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Ways of Working Diploma Project By Priyanka Kodikal

Index Pages: 1. About Srishti, Srishti Labs and Nokia


2. Overall Process


3. Research Plan on Calendar


4. Initial Design Brief


5. Understanding The brief


6. Defining Work in Terms of Culture and Geography


7. Target Participants for Research


8. User Profiling Questionnaire


9. Cell Phone Analyses


10. Participant Interviews


11. Designing the Cultural Probes


12. Meeting the Participants


13. Day-In-The-Life-Of Charts


14. Participant Personas


15. Debriefing and Consolidating Data


16. Ideation During the Interviews


Index Pages: 17. Ideation After Interviews i. Travel and Commute ii. Time, Pace, Moods iii. Being Connected iv. Sharing and Learning v. Stress and Health


18. The Shift


19. The Diploma Idea


20. The Walla System


21. Problems with Existing System


22. Results of the Walla System Now


23. How Can Design Make the Walla System More Accessible?


24. The Proposal


25. Defining The Stakeholders of the System


26. Market Research


27. The Emerging Market


28. Wallas’ Phones


29. Small Businesses that Exist Around You


Index Pages: 30. Exploring Opportunities


31. Random Pace of the Walla System Now


32. What the Application Does


33. The Scenario Story Boards


i. Meeting Swathi, The New Customer ii. The Outsider iii. Shifting In

34. The Product Service System


i. Stakeholders Map ii. Business Strategy

35. Marketing for the Application


36. Exploring Technologies


i. Walla Application as a Bluetooth Broadcast ii. Walla Application as a Shortwave Radio Frequency Broadcast iii. Walla Application as a GSM Network Broadcast

37. Research on Value-Added Services


38. The Walla System


39. The Initial Ideations


40. Information Architecture


Index Pages: 41. Think Aloud/ Paper Prototype for UI Testing


42. Design Exploration for Application User Interface (UI)


43. Final Application User Interface and Navigation


45. The Products to Support the System


46. Swot Analyses


47. Counter Argument


48. Bibliography


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Overall Process Problems, Corrections


User Recruitment

First Visit Interviews

Cultural Probes

Analyses Ideations


Ideation Sketches


Consolidation of Data





Research Plan/ Calendar Each month was planned as follows:

Detail Plan of Research Methods

Analyses and Ideation


Designing and Prototyping

Initial Design Brief “Ways of Working” via Cell phones

Introduction to Project: In developing markets, the level of mobile phone usage has reached close to 50% adoption with well over 500 million mobile phone users in both India and China. Given the total size of their population, there are still hundreds of millions of new subscribers to be added which are at the lower economic strata. Both at consumer level and business level, cell phones are being utilized for uses ranging from basic text communication to high bandwidth entertainment both for personal and business related work. Interestingly, in Asian cultures, whether it is kitty-parties at the personal level or after-hour business entertainment, socializing is part and parcel of the “ways of working”. The impact of mobile technologies and devices on how work gets done has been revolutionary. Economic studies are reporting a positive correlation between connectivity and GDP. Anecdotal “success stories” of how dabbhawalas, farmers, artisans, extension workers, traveling salespersons, social workers, etc have adopted and adapted these technologies to enhance their efficacy and productivity abound on the media. As “anywhere, anytime” connectivity percolates to the remotest and lowest sections of our population, and with each new generation of devices, services and infrastructure, its impact on “work” will keep unfolding--in expected and unexpected ways. In brief, “how we work” is undergoing a profound transformation across the spectrum. The westerns world has several tools to run business but the non-IT penetrated world has started to use mobile for voice today. With 3G soon available, the small businesses will discover the wide applicability of mobile devices to bring prosperity and create more business for them. How will the users adapt the consumer-oriented devices to run and utilize to run their business?


Initial Design Brief “Ways of Working” via Cell phones


At Srishti Labs, we are interested to understand the role of cell phones in the “ways of working” both at personal and business level. The skill sets that will be applied for this exploration include user research including ethnography, business research and design conceptualization to allow us to utilize UBD approach to innovation.

The Client: Nokia The User:

It could be any user group depending on need of the feature,seen after research.

