate security recommendations. With in-depth knowledge and a recognised level of expertise of transport infrastructure projects delivering proportionate degrees of security, it is suggested that any rail project will benefit from the involvement of SIDOS in reviewing designs. All key staff members were trained at the UK Home Office Centre of Excellence, thus ensuring tried and tested methodologies are delivered for the client’s benefit and provide assurance of a high-quality approach. The depth and breadth of assignments have been extensive, ranging from

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advising subtle crime prevention advice within new build housing development to critical infrastructure facilities requiring specialist counterterrorism security measures. Providing a unique crucially important link between the client, architecture design and where necessary specialist structural engineers, a specialism achieved through appreciating all the requirements and intents at the earliest opportunity. From the simplest to the most complex concerning the diversity of security, a comprehensive and complete service can be provided by members of the SIDOS team who are real specialists in this field. FURTHER INFORMATION



Where Emergency Services meet to talk business

Learn from the experts and improve your skills

Taking place in Hall 5 at the NEC in Birmingham, the two-day event

This unique event features over 450 leading suppliers exhibiting,

brings together all disciplines from the emergency services sector

80 free CPD-accredited seminars for all services, live demonstrations

to discover emerging technologies and operational solutions,

and extrication challenges. Visitor entry and visitor parking are free

share their experiences and unite in their collaborative approach

of charge for all trade visitors.

to public safety.

Register online now at

This an industry-only event and NOT open to the general public. Visitors under the age of 16 will not be admitted. The organisers reserve the right to refuse entry.

Find out more at



he Emergency Services Show 2019, taking place in Hall 5 at the NEC, Birmingham on 18-19 September offers a unique opportunity for emergency responders and anyone engaged in public safety, counter-terror and civil contingency to collaborate and learn. How emerging technologies are improving the efficiency and operational effectiveness of emergency response is set to be the key focus of this year’s event. Four dedicated theatres on the show floor will host a wide range of CPD-accredited seminar sessions. The theatres will focus on Emerging Technologies,

IT developments, Health & Wellbeing and Lessons Learnt from operational incidents. IT THEATRE Luana Avagliano, head of ResilienceDirect and Helen Braithwaite, head of Standards, Training and Exercising at the National Cyber Security Programme, will open the first day of presentations in the IT Theatre sponsored by Excelerate. Attendees can catch up on all the latest information on the ResilienceDirect Mapping refactor and the National Cyber Security Programme Pathfinder Training Programme. Visitors can also step E




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EMERGENCY SERVICES SHOW  onto stand A49 in the exhibition to discuss the latest developments with Resilience Direct including critical national infrastructure protection, cyber security, counter terrorism training and the latest 3D mapping. Other sessions will include how the Cloud is pushing operational efficiency on the frontline and how 5G could improve operational response. The programme will also take a look at minimising data costs and how the public’s use of technology will change how they interact with the 999 service in the future. There will also be updates on the Emergency Services Network critical communications system from the Home Office. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES This new seminar theatre co-sponsored by MSA, and Zebra Technologies will explore better detection of CBRNe agents, how Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning can be used to improve emergency response. It will focus on the training benefits of Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies and look at emerging vehicle technologies including electric vehicles and connected cars. Of great interest to counter terror professionals, Lukasz Szklarski, head of Research and Development at ITTI in Poland will present a paper entitled, A Snapshot on Heterogeneous Network of Chemical Sensors for Improved Situational Awareness and Reduced False Alarm Rate. EU-SENSE aims to develop a novel and fully operational solution that will innovate the detection of CBRNe agents, making it more efficient. Excelerate will discuss the advantages of leveraging both satellite and cellular networks to overcome communication challenges, ensuring that responders have an ‘always connected’ experience, even whilst operating on-the-move, in high pressured, communications‑challenged environments. GoodSAM will give a live demonstration of its innovative tool that enables emergency services to open any callers mobile phone for instant on‑scene video for triage and resource deployment with no apps required. The multi-agency benefits of training in a simulated immersive environment will be discussed in a session looking at Coventry University’s Simulation Centre, which has been working with West Midlands emergency services and council planners on a recent training exercise. Other seminars will examine how the future of vehicle communications can positively impact emergency service operations. LESSONS LEARNT The Lessons Learnt Theatre, sponsored by UCLan, will feature case studies of

