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P A C A Systems Project On Sabarmati Central Jail

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Priyanka, 7th sem, Product Design


contents Systems theory

02

Chosen system

06

About Client

07

Macro System Identified

08

Motive

09

About Jail

10

Semi- micro System Identified

14

About Prison Inc

15

Chosen- Food Packaging

19

Proposal

20

Micro System Identified

22

Packaging

23

Chosen Food Items

47

Existing Packaging Analysis

48

Types of paper used for Packaging

50

Sketches

55

Concepts

56

Final Concepts

60

Table Top Accessories

67

Bibliography

70


system’s theory

System is a set of interacting or interdependent entities forming an integrated whole.

The concept of an 'integrated whole' can also be stated in terms of a system embodying a set of relationships which are differentiated from relationships of the set to other elements, and from relationships between an element of the set and elements not a part of the relational regime. Most systems share common characteristics, including: -Systems have structure, defined by parts and their composition; -Systems have behavior, which involves inputs, processing and outputs of material, energy or information; -Systems have interconnectivityy: the various parts of a system have functional as well as structural relationships between each other.

System concepts Environment and boundaries systems theory views the world as a complex system of interconnected parts. We scope a system by defining its boundry; this means choosing which entities are inside the system and which are outside - part of the environment. We then make simplified representations (models) of the system in order to understand it and to predict or impact its future behavior. These models may define the structure and/or the behavior of the system. Natural and man-made systems There are natural and man-made (designed) systems. Natural systems may not have an apparent objective but their outputs can be interpreted as purposes. Man-made systems are made with purposes that are achieved by the delivery of outputs. Their parts must be related; they must be “designed to work as a coherent entity� - else they would be two or more distinct systems

system design

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Open system An open system usually interacts with some entities in their environment. A closed system is isolated from its environment. Process and transformation process A system can also be viewed as a bounded transformation process, that is, a process or collection of processes that transforms inputs into outputs. Inputs are consumed; outputs are produced. The concept of input and output here is very broad. E.g., an output of a passenger ship is the movement of people from departure to destination.

Types of system Cultural system A cultural system may be defined as the interaction of different elements of culture. While a cultural system is quite different from a social system, sometimes both systems together are referred to as the sociocultural system. A major concern in the social sciences is the problem of order. One way that social order has been theorized is according to the degree of integration of cultural and social factors. Economic system An economic system is a mechanism (social institution) which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. The economic system is composed of people, institutions and their relationships to resources, such as the convention of property. It addresses the problems of economics, like the allocation and scarcity of resources.

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Causal Loop diagram: System diagrams are powerful tools that help you to understand how complex systems work. Systems analysed may be anything from businesses, through biological population models, to the impact of social policy, etc. System diagrams are particularly helpful in showing you how a change in one factor may impact elsewhere. They are excellent tools for flushing out the long term impacts of a change. Importantly, a good system diagram will show how changing a factor may feed back to affect itself! Drawing a system diagram is a good way of starting to build a computer model. The technique helps you to map out the structure of the system to be modeled. It shows the factors and relationships that are important, and helps you to start quantifying the linkages between factors.

Feedback Loops: Feedback is an important concept in the use of system diagrams - in very many cases changing one factor will impact on another factor, which will then affect the first. Feedback will either reduce the impact of the change, or will amplify it.

Balancing Loops: Where feedback reduces the impact of a change, we call this a Balancing Loop.

Reinforcing loops: Where feedback increases the impact of a change, we call this a Reinforcing Loop.

External Factors: The system diagrams we have looked at so far completely ignore the impact of these external factors on them

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Gaps: In our reinforcing loop example above we related sales of theatre seats to investment in productions. Delay: The impact of delay is the final area we need to consider in our system diagrams. Ideally when we make a change to a system it should adjust immediately to its new state. In reality there is almost always a delay before other factors adjust. This delay may occur in a mechanical system simply as a result of inertia and friction. In a human system it will occur as people take time to communicate, get used to new ideas, and implement change.

Key points: Systems diagrams allow you to model the way in which complex systems work. They help you to think through the way in which the factors within a system interact and feed back upon themselves. You should now be able to analyse: how factors are related, and how one factor will change when another changes how factors may feed back in either balancing loops or reinforcing loops how external factors impact on the system how gaps operate how delay affects the system all the complexities of a system

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chosen system Sabarmati Central Jail

Sabarmati Central Jail was established in 1891 A.D. around 5500 prisoners are kept in it. it is build near Sabarmati Railway Station. Under the brand Prison Inc. Sabarmati Jail Industry makes furniture, bakery products ,textile, tailoring and chemical products.

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about client

Client : Prison Inc Contact Person: Mr. Keshav Kumar Designation: Inspector General Of Police, Prisons Brief : Client expressed the need for promoting Prison Inc and its products. Also a hint for defining new markets was also noted during the discussion with the client. Stickers for various packaging

Logo

system design

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Macro System Identified

Prison Inc

Tools/ Machines

Materials

Bhajiya Making Workshop

Furniture Making Textiles

Industries

Jail

Bakery Products Printing (Screen)

Simple Prisoners Prisoners

Habitual Prisoners Upper Division Prisoners

Administration

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Motive

Jail authority provide vocational training to the prison inmates, so that when they are relieved from their term in the prison, they can earn their living and not take up another criminal activity due to unfavourable conditions regarding his sentence to jail, a criminal record and being out of touch with the outside world for long time.