The Need:

To understand how mobile phone users optimize the affordance of the device. To find the critical features of the cell phone that would add excitement and oomph to the low/middle end phones in terms of “work” or completing a task. To see how best these feature can be offered and optimized with the low/middle end phone’s constraints.

The Over arching Goal:

Designing a new product/service innovation through ethnographic/user research with urban/rural middle class in Bangalore. Developing insights, affordance analysis of existing state-of-the-art phones, ideation, concept validation etc. The technology in hand is mobile and area of investigation is “work”. Work is very loosely defined as ““a specific task, duty, function, or assignment often being a part or phase of some larger activity in which one exerts sustained physical or mental effort or faculties to overcome obstacles and achieve an objective or result”. Hence, after intense research, to develop a innovative product or service that will benefit middle end phone users.


Initial Design Brief “Ways of Working� via Cell phones

Proposed Idea:

To innovate a new product - service system that would benefit the middle end phone users with respect to the affordance available on their phones. To optimize their work and personal usage of the phone.

My role:

As a designer I would implement the research and analyses made during the research period to create innovative products and services that would help the client build a new relationship with their middle end phone users. By providing innovative ideas and prototypes, I would participate in an intense innovation process.


We will apply a systematic yet open-ended process for this exploration. Based on the framework we have created, I will research this area as one of the major areas of exploration as an Open Innovation. This will be an ongoing activity encompassing longitudinal ethnographic studies, user research, and business research and will continuously feed into our knowledge base. The knowledge IP generated will rest with Srishti labs. We will undertake design research specific to Nokia’s interest in this topic using their existing products, co-ideate using the knowledge gathered from the activity, and validate these concepts with our user panels. The IP generated in this activity will belong to Nokia. After Deep exploration and research, product and service ideas will be generated, prototyped and tested.


Initial Design Brief “Ways of Working� via Cell phones

Materials /Resources: > > > > > >

Srishti Lab Nokia Research materials and process developed by team Tools of Srishti lab and Nokia Html/ flash coder for interface prototyping Workshop of Srishti for physical/3D prototyping

Learning outcome: > > > > > >

In depth User research and analyses Surveys, Ideation, Brainstorming Teamwork, and Individual innovations In depth research according to topic Innovation through implementation of research Prototyping and testing

Project Budget: Cost of Prototyping > Physical/3D Prototyping - Rs. 18,000 ( +/- depending on size of prototype) (Inclusive of materials, making, etc.) > Html/ Flash coding - Rs. 15. 000 (+/- depending on size of file, effects, time)


Initial Design Brief “Ways of Working” via Cell phones

Methods : > > > > > >

Research on existing cell phones and applications Affordance Analysis DILO ( day- in the -life -of) insights Cultural Probe Conceptualizing, Ideating, Brainstorming Record, blog, Logs of process

Research Questions: > > > > > > >

What is the importance of the role of technologies? What is work to mobile users and how does it help them? What are the different technologies that are used to complete a task, “work”? What are the common cell phones and applications used by urban/ rural people? How are these technologies helpful/ not helpful? Scope for innovations In what kind of lifestyles are these technologies used? Technologies and trends analyses How can a product-service system help in creating the completion of a task easier/faster?

This project is an open-ended yet systematic exploration of the use of mobile phones in personal and business contexts. The intense research methods would give insight to the “ways of working” using mobile technologies, and bring light upon new innovative ideas, concept and systems that will be charted out and prototyped for testing.


Initial Design Brief “Ways of Working� via Cell phones

Research chart:

Constraints :

> Information that is available > Budget constraints


> Certain technologies that will be available for the mobile platform > Most users can adapt to the Product-service system quickly 9

Understanding The Brief






Western Definition

Indian Definition

“Effort put into a task to acheive an objective.”

“An action that leads to cause and effect.”


Defining Work in Terms of Culture and Geography Western Perspective of work

Indian Perspective of work

Webster dictionary defines work as “a specific task, duty, function, or assignment often being a part or phase of some larger activity in which one exerts sustained physical or mental effort or faculties to overcome obstacles and

Karma (Sanskrit: kárma , kárman—”act, action, performance”; in Indian religions is the concept of “action” or “deed”, understood as that which causes the entire cycle of cause Karma (Sanskrit: कमर् kárma , kárman—"act, action, originating in ancient India and treated in Hindu, andeffect performance"; in Indian religions is the concept of "action" Jain, Buddhist and Sikh philosophies. or "deed", understood as that which causes the entire cycle of cause and effect originating in ancient India and treated in Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Sikh philosophies.

achieve an objective or result.