HOW EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES ARE IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY AND OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS SET TO BE THE KEY FOCUS OF THIS YEAR’S EVENT major incidents. Dr Nick Gent of Public Health England will talk about the unique challenges that the Salisbury incident in March 2018 brought to public health emergency response, along with the planning, training and exercises for such events and the pressure of operating during an incident of international significance. HEALTH & WELLBEING The importance of health and well‑being issues, especially mental health, remains a key theme of the show with two days of presentations in the Health and Wellbeing Theatre. British Red Cross will give an update on its Resilient Responders Programme which aims to build individual and team resilience through a range of psychosocial support and interventions. West Midlands Fire Service will share the experiences of a primarily female fire service team deployed in civil war-strewn South Sudan. SkyBound Rescuer Drone Seminars The SkyBound Rescuer Drone Seminar Day on 19th September will share the latest innovative thinking, reveal what lessons can be learned from experience, fully explore what is possible today and equip visitors with the strategic and tactical knowledge to apply to future drone operations. The seminar day opens with a thought-provoking presentation on Public Safety Drones by internationally renowned keynote speaker, Charles Werner; a pioneer of drones in public safety across the USA. This will be followed by five research‑driven presentations covering the latest research in the field of drones for public safety in the UK and internationally. In one of these, Dr Amarjot Singh, founder and CEO of Skylark Labs LLC, and Harry Howe, CEO and co-founder of DroneStream, will introduce the Intelligent Aerial Suspicious Analysis (ASANA) system. The ASANA System aids law enforcement agencies in effective monitoring of large public areas, helping to identify criminal and terrorist activities. VIRTUAL REALITY TRAINING Exhibiting at the show for the first time this year, The Simulation Centre will use two 95-inch screens to give visitors a taste of its immersive and dynamic virtual training facility at Coventry University with 10 metre curved screen. XVR Simulations on the stand will recreate a recent multi-agency exercise held at the Simulation Centre, which visitors will be able to participate in and receive informal feedback on their performance. It will

also be possible to trial the centre’s social media simulator which safely recreates realistic and interactive social media and media coverage of emergency events. RTC RESCUE CHALLENGES West Midlands Fire Service (WMFS) will host two realistic and interactive Road Traffic Collision (RTC) rescue challenges again this year, providing an arena for some of the UK’s best rescue personnel to come together and develop their proficiency levels in all areas of RTC rescue. In the Extrication Challenge competing teams from across the country will perform extrications from a series of realistic RTC scenarios featuring heavy and complex damage. Volunteer members of the WMFS Casualty Simulation Group will play the roles of casualties, complete with make-up and prosthetics, while action will be captured from a variety of camera angles and broadcast live to a large display screen. In the First Aid & Trauma Challenge, teams of two will experience visual and audio inputs from a trauma scenario that has been set up and filmed especially, in an ‘immersive’ tent. Both challenges will be judged by United Kingdom Rescue Organisation (UKRO) who will ensure that best safe working practices are promoted in the areas of incident command and control, safety and scene assessment, extrication, professional pre-hospital care and expert use of rescue equipment. COLLEGE OF PARAMEDIC WORKSHOPS Always a popular feature of The Emergency Services Show, the 30-minute College of Paramedics workshops remain open to all emergency responders. Sessions will cover a range of topics including prehospital burns, trauma and performance under pressure. THE COLLABORATION ZONE In the networking hub of the show, The Collaboration Zone, visitors can meet with the likes of the British Transport Police, the Fire Service College, the Emergency Planning Society, the Environment Agency and TOXBASE as well as CitizenAid and a range of charities, voluntary groups and NGOs which can offer practical, emotional and sometimes financial support. TOXBASE is the online clinical toxicology database of the UK National Poisons Information Service. It provides rapidly available, consistent and E