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About Jail

Jail do not do major investments in terms of machinery, training of inmates, technology and manpower. Jail gives the prisoners vocational level training in terms of making furniture, bakery products, textile etc. so that the prisoners can work on their own once they complete their term inside. The workforce is short termed because prisoners who work in Prison Inc go out once their term is over. Jail industry gets the benefit of cheap workforce as it pays Rs. 20.00/day to every prisoner as wages who work. .

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Jail as a System

Jail as system consists of four main components- -prisoners -administration -workshop - industries.

Prisoners who come in jail are of three types. Few are first time offenders who are also called simple prisoners, second are habitual prisoners- habitual prisoners are those who never come out of criminal activities and the third are upper division prisoners, who are basically politicians and high ranking officials.

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There is a workshop in jail which has tools and machinery to cater to the production of Prison Inc goods and give the prisoners the vocational training.

Workshop is equipped with hand tools like chisel, hammer, screw drivers etc. and power tools like planner, drill machine, jig saw etc. Jail has industry which produces lot of products which are sold under the brand Prison Inc. Wood, bakery, textile are few industries of jail.

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jail Industries

Bakery: bakery of jail produces number of items like biscuits, bread, toast, bhaiiya and different types of namkeen. Raw materials used in the making bakery items are called from yearly tenders. Material used for the above items are mainly beasn, wheat flour, sugar, salt and many other spices as well.

Wood workshop makes chairs, tables, sofa sets, beds and many customized wooden items. For making any wooden product they use teak wood, which come from forest department. Chemical industry of jail produces products like soap bars, liquid soap, phenyl, washing powder etc. For this also raw material comes from yearly tenders. Textile industry makes muslin and other cotton fabrics. These cotton fabrics are further developed into bed sheets, pillow covers , tents etc. Tailoring is also one of the industries of jail which produces bags, shirts, pants and uniforms. for this also material comes from yearly tenders

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-Finising---Pro over-fit-n r u -Tr T ad tn e-e -D m p em o l ve

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Semi Macro System Identified

---Prisoners-ools -M t at nd er a s i ---Furnitur a y eaji -h B

cal---Tailor i n g-

y---Bak e r ndr y-au -L

-- B rtpo ns

Infr

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-Business M entity-od e d Id l ---D ran e

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Prison Inc

--Product i o n uality--Pa ---- Q ck a ply gin g -- -T ra

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op --- Outlet ---M rksh o w ob sil al P r i n s t ing le --xti e C T

PACKAGING

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about Prison Inc

Prison Inc is the brand name used by jails in Ahmedabad to sell the products which are produced in jail industries. Mr. Keshav Kumar aptly named The CafĂŠ Prison Inc. Over the next few months, it will become a restaurant chain if plans of the jail department materialize. It will have outlets in many government offices and buildings. Under Prison Inc products from carpentry, textile, bakery, printing, leather, chemicals etc. are sold to people and different government organizations.

Infrastructure used by it includes prisoners in the jail, workshop in the jails, tools and machinery , materials. And these products are sold to common man from jail outlet and bhaijya van. And more or less all this depends on and includes skill development, turnover ,finishing, profits, demand, supply, quality, production, packaging, transportation, brand identity, business model, designers and grant. Jail industries do not have high level skilled people who work on the production of products as prisoners keep getting relieved from their sentences. And because they are not skilled the finishing of the products is raw.

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Skill Development: In jail the prisoners who work in the industries are not that skilled. authorities do not spend time and money to improve the skill levels of the prisoners. This has a very big impact on the quality of products which come out of the industries. And this might be one of the reasons why people don't buy the jail products. Jail industries follow the age old method of producing goods and for their finishes.

Finishing: Jail products are mostly sold in very crude form. and because they are not very well finished they end up being bought up by lower middle class people or government agencies. Products from the workshop are not given good finish, maybe because they are ignorant about the desired level of finishes for different kind of products. Like wooden products are not sanded properly and layer of lacqer is put on it which is very uneven.Similarly the fabric they makes has lose threads hanging and yarn balls on it, which makes the feel of the cloth very rough.

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Turnover: According to the figures Prison Inc makes around 6 crore turnover every year. Ten percent of the profits from the eatery are deposited with the jail the rest is used to procure raw materials and pay daily wages to the working inmates. The inmates working in the outlet are paid according to their skills and work positions. Half of the wages are given to convicts for personal expenses the other half is deposited in the jail post office. It is handed over after their release.

Supply of the jail products depend highly on the quantity of products being consumed. They use genuine teak wood to make wooden items and Agmark and ISI mark raw materials for making bakery products. Nearly all the products are packed in PET bags and transported to their destined places in the jail vehicles. Till recently jail industries did not have any brand name. They came with Prison Inc as their brand name some time back and now promote their products under it.