It is a linear motion of thought or approach towards doing a task.

A Line

 कमर्णये

वा�धकारस्ते मां फलेषु कदाचन । मां कमर्फलहे तभ ु :ू र् मांते संङगोस्त्वकमर्णी (Gita 2, 47, Indian Scripture)

 "You have a right to perform your prescribed duty, but you “You have a right to perform your prescribed duty, but you are are not entitled to the fruits of action। Never consider not entitled to the fruits of action. Never consider yourself the yourself the cause of the results of your activities, and never cause be of attached the results ofdoing your your activities, to not duty." and never be attached to not doing your duty.”

vs. A Circle


Target Participants for Research

Chosen through recruitment procedure


User Profiling Questionnaire Participant recruitment An Online Questionnaire was sent out to various participants to choose who fell under the “Sampanna� category that we wanted for our research. The Questionnaire asked about: 1. Their cell phones 2. The frequency of usage 3. What features were used most 4. What was their personality type 5. What kind of gadgets they owned 6. Whether they were tech-saavy 7. Their general consumer lifestyle 8. Their family background 9. Their income range 10. What they wanted from life


Cell Phone Analyses

The cell phone research was done by visiting shops, looking at what customers say, what’s selling, and online reviews.

Cell phone analyses of Nokia phones based on the affordances or features they have.

Cell phone analyses of other phones based on the affordances or features they have. 14

Participant Interviews What We Looked Out For

Tools Used for the Interview

> Personal and family profile, who is important to them. > Work profile, kind of job, time, pace, etc. > Transport method, Time required, organization of travel. > Challenges, Problems faced of daily basis. > Communication needs and gaps. Voice Recorder

Day-in-the-life-of Chart

Cultural Probes

> A day in the life of (DILO) a participant


Camera to capture lifestyle 15

Designing the Cultural Probe Postcards

3 Postcards were created behind which 3 different insightful questions were written which the participants had to answer. These postcards would show how the participants approached certain ideas related to the cell phone.

Maps + Stickers

Participants had to log their weekly travels on a map of Bangalore and beyond. They also had to mention how the travel plans were coordinated.

Thoughts on social Communications via Cell phones and gadgets alike.

What are the technologies that have impacted your life or you can’t do without?

Write down your wish list.


Log Books

Participants had to log their daily cell phone usage in the log books. This would show us all the features most used by them and for what purpose.

Packing The cultural probe was packed with a pencil for the participants to fill. We left the probes with them for 3-4 weeks before we collected the data.

Meeting the Participants

Areas of Opportunity in Urban Sector Travel, Commute

Time Management


Being Connected

Privacy, Filter

Physical Presence

Areas of Opportunity in Rural Sector

Stress, Health


Travel, Commute

Time Management

Being Connected




Knowledge, Learning

Day-in-the-life-of Charts The Participants’ Lifestyle During the interviews, I charted down an ideal day for each participant to understand their lifestyles. Each DILO chart had notes on: > What they did from the moment they woke up to bed-time. > Where they travelled and why > What gadgets they used during their day and for what purpose. > What kind of social networking do they do and how. > Who are the important people in their lives > What they would have wished for to make their day easier. The DILO chart was split into three sections: 1. Current technologies (TOP) 3. A day in their lives (MIDDLE) 2. Possible interventions (BOTTOM) 18

Participant Personas Based on Each Participant Each of the participant’s DILOs, cultural probes, voice recordings and photographs were analyzed. Personas were created based on each participant, and Observations,

Problem Areas, Possible Opportunities were pulled out of the

data for further analyses.

Though there were a lot of overlaps regarding wants and needs among the participants from the urban and rural sectors, many of them had unique ideas and perceptions which led us to analyze each participant separately.


Debriefing and Consolidating Data

An over all analyses was done based on each observation, problem and opportunity area. Before we got into ideating and coming up with solutions, we looked back at our work flow to compare the data we had with our brief. We re looked at what work really meant and tried to extract those activities of the participants’ that fell under our definition of work.