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EMERGENCY SERVICES SHOW  evidence‑based poisoning treatment advice to frontline healthcare professionals. Around the indoor and outdoor exhibition, visitors can see and touch the latest equipment and discuss their requirements with over 450 suppliers, some of whom will also be offering free workshops and training on their stands. Companies and organisations exhibiting at the show include leading names in first response, firefighting equipment, communications, IT, protective clothing and uniforms, medical supplies, vehicles and fleet, vehicle equipment, body-worn video, outsourcing, community safety, training, and surveillance technology including drones. With some 80 companies exhibiting for the first time, there are also plenty of new names to discover. Other organisations showcasing counter terror equipment and services include: 5.11 Tactical UK, Air Shelter, Ansell Healthcare, Avon Protection, DeConWipe, Draeger, DuPont, Emergent BioSolutions, Haztec International, Hero Wipes, Interspiro, ResilienceDirect, Respirex and Terberg DTS. EXHIBITOR HIGHLIGHTS DuPont will be showing its range of personal chemical protection equipment

THE IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH AND WELL-BEING ISSUES, ESPECIALLY MENTAL HEALTH, REMAINS A KEY THEME OF THE SHOW WITH TWO DAYS OF PRESENTATIONS IN THE HEALTH AND WELLBEING THEATRE for firefighters and emergency responder including its new Tychem gloves range which with its coveralls create the Tychem Trusted Chemical System™ for protection from chemical exposure risk right to their fingertips. Other products on show range from the PV350 PVC gloves suitable for general-purpose applications to protect against chemicals, oil and grease, up to the VB870 fluoroelastomer rubber gloves with a Viton™ coating over butyl, which are suitable for military applications. 5.11 UK will be showcasing its new Emergency Services Pant at this year’s show. The new Quantum EMS pant features 5.11’s latest two-way Flexlite mechanical stretch fabric, which is both lightweight and durable. Other features include a Teflon finish for stain and soil resistance, cargo pockets and high abrasion fabrics in the knee area. A trusted partner to CBRN responders

all over the globe, Ansell protective solutions at the show will include Type 1 gas tight suits, decontamination shelters, EN 12941 PAPR suits, SOCO suits and a wide range of first responder hand protection. Interspiro will showcase its of respiratory protection equipment for safe breathing in hazardous environments including its Spiromatic, Spirotroniq, QS-system, SpiroGuide, Spiroscape, Spirolite, Divator, Oxydive and IS-Mix. L

Entry to the exhibition and seminars is free, as is parking. The NEC is accessible by motorway and linked to Birmingham International Station and Birmingham Airport.





Modern Windows 10 Pro devices help protect what you’ve worked to build.


The armed forces have long relied on written documents and manuals for effective vehicle maintenance. However, as more of this information becomes digitised, Getac technology provides a robust solution to support the viewing and manipulation of critical maintenance data.

Getac UX10 is built for defence deployment: robust enough to withstand the physical hardships of the defence landscape, including adverse RF and environmental conditions. The unit offers a perfect combination of well-balanced ergonomic design and the processing power to deliver far beyond the user’s expectation.

Come and see the new UX10 at DSEI – Stand S9-115 10-13 September 2019, Excel London


Supported by


he upcoming edition of Defence and Security Equipment International (DSEI) will mark 20 years since the event was first established as ‘the British Army and Navy exhibition’. Returning to ExCeL London on 10-13 September 2019, DSEI now encompasses the entire defence and security audience, including Air, Land, Naval, Security and Joint, and has grown – both in size and content – to reflect the complex nature of modern warfare and security operations. 20 years in defence is a long time – and the industry has evolved considerably – unrecognisably in many respects - since 1999. Priorities changed significantly, and rapidly, after 11 September 2001 – which many of us learned of while in the exhibition halls of DSEI.