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Business model of jail Industries of jail are looked by government and jail officials. All the raw materials used by jail workshops comes through tenders. A committee of two jailors and a superintendent are appointed to call for tenders. Any person can fill the papers for the jail tenders. These are open tenders. Any person who quotes the lowest amount gets the tender for that year. These tenders are also called yearly tenders because the person whose tender has been passed has to supply the raw materials to the jail on the pre fixed prices for one year. The raw material procured by the jail authorities is of high quality. This is so because they except ISI mark and agmark products only. Moreover, the wood used for wooden items is teak wood which they get from forest department. More or less, all the products they manufacture in jail is consumed by the government departments only. So basically the government invests in jail and gets the money from government offices itself. Jail industries follow the rule of making only 10% profit on whatever and to whom so ever they sell the products to. From this 10% profit they give have the money to the prisoners as wages and deposit the other half in their saving account so that once they are out of jail they have some capital to start work with.

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why food packaging

Sr.No.

Department

Sales ( in lacs)

1

Textiles

Rs. 228

2

Tailoring

Rs. 57

3

Carpentary

Rs 79

4

Chemical

Rs. 37

5

Bakery

Rs.151

6

Printing

Rs . 26

7

Laundry

Rs. 02

8

Leather

Rs. 07

Total Production

Rs. 587

Total Sales

Rs. 638

Bakery products does the highest sales than any other production department of Prison Inc. A notable statistic after studying the jail systems closely, was a deduction of a fact based on the sales figures that Bhajiya worth 6 lacs is sold every month. Food products have more popularity among people than any other product from PrisonInc. After looking at all the aspects in the domain of Prison Inc, there was a strong need felt towards packaging of food products in context of better presentation, a greater mass appeal, a more logical and attributes bearing packaging. With better design solutions in packaging will enhance the product’s value and quality which in the current packaging does not depict. The new packaging can also open up possibilities for a newer market with different strata of the society, thereby creating better sales and more profit for the organization, leading to a healthier organization.

Production during 2008-2009

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Introduction This is a systems study of Sabarmati Jail Industry. Sabarmati jail industry is sparse interactive system with almost negligible interaction between the jail industry (Prison Inc) and the outside world. After studying the jail industry system certain areas were identified were possible design interventions could take place. Some of the identified areas were skill development, quality control, branding, advertising, social stigma, brand language and inventory management. Food packaging design as one of the design interventions has been taken up by me wherein, I would study packaging design system of Prison Inc in a holistic manner and following a fabricated design process, provide better design solutions. The packaging's role is essentially utilitarian. It aids to the efficient distribution of merchandise and presents products in an attractive manner. These basic functions play a major role in form and function of packaging. Products may have become more sophisticated but there is still a basic requirement to protect them. Distribution is a complex process but products need to survive transportation, so that they arrive pristine on shelf. The basic function of sealed package is to protect the product from mishandling, environment, dirt etc.To enhance its appearance and facilitate its distribution. Although packaging's importance still seems to depend upon a particular marketing discipline's own self interest, is now recoganised that it is no longer a passive, functional device but an active sales tool that can make its presence felt in a crowd and send the product at the point of purchase. The prominence of branding packaging is often the living embodiment of a brand's values and personality. Packaging design plays a pivotal role in ensuring consumer's perception of the brand is mirror on the pack

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Proposal The food packaging design intervention as an area would need to collect the information, analyzing the information and presentation of the possible solutions. I would study the following areas and then propose design solutions for the same: Packaging: packaging includes the form, visual language and the structure of packaging. It also included the probable and the product based material. Keeping in mind the economics and the versatility of the material. It would also consider the eco-logical and city-litter issues. And the usage of the packaging. Context: it would include the environment where the product is made, where it sold and to whom it caters to. Environment and Life Span: packaging with regard to environment would mean how the things are stored and where they are stored. It also included how they are transported from one place to another and the stake ability of the packages. Life span of the packaging indicates the study of all phases of the packaging from the point of manufacture, till the time the package is disposed off.

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Micro

Photography

Language Back of Pack

Illustrations Retail Environment

Types of Packaging

Speed of Selection

Information about hierarchy Marketing Considerations

Colour

Promotion

Ranges & Solo Products

Typography

Structure Design Product Differentiation

Efficient Production

Packaging

Materials

Branding

Market Behaviour

Surface Smoothness

Surface Structure

Protection, preservation and containment

Market Positioning

Surface Graphics

Environmental Considerations Branding Manifestation

Stiffness Packaging Dynamics

Tearing Resistence

Surface Strength Surface Tension

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For many years certain types of packaging have had a role beyond the purely functional. Packaging has become something to value in its own right, something to be displayed because it has certain cachet. The most obvious example of this is any perfume bottle. Display packaging has become a part of certain types of design briefs as a reponse to the sheer power of brands and the concomitant status they convey on the owner

The need to differentiate one product from another results in clients talking about shelf impact and product stand-out in their briefs. Designers are asked to make the product “shout�, thus attracting consumers' . design's primary role in product differentiation is to give substance to a product's proposition and to exploit every feature of its packaging to engage with consumers, whether this be through imagery, color, language, shape, format, or even the tactile quality of the packaging's material.