Results of Ethnographic Research People’s actions with respect to work in India

1. Karya - Collective action for social benefit but not necessarily monetary. 2. Karma - Duties, that we had to do regardless. Ex: For Family 3. Kam - Tasks or work done for livelihood.


Ideation During the Interviews

Process: During the interviews I would constantly ideate on things the participants would talk about, would wish they had, or even asked for. This way I could not only remember specific aspects of the interview that would help for the Project, but would keep me in the loop of ideating constantly. We also ideated on the different insights that came out of the ethnographic research.


Ideation During the Interviews The Augmented Reality Shopping Experience The Problem: A participant complained of the difficulty of shopping for certain items when he is not familiar with those items, or even the place. As his mother would often send him out to shop. The Possible Solution: Hence, I designed a shopping application which would help people shop, send orders, keep shopping logs for payments, create bills and use augmented reality to assist people during shopping or even connecting to CCTVs from an another location to view the availability of products.


Ideation After Interviews

> Travel and Commute

‘Our clients wants us to be with them to solve some issues.’

‘I call my husband often and keep him informed about the family’.

‘I never take calls when I am riding my bike.’

-Hitesh Shah, Manager

-Khushi Kaur, Home maker

-Sharukh, Photographer

People travel to do work. Being physically present is considered personal assurance. It builds Trust and Reputation. Ex: Peer to peer marketing.

People on the move, feel alone and distanced from their families. There is a feeling of alienation and a need for company. Generally in these situations people tend to call family and friends a lot.

While travelling, using mobile becomes a hassle. It may be kept in a pocket, there could be traffic, Fear of preying police etc.

Can mobiles substitute for physical presence?

Can mobile remove the feeling of alienation? Can mobile increase the feeling of a presence with or with out interfering? 23

Is there a way of informing others about your current status? Keeping track of calls and messages? Being aware?

Ideation After Interviews

> Travel and Commute

There are vehicles with driving aid, they cost a lot. It will be nice to have such features on mobile.

‘When I have a lot of work, I cannot keep a track of time. Some times I miss my direct bus to my village and have to wait for a long time to catch another one.’

-Rajesh, CCTV Sales

-Akshay, Accountant

Beyond just maps,Landmarks are useful when you are looking for a location. Even traffic changes, jams, etc., happen very often at random times and places. Sometimes roads are bad and even bumps are not visible.

Not everyone is aware when the right connecting buses come, or how long it will take for it to come. Many times we get distracted by other things and miss a bus.

Can the mobile phone be a more detailed Driving aid?

Can our mobile give us more detailed information tracking our transport system, time between connecting buses, when your bus stop has arrived and so on?


Ideation After Interviews

> Time, Pace, Moods

I want to study for Civil Services but, I end up wasting a lot of time chatting with friends.

When I build up too much of stress, I just want to listen to my music and relax.

Sometimes I hate ad calls and sometimes they’re entertaining.

-Mandira, Home maker

-Khushi Kaur, Home maker

-Gururaj, Manager, Poultry feeds

Time management is a great task when “we have so much to do and so little time.” Sometimes when we have to do something, we get distracted and forget, which makes us loose out on time.

Time is a relative term. It has a pace which changes depending on age, gender, place etc. It can be fast or slow. People are influenced by its pace, which is felt in work and other ways of life like entertainment. Pace of work influences pace of consumption, thus pace of communication.

Peoples’ moods change constantly depending on the situation they are in. In a good mood they are open and receiving, otherwise they are not.

Can a reminder from the phone recognise that you are wasting time, and remind you of the assigned task needed to be done?

Are our mobiles in tune with the pace that we are working? Can phone profiles be useful to depict pace? 25

Can the phone inform the others about your mood? Can moods be utilized to present the services I consume?

Ideation After Interviews

In meetings I do not pay much attention to reminders. It would me nice if there was a reminder service. -Rajesh, CCTV Sales People tend to forget in spite of reminders. They then fall back on human reminding.

Can we incorporate reminders that are human like? Can learn from our actions, Hint us? Can reminding become an industry, like planning a travel has become?

> Being connected

‘Some times customers ask us about things that we have not seen or heard’

I visit my client sites just to assist my managers and to track labors.

- Hitesh Shah, Manager

-Jitendra, Businessman

Text, visuals and sounds are the primarily used for communication but they do have their limits.