The intensifying threat from the ‘digital battlefield’, wide-ranging cuts to defence spending and expansion of technological know-how during this time have shaped and reshaped the way industry does business. SHOWCASING SOLUTIONS TO COUNTER PRIORITY THREATS The Security Zone at DSEI is a dedicated showcase of security equipment, technologies, strategies and systems to counter relevant threats such as cyber attacks and terrorism. With the increasing prevalence of cyber security attacks, the ability to counter such threats has never been of greater importance. DSEI’s Security Zone will include a Cyber Hub, featuring a range of exhibitors from E



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DSEI 2019

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 the innovative, growing cyber security industry, underpinned by world-leading scientific research and development. DSEI 2017 centralised the security sector’s expertise with a bespoke community in order to increase networking opportunities for both exhibitors and visitors. DSEI 2019 will build on this, discussing solutions to meet the challenge of emerging threats in the defence space. Security Zone exhibitors include: Antycip Simulation; B&W International; Blucher; DSTL; Mototok; Oshkosh Defence; RolaTube; Safariland Group; Theon Sensors; and ZeroAlpha Solutions. SECURITY SEMINAR PROGRAMME Free to attend for exhibition pass holders, the Security Seminar, situated in the North Theatre, will feature leading figures and industry experts discussing a range of themes. Key areas of discussion and investigation include: Cyber Defence and Security; Counter Terrorism and Improvised Threats; Security in Complex Environments; and Industry Engagement and Acquisition. Christine Maxwell, director of Cyber Defence and Chief Information Security Officer at the Ministry of Defence UK, will take part in a discussion on cyber defence within the defence sector alongside Travis Rosiek, Chief Technology and Strategy Office of BluVector, and Richard Moseley, VP & MD, UK Defence Division at Leidos. The session will ask: What key risk areas drive your cyber defence strategy?; How do you adapt your cyber defence strategy to the evolving threat landscape?; How can industry and government collaborate together to mitigate cyber threats to military capability?; What example of best practice would you cite?; and what innovation in cyber security has most excited you this year? The artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) revolution is underway; AI-enabled applications are

THE LAND STATIC DISPLAY AREA FEATURES BOTH STATE OF THE ART NEW VEHICLES AND A RANGE OF EQUIPMENT CURRENTLY IN USE BY GROUND FORCES GLOBALLY already having a profound effect on our way of life. Indeed, semi-autonomous cars now roam our streets, autonomous cyber security systems scan and patch vulnerabilities, and handwriting recognition aids mail delivery. Current AI systems, however, are fragile in real world applications; they often fail if they are deployed outside their intended context and are easily compromised by a malicious adversary. In fact, all known AI algorithms are vulnerable to a growing number of counter-AI attack vectors. A presentation, provided by Ultra Electronics’ Andrew Puryear, will explore some of the major challenges in AI security, transparency, and assurance in the face of counter-AI attacks.

Contingent operations are an enduring requirement for UK defence, but they are increasingly broad in scope and as such demand flexibility and adaptability from the capabilities held at readiness to support them. Specific areas of UK defence’s Force Protection portfolio have benefited from recent operational experience, but it has also highlighted the diversification of the threats and these will not be limited to a specific theatre or an adversary. To ensure that UK Defence is best prepared for this constant challenge novel approaches to concepts, doctrine, capability development, acquisition and leadership are required. Jim Barber, SO1 Joint Force Protection, JFC Capability Special Projects - Ministry of Defence UK, will explain more in his session, entitled ‘Capability Challenges of Joint Force Protection’. TOP 10 REASONS TO VISIT DSEI The best way to benefit from an event the size and scope of DSEI is to plan ahead. Here are some highlights you will not want to miss. Unrivalled exhibitor base With over 1,700 exhibitors from more than 70 countries, DSEI is your best opportunity in 2019 to see the latest products and innovations from the full spectrum of global defence suppliers, from Primes to SMEs. International market access DSEI hosts over 450 international pavilions, each providing a regional hub of defence and security ingenuity. The event brings the entire defence manufacturing supply chain together with the world’s key military E