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What do we mean by the word 'brand'?

powerful associations For Coca-Cola, typical perceptions might be that it is the original cola drink ('The Real Thing'), that its recipe is secret and unsurpassed, that it's allAmerican or maybe global, that it's youthful, energetic, refreshing and so on. Visual associations might include the unmistakable red and white logo and corporate colours, or the unique shape and tint of the original glass bottles.

A brand is a set of associations that a person (or group of people) makes with a company, product, service, individual or organizations. These associations may be intentional – that is, they may be actively promoted via marketing and corporate identity, or they may be outside the company's control.

To illustrate the idea, let's take what is arguably the best-known product – or brand – in the world: Coca-Cola. Although essentially just a soft drinks product, Coca-Cola the drink is eclipsed by the sheer might of Coca-Cola the brand. This phenomenon is best summed up by the following quote from a Coca-Cola executive: “If Coca-Cola were to lose all of its production-related assets in a disaster, the company would survive. By contrast, if all consumers were to have a sudden lapse of memory and forget everything related to Coca-Cola, the company would go out of business.”

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What is branding?

If a brand results from a set of associations and perceptions in people's minds, then branding is an attempt to harness, generate, influence and control these associations to help the business perform better. Any organisation can benefit enormously by creating a brand that presents the company as distinctive, trusted, exciting, reliable or whichever attributes are appropriate to that business.

While absolute control over a brand is not possible due to outside influences, intelligent use of design, advertising, marketing, service proposition, corporate culture and so on can all really help to generate associations in people's minds that will benefit the organisation. In different industry sectors the audiences, competitors, delivery and service aspects of branding may differ, but the basic principle of being clear about what you stand for always applies.

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packaging’s utilitarian functions

in the earlier days, packaging’s role was essentially utilitarian. It aided the efficient distribution of merchandise and presented products in an attractive manner. To this day these basic functions play a major part in the form and function of packaging. Products may have become more sophisticated, but there is still a basic requirement to protect them. Distribution may have become a complex process, but products still need to survive transportation so that they arrive pristine on shelf.

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packaging as product differentiator

packaging has always played its part in distinguishing one manufacturer’s product from another. its first manifestations-labels-were crafted to do just that. Now the whole differentiation process has become increasingly sophisticated. whereas graphics once took the lead role in distinguishing one product from another, structural packaging now plays a major role in brand differentiation. sometimes this is achieved with form- the Coca Cola bottle - but other times its achieved with colour, finish or materials. Good examples for observing differentiation are chocolate packaging, perfumes cosmetics etc. In sectors like these, the tactile feel of a particular piece of packaging communicates lifestyle aspirations on a subliminal level.

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packaging as a sales tool and brand manifestation?

although packaging’s importance still seems to depend upon a particular marketing discipline’s own self interest, it is now recoganised that it is no longer a passive, functional device but an active tool that can make its presence felt in a crowd and sell a product at the point of purchase. moreover with the prominence of branding , packaging is often the living embodiment of a brand ‘s values and personality.

a lot of time and effort is spent defining these attributes and traits, understanding consumers’ perception of the brand is mirrored on the pack. Consumers make a brand purchase just as much as they make a product purchase. they may in reality be buying a face cream but their choice is affected by their perception of brand and its inherent promise

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packaging as product differentiator

material selection

material selection is hugely important in packaging design. As we have seen earlier discussions about particular packaging formats, such as bottles and cartons, the product being packaged often determines the choice of materials. the primary consideration at this point is that the product is preserved, protected, transported, displayed and delivered in as hygienic and safe manner as possible. material selection is also important in controlling consumer’s perceptions of a product - both initial perceptions and more considered appraisal. these perceptions can be manipulated through the look of a piece of packaging and through the way the packaging feels in the hand. most people instinctively associate certain attributes- such as quality, elegance, youthfulness, exclusivity and trendiness- with certain looks and sensations.

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finish

the silky smoothness of a piece of packaging or the clever marriage of different types of materials all coalesce into an impression of a product. In a packaging the process of unwrapping the product heightens the consumer’s expectations and suspends the pleasure of buying or receiving it, which can be very correctly termed as experiential design in the packaging in itself. the amount of consideration given to materials is often in proportion to the price point of the product itself. Invariably, the higher up the price curve goes, the greater the attention to the look and feel of the packaging , and the greater the investment in materials. yet materials selection can have such an influence on consumers’ perceptions of a product that choosing the correct material becomes a prerequisite for packaging design.

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colors in food packaging

The food industry utilizes the powerful connection between taste and vision in a variety of ways. Color is used extensively by the retail, marketing and packaging industries in order to convey messages and sensations or trigger associations which encourage the consumer to buy their product.

Color is used to make products more appealing and single them out. it can also promote impulse buying. A basic common color language is used. Color is also used by manufactures to plant specific ideas in our minds about products, for eg. using white, blue and grey packaging to indicate the freshness and purity of the white flour and sugar. Adding red to these colors denotes a powerful product such as bleach. Orange and yellow is used on packaging cereals and vitamins to convey the healthy energy these products are supposed to give .green is used for environmentally friendly or vegetarian products.