Sometimes we wish we could be in more places than one all at once. Is there a possibility to use mobiles to assure your presence in all those places?

Can mobile experiences become more enriching in order to completely understand and empathise with one another? communicate over touch, feel, taste, hear and visual experience? 26

Is communication powerful enough to express presence of a person?

Ideation After Interviews

> Being connected, Sharing and Learning

It is difficult to keep track of people, when I am organizing a party.

No PC ! I store all my data on a pen-drive and share my Neighbor’s computer.

I do not have time for formal education, But I am always willing to learn.

-Khushi Kaur, Home maker

-Mandira, Home maker

-Shivaji, Business Printing.

One - to - Many: Collective work – gossip, chat, pull a prank, argue/fight, event organization and play. Usually people are able to reply one-to-one, but communication could be enriching if everyone could share, comment and chat all together on a given platform.

Content and context in communication can be shared with others based on proximity, age & gender. Devices and services are shared (more so in rural). In an environment where public spaces over lap private, how does one create a secure environment?

Can learning happen over a virtual mobile classroom? or a service?

Would a “reply-to-all” option on smses be more useful? A way to plan virtually together?

Is it possible to share a phone and yet protect your private data?


Can mobile-learning bring you a degree or a masters in a subject?

Ideation After Interviews

The traffic makes me really stressful. That’s why I listen to my music to calm down. - Imran, Project Manager

Can we keep track of our stress levels? can our phones help us in relaxing and adapting to a more healthy stress-free life? Can it alert doctors/ others and ask for assistance?

> Stress and Health

‘I hate it when the phone hangs!’ -Khushi Kaur, Home maker Cell phones can be stressful when they hang. Cell phone are also known for causing headaches and health issues due to radiation.

Can there be a self-diagnose system on mobiles? Can mobiles alert us about how much radiation is being produced and ways of reducing the effect?


The Shift Primary Research Stage

Secondary Research Stage

All the research and ideations done so far was to bring out the aspects of “work” and the communication tools used to do it. To understand lead users and find opportunities by observing their lifestyles.

A participant’s story that lead to further analyses and an in depth study of small time businesses in the emerging market. How they strive with changing times. This is what I call:

Work in the Indian context

The Walla System


The Diploma Idea The Story That Got Me Thinking “Bangalore is not like how it used to be. Earlier people lived in houses but now more and more flats are coming up, prices are rising, the whole system of life has become fast now.” “Communication is such now that my wife has the vegetable walla’s (vendor) number. And every time he comes downstairs he gives her a call letting her know that he has come. She even makes orders now from the vendor. Earlier this never used to happen because we didn’t know what vendor came when.” “My wife also makes fruit juice. She sells it to her friends and passes on the word...Of course, people come here only to buy it. We don’t give it out anywhere.”

Cell phone communications connect people

Areas of Opportunity within the system Being Connected

Time Management



The Walla System Questions that were raised: What is the role of the vendor system today? How efficient is it? How many people use small businesses that exist in the emerging market efficiently? How accessible are these small shops, vendors, and other businesses alike, at your finger tips? How does the vendor system cope with big competition like the malls, and service companies coming in due to Globalization and Urbanization? How has the vendor system and small businesses adapted to change? What is the mentality of today’s fast pace, modern people towards such businesses? How do these small businesses broadcast their services or sales and build a clientèle? How can the cell phone empower the lower market segment making them more accessible? How can design give people a platform to communicate about demand and supply but retain a sense of culture?


Problems With Existing System What People Said

What Wallas Said

> People couldn’t understand what they were selling because of their organic voice or the language barrier.

> They don’t scream that often anymore, because they find it tiring or sometimes just embarrassing.

> People weren’t aware when they would come and go. Dealing with random time. > People would use the system if it were efficient or immediately accessible.

Communication gap due to TIME SPACE NEEDS

> They want more customers but are shy to go up to new people. > They get calls from their loyal customers > They have a mobile phone

> People feel products sold by street vendors are cheaper and better in quality (food products).

> Some belong to private agencies, some part of the market agency, some are independent.

> Old city folks know their vendors, and even have their mobile numbers. New ones don’t. With People constantly moving across cities it takes awhile for them to adapt.

> It looks like a dying tradition to some but it isn’t. It’s just lost in the urban development of the city.