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Durabook, the global rugged mobile solutions brand owned by Twinhead International Corporation, has over 35 years of engineering experience, building rugged devices for a range of industries. The organisation built its first military-grade rugged laptop device in 2000 and now counts the US Airforce, US Army and US Marine Corps as key customers. In 2019, Durabook was selected to supply a full range of fullyand semi- rugged laptops, tablets and notebooks for US Air Force Client Computing Solutions (CCS2), making it the rugged provider of choice for users from the US Department of the Air Force, Army and Navy, Defense Health Agency-Air Force, White House Communications Agency and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Durabook, which is expanding operations in the UK and Europe, will be at DSEI, 10-13 September, ExCel, London, stand N8-210. For the first time, it will

Woodway Engineering and 360 Vision have joined forces to create a totally unique and versatile, vehicle mounted camera solutiondesigned to be deployed in rapid security responses. The Night Owl Predator is designed and manufactured in Warwickshire, UK, and offers high-quality, remote surveillance. A self-contained, non-intrusive system, that operates from the vehicle’s own battery and fits to the vehicle’s roof rails, with virtually no modification and easy installation to many vehicles. The extending pneumatic, telescopic mast raises up to 3.2 metres, and has an automatic park facility, single tap parking option and onboard air regulator or compressor. Camera footage can be streamed by multiple viewers on different devices in 1080p HD and saved to the 2TB disk supplied. Now, also available with a thermal camera option. The Predator comes with a compact,

showcase its newly launched ultra rugged laptop, the Z14I. The device has been designed specifically to meet the needs of military, critical national infrastructure and public safety personnel. It offers unmatched durability and comes with an unprecedented range of built-in features that allow the laptop’s use to be expanded on the fly. Durabrook will be exhibiting at the DSEI 2019, on stand N8-210 . FURTHER INFORMATION

space saving in-vehicle handset that allows for easy operation and installation. The handset also has backlit illuminated switches for clear use in darkness. Woodway Engineering has been supplying the Police, Fire and Ambulance services for over 35 years, with a reputation for quality, engineered solutions for extreme environments. Woodway will be exhibiting at the Emergency Services Show 2019 at the NEC, on stand OS120. FURTHER INFORMATION

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DSEI 2019

 specifiers, influencers and end-users, presenting an unmissable opportunity to develop your business on a global scale. DSEI Strategic Conferences Exclusive to DSEI delegates, the preexhibition Strategic Conferences and exhibition floor Seminar programme provides a unique opportunity to hear first-hand from senior military, government and industry representatives, who come together to discuss relevant defence and security topics. Sector focused zones and hubs Divided into five zones: Aerospace, Land, Naval, Security & Joint, DSEI is known to be ‘best in class’ in terms of the range and quality of the companies that feature. DSEI 2019 will also support the global supply chain through six specialist hubs: Communications, Cyber, Innovation Manufacturing, Medical and Space. Visiting Warships & Demonstrations The dockside setting is another DSEI USP, hosting numerous visiting international warships and exhilarating waterborne capability demonstrations. The daily demonstration programme gives maritime specialists an exceptional chance to operate their craft in live scenarios on the Thames. Supply Chain Programme The new Supply Chain Programme provides buyers from Prime, Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3 organisations the opportunity to meet with SMEs or any company with existing or new