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packaging design’s sucess

Packaging design, like all other design disciplines, does not operate in a vacuum. It reflects the aspirations of the brand or the brand owner- such as increased sales, higher profits, greater market share, reduced packaging costs, faster market reactivity, increased distribution, refocused consumer perceptions, or new product introduction. One of the particular strengths of packaging design is that its effectiveness can be measured quite easily in contrast to some other design disciplines. A product's retail pricing, manufacturing , and packaging costs can be adjusted as part of a packaging redesign initiative and the sales results can be analysed to measure increases in profit ratios.

For a huge plethora of product launches, particularly retailers' own products, marketing budgets do not exist and a product's success rests on the effectiveness of the packaging design, and of course the product itself. Packaging design comes into its own in these situations, proving by its success its ability to communicate and engage with consumers, and influence their purchasing decisions. Its a powerful advocate for seeing design as an investment – an investment generating a return, just as new product development generate returns.

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speed of selection

The average consumer looks at the retail display and sees choice, and more choice. She or he sees brand, product, flavor, usage, price and size choice, to name but a few of the selection criteria. Faced with such a plethora of products rational and emotional factors kick in, not to mention the distraction of a partner who thinks shopping is torture not therapy and children who've set their minds on making life hell . these factors kick in fast – the belief is that consumers spend no more than a few seconds initially looking at a product. The human brain's ability to cope with such a melang of images and competing messages sometimes described as “ white noise”, is extraordinary. Much research has been undertaken trying to understand the process consumers go through when looking at a product display and individual products. Suffice to say , “white noise” challenges packaging designers. How do we cut through the visual clutter to achieve distinction? How do we create a visual presence, which attracts consumer's eyes and tempts them to look beyond their familiar visual references- the serials they always buy, the shampoo they feel most comfortable with? How do we present rational reasons to buy- this product will style your hair, making you look good- or emotional reasons-this product will make you feel sexy- in a powerful way… all in a few seconds?

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Packaging 's primary face, the part that is visible on shelf , should engage with consumers, attracting notice, and triggering consideration. Consumers also change their purchasing behavior, depending on which product category they are buying from. Research undertaken a number of years ago identified that consumers buying sun care products can spend upto an hour assessing the products on offer and selecting the right product for their skin type. In other sectors, such as health care, consumers' over the counter purchasing decisions take longer while in categories like dietary products, where consumers are calorie-counting, purchasers often go through a complex process of weighing up need, allowance taste and commitments. Knowing consumers don't have time to interpret complex range hierarchies therefore packaging should have on pack design features that differentiate the role and functions of the product. Packaging can play a role of an assistant in purchase decision for portrayal of product features, benefits, and usage instructions.

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packaging dynamics

Packaging performs its different functions within a myriad different retail sectors and a whole host of retail configurations. At a basic level , however some things do not change. These things may best be best described as packaging dynamics.

Packaging dynamics are important because they reflect consumer's basic needs. They tend to stay constant because consumer's needs stay constant. Faced with a range of products to chose from, consumers either fall back on experience when selecting the right product or are influenced by visual merchandising, sales promotion activity, or packaging design. In this context, product differentiation is important and any packaging design solution must make it easy for consumers to select the right product.

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b r a n d m a n i f e s tat i o n

The packaging becomes a manifestation of the brand itself and, because a brand is more than just the product itself, the packaging becomes a compound of consumer's perception, memories and feelings. In effect, a brand becomes a compound of tangible and intangible values, the latter being formed in consumer's mind. With older brands, consumers' perception may well be ingrained and the task is to make sure that a brand's packaging reflects these perceptions. In the case of younger brands, packaging design can be manipulated to portray the intangible values you want the brand to have. At this stage, it is very important to define these values and communicate them because there will come a point when a subtle shift takes place and a brand's values become what consumers believe them to be – you no longer control them.

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Typography

Products have names, descriptors, uses, benefits, variants, ingredients, components, instructions, safety warnings, customer care information and ownership details. All of these details need to be displayed on the pack in a legible manner to enable consumers to read and understand the information they are looking at. The skill lies in matching typeface selection to function. Initially, the task is to select a typeface that will display on-pack information in an easy-to-read format. Typeface selection is also influenced by other factors. If strong brand differentiation is the order of the day, then typeface can contribute to this process. Typography can also play an important role communicating a brand's positioning. Equally typography is important when considering a brand's personality.

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Information layout and hierarchy

All packaging displays information to a greater or lesser degree. This information can be divided into different types, such as branding, naming, product variant, features and benefits, weight and measures and so on. The order of the day is balance, space, simplicity, and engagement. It is also about the measured relationship between graphic form of the words and their content. Information layout and hierarchy should never lose sight the fact that it serves purpose and it's not just an aesthetic exercise.

