Gustavo Dudamel Residency Program

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Dear Friends, Welcome to Princeton University Concerts! Thank you for joining us as we mark our 125th anniversary 2018-19 season in a year-long musical party, celebrating both our historic past and our exciting future. Our “guest of honor,” Artistin-Residence Maestro Gustavo Dudamel, is the perfect embodiment of this celebration—I can think of no one better poised to propel the great traditions of live classical music forward in a vibrant, socially-relevant, and powerful way. The residency that Maestro Dudamel has crafted is a true testament to music’s capacity to bring people together and to serve as a platform for individual, societal, and world change. I very much hope that we, as a series and as a community, will continue to honor and realize this capacity for the next 125 years and beyond. Warmly,

Marna Seltzer Director of Princeton University Concerts

On the cover: Carlos Cruz-Diez, Induction Chromatique à double fréquence Ire, Paris, 2011, Chromography on aluminum, 100 x 300 cm, Cruz-Diez Art Foundation Collection




Welcome by Gustavo Dudamel


On the Art of Change by Darren Walker


Program: Saturday, December 1, 2018


Program: Sunday, December 2, 2018


About the Program, December 2, 2018


Art and Faith by Wendy Heller


Program: Monday, January 7, 2019


About the Program, January 7, 2019


Art and Nature by Gavin Steingo


Program: Tuesday, April 23, 2019


About the Program, April 23, 2019


Here and Now, Above and Beyond: Music, Society, and Politics by Simon Morrison


Looking to the Future


Message from the Chair of the Department of Music


Program: Friday and Saturday, April 26–27, 2019


About the Program, April 26–27, 2019


It’s Just Like the Water: A Lyric Essay on Art and Faith by Crystal Liu ’19


2019/20 Princeton University Concerts Season Announcement


Complete 2018/19 Dudamel Residency Schedule


Culture, Creativity, Connection, Contemplation: A Reporter’s Journal by Jamie Saxon


About Gustavo Dudamel


About the Participants


History of Structuring a Discourse on Color by Carlos Cruz-Diez


Celebrating 125 Years by Scott Burnham


Our Supporters and Donors

Exploring the intersection of the Arts and Social Change, Faith, Nature, and Politics


April 2019 Dear Friends, Art is the education of the soul. It unlocks the imagination, encourages creative risk and exploratory self-expression. It embodies the skills and values that will define our future. That is why I care deeply about ensuring that the greatest expressions of our humanity are passed along to our next generations and encouraging young people to discover the potential of their own creative capacities. As Artist-in-Residence of Princeton University Concerts’ 125th season, it has been an honor for me to engage with the brilliant, committed, curious, and diverse Princeton community and to help “PUC” celebrate such a landmark anniversary. Through this year, we have connected disciplines, experiences, and communities with music. We have learned from and inspired one another. We have heard artists from some of the world’s finest orchestras interpret music related to the issues of our times; we have discussed the philosophy of Rousseau and the socio-cultural roots of the musician known as Pitbull; we have analyzed Verdi’s operas and compared their harmonies to the undulating ripples of the Big Bang; and we have built lasting bridges between Princeton’s brightest musical talents and the spirited young people of the Tri-state region. I am particularly delighted to have worked with the Princeton University Orchestra and Glee Club on a musical program inspired by the passion and wisdom of youth, and to have welcomed to Princeton young musicians from leading social-musical projects across the country. In cooperation with my Dudamel Foundation, we continue working with our PUC friends to ensure lasting access to great music for the dedicated educators and children of music programs in Trenton. My gratitude to all our distinguished academic and creative contributors who have made this experience so memorable; to the members of my extended “musical families” at the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, and the Berlin Philharmonic, who share a thirst for artistic excellence and a commitment to the values of quality education; and to my dear friend, Alberto Arvelo, for providing the beautiful visual installations for our A Midsummer Night’s Dream performance in Trenton. And last but not least, I wish to thank Marna Seltzer and her remarkable team for being such extraordinary hosts and for all they have done to make this dream come true. Together, we have reaffirmed how music transcends disciplines, empowers, inspires, and acts as a catalyst for deeper human understanding and social transformation. Music enriches our experience of the world, and in the spirit of Princeton’s motto, moves us to our highest aspirations “in the service of humanity.” It has been my honor and pleasure sharing this journey with you. With love,

Gustavo Dudamel

On the Art of Change

On the Art of Change By Darren Walker © 2015 For as long as I can remember, the arts have imbued energy and meaning into my life. As a small child in a little Southeast Texas town, I pored over the glossy pages of art magazines that my grandmother, a domestic, brought me from the homes of the wealthy families for whom she worked. Page after page, hour after hour, my mind visited worlds from which I otherwise would have been excluded. In many ways, because of the arts, my economic situation never limited my expectations for myself. The arts broadened my horizons — my very sense of the possible. As a student at the University of Texas at Austin, I first saw the Dance Theatre of Harlem, and everything clicked. My life was changed forever. As a young professional in New York City in the 1980s, I fell in love with the city’s museums and galleries and treasured institutions, the likes of which I had never experienced before. I found a passion for the performing arts — for Alvin Ailey and others — and for the theater, documentary film, and the writers of Harlem, especially Langston Hughes and James Baldwin. It was Baldwin — a Ford Foundation grantee — who wrote, “The artist cannot and must not take anything for granted, but must drive to the heart of every answer and expose the question the answer hides.” To me this rang true, because I was insatiably curious about the world, and in art I found meaning. This was at a time, by the way, when I fell in love with an art dealer — and was introduced to a new world of artists, collectors, curators, and critics. As a result of all this, I am a fervent believer in the transformational, uplifting power of artistic expression. In fact, I am a product of it. I ardently believe I would not be the president of the Ford Foundation if not for my exposure to the arts. And, in turn, throughout my two-decade career in philanthropy, I have advocated for creative visionaries. I have sought new ways to support them and to amplify voices of those artists around the globe who are not being heard. AN UNDERLYING CRISIS: OUR MENTALITY OF INSTRUMENTALITY And yet, given the importance of art and culture in my life and in society, I have noticed a troubling trend during the last few years.

We all know how repressive regimes stifle creativity and persecute artists who rouse public sentiment for the sake of public good. But even where artists do enjoy freedom of expression, artists and art institutions are forced to justify their contributions in economic terms alone. Their relevance — their very existence — is often defended with studies and statistics. All of this reflects a larger trend, of course: Our culture has bought into the idea that if something cannot be measured, then it somehow does not matter. No doubt, it is not easy to quantify the so-called impact of a musician, dancer, painter, or filmmaker — let alone a graffitist or video-game coder. In my eyes, though, this is no excuse for only supporting those things that deliver immediately quantifiable returns. SHORT TERM-ISM IS THE ENEMY OF ART This is a problem not limited to art and artists. It reveals and reinforces a societal illness — a perversion and distortion. With increasing regularity, we prioritize short-term gain over long-term good. This kind of short-termism has infected so many dimensions of our lives. Education. Health care. Development. Business. Government. It has disrupted the way our society makes decisions. Take an example from our own recent experience: helping the city of Detroit, Michigan, to navigate its unprecedented bankruptcy without losing its soul or the Detroit Institute of Arts, whose collection was owned by the people. At the Ford Foundation, we watched as billionaires circled above the city, waiting to strip down and sell off the museum and its masterpieces. Such “asset monetization” may have made sense in the short term. In the longer term, however, it was unacceptable. These potential buyers simply were not invested in the Detroit of 2020, of 2030, of 2050 — let alone in the people who live there now. The Grand Bargain that emerged — which we were proud to support — preserved the pensions of hard-working citizens and a cultural institution that will be treasured for generations to follow. It is precisely this focus on the next decade — on the next century — that must animate our thinking and working. | 5

On the Art of Change

ECONOMIES OF EMPATHY The good news is we can change our pervasive shortsighted outlook. We can prioritize long-term investments in community and in culture. And the arts? The arts are an indispensable ingredient in the recipe for progress and change. Apart from generating economic value, the arts and culture create economies of empathy. And because of that, we have seen them play an integral part in building a wide range of social movements, from the civil rights movement to the Arab Spring. Artists challenge the status quo and give voice to those left out and left behind. Artists imagine a better world and inspire others to join in building it. They move us to hope, joy, compassion, resolve, and ultimately action.