Results of the Walla System Now As Customers

As Wallas:

> Discouraged to use the system because of their fast pace lives. They can’t wait for the walla to come, keep walking around looking for a walla. Time has become precious.

> They depend on their loyal customers, and people who see them. Time spent on looking for customers.

> Looking for alternatives like going to shops, malls, etc. because it’s more exciting. > Having their own modes of transportation instead of depending on public transport, because they don’t trust the system. > Consumption behavior changes with Globalization and Urbanization bringing in different trends, changing wants and needs.

> They get a minimum daily income, as agents take a percentage of it too. > There has not been any platform given to them to empower them and make the system more accessible. > Wallas are dependant on a old system as compared to it’s competitors. Will the system survive the competition over time?


How Can Design Make the Walla System More Accessible?

“ Contribute to a live-able world… where humans not only survive, but express and expand their cultural and spiritual possibilities.”

- Ezio Manzini, From the Ecology of the Artificial and the Designer’s Responsibility

“ Most of us take the convenience of using a mobile phone for granted, but for billions of people, mobile devices and services can transform their lives. Many people in emerging markets are using the mobile in more powerful ways than those in the developed world. “ - Nokia Life tools, Research


The Proposal A System for an Application Walla is a shortwave radio/GSM based broadcasting

system that will help you broadcast your services and your needs.

Through a mobile application, you can receive instant updates or broadcasts about the services available for 1km around your location instantly. You can also broadcast your need for a service to get instant response as to whether it is available around your vicinity. This product and service is meant to bridge services and needs that are usually available at random, unsynchronized times. It is a search and broadcasting platform for small businesses and for people to communicate with each other instantly. However, only those who have the application, can be part of this product-service system.

Mobile application for a product-service system


Defining the Stakeholders of the System Who is the walla? The walla is any one who sells a product or a service and would like to broadcast their Products and services locally. They can connect to the people who want their product or services immediately after broadcasting their sales.

Who are the customers? The customers are any one who wants to utilize available products and services around their vicinity. They can connect to the people who sell these services or products immediately after broadcasting their needs.

The icons designed for the application


Market Research I decided to go to City Market, the hub of all small and big businesses. Every walla comes to the main market starting at 4 am, to collect their produce which the agents auction at certain prices as whole-sale goods. The wallas owe a percentage of their sales to these agents. Most of the wallas communicate with the agents and other stakeholders in this system through calls and messages on their mobile phones. 37

During my time at the market, I observed how the existing walla system works. I learned how the produce comes from various places all over the state and country by trucks, while agents coordinate between the source and the wallas. There are many different types of wallas that exist in our society, but don’t have the ability to broadcast their services at such large scales like their big competitors. Hence, they depend on the customers who are loyal to their service, or who see them.


The Emerging Market The emerging market is an alternative term for a “less developed” economy or country. This term is misleading in that there is no guarantee that a country will move from “less developed” to “more developed”. - Wikipedia, on The Emerging Market Most of these wallas in my research study come from the lower and middle segment of society. They either come from different villages surrounding the city or across the country in search for a job. One of the most available jobs is sales of Products or services in smaller businesses. There are many small businesses in and around our homes which advertise themselves only on a painted board, that ring a bell when they come by our neighborhood or sometimes just depend on word-of-mouth marketing. However, with growing population, increase of development, and urbanization, these small businesses and services get hidden, and it may take awhile for the “fast pace” people to notice them and adjust to their system. Today, we use call services or the internet to search for certain types for products or services that we require. Yet we may not realize, that the particular service and product that we are searching for may be right around the corner.


The Emerging Market Today cell phones have become a necessity for all, keeping everybody connected. Although each one has their own way of using the device, the cell phone has managed to not only keep people connected, but have empowered them by giving them access to information of any kind. Access to information that you need or information that you want to share with others, involves a transaction.

In order for the transaction of information to happen on my application, I had to know whether both Customers and the Wallas had mobile phones and what kind of phones they had. From the user research and participant interviews I gathered what kind of phones “customers� have. After which I researched on what kind of phones wallas have.

Customers’ Phones:


Wallas’ Phones:


Small Businesses That Exist Around You Here is a study of the vegetable walla as an example. However, beyond this there are many small time businesses that exist around you, which you may not be aware of and need. Or need but are not accessible immediately. Whether they are mobile or not, they are still wallas.