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Environmental concerns

Affect manufacturers and retailers alike. These considerations are by no means simple because the whole environment issue is colored by factors like sustain ability, recycling, and recyclable materials. Sustain ability impacts design decisions because it focuses the attention of all parties on the issue relating to a product's manufacture, its raw materials, transportation, retailing, usage and disposal. Recycling affects packaging design because it influences the choice of materials. The role of Packaging designers in the great environment debate will always be influenced by the client, by cost, by individual responsibility, and ultimately by the brief, because the brief encapsulates the commercial imperative behind any design project.

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Ranges and solo products

In simple terms, products can be divided into solua items and ranges. Designing solus items , such as a box of chocolate, is primarily driven by the need to differentiate and sell that product within its particular sector. Designing product ranges adds other layers of complexity to the process. When he range consists of four to five products, this is relatively simple. However, when a range consists of hundreds of products, the task is more complicated.

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Finishes and Effects

Finishes and effects such as foil blocking, varnishes, laminates, debossing and embossing, and die-cutting or laser cutting. Each is udes to manipulate consumer's perceptions or engage their senses so that what they see and feel communicates the right message. Using these devices require a light and discriminating touch. Once again , it comes back to the brief and understanding how using such devices enable the packaging solution to attract, engage, and resonate with consumers.

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Language

Information hierarchy work most effectively when allied to engaging and imaginative language. The words on the pack are very important for many reasons. They can engage with the consumers and by “talking the right language�, reassures the consumer that the product is right for them. With so much emphasis on self selection, consumers need help choosing the right product. Language can also demonstrate the brand's value. It can also differentiate one brand from another and it is vital in competitive environments to use every differentiating factor at one's disposal. words are important to consumers because they contribute to the process of selection and preference, supporting a products unique selling point

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Photography

A significant percentage of the imagery used in packaging is photographic, whether it is color, black-and-white, or duotones. Images are created, to show the product, demonstrate its usage, communicate its benefits, or encapsulate the brand's essence. Photographic imagery also has the ability to differentiate one brand from another. The selection of content, style of photography, cropping of picture, and selection of color or black-and-white reproduction, all contributes to one brand being distinct from another.

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Back-of-pack

Back-of-backs betray the lack of time and care given over them. Their poor design suggests the brand owner's cant concern for the secondary information being displayed and the reader's need. Considerable care and attention is taken over the choice, and weight of typefaces, key lines, colors and icons, to lead consumers to information, and make easy to assimilate, not to mention enjoyable. Packaging design is also concerned with “telling stories� about the brand, and back and side faces can be used to illuminate particular features of the story or reveal different aspects of it.

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Weights, measures and barcodes

All packaging is required to carry some information relating to weights, measures and bar codes, and each country has some agency that administers and “policies� the use of the correct information and symbols. Much of this information is required to protect the consumer and regulate the weights and measures of products. Understanding the legal requirements for information, in particular the requirements relating to the display of certain types of information together on the primary selling face, as well as the restrictions relating to the display of bar codes, as their omission or incorrect use can be costly.

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Materials

Material selection is also important in controlling consumer's perceptions of the product- both initial perceptions and more considered appraisal. These perceptions can be manipulated through the look of the piece of packaging feels in hand. Most people instinctively associate certain attributes –such as quality, elegance, trendiness, youthfulness-with certain looks and sensations. in some cases, the visual tone of a piece of packaging may derive from its use of a substrate like polypropylene, which is typically seen as modern and contemporary. The process of unwrapping the product heightens consumer's expectations and suspends the pleasure of buying or receiving it. The amount of consideration given to materials is often in proportion to the price point of the product itself. Yet material selection can have such an influence on consumer's perceptions f a product that designers should consider it as a prerequisite of all projects.

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chosen food items for food packaging

non-perishables -namkeen (sev) -shakkarpae -biscuit

perishables - bread -jalebi bhajiya

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existing packaging analysis

Non perishables food items are packed in pet bags, which is hot sealed from one side and seamed from another One sticker shows what the content is, its quantity, and its price in Guajarati One sticker carries the logo of prison inc Pet Bag 5/6 inches 20 micron Rs 116/kg 10 paisa/bag Transparent Seamed from one side and sealed from another Eatables are packed in it Advantage Cheap because paper alternative would cost 20 paisa Lighter Product is visible Resistance to mishandling Impermeable to moisture, dust, odor Sterile Disadvantage Not eco friendly No protection from breakage Cannot have a structure Has very less scope of structural form language

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Perishables food items like bhajiya, jalebi,e tc. are packed in newspapers

Newspaper Advantage Cheap No added manufacturing cost Eco friendly Disposable Disadvantage Unhygienic Cannot have a structure Has very less scope of structural form language Vulnerable to environment Cannot bear mishandling Product is not visible littering

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types of papers used for food packaging

Tissues These are lightweight papers with grammages from 12 to 30gm- 2. The lightest tissue for tea and coffee bags which require a strong porous sheet are based on long fibres such as those derived from Manila hemp. The Constanta-type bag with the lowest grammage is folded and stapled. Heat-sealed tea and coffee bags require the inclusion of a heat-sealing fibre, such as polypropylene. Single-portion tea bags have grammages in the range 12–17 gm- 2 but larger bags would require higher grammages.