This role of arts and culture is not an add-on to our other work to improve lives. Rather, it is part and parcel — it is central, really — to changing beliefs and behaviors. WHY THE ARTS ARE AT THE HEART OF OUR MISSION Today, our reliance on and reverence for short-term, marketbased justifications reveals a profound imbalance in the way our society is organized — an inequality of the highest order. For some of us, less access to art means our shared insights are shallower, our collective creativity is duller, and our lives are just more boring. Plain and simple. For those among us who struggle the most, however, the stakes are significantly higher. When people in the 21st century’s equivalent of my childhood town — all around the world — are denied an opportunity to connect with art, their imaginations are starved of the fuel to fully fire. Their horizons are pulled in and closed off. Their dreams are curtailed, and senses of possibility diminished. Their social movements are deterred and derailed. We cannot allow this to continue. We owe ourselves better. We still can be a society that celebrates art — that, literally, treasures creative expression. And we must continue working to translate this aspiration into action. Twenty-some months into my presidency at the Ford Foundation, I hear friends and colleagues asking, “Where does the foundation stand on arts and culture today?”

Betsayda Machado, the voice of Venezuela, and her band kick off the residency.

THE ART OF CHANGE Because our work at the Ford Foundation is rooted in building social justice movements, my colleagues and I are devoted to a process of rediscovery — exploring how the arts and creativity can intersect with, interact with, and inspire all of our work for social change. As a step of this process, we have invited a number of cultural visionaries to join us as fellows — to prompt and inform our own thinking. Their work will challenge us to reimagine ways the arts can help solve social problems. We work on complex issues, but we have seen, time and again, how the arts can play a role in stirring our passions and awakening our creativity and empathy.

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My answer is that, for us, they remain right where they belong — at the heart of everything we think about, invest in, and stand for. Simply put, less art leads to more inequality. More inequality leads to less justice. And this is not something with which any of us should be comfortable. Darren Walker is President of the Ford Foundation. Gustavo Dudamel is a 2018 Ford Foundation “Art of Change” Fellow. This essay is adapted from an address delivered at the Skoll World Forum on April 17, 2015.


Saturday, December 1, 2018, 8:00PM | Richardson Auditorium, Alexander Hall

Art, Education, and Social Change in Latin America: A Public Conversation GUSTAVO DUDAMEL DON MICHAEL RANDEL BRIEF PAUSE


“Aguinaldos, Parrandas y Gaitas” is a sixty-minute celebration of Venezuelan holiday music that brings families best wishes for the year to come. The repertory resembles a trip through different regions and songs of Venezuela, bringing audiences to small villages and cities famous for their music. First Act: Aguinaldos A tribute to Simón Díaz, Vicente Emilio Sojo, and María Rodriguez, legends of folk music and pioneering stars of the caroling tradition of Venezuelan Aguinaldos, this part of the program offers three different takes on the genre from Cumaná, Los Llanos, and Guatire. Second Act: Parrandas Parrandas from Caracas, Barlovento, and the Andean region are celebratory in nature and are often set for parading musicians, reflecting on the happy notes of the year and positive wishes for the year to come. Closure: Gaitas A quite festive and danceable genre, widely common in the far west of Venezuela, particularly the state of Zulia, Gaitas are a must for December in Venezuela and in this segment two variants are explored: Gaita de tambora and Gaita de furro. | 7


Sunday, December 2, 2018, 2:00PM | Richardson Auditorium, Alexander Hall

Musical Preview at 1:00PM by students from the Boston String Academy, an El Sistema-inspired program

QUARTET 212 Musicians from the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra David Chan, Violin | Catherine Ro, Violin | Dov Scheindlin, Viola | Rafael Figueroa, Cello with Emily D’Angelo, Mezzo-soprano

FRANZ JOSEPH HAYDN (1732–1809) String Quartet No. 41 in D Major, Op. 50, No. 6 (“The Frog”) Allegro Poco adagio Minuet: Allegretto—Trio Finale: Allegro con spirito

OTTORINO RESPIGHI (1879–1936) “Il Tramonto” (“The Sunset”) for Mezzo-soprano and String Quartet


DONNACHA DENNEHY (b. 1970) Strange Folk (World Premiere)

GIUSEPPE VERDI (1813–1901) String Quartet in E Minor Allegro Andantino Prestissimo Scherzo fuga: Allegro assai mosso

This concert is followed by a discussion between Gustavo Dudamel and Deborah Borda, President and CEO of the New York Philharmonic.

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About the Program, December 2, 2018

About the Program, December 2, 2018 By Peter Laki © 2018 FRANZ JOSEPH HAYDN (1732–1809) String Quartet No. 41 in D Major, Op. 50, No. 6 (“The Frog”)

tonal adventures and moments of suspense. The end of the recapitulation modulates from D minor to a tender D major.

Haydn’s fifty-eight mature string quartets are unparalleled for their enormous variety in form and texture, achieved within a fixed and unchanging structural framework. Invariably cast in four movements that adhere to a limited number of formal types (sonata, ternary form, variation, rondo), no two realizations of those types are ever exactly alike. Unique solutions and surprising turns appear on every page.

The most striking features of the minuet are the perky dotted figures that appear both as long-short and short-long, while the Finale—in addition to the above-mentioned “frog-like” bariolage—brings more virtuosic passages for the first violin (reaching some unusually high notes). The “frogs” become particularly active during the development section, as well as in the concluding coda, where they finally quiet down.

The quartets of Op. 50—the fifth of Haydn’s nine completed sets of six—show the composer, at age 55, at the height of his creative powers. They are known as the “Prussian” quartets, because they were dedicated to Frederick William II, King of Prussia (1786–97). Since the King was an avid cello player, some of the quartets contain prominent cello solos, at a time when the cellist in a quartet rarely had to do more than provide harmonic support for the group. The D-major quartet, too, features a few special moments for the cello, but the listener’s attention will be more frequently drawn to the virtuosic passages of the first violin. In fact, the nickname by which many people know this piece (“The Frog”) comes from a particular string technique with which the first violinist begins the last movement (the other players follow suit but do not use the device as often as does the leader). The technique, known as bariolage, involves a rapid alternation of strings, in this case made even more special by the fact that the violinist plays the same pitch on two alternating strings: once as an open string, and once using a finger of the left hand (“unison bariolage”). It was the resulting unusual sound effect that reminded some early commentators of the croaking of the frog—the moniker is certainly not by Haydn himself.

Among the peculiarities of this quartet, not least is the fact that all four movements end softly. Instead of increasing the excitement to a high point, Haydn opted each time for understatement and a gentle smile.

Fundamentally a brilliant and sunny composition, “The Frog” surprises, above all, by the way the sun can suddenly disappear behind a passing cloud, to re-emerge a moment later in all its original brightness. Haydn accomplishes this by way of abrupt modulations, interruptions in the constant flow of sixteenth notes, or—as in the middle section of the minuet—general rests where the music comes to a complete halt. In addition, the first movement has a central development section that is longer than usual, allowing for a large number of darker tonal detours and texture changes. The second movement, Poco adagio, is a melancholy, lavishly ornamented instrumental song in D minor. Somewhat unusually for a slow movement, it follows sonata form as does the first movement. As a result, there is room for more

OTTORINO RESPIGHI (1879–1936) “Il Tramonto” (“The Sunset”) for Mezzo-soprano and String Quartet English Romantic poetry enjoyed great popularity in Italy at the turn of the 19th century. Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822), who had died in a tragic sailing accident off the Italian coast, was particularly loved by the peninsula’s literati, especially after a new translation of his poems by Roberto Ascoli had come out in 1905. Ottorino Respighi felt so close to Shelley that he based three major works on his poems: two, “Aretusa“ (1911) and “La Sensitiva” (1914–15) for solo voice and orchestra, and “Il Tramonto” (1914) for voice and string quartet. In “The Sunset,” Shelley told of the incomprehensible tragedy of a young man dying next to his lady after a night of love and of the woman’s silent grief as she yearns for peace in the grave. Our knowledge about Shelley’s own senseless death at the age of 30 adds an additional element of poignancy to the poem; the poet’s fate couldn’t have been far from Respighi’s mind when he composed his deeply introspective and yet dramatically expressive elegy. With simple vocal lines set over exquisite, frequently modulating harmonies, this soulful lament exudes great tranquility and shows considerable restraint even at the most tragic moment. Thematic unity and homogeneity of texture were the highest priorities to Respighi, who chose to avoid major musical contrasts between the love scene and the subsequent narrative of mourning. Happiness and despair are both experienced calmly: the music portrays human beings who live and die in harmony with a higher truth which we all have to accept. | 9

About the Program, December 2, 2018

IL TRAMONTO Roberto Ascoli, after Percy Bysshe Shelley

THE SUNSET By Percy Bysshe Shelley

Già v’ebbe un uomo, nel cui tenue spirto (qual luce e vento in delicata nube che ardente ciel di mezzo-giorno stempri) la morte e il genio contendeano. Oh! quanta tenera gioia, che gli fè il respiro venir meno (così dell’aura estiva l’ansia talvolta) quando la sua dama, che allor solo conobbe l’abbandono pieno e il concorde palpitar di due creature che s’amano, egli addusse pei sentieri d’un campo, ad oriente da una foresta biancheggiante ombrato ed a ponente discoverto al cielo! Ora è sommerso il sole; ma linee d’oro pendon sovra le cineree nubi, sul verde piano sui tremanti fiori sui grigi globi dell’ antico smirnio, e i neri boschi avvolgono, del vespro mescolandosi alle ombre. Lenta sorge ad oriente l’infocata luna tra i folti rami delle piante cupe: brillan sul capo languide le stelle. E il giovine sussura: “Non è strano? Io mai non vidi il sorgere del sole, o Isabella. Domani a contemplarlo verremo insieme.”

There late was One within whose subtle being, As light and wind within some delicate cloud That fades amid the blue noon’s burning sky, Genius and death contended. None may know The sweetness of the joy which made his breath Fail, like the trances of the summer air, When, with the Lady of his love, who then First knew the unreserve of mingled being, He walked along the pathway of a field Which to the east a hoar wood shadowed o’er, But to the west was open to the sky. There now the sun had sunk, but lines of gold Hung on the ashen clouds, and on the points Of the far level grass and nodding flowers And the old dandelion’s hoary beard, And, mingled with the shades of twilight, lay On the brown massy woods—and in the east The broad and burning moon lingeringly rose Between the black trunks of the crowded trees, While the faint stars were gathering overhead.— ‘Is it not strange, Isabel,’ said the youth, ‘I never saw the sun? We will walk here To-morrow; thou shalt look on it with me.’

Il giovin e la dama giacquer tra il sonno e il dolce amor congiunti ne la notte: al mattin gelido e morto ella trovò l’amante. Oh! nessun creda che, vibrando tal colpo, fu il Signore misericorde. Non morì la dama, né folle diventò: anno per anno visse ancora. Ma io penso che la queta sua pazienza, e i trepidi sorrisi, e il non morir... ma vivere a custodia del vecchio padre (se è follia dal mondo dissimigliare) fossero follia. Era, null’altro che a vederla, come leggere un canto da ingegnoso bardo intessuto a piegar gelidi cuori in un dolor pensoso. Neri gli occhi ma non fulgidi più; consunte quasi le ciglia dalle lagrime; le labbra e le gote parevan cose morte tanto eran bianche; ed esili le mani e per le erranti vene e le giunture rossa del giorno trasparia la luce. La nuda tomba, che il tuo fral racchiude, cui notte e giorno un’ombra tormentata abita, è quanto di te resta, o cara creatura perduta!

That night the youth and lady mingled lay In love and sleep—but when the morning came The lady found her lover dead and cold. Let none believe that God in mercy gave That stroke. The lady died not, nor grew wild, But year by year lived on—in truth I think Her gentleness and patience and sad smiles, And that she did not die, but lived to tend Her aged father, were a kind of madness, If madness ’tis to be unlike the world. For but to see her were to read the tale Woven by some subtlest bard, to make hard hearts Dissolve away in wisdom-working grief;— Her eyes were black and lustreless and wan: Her eyelashes were worn away with tears, Her lips and cheeks were like things dead—so pale; Her hands were thin, and through their wandering veins And weak articulations might be seen Day’s ruddy light. The tomb of thy dead self Which one vexed ghost inhabits, night and day, Is all, lost child, that now remains of thee!

“Ho tal retaggio, che la terra non dà: calma e silenzio, senza peccato e senza passione. Sia che i morti ritrovino (non mai il sonno!) ma il riposo, imperturbati quali appaion, o vivano, o d’amore nel mar profondo scendano; oh! che il mio epitaffio, che il tuo sia: Pace!” Questo dalle sue labbra l’unico lamento.

‘Inheritor of more than earth can give, Passionless calm and silence unreproved, Where the dead find, oh, not sleep! but rest, And are the uncomplaining things they seem, Or live, a drop in the deep sea of Love; Oh, that like thine, mine epitaph were—Peace!’ This was the only moan she ever made.

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About the Program, December 2, 2018

DONNACHA DENNEHY (b.1970) Strange Folk (World Premiere) Note by Donnacha Dennehy ©2018 Written for the Dudamel Residency marking the 125th anniversary of Princeton University Concerts, Strange Folk abounds in open fifths, gutsy double-stops, cross-relations, and cross-rhythms. It’s like someone from way off imagining a weird folk culture somewhere else. I was thinking a little of the incredible fascination that we had for all things American when I was a kid growing up in Dublin. This may have influenced the sound of it.

GIUSEPPE VERDI (1813–1901) String Quartet in E Minor Verdi’s only major piece of instrumental chamber music owes its existence to the fact that the composer happened to have some extra time on his hands in Naples. The production of his opera Aida was being delayed due to the illness of the leading lady, and Verdi, forced to wait for a couple of weeks in his hotel room, decided to show what an Italian could do with a genre considered quintessentially “Germanic.” While chamber music was not cultivated to any great extent in 19th-century Italy, Verdi was intimately familiar with the quartets of Haydn and Beethoven. Having thoroughly absorbed all aspects of that illustrious tradition, he combined the glorious melodies one would expect from the great opera composer with a perfect mastery of quartet writing. The opening Allegro offers a surfeit of striking themes—a few more than traditional sonata form would require. Scored in a technically demanding way, the music provides continuous

excitement and a great many surprising moments. The second movement, Andantino, is based on a simple melody suggesting a lighthearted serenade, but the harmonic development is quite sophisticated and contains some rather dramatic episodes. The third movement is a scherzo in Prestissimo tempo. The main section is sparkling and vivacious, with a more lyrical Trio where the cello sings a glorious, broad melody that would not be out of place in one of Verdi’s operas. The main section is then repeated, as dictated by tradition. After this movement in scherzo form, the fugue that ends the quartet actually carries the word “scherzo” in its title. This “scherzo-fugue,” as many commentators have pointed out, anticipates the great fugue that concludes Falstaff, Verdi’s last opera, written twenty years after the quartet. Just as in the opera, where the fugue is sung to the words Tutto nel mondo è burla (“Everything in the world is a jest”), in the quartet, too, contrapuntal writing is associated with hilarity. The fugue theme is extremely agile so that it creates a truly comical effect when the four imitating voices carry it in four different directions at the same time. Yet the music becomes even humorous when the counterpoint stops. Underneath a long-sustained note of the first violin, the second violin and viola play halting, fragmented phrases; finally, the fugue turns into a single mad rush as all four instruments play in the same rhythm and in a faster tempo, bringing the quartet to its brilliant conclusion. Peter Laki, a native of Budapest, Hungary, graduated from the Franz Liszt Academy of Music in 1979 and received a Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1989. Since 2007, he has served as a visiting associate professor at Bard College. Dr. Laki writes program notes for many orchestras and performing arts organizations around the country.

“Maestro Dudamel made a deep impression on me when he said, ‘What is worse than being poor is to be no one. Music is so powerful because it provides people with an identity and a dignity.’ ” —Kevin Zhang ’19 Gustavo Dudamel discusses Poverty, the Arts, and Civic Engagement at the Princeton University Center for Human Values with Professors Melissa Lane and Patricia FernándezKelly, and Senior Research Assistant Ekédi Mpondo-Dika. (Left to Right) | 11

Art & Faith

Art and Faith By Professor Wendy Heller © 2018 “Let everything that has breath praise the Lord. Hallelujah!” ­ —Psalm 150 According to the ancients, the panpipes were invented when the great goat god Pan, breathing into the river reeds that had once been the body of Syrinx, the nymph he so desired, caused them to vibrate with his sighs. The sound of those sighs entered artistic expression. The performer makes small adjustments as air flows into her body, filling her lungs. Her exhalation might be merely a soft moan, part of the language of lament with which we are all naturally endowed; with a bit more intensity it is transformed into a cry, a word, a tone, a song. Unlike food, water, or air, the production of sound is not essential to human survival, excluding, perhaps, babies who rely upon the surprising power of their tiny vocal apparatuses to receive the breast or the bottle. But the instinct that compels us to make more complicated noises to communicate with those around us is perhaps the most salient element

Maestro Dudamel talks with Professors Elaine Pagels and Alexander Nehamas about the intersection of Art and Faith.

of being human. How miraculous it must have been when we first discovered the powerful music we can make when joining voices in spiritual communion to express our beliefs, desires, and passions. This miracle inspired the invention of new instruments that made it possible to surpass the range of the voice, to find new modes of expression, and to omit language altogether in favor of a different kind of syntax. I begin with this brief meditation on the humanity of breath, sound, and song to underscore the inherent magic and mystery not only of music but all art; everything we know

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about biology tells us that it is not essential for the survival of our species, and yet our species seems unable to survive without it. We might think of art as an ornament—a trill, a turn, a burst of coloratura that embellishes the melody of a life; or we might prefer to see it as the melody itself—the thread that connects us to each other and to our innermost selves. That art exists at all would seem to be evidence of something beyond that which we can see and feel; and while we may never agree about what that might be, our confidence in its existence might best be described as faith. History abounds with instances in which art and faith are intimately intertwined. Visually, this is apparent in masterpieces such as Saint Mark’s Basilica in Venice, whose domes, gold mosaics, and images of the saints are imbued with the divine. Aurally, the urge to chant rather than speak—to use breath in the sustaining of tone to inflect prayers with extra layers of meaning and to do so within a collective­—knows no particular time and place. We might travel back in time to medieval or early modern convents and monasteries, where the singing of the Divine Office was integral to the rhythm of the day, marking the progress of the earth’s daily rotation. From the perspective of the earsplitting twenty-first century, we struggle to imagine a pre-industrial world in which the organ was second in volume only to thunder or the tolling of church bells, a time when the Islamic call to prayer might be heard without loudspeakers that today permit this most soulful cry to be heard above the traffic in a modern city such as Istanbul. The border between the sacred and the profane has also been the site of frequent skirmishes, driven by the persistent fear that the divine might be contaminated by the worldly. For some, the representation of the divine in painting, sculpture, or fresco is the ultimate expression of devotion; for others, the second commandment’s admonition against graven images would forbid this kind of artistic expression. The boundaries in music are less clear. What happens when the sensual surface of music is too seductive, when the elements that are intended to evoke the spiritual realm in the listener seem too closely associated with earthly pleasures? “Let everything that has breath praise the Lord. Hallelujah!” declaims the psalmist, who calls upon us to praise God with horns, psalteries, harps, lyres, stringed instruments, timbrels, and even dancing. But following this simple biblical imperative was never straightforward. Such joyful celebrations, for instance, were deemed inappropriate for traditional Jewish prayer for a people still in mourning after the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in

Art & Faith

70 CE. It was anxieties about music’s seductive power that for centuries kept women from singing in church, unless, as cloistered nuns, they were hidden behind the screen. Indeed, for many church authorities the problem was singers, who by incorrectly pronouncing words, singing chant with too little variation or too much freedom, taking excessive pleasure in virtuosic display of their voices or complex polyphony, did not merely err but in fact were committing sins. Composers, too, could veer into dangerous territory. Was it a good or bad thing that the duet between Jesus and the Soul in Bach’s cantata Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme borrowed from the musical language of the operatic love duet? What happens when works such as Handel’s Messiah or Verdi’s Requiem are heard in the theater rather than church? What happens when one ritual replaces another, and music becomes less a part of a devotional practice than a spiritual experience?

it may be the ritual of the concert that invokes something of the divine, that transports us from the material world into the spiritual realm. Indeed, it is not surprising that Mozart’s A-Major clarinet quintet—secular chamber music to be sure—invokes a sense of the infinite, for there is something about the contrast between the strings, the instrument of Apollo, and the clarinet, a reed instrument much like the Pan’s pipe, that embodies the power of music so extolled by the ancients. We thus end where we began—with a breath. Whether the spirituality is expressed overtly, as in Arvo Pärt’s captured echoes and tintinambulations, in Mozart’s soaring clarinet melody, or in Juri Seo’s journey to recover the lost song of the Kaua‘i ‘ō‘ō bird, it is music that brings us together as one, to breathe, reflect, and exult, affirming the best that is in us all.

We experience music in the concert hall, in private meditation, in elevators, stores, or at the gym, and through wireless earbuds that provide soundtracks for our tedious commutes; occasionally we might sing or play ourselves, but it is no longer necessary to make music in order to hear it. Music is everywhere; and yet for those of us who are passionate about the arts, the danger may not be that music has become too powerful but rather that it has lost some of its sway. For us,

Wendy Heller, Scheide Professor of Music History, is Chair of the Department of Music at Princeton University and also serves as Director of the Program in Italian Studies. Recognized as one of the leading scholars in the field of Baroque music, Heller has specialized in the study of 17th- and 18th-century opera from interdisciplinary perspectives, with special emphasis on gender and sexuality, art history, Italian literature, dance history, and the classical tradition.

“To be in the company of someone devoted to sharing goodness and compassion through music is life affirming; To hear that music and to experience its power, to expand consciousness and arouse the heart, is a spiritual experience. Thank you, maestro, for your head, heart, and spirit.” — Charles Leighton, Patron | 13


Monday, January 7, 2019, 7:00PM | Richardson Auditorium, Alexander Hall Musical Preview at 6:00PM by students from Youth Orchestra Los Angeles (“YOLA”), an El Sistema-inspired program

MUSICIANS FROM THE LOS ANGELES PHILHARMONIC Bing Wang, Violin | Rebecca Reale, Violin | Teng Li, Viola | Ben Hong, Cello Boris Allakhverdyan, Clarinet with Juri Seo, Piano

ARVO PÄRT (b. 1935) Spiegel im Spiegel for Clarinet and Piano JURI SEO (b. 1981) Lost Songs for String Quartet and Clarinet (World Premiere) ARVO PÄRT Fratres for String Quartet


WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART (1756–1791) Quintet in A Major for Clarinet and Strings, K. 581 Allegro Larghetto Menuetto Allegretto con Variazioni

This concert is followed by a discussion about Art and Faith hosted by Gustavo Dudamel, with Professors Alexander Nehamas and Elaine Pagels.

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About the Program, January 7, 2019

About the Program, January 7, 2019 By Peter Laki © 2018 ARVO PÄRT (b. 1935) Spiegel im Spiegel (“Mirror in the Mirror”) (1978) for Clarinet and Piano Fratres (“Brothers”) for String Quartet It has always been difficult enough for a composer to go against the grain by writing music that breaks openly with received tradition. But it was doubly difficult to do so in the former Soviet Union, where artistic dissent was perceived as synonymous with political dissidence. And it was probably ten times more difficult for a composer such as Arvo Pärt, who, in addition to his unconventional writing, was known as a committed Russian Orthodox at a time when all forms of religion were strongly discouraged. In his early works, Pärt employed techniques of neo-classicism and then serialism,

progressions and rarely modulate; they remain what they are, bell-like sounds in the service of an artistic message whose spiritual nature is impossible to miss. Pärt’s “tintinnabuli” style creatively combines the medieval principle of noteagainst-note organum and classical triadic harmony; the result is music of extreme structural simplicity that at the same time exhibits great spiritual depth. Pärt commented on this style in a statement quoted in Paul Hillier’s book on the composer: I have discovered that it is enough when a single note is beautifully played. This one note, or a silent beat, or a moment of silence, comforts me. I work with very few elements—with one voice, with two voices. I build with the most primitive materials—with the triad, with one specific tonality. The three notes of the triad are like bells. And that is why I called it tintinnabulation. Tonight we shall hear two of Pärt’s signature pieces in the “tintinnabuli” style, written shortly before the composer left Soviet Estonia for Berlin, where he has lived ever since.

Examining Beethoven’s sketchbook with Professor Emeritus Scott Burnham in the Scheide Collection at Princeton University’s Firestone Library.

highly controversial at the time, only to turn away from them in frustration. After several years of creative silence, Pärt emerged in the late 1970s with an intensely personal new style that became known just as serialism was becoming more generally accepted. Pärt has always followed his own path, which led him—after exploring serialism, chance, and collage techniques as well as minimalism—to the discovery of an intensely personal voice that became known as the “tintinnabuli” style, from the Latin word for bells. The term implies not only the frequent use of bells and bell-like sonorities but also the preponderance of triadic sounds, employed in a way not unlike chimes playing the natural intervals octave, fifth, and third. Unlike consonances in classical music, those found in Pärt’s works do not form typical harmonic

Spiegel im Spiegel (“Mirror in the Mirror,” or “Mirrors in the Mirror”), originally written for violin and piano, has been arranged for many other instruments. The title evokes the image of an infinity mirror, in which a pair of parallel mirrors produce an endless series of reflections. Similarly in the music, the constant repetitions of an ascending and descending scale over an even accompaniment of undulating broken chords create a sensation of infinity. The piece has become something of a modern icon, used in several films and seen as a symbol of a new simplicity, one that inspires spirituality and meditation, and manages to say a great deal with only a few notes. The melody instrument never gets to play loud and fast, yet the challenge to play long-held notes with an even legato and consistent dynamics is greater than one might think. Fratres also exists in numerous versions, including arrangements for violin, cello, and string quartet. One of his earliest compositions written in the “tintinnabuli” style, it is based on recurrent harmonic progressions and rhythmic cycles that are reminiscent of the technique of 14th-century isorhythmic motets: a certain sequence of rhythmic units arranged in successive groups of 7/4, 9/4, and 11/4 measures, serves as the structural backbone of the piece. Each repeat is modified in some way, so that the work becomes something like a set | 15

About the Program, January 7, 2019

of variations of the chaconne or passacaglia type, unfolding over a constant drone of a perfect fifth. In the violin version, the solo instrument surrounds the chord progression with a stream of virtuosic figurations that stop and start again to create a dramatic alternation of moods within the unchanging harmonic framework of the piece.

JURI SEO (b.1981) Lost Songs (World Premiere) Note by Juri Seo © 2018 We live in cycles, with birth and death being the primary conditions of our existence. The simple act of breathing encapsulates the cyclic nature of life. Song does too, though perhaps in a more abstract way. In song, a call awaits a response; in song, silence is broken and inevitably restored. The two main materials of Lost Songs are breaths and the songs of the now extinct Kaua‘i ‘ō‘ō bird (Moho braccatus). Thane Pratt’s 1976 recording from Cornell’s Macaulay Library captures the last call of the species, presumably that of a lone male looking in vain for a mate. It is a beautiful recording; the ‘ō‘ō sings with a distinctive flute-like tone. I began Lost Songs by transcribing and simplifying the ‘ō‘ō’s songs. I then extracted fragments from my transcription and treated them as musical motives. These song fragments are juxtaposed with breaths, tolling bells, and other gestures that evoke feelings of time and sorrow. While I found it necessary in this piece to confront darkness, in the end I was more interested in celebrating life. If the last calls of the ‘ō‘ō bird went unanswered in the forests of Kaua‘i, in my music, they are not only answered but transformed and multiplied into a choir of birds. In this depiction of a paradise, I sought respite from a recurring sense of loss. Loss may be complete and permanent to our physical world but not to our memory, nor to our music.

WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART (1756–1791) Quintet in A Major for Clarinet and Strings, K. 581 (1789) In Mozart’s time, the clarinet was not yet fully established as a permanent member of the orchestra. Mozart used them in only a handful of his symphonies and concertos. But when he did call for clarinets (as in Symphony No. 39), he always made sure they played a prominent role. The clarinet’s special sound quality—especially its wonderful low register —quickly turned this newcomer among instruments into a real star. By the end of the 18th-century, the clarinet was certainly the most frequently used woodwind instrument in solo and chamber works. Mozart had the good fortune to be acquainted with two of the best clarinet players of the day, the brothers Anton and

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Proving that music and dance go hand-inhand, Professor Gabriela Nouzeilles salsas with Maestro Dudamel at Trinity Church in Princeton.

Johann Nepomuk Stadler. Both brothers were members of the court orchestra in Vienna, and Anton was particularly well known as a virtuoso. The first chamber-music work Mozart wrote for him was the so-called “Kegelstatt” trio (K. 498) in 1786. (The trio owes its nickname—“BowlingAlley Trio”—to the wholly unfounded rumor that Mozart composed it while he was out bowling one night.) In this trio, Mozart played the viola part, Stadler the clarinet, and one of Mozart’s pupils, Franziska von Jacquin, the piano. The Clarinet Quintet followed in 1789 and the Clarinet Concerto in 1791—two great tributes to Stadler’s musicianship and two masterpieces exceptional even by Mozartian standards. It is interesting that these two works were not originally written for the clarinet as we know it today. Stadler had devised a special instrument that probably no one else ever played, called the “basset clarinet.” This instrument extended the famous low register of the clarinet, the socalled “chalumeau” register, by an extra major third. It looked strikingly different from the regular clarinet in that its shape was not straight; the bell was at the end of a transverse pipe, perpendicular to the main body of the instrument. In both works, Mozart took full advantage of the additional low notes, but since the regular instruments didn’t have them, and Stadler’s model never quite caught on, the published versions of both the quintet and the concerto were adapted to the ordinary clarinet. Mozart’s original manuscripts are lost, so one can either attempt to reconstruct the originals (as several players have done) or forego the extra-low notes.

Art & Nature

Art and Nature By Professor Gavin Steingo © 2019 In Plato’s famous dialogue Meno, Socrates argues that as humans we have a responsibility to continually search for new knowledge. Meno, being a wisecrack, responds that the search for new knowledge can only ever result in a paradox. MENO: How will you aim to search for something that you do not know at all? If you should meet with it, how will you know that it is the thing that you did not know? SOCRATES: I know what you want to say, Meno. Do you realize what a debater’s argument you are bringing up, that a man cannot search either for what he knows or for what he does not know? He cannot search for what he knows—since he knows it, there is no need to search—nor what he does not know, for he does not know what to look for. Socrates goes on to suggest a solution that will seem strange and unsatisfying to the contemporary reader: he essentially argues that learning something new means retrieving it (via the ancient notion of anamnesis) from what one already knows in the depths of one’s soul. But Socrates hastens to add that his solution is actually beside the point. The important thing, he emphasizes, is that “we will be better men, braver and less idle, if we believe that one must search for the things one does not know.” In the final analysis, the dialogue suggests that while there may be no satisfactory resolution of Meno’s paradox, Socrates in fact offers us something more important. He affirms the importance of searching for knowledge even in the face of irresolvable contradiction. Is this not precisely what artists, and composers in particular, do so well? By experimenting with form, sound, timbre, and perception, composers probe at the limits of human knowledge without settling on neat, declarative conclusions. Composers and other artists don’t solve contradictions—they revel in them, working at the boundaries of perception, at the limits of what we can ever know. To be sure, music’s incapacity to make declarative statements renders the art form somewhat out-of-joint with contemporary society, which values clearcut, efficient answers above all else. But what if we think of music’s alleged “incapacity” as its greatest virtue? What if we think of knowledge as a process of unlimited exploration rather than a utilitarian means to an end? History attests to the idea of music as a medium of unlimited exploration, of infinite searching. Consider the case of opera, for example—from Monteverdi to Mozart, from Wagner and Berg, the voice in song has served as a vehicle for probing invisible, supersensible realms. It is for this reason that the

musicologist Gary Tomlinson calls opera a kind of “metaphysical song,” at once “defining and breaching borders between it and other, external forces, both sensible and supersensible.” This continual probing—what one philosopher referred to as “a search with no end but not without hope”—is especially evident in our most ancient myths about nature, the world, and the universe. For Pythagoras, the universe was itself a series of sounding musical harmonies. The only reason we don’t hear that celestial music, he suggested, is because we have been hearing it since birth and so mistake it for silence. Pythagoras’ theory of the “harmony of the spheres” was to become a central tenet of music theory for nearly two millennia; as late as the fifteenth century, the Catholic priest Marsilio Ficino developed a medical theory based on planetary harmony. Or consider a different, if related, mythological linking of music with nature: I am thinking of Orpheus, whose singing could rouse docile animals, tame wild beasts, and move rivers and the wind. The great poet and lyre-player Arion, likewise, was able to summon wild animals with his enchanting voice. We know from Herodotus that Arion saved himself from certain drowning by calling a dolphin to his rescue in song. Such myths are not limited to the Western tradition: in fact, music’s inherent link with nature seems to have captivated cultures everywhere. For the Kaluli people of Papua New Guinea, the song of the muni bird (Ptilinopus pulchellus) represents the wailing of a boy who—in some mythical time before the beginning of time as such—was denied food by his community. The muni bird’s forlorn cry is a perennial reminder of the virtue of generosity, as well as the danger of forgetting it. To provide a geographically disparate example, the Bororo people of Western Brazil possess dozens of myths related to the sounds and, indeed, the songs of vegetation. Bororo myths stipulate the dangers of either listening too much or not listening enough. Many music-based myths around the world affirm the importance of listening to nature just the right amount, with just the right ear, in just the right way. Although we live in a world where such myths may seem quaint or even archaic, history has bequeathed to us their basic messages. For one thing, we are all taught the value of “learning how to listen” from a young age. More pertinent in the context of this discussion is how we continue to be awed by the complexity and sublimity of nature and how we still turn to music when our other faculties fail. Music and nature | 17

Art & Nature

meet precisely at the point where both exceed intelligibility. And yet, we hold fast to Socrates’ injunction, to his courageous effort in the face of insurmountable contradiction. It is probably fair to say that all of the works on today’s program gnaw at the limits of knowledge. And all four pieces deal with the question of nature, even if they do so in very different ways. Schubert’s Fantasy in C Major, Op. 15 (1822) is a dazzling piece of piano virtuosity. But one can only adequately hear the piece by considering its relation to a Lied written by the same composer six years earlier. Indeed, Schubert’s Fantasy makes explicit thematic reference to his Lied “Der Wanderer,” a song setting of a poem by Georg Philipp Schmidt von Lübeck. Schmidt’s poem is very clearly about land and nature: the entire poem is narrated by someone wandering in search of a place where he may feel at home. But his wandering between mountains, valleys, and seas only results in a single melancholic insight: Ich bin ein Fremdling überall (“I am a stranger everywhere”). In the end, the narrator learns that his happiness is precisely where he is not. What he seeks no longer exists: he longs for a lost paradise, a lost state of nature. Now, if the lyrics of Schmidt’s poem are about the wanderer’s yearning, then Schubert’s later piano Fantasy performs this yearning directly and without the need for words. If the wanderer searches in vain for a lost communion with nature, this loss is most effectively felt in music’s wordless plea. The Romantics understood music as an ineffable movement of wordless form. Is not music thus the perfect matchless match for a state of nature out of bounds and out of reach? Richard Wagner’s Fantasia in F-sharp Minor (1831) is a similarly brooding work. The “fantasy” element in the title indicates its improvisatory character—this work, too, seems to wander, meander. Eschewing a straightforward design or plan for this piece, Wagner adopts a structure that is free-form and spontaneous. In this way we might draw into comparison the “free play of the imagination” Immanuel Kant spoke of, an aesthetic feeling incomprehensible through rational concepts. And although we are at this point several steps removed from Schmidt’s/Schubert’s “Wanderer,” it is perhaps possible to hear a generalized Romantic yearning in the piece’s lilting, trudging, lurching movement. If Romantic music typically yearns for a deep reality that remains forever out of reach, Wagner’s opera Tristan und Isolde (1865) was thought by some to have touched reality miraculously and directly at its core. This indeed was Friedrich Nietzsche’s opinion in his early polemic, The Birth of Tragedy (1872), where he argued that Wagner had single-handedly reunited Apollonian rationalism and Dionysian drive, thus presenting a blueprint for human illumination and redemption.

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Famously, Nietzsche called Tristan und Isolde the “true opus metaphysicum of all art.” A more sober analysis might focus on the first full sounding chord of the Prelude: this chord is so unique it has been given its own name, the “Tristan chord.” Analysts have argued over this particular harmony for decades, but a modest consensus holds that the way it is handled gestures toward a destabilization of the then prevailing (tonal) musical system in the West. The chord never really resolves when we hear it in the opera—not until the final cadence. Some have speculated that this kind of formal experimentation was Wagner’s way of attempting to capture the infinitude of desire in musical terms. Such was Wagner’s own search without end but not without hope. The Liebestod, for its part, is something of a sunken apotheosis to the entire opera, whose libretto is based on a twelfth-century Celtic legend. In the final Liebestod (“Love-Death”), Isolde sings for the death of her lover, Tristan, with the implication that the two will be united after death. The power of this musical gesture—which seems to suggest not a yearning for the beyond but a kind of premature attainment of it—has aroused admiration and suspicion in roughly equal measure. The German-Jewish philosopher Theodor Adorno warned listeners of Wagner’s illusory and “phantasmagoric” appeal. Adorno was particularly concerned by Wagner’s belief that he could access reality directly. And he was equally concerned by what he saw as Wagner’s conflation of human history with an inevitably unfolding nature. Departing substantially from Wagner, and rounding out the program, we have a new piece by Steven Mackey, one of America’s most important and innovative contemporary composers. In Measuring, Mackey is interested in the ways that nature is brought under rational concepts (in a way, we recall, that post-Kantian Romanticism would never allow). But if the piece suggests a certain rationalization of nature, it implies something else besides: that nature can never be sufficiently measured because it always exceeds such attempts. In this way, Mackey’s piece, like the two Fantasies and the excerpts from Tristan und Isolde, presents a musical approach to nature that brings us back to the romantic Heinrich Heine: “When words leave off, music begins.” Indeed, we are returned to Heine’s words only to immediately leave them once again. Gavin Steingo is a South African researcher, musician, and activist. He is the author of Kwaito’s Promise: Music and the Aesthetics of Freedom in South Africa (University of Chicago Press, 2016). His most recent work focuses on whale song and the science of non-human communication. He is an Assistant Professor of Music in the Princeton University Department of Music.


Tuesday, April 23, 2019, 7:00PM | Richardson Auditorium, Alexander Hall Musical Preview at 6:00PM by students from the Harmony Program, New York City, an El Sistema-inspired program


Luíz Fïlíp Coelho, Violin+ I Walter Küssner, Viola+ I Øyvind Gimse, Cello* Ulrich Wolff, Bass+ I Magnus Mihm, Flute* I Christoph Hartmann, Oboe+ Ingeborg Moe, Clarinet* I Bryndis Tórsdóttir, Bassoon* I Tone Langsrud, French Horn* +member of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra *member of KonstKnekt

RICHARD WAGNER (1813–1883) Fantasia in F-sharp Minor, WWV 22 Arranged for Oboe, Bassoon, and Strings by Wolfgang Renz

Prelude and Liebestod from Tristan und Isolde Arranged for Nonet by Guy Braunstein

BRIEF INTERMISSION STEVEN MACKEY (b. 1956) Measuring (World Premiere) FRANZ SCHUBERT (1797–1828) Fantasy in C Major, D. 760 “Wanderer” Arranged for Nonet by Wolfgang Renz

Allegro con fuoco ma non troppo Adagio Presto Allegro

This concert is followed by a discussion about Art and Nature hosted by Gustavo Dudamel, with Professors Jeff Dolven (Princeton University) and Kip Thorne (CalTech). | 19

About the Program, April 23, 2019

About the Program, April 23, 2019 By Peter Laki © 2019 The highly innovative arrangements performed by the Ensemble Berlin are both reductions and expansions. Oboist Wolfgang Renz, who has long specialized in making arrangements for various instrumental combinations, has transcribed two solo piano works—Wagner’s little known early piano fantasy and another, much more famous fantasy, Schubert’s “Wanderer”—for the Ensemble. Violinist Guy Braunstein has taken the opposite direction, creating a chamber version of the “Prelude and Liebestod” from Tristan und Isolde. In either case, something entirely new was born from old, and mostly familiar, music: in many ways, it will be like hearing the music of Wagner and Schubert for the first time.

Princeton University President Christopher Eisgruber welcomes Maestro Dudamel to campus in the Faculty Room at Nassau Hall.

RICHARD WAGNER (1813–1883) Fantasia in F-sharp Minor (1831) arranged by Wolfgang Renz Wagner’s path to maturity as a composer was rather unusual. No child prodigy, he didn’t start his formal studies in music until the age of fifteen, but in only three years, he reached a point where he was able to compose orchestra pieces; one of his piano sonatas would even be published by the prestigious Leipzig firm Breitkopf & Härtel. The young man’s idol was Beethoven, who had passed away only a few years earlier. Wagner had heard the Seventh and Ninth Symphonies performed by the Gewandhaus Orchestra and had thoroughly studied the late piano sonatas, which few musicians appreciated or understood at the time. One contemporary who did—Robert Schumann—produced his own fantasy-sonata inspired by Beethoven (his celebrated Fantasy, Op. 17), but Wagner’s unpublished work was written five years earlier.

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Wagner’s principal model for the extensive instrumental recitatives of the fantasia must have been Beethoven’s Op. 110, but the 18-year-old composer did not follow that model slavishly. Clearly, his skills were already equal to his ambitions. In another year or two, Wagner was ready to embark on his true calling as an opera composer (his first completed opera, Die Feen [“The Fairies”], dates from 1833–34). In fact, there are some motivic similarities between the Fantasia and Die Feen, which make the piano work a kind of preliminary study for the opera. (In addition, one may detect some uncanny pre-echoes of such mature works as Tannhäuser and even Die Walküre.) There is no question about the dramatic quality of the music. Punctuated by extensive recitatives, the work consists of four interconnected movements: an instrumental aria in slow tempo, an agitated Allegro, a lyrical Adagio, and a closing section which is a reprise of the opening. Following the example of Beethoven’s Ninth, Wagner quoted the first phrases of his earlier movements before launching into the final section. Instead of providing an Ode to Joy, however, he returned to the beginning for a subdued and melancholy ending. First published in 1905, the Fantasia always remained something of a curiosity within Wagner’s oeuvre, just like Die Feen, which also remained unperformed during the composer’s lifetime. The present arrangement highlights the great diversity of the work’s moods and characters and calls special attention to the uncommon gifts of an exceptionally hard-working teenager who would stop at nothing to scale the heights of fame.

RICHARD WAGNER Prelude and Liebestod from Tristan und Isolde (1857–59) arranged by Guy Braunstein The opening chord of Tristan und Isolde has no place in the theoretical system in which all Western musicians have been brought up. It is a chord that has generated a virtually endless flow of commentaries and explanations and was written on the banner of what Wagner’s most enthusiastic supporters called “the music of the future.” At the same time, this chord has nothing aggressive, barbarian, or destructive in it; it was dictated by Wagner’s desire to express the passion of love in music with uncommon power and intensity. Everything else, from the unrelenting chromaticism (use of tonally unstable half-steps) to the magnificence of the great climaxes, flows logically from this one chord.

About the Program, April 23, 2019

The Prelude to Tristan und Isolde was first performed in concert in 1859, before the entire opera was even finished. Wagner joined it together with the Liebestod (“Love-Death”), the opera’s final scene, and presented the two excerpts in concert in 1863, two years before the stage premiere. At this point, it had been more than a decade since a new Wagner opera had been staged, and during these years, Wagner had worked harder than ever. After Lohengrin (1848), the composer had to flee Germany because of his role in the Dresden uprising of 1849. Settling in Switzerland, he produced his groundbreaking theoretical works on music drama and began composing the Ring cycle. He twice interrupted the composition of the Ring in favor of projects that seemed easier to realize—first for Tristan which, at first, promised to be the “lighter fare” that could be produced quickly and yield some immediate profit while the much greater demands of the Ring could be met. The other interruption was Die Meistersinger. With the knowledge of what Tristan eventually became, it is amusing to read the following passage in Wagner’s autobiography: “A man who rejoiced in the name of Ferreiro introduced himself to me as the Brazilian consul in Leipzig, and told me that the Emperor of Brazil was greatly attracted to my music.... The Emperor loved everything German and wanted me very much to come to Rio [de] Janeiro, so that I might conduct my operas in person. As only Italian was sung in that country, it would be necessary to translate my libretto, which the Emperor regarded as a very easy matter, and actually an improvement of the libretto itself.... I felt I could easily produce a passionate musical poem that would turn out quite excellent in Italian, and I turned my thoughts once more, with an ever-reviving preference, towards Tristan and Isolde.” In the end, Tristan, influenced by Wagner’s reading of Schopenhauer’s pessimistic philosophy and a passionate love affair with Mathilde Wesendonck (whose husband was one of Wagner’s benefactors), did not exactly turn out as “lighter fare.” It certainly proved much more difficult to perform than Wagner had anticipated. (And, needless to say, the Brazilian plans came to nothing.) For this reason, Wagner turned to concertizing, and the Tristan Prelude, as a representative new work, naturally had pride of place on his programs. Tristan was based on several medieval romances telling the story of an illicit love between Tristan, King Mark’s vassal, and Isolde, engaged to be married to the King. The story could be told in simpler words than it is in the following account by Wagner, but hardly in a way more apt to put us in the mood of the music:

“An old, old tale, inexhaustible in its variations, and ever sung anew in all the languages of medieval Europe, tells us of Tristan and Isolde. For this king the trusty vassal had wooed a maid he dared not tell himself he loved, Isolde; as his master’s bride she followed him, because, powerless, she had no choice but to follow the suitor. The Goddess of Love, jealous of her downtrodden rights, avenged herself: the love potion destined by the bride’s careful mother for the partners in this merely political marriage, in accordance with the customs of the age, the Goddess foists on the youthful pair through a blunder diversely accounted for; fired by its draught, their love leaps suddenly to vivid flame, and they have to acknowledge that they belong only to each other. Henceforth no end to the yearning, longing, rapture, and misery of love: world, power, fame, honor, chivalry, loyalty and friendship, scattered like an insubstantial dream; one thing alone left living: longing, longing unquenchable, desire forever renewing itself, craving and languishing; one sole redemption: death, surcease of being, the sleep that knows no waking! Here in music’s own most unrestricted element, the musician who chose this theme for the introduction to his drama of love could have but one care: how to impose restraint on himself, since exhaustion of the subject is impossible. So just once, in one long-articulated impulse, he let that insatiable longing swell up from the timidest avowal of the most delicate attraction, through anxious sighs, hopes and fears, laments and wishes, raptures and torments, to the mightiest onset and to the most powerful effort to find the breach that will reveal to the infinitely craving heart the path into the sea of love’s endless rapture. In vain! Its power spent, the heart sinks back to languish in longing, in longing without attainment, since each attainment brings in its wake only renewed desire, until in final exhaustion the breaking glance catches a glimmer of the attainment of the highest rapture: it is the rapture of dying, of ceasing to be, of the final redemption into that wondrous realm from which we stray the furthest when we strive to enter it by force. Shall we call it Death? Or is it the miraculous world of Night, from which, as the story tells, an ivy and a vine sprang of old in inseparable embrace over the grave of Tristan and Isolde?” | 21

About the Program, April 23, 2019

STEVEN MACKEY (b. 1956) Measuring (2019) Note by Steven Mackey ©2019 Different musicians tend to have their own personal vocabulary and reservoir of metaphor that they use to describe music. Perhaps because I was a physics major in college before committing to music I tend to think of music existing in a physical space, subject to natural laws, and my bank of metaphors often have to do with properties of physicality:

though one tiny part of that pattern eventually splits off and takes on a life of its own. The transition to the variation movement is extremely suspenseful. Even more dramatic, however, is the next major shift: after the pianissimo ending of the variations, the Scherzo bursts in without the slightest warning. The powerful Presto includes a gentler middle section, but eventually culminates in a frenzied passage that leads directly into the final fugato.

Viscosity—I imagine the music oozing slowly out of a vessel. Velocity—The music flows at different rates, often at the same time, attracting attention to the disparities in speed. Porosity—The textures range from gossamer and translucent to gloppy and opaque. Ductility—I imagine a line created by stretching one blob until it connects with the next. Measuring is about 9 minutes long and is comprised of these four contrasting but connected miniatures.

FRANZ SCHUBERT (1797–1828) Fantasy in C Major, D. 760 “Wanderer,” D. 760 (1822) arranged by Wolfgang Renz Schubert’s “Wanderer” Fantasy is based on an idea that was nothing short of revolutionary in its own time: all four of its movements, which are played without pause, are based on the same theme, Schubert