Supported by

EXCLUSIVE TO DSEI DELEGATES, THE PRE-EXHIBITION STRATEGIC CONFERENCES AND EXHIBITION FLOOR SEMINAR PROGRAMME PROVIDES A UNIQUE OPPORTUNITY TO HEAR FIRST-HAND FROM SENIOR MILITARY, GOVERNMENT AND INDUSTRY REPRESENTATIVES innovative products through a series of pre-scheduled appointments during the DSEI week. Networking opportunities There are broad range of opportunities for high and low level networking at DSEI. The Strategic Conferences provide a unique opportunity to interact with senior military, government and industry representatives whilst low level networking is facilitated through the new Supply Chain Programme and Supply Chain Lounge.

showcase a range of airframes including fighter jets and military helicopters. Defence Engineering Skills Conference Set against the backdrop of the UK engineering skills challenge, this conference provides a unique opportunity to gather those with an interest in engineering education and industry together to explore the challenges faced by the defence sector. L

Outstanding seminar programme The DSEI Seminar Programme runs across the exhibition floor for the entire DSEI week, delivering exceptional thought-leadership from high-level experts and industry innovators. Static displays DSEI will again feature an impressive array of static displays. The Land Static Display Area features both state of the art new vehicles and a range of equipment currently in use by ground forces globally. The Air Static Display will





PORT SECURITY Risto Talas and Tom Ellis, from the University of Portsmouth, write an article alongside Commander Suwaid Al Abkal, Kuwait Navy, discussing the application of UAVs in port security with a view to enhancing security and complimenting existing security regimes


nmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, have proliferated due to improvements in the weight and power of batteries and electric motors. UAVs are now common among hobbyists, commercial organisations involved in survey work and film and photography. UAVs are now beginning to be deployed more in the monitoring of safety and security and this study aims to reveal the extent of this as applied to maritime ports.



TYPES OF UAV There are numerous types of UAVs and drones currently in operation. From nanodrones, microdrones and minidrones, which are widely available for purchase by civilians, to small range and long-range Medium Altitude and Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude and Long Endurance (HALE) drones, which are typically employed by military forces. All these vehicles have some similarities, such as the lack of humans aboard them and control

UAVS via radio/infrared communication. The ranges, weights, payloads and altitudes of these vehicles also vary. Their power units offer flight times of between 12 minutes and over 24 hours; their maximum take-off weight ranges between 0.4 kg and more than three tons; and they can fly between heights of 30 metres and over 10km. Talas (2016) states that the current regulations for the commercial flying of UAVs differ from nation to nation. In the UK, UAV regulation is governed by the Civil Aviation Authority’s (CAA) Unmanned Aircraft System Operations in UK Airspace: Guidance. This guidance, also known as CAP722, states that UAVs operating in the UK must meet at least the same safety and operational standards as manned aircraft. UAVs are classified into three categories: those which weigh up to 20kg; those which weigh between 20kg and 150kg; and those which weigh more than 150kg. In the UK, drone hobbyists are not required to register their UAVs and nor do they need operating permission from the CAA or a pilot qualification. Furthermore, drones must not be flown within 50 metres of people or over or within 150 metres of any congested area or of an organised open-air assembly of more than 1,000 persons. The drone must be flown in visual line of sight so that direct, unaided visual contact can be maintained with the aircraft, which is sufficient to monitor its flightpath in relation to other aircraft and persons on the ground. The drone must remain within 500 metres horizontally and no more than 400 feet vertically from the operator. If a drone operator, including commercial UAV flights, wishes to fly within 50 metres of people, or 150 metres of a congested area, then prior permission must be obtained from the CAA. Where UAVs are deployed for commercial purposes, it is also necessary for the pilot to have undergone training for at least the basic national UAS certificate for small unmanned aircraft. In a port, a UAV could be deployed on regular perimeter checks to assess any fence-line breaches or to overfly buildings to check that roof access doors have not been left open. Furthermore, checks can be made from the air on any restricted areas in the event of the failure of another detection system, such as CCTV cameras. POTENTIAL TO BE EXPLOITED BY TERRORIST ORGANISATIONS The constantly growing market in commercial UAVs raises concern among specialists who perceive the increased risk posed to security. The fact that UAVs are largely available for virtually anyone increases the possibilities for them to be misused for reconnaissance and surveillance for criminal purposes. The level of development which permits these devices to carry elaborate imaging equipment and consistent payloads

UAVS ARE NOW BEGINNING TO BE DEPLOYED MORE IN THE MONITORING OF SAFETY AND SECURITY AND THIS STUDY AIMS TO REVEAL THE EXTENT OF THIS AS APPLIED TO MARITIME PORTS generates additional reasons for concern. The price of this equipment is another feature which renders them highly accessible to the general public. Moreover, it is highly probable that the rapid expansion of the market will push the prices down even further. Specialists in the field point out that there are already UAVs available for under €900 that can transport a payload of approximately 1kg, that can fly for at least 5km, and that have full GPS. If the UAVs are equipped with both GPS systems and autopilot, then they can be used to fly independently according to pre-established routes to deliver any type of payload. The following categories represent some of the key security risks generated by UAVs: Reconnaissance and surveillance – UAVs could be used to identify potential targets or to conduct surveillance missions to inform their operator of the actions undertaken by legitimate individuals from private, public or military establishments. The increased number of unregistered civil UAVs makes it difficult to rapidly establish whether such a device is operated for recreational use, in order to support news-gathering and other similar activities, or if it serves criminal intentions.

Smuggling – since some UAV models can carry significant payloads, one of the existing concerns is that these vehicles could be used for the transportation of illicit goods. There have been events which motivate these concerns; most of them intended to introduce different materials into prisons or to transport drugs across borders. Kinetic attack – this type of threat is also related to UAVs’ ability to carry a payload. The nature of the payload correlated with the intentions of those operating the vehicles determines the nature of the risk they pose. If the payload consists of guns or explosives which are flown into people or structures, then such an attack may result in loss of life or material loss. The list of potential targets is virtually unlimited, but, importantly, these could include important and strategic infrastructure. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A total of 66 respondents participated in the survey for our study. The data were collected from Kuwaiti port security staff using online tools, while taking into account relevant ethical considerations. The first question was about the field of expertise of the respondents and the results are summarised in Table 1. 



UAVS  Table 1: Respondents’ field of expertise Field of Expertise Port security expert Port security equipment supplier UAV expert UAV equipment supplier Port official Customs official Other governmental organisation official Other non-governmental official

Responses 14.1% 3.0% 12.1% 6.1% 16.2% 6.1% 22.2% 20.2%

As Table 1 shows, the majority of the respondents were governmental organisation officials. Only 12 per cent of the respondents were UAV experts, while six per cent were suppliers of UAV equipment. 14 per cent of the respondents were port security experts, which increases the reliability of the data they provided. The next question referred to the respondents’ familiarity with UAVs, with the results shown in Table 2. Table 2: Familiarity with UAVs Familiarity with UAVs Very familiar Fairly familiar Slightly familiar Don’t know

Responses 28.6% 44.4% 21.8% 3.2%

As the results show, only 28.6 per cent of respondents indicated that they were very familiar with the devices in question, although a further 44 per cent of respondents declared that there were fairly familiar with the device. Under a quarter (22 per cent) said they were slightly familiar with UAVs, while only two respondents (three per cent)


claimed they knew nothing about UAVs. The third question of the survey was ‘how serious do you consider the threat from UAVs to port security?’ As shown in Table 3, 74.6 per cent of the respondents considered that the threat UAVs posed to port security was either serious (38 per cent) or very serious (36.5 per cent). Table 3: Seriousness of threat from UAVs

It is also important to observe from Table 4 that the respondents considered that there was a limited risk to using UAVs to smuggle weapons into the secure areas of the port, considering the fact that the UAVs would be able to transport a small explosive device (approximately 1kg) into secure locations. Table 4: Security risks from UAVs Threat (1 highest / 5 lowest)

Severity of threat from UAVs to port security Responses Very serious Serious Mildly serious Not at all serious Don’t know

36.5% 38.1% 20.6% 1.6% 3.2%

As observed in the literature before 9/11, the most significant threats to port security were drug smuggling and organised crime. However, after those attacks, terrorism became a significant threat. One of the most significant current threats to port security comes from cyber attacks, which could be conducted by terrorist groups using UAVs. The fourth question was ‘please rank accordingly the risk of UAVs in terms of a security threat where 1=highest risk and 5=lowest risk’. The results are shown in Table 4. The majority of the respondents indicated that the highest risk is that of an act of terrorism: 40 per cent of the respondents indicated the highest risk. Furthermore, 20.6 per cent of the respondents also indicated that there was a higher risk of illegal surveillance using UAVs.


Security Threat Smuggling arms and ammunition Illegal surveillance Smuggling of contraband Act of terrorism Other unauthorised act






7.9% 20.6% 27.0% 14.3% 28.6% 20.6% 11.1% 25.4% 30.2% 11.1% 15.9% 27.0% 11.1% 27.0% 17.5% 39.7% 19.1% 22.2% 9.5% 7.9% 14.3% 20.6% 12.7% 17.5% 33.3%

The fifth question was ‘In your opinion how effective could the deployment of UAVs in a port facility complement existing security measures?’ The deployment refers directly to the monitoring requirements as prescribed in the ISPS Code, namely the monitoring of the ship-port interface; port areas; and ships stores (see Table 5). Table 5: Effectiveness of UAVs to complement existing security measures IPS monitoring requirement

Not at all effective

Don’t Know

Monitoring the ship-port interface 57.1% 27.0% 12.7% 0.0%



Monitoring port areas

66.7% 25.4% 4.8%




Monitoring ships stores

23.8% 27.0% 28.6% 9.5%



Very effective


Less effective

Hardly effective

Despite the security risks that the respondents identified in relation to the use of UAVs by others, Table 5 demonstrates their confidence that UAVs


can also be used legitimately to increase port security. Sixty-six per cent of the respondents believed that UAVs could be effective in monitoring port areas that do not benefit from standard surveillance methods. Furthermore, 57 per cent of the respondents also considered that UAVs could be very effective in monitoring ship-to-port interfaces. The sixth question was ‘In your opinion should it be mandatory for UAV ownership to be registered with local or state authority?’ (see Table 6). Table 6: Mandatory registration of UAVs with a local or state authority Answer choices Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree

Responses 73.0% 17.46% 7.94% 0% 1.59%

As we can see from Table 6, nearly three-quarters of respondents (73 per cent) strongly agreed with the registration of ownership with the local or state authorities. This reflects that the number of civilian users of UAV devices is increasing and the authorities have no possibility of determining the purpose for which the UAVs are being purchased. This increases the risks associated with the use of UAVs by civilian users. However, the authorities could not breach the right to privacy of a person, only their right to use a device that can potentially be employed with criminal intent. Nevertheless, the registration of such a device would associate the owner with a specific device identified by a unique serial number. This can both increase the likely legitimacy of the device user and make it easier for the authorities to identify the owner of a device who intended to use it to commit

a criminal act. Only one respondent expressed a strong disagreement with the registration of UAV ownership. CONCLUSION The study has revealed some interesting findings regarding the application of UAVs in port security with a view to enhancing security and complimenting existing security regimes. It is also noted that the presence of UAVs controlled with criminal intent can be perceived as a threat to port operations, hence the high proportion of respondents looking for UAVs to be registered with a local or state authority. There is scope for the study to be extended to include a wider geographic area and also to address other nodes in the supply chain beyond ports. L




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