Glassine This is a supercalendered greaseproof paper. The calendering produces a very dense sheet with a high (smooth and glossy) finish. It is non-porous, greaseproof and can be laminated to paperboard. It may be plasticised with glycerine. It may be embossed, PE coated, aluminium foil laminated, metallised or release-treated with silicone to facilitate product release. It is produced in plain and coloured versions, for example chocolate brown. Grammage range is 30–80 gm- 2.

Sack kraft Usually this is unbleached kraft (90–100% sulphate chemical) pulp, though there is some use of bleached kraft. The grammage range is 70–100 gm- 2. Paper used in wet conditions needs to retain considerable strength, at least 30%, when saturated with water. To achieve wet strength resins such as urea formaldehyde and melamine formaldehyde are added to the stock. These chemicals cross link during drying and are deposited on the surface of the cellulose fibres making them more resistant to water absorption.

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Vegetable parchment Bleached chemical pulp is made into paper conventionally and then passed through a bath of sulphuric acid, which produces partial hydrolysis of the cellulose 22 PAPER AND PAPERBOARD surface of the fibres. Some of the surface cellulose is gelatinised and redeposited between the surface fibres forming an impervious layer closing the pores in the paper structure. The process is stopped by chemical neutralisation and the web is thoroughly washed in water. This paper has high grease resistance and wet strength. It can be used in the deep freeze and in both conventional and microwave ovens. It can be silicone treated for product release. Grammage range is 30–230 gm- 2.

Label paper These may be coated MG (machine glazed) or MF (machine finished – calendered) kraft papers (100% sulphate chemical pulp) in the grammage range 70–90 gm- 2. The paper may be coated on-machine or cast coated for the highest gloss in an offmachine or secondary process. The term ‘finish’ in the paper industry refers to the surface appearance. This may be: • machine finish (MF) – smooth but not glazed • water finish (WF) – where one or both sides are dampened and smoothed to be smoother and glossier than MF • machine glazed (MG) – with high gloss on one side only • supercalendered (SC) – which is dampened and polished off-machine to produce a high gloss on both sides.

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Folding boxboard (FBB) comprises middle layers of mechanical pulp sandwiched between layers of bleached chemical pulp. The top layer of bleached chemical pulp is usually coated with a white mineral pigment coating. The back is cream (manila) in colour. This is because the back layer of bleached chemical pulp is translucent allowing the colour of the middle layers to show through. However, if the mechanical pulp in the middle layers is given a mild chemical treatment, it becomes lighter in colour and this makes the reverse side colour lighter in shade. The back layer may, however, be thicker or coated with a white mineral pigmentcoating, thus becoming a white back folding box board. The combination of inner layers of mechanical pulp and outer layers of bleached chemical pulp creates a paperboard with high stiffness.

White lined chipboard (WLC) WLC comprises middle plies of recycled pulp recovered from mixed papers or carton waste. The middle layers are grey in colour. The top layer, or liner of bleached chemical pulp is usually white mineral pigment coated. The second layer, or under liner may also comprise bleached chemical pulp or mechanical pulp. This product is also known as newsboard or chipboard, though the latter name is more likely to be associated with unlined grades, i.e. no white, or other colour, liner. The reverse side outer layer usually comprises specially selected recycled pulp and is grey in colour. The external appearance may be white by the use of bleached chemical pulp and, possibly, a white mineral pigment coating (white PE has also been used). There are additional grades of unlined chipboard and grades with specially coloured (dyed) liner plies. (WLC with a blue inner liner was used for the packing f cube sugar.)

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Impregnated papers Papers are made for subsequent impregnation off-machine. Such treatment can, for example, be with wax, vapour phase inhibitor for metal packaging and mould inhibitors for soap wrapping. (Mills have ceased to impregnate these products on-maching for technical and commercial reasons.)

Solid unbleached board (SUB) is made exclusively from unbleached chemical pulp. The base board is brown in colour. This product is also known as solid unbleached sulphate. To achieve a white surface, it can be coated with a white mineral pigment coating, sometimes in combination with a layer of bleached white fibres under the coating. SUB is used where there is a high strength requirement in terms of puncture and tear resistance and/or good wet strength is required such as for bottle or can multipacks and as a base for liquid packaging.

Greaseproof The hydration (refining) of fibres at the stock-preparation stage, already described, is taken much further than normal. Hydration can also be carried out as a batch process in a beater. The fibres are treated (hydrated) so that they become almost gelatinous. Grammage range is 30–70 gm- 2.

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Laminating papers Coated and uncoated papers based on both kraft (sulphate) and sulphite pulps can be laminated to aluminium foil and extrusion coated with PE. The heavier weights can be PE laminated to plastic films and wax or glue laminated to unlined chipboard. The grammage range is 40–80 gm- 2.