Random Pace of the System Now The current system is fluid. Everyone is moving at their own pace. There is a sense of randomness of Time, Space and Needs that does not allow the demand and supply to meet at the correct time. “You may not find what you want, when you want it.” or “ you may not get what you want, even if it was there.”


What the Application Does The Application is a Platform for people to broadcast their wants and needs in order to find their desired product or service as soon as possible. It also allows a person to broadcast their products or service as being “available” around others, in case they are interested in his/her service or product. For example, The wallas will also be able to get more customers without having to shout or spend on ads (which is reducing due to many reasons like – space, shyness, etc.)

The Walla application belongs to a bigger product-service system.


The Scenario Story Boards

1 Meeting Swathi, The New Customer This story is about how the walla discovers that the application can inform his customers that he is available. It also enable him to find more new customers.


2 The Outsider

Shifting In

It is usually hard to get used to a local system when you don’t understand the language. An outsider discovers how the application can help him find local services in the language he understands.

This story is just to show how urban city people may not be aware of when the walla comes and goes. They won’t even be able to hear the walla from the 5th floor in an apartment. It looks at how space has effected the system.



The Outsider What would you do when you are in a new place and can not understand a language or a system that belongs to the local culture?



The Product-Service System The Walla Application The Products For It The Technology to Support It The Stakeholders The Business Strategy The System After




Marketing for the Application The Promotional cart The Wallas who download the application will get a free “makeover� of their carts, giving them a free rainproof shield that would promote and state that they are part of the WALLA system. All customers have the benefit to be updated and connected to the wallas no matter if they are old city folks or new comers.


Exploring Technologies

Bluetooth Broadcast? Shortwave Radio Frequency Broadcast? GSM Network Broadcast?


Walla Application as a Bluetooth Broadcast Large-scale production makes it cheap and a universal technology. It’s free and can reach upto 100 meters with a class 1 device.

Actual data rate is poor if sub standard device is used. May not be so strong depending on the kind of environment/space. Short distance/range.

It’s Direct. No service provider needed

It is installed in most cell phones and may require small hardware changes if any. It’s an open standard.

Security is an issue



It can go up to 24mbps speed (Bluetooth 3) / 2.1 mbps constant based on the device.

It is also power consuming. Any hardware change will result in deviation from standard.

Improvements and maintained by Bluetooth Special Interest Group, so this technology is constantly under up-gradation. Cross platform compatibility. Also is integrated with the current PC (Win, MAC, Linux, UNIX etc) 

Better and higher speed and secure technologies in the market and on mobile.

Bandwidth: 2.45 GHz Each Application downloaded from the net connects with owners’ Bluetooth ID, which is also the product code ID for the company. 55

Walla Application as a Shortwave RF Broadcast Simple time tested technology.

This will increase costs

It’s fast and direct

The government may want control over it if used for commercial purposes.

No service provider required.

It is free for limited distance.


May require an additional hardware for transmitting and receiving the waves. It will also lead to major design changes


It will enable communication to channels what do not use mobile technology, like native radio, TV, which operate on radio frequencies. New opportunities will emerge.

Quality and congestion may become issues.

Between Bandwidth: 3 MHz – 30 MHz the messages gets transmitted Each application downloaded will have a frequency and product code. Service providers can keep tab of the messages sent out this way. Each type of vendor has it’s own frequency within the Radio range. Useful in Nokia walkie-talkie: 5140 56

RF Push-Button


The market acceptance to this technological change is uncertain

Walla Application as a GSM Network Broadcast Nokia Lifetools System Launched in 2009, Nokia Life Tools is a range of innovative services that brings up-to-date and locally relevant information straight to the mobile phone. The Nokia Life Tools have been developed to help bridge the digital divide in the emerging markets and also make tangible the benefits of information access beyond just voice communications on the mobile phone. The application can work using the standard GSM network, which incorporates the Cell Broadcast method.

Part of the Value-added-services given by Nokia in collaboration with other service providers and companies. Company maintained so better quality. Additional to an existing network that was created for encouraging emerging markets. Most phones can come with the application pre loaded and the technology installed.

It is power saving as it uses standard network.

Broadcast is possible. Both data and voice can be sent. Service model.



Depends on stakeholders to support the system.


Cost will be included. But at a reasonable price.

Depends on tower distance for fast connectivity.

“Nokia Life Tools was a result of the entire ecosystem coming together and is ideally placed to usher in an information revolution impacting the daily lives of people.” - Mr. D Shivakumar, Managing Director, Nokia India

Mobiles will change the world, more quickly, more deeply and more profoundly than any other innovation. Countries traditionally described as ‘emerging’ now represent half of the world’s economy. Businesses and consumers should look to these markets for insights and inspiration into the opportunities which mobile technology can provide. The chance to make a difference to people’s lives is huge and many of these emerging markets are leading the charge for innovation.


Research on Value-Added Services: The Kinds of Services Consumers Want From the Mobile Market

The walla system



The Initial Ideations


Information Architecture


Think Aloud/Paper Prototype for UI testing Paper prototype Testing of UI and navigation

Learnings 1. Where to put the select/next button. 2. Difference between a phone UI and a computer screen UI, and why I think it is so. For example, The back/previous button on a computer screen is on the left hand side. However, the back button on a common mobile phone is on the right hand side. I think this placing of the button has to do with the movement of the thumb while using a mobile phone. 3. Importance of text and image on main buttons for better communication.

Incorporating the learning into existing design.


Design Exploration for Application UI Colour Palette

After Rain Collection

Spin Collection

Navigation Styles 1. Basic Navigation - Button click 2. Spin Navigation - Animated 3. Slide Screens I decided to chose the basic navigation with little animation to make it more user friendly and generic for all types of phones and users.


Final Application User Interface and Navigation Color Palette Keeping in mind the different phones that would use it. Touch screen (hand indicator) vs. Buttons (maroon box indicator).


















The Products to Support the System Technical Work

Rainproof Cart

RF Transmitter

Concept Phone



Prototyping Product

The Prototypes Handmade Wooden Phone An initial prototype was created for the walla concept with wood. It’s key features are the spinning camera and the inbuilt microphone.


The Prototypes Sketches

CNC Machine Prototype

Handmade Plug-in RF Prototypes


The Prototypes Handmade Wooden Cart This cart was created to demonstrate the marketing idea for the walla system. It has a convertable hood that lifts up and falls down at the wallas convenience.


The Walla Product-Service System


Better communication at the local level.

Technological and Technical constraints

It enhances the emerging market making it more accessible.

Business strategy depends on the stakeholders’ needs.

Betterment of Indian systems inspite of changes that may occur.  Modernising may have it’s effects on the system.

Cost effective methods Government policies

Counter Argument The Romanticism of the Walla System > Randomness of time, being unexpected has it’s charm > Organic voice broadcasting has it’s charm > Hearing and seeing the Walla in real time

How can I retain a sense of this feeling and culture? - Through Sound. Special walla alerts and voice message capabilities encapsulates the walla culture such that one can hear what a walla has to say, or what he is selling, through technological means. Yet, hearing one’s voice, hearing the alert, takes you back into the time and space of the walla culture that once was very prominent.


Bibliography Books I read and Skimmed Through: Social Design in Practise Design Without Borders The Geography of Thought The Clock of the Long Now Consumer Culture and Postmodernism

Some Web sites:


A study on the Indian and Western context of work and what one would consider as “work� gave deep insight into how systems work in different regions. Based on this study a project was done on the ways of working via mobile phones in different cultural contexts. During my research I found that western thought is more linear where as Indian thought is more cyclical, which effects the way each system works. Taking up the Walla service system as part of the Indian cultural context of work, I explored how people in India communicate and work via cell phones for our day-to-day needs. This Walla system refers to the small businesses and vendors in India which belong to the emerging market. The Walla system has been existing around us for ages, however, with the change due to urbanization and globalization, this system and other smaller businesses in the emerging market strive to survive with the immense competition from bigger brands and service systems. I explored how small businesses in the Indian emerging market work today via cell phones, and how they communicate with their customers. People like auto drivers, xerox shops, street vendors,chai shops, etc., who belong to the emerging market sector.

It is an exploration of how the cell phone results in the distance between individual and community to decrease continuously, and how those products and services which decrease the amount of time and space it takes to create an action will be the most successful.

A look into the ways of Working via mobile phones