Solid bleached board (SBB) is made exclusively from bleached chemical pulp. It usually has a mineral pigment coated top surface and some grades are also coated on the back. The term ‘solid bleached sulphate’ (SBS), derived from the method of pulp production, is sometimes used to describe this productThis paperboard has an excellent surface and printing characteristics. It gives wide scope for innovative structural designs and can be embossed, cut, creased, folded and glued with ease. This is a pure cellulose primary (virgin) paperboard with consistent purity for food product safety, making it the best choice for the packaging of aroma and flavour sensitive products. Examples of use include chocolate packaging, frozen, chilled and reheatable products, tea, coffee, liquid packaging and non-foods such as cigarettes, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Bag papers ‘Imitation kraft’ is a term on which there is no universally agreed definition, it can be either a blend of kraft with recycled fibre or 100% recycled. It is usually dyed brown. It has many uses for wrapping and for bags where it may have an MG and a ribbed finish. Thinner grades may be used for lamination with aluminum foil and PE for use on form, fill, seal machines. For sugar or flour bags, coated or uncoated bleached kraft in the range 90–100 gm- 2 is used.

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sketches

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some concepts for packaging

same packaging could be used for bread, bicuit and jalebi packaging The idea bellow packaging is that u can push the pack down keep the food items inside and then lift the pack up. so the packaging behaves like a bellow

ths packaging is for bread the bread can simply be wrapped into the paper and can be taken away by just holding it from the handle.

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Packaging for bread This particular packaging shows the food i.e. bread. Bread loaf is placed into the box and then wrapped with the cellophane paper. The pack can be taken away by carrying it with the string attached to it.

Packaging for bhajiya in this packaging bhaijyas and onion rings are kept separately, so that both the things don't mix up and bhaiyas getting the smell of onions. this box is then placed into the paper bag. This bag can be carried away with the string attached to it.

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Packaging for bread This particular packaging shows the food i.e. bread. Bread loaf is placed into the box and then wrapped with the cellophane paper. The pack can be taken away by carrying it with the string attached to it.

Packaging for bread This particular packaging shows the food i.e. bread. Bread loaf is placed into the box and then wrapped with the cellophane paper. The pack can be taken away by carrying it with the string attached to it.

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Packaging for sev This particular packaging is like the carry bag itself. Sev as a food item does not need any structural strength because it does not break. So the sev packets can be place int the bag and given away.

Packaging for shakkarpare This particular packaging is like the milk cartons. Shakkarpare are very prone to breaking down, that’s why this pack made of box board will help keep away the pressure and keep the shakkarpares intact.

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final concepts

Biscuit

develpoment dimensions in centimeters

Prison Inc makes variety of biscuits and mainly sell them in 200g packs The biscuits will be rolled into a PET paper and then will be put into corrugated paper cylinder. this cylinder would be closed from both the sides using circular disks of the same paper. This packing gives strength to the structure and biscuits would break less in number. To make this packing one hardly needs any skill and hard work. packaging for 200g

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Sev

develpoment dimensions in centimeters

Prison Inc makes sev and sell them in 200g packs The sev will be packed into a PET bags. then a strip of brown paper, dsplaying all the information about the namkeen is pasted over it. Because sev does not need and structural strength the sev can be packed into PET bags and sored.

packaging for 200g

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Shakkarpare

develpoment dimensions in centimeters

Prison Inc sells shakkarpare in the packs of 200 g Shakkarpare tend to break if not handled properly. The suggested packaging is made from thick brown paper. pack of shakkarpare is put into the bag and stitched from above . The bag gives strength to he otherwise fragile structure and does not let he food item break.

packaging for 200g

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Bhajiyat

develpoment dimensions in centimeters

Prison Inc makes bhajiya, and sells it on per plate basis. Very plate has 100g of bhaijya Bhaijiya is eaten on the spot and many a times taken away as well. Therefore, the packaging has been made very simple. Bhajiyas are served with onion rings and chillies. The brown paper box has two compartments. The small partition is meant for keeping the onion rings and chillies and is covered with lid, whereas, bhajiyas are kept outside. this whole pack then will be cling wrapped. There are compartments so as to avoid bhaijiyas mixing up with the onions and chillies.

packaging for 100g

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Bhajiya

develpoment dimensions in centimeters

Prison Inc sells 200g pack of bread on its store. The proposed packaging comes in line with the packaging of other products in line. Bread loaf is placed into the corrugated box and then cling wrapped. the corrugated box gives structure to the bread packaging. and then without using another poly ethylene bag the bread can be carried with the string attached to it. packaging for 200g

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jalebi

develpoment dimensions in centimeters

Prison Inc sells jalebi on its store. The proposed packaging comes in line with the packaging of other products in line. Every time jalebis are eaten, the syrup drips from them; because the extra syrup in them settles at the bottom. The packaging proposes to give a drip tray made of hard brown paper inside the paper box for the jalebis. The extra syrup would drip into the tray and would make the eating of jalebis less messy. packaging for 200g

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table Top Accessories

coasters and coaster holder

salt and pepper shaker

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Photoframe in which two pictures an be put at the same time on either side of the frame.

Table Lamp

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Tooth-pick Holder

Card Holder and Pins Holder

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bibliography

www.wikiepedia.org www.ahmedabadmirror.com www.images.google.co.in www.expressindi.com Mr. Keshav Kumar Inspector General of Gujarat Prisons Mr. P N Belsare Industrial Superintendent Mr. A S Parmar Industrial Jailor what is Packaging (book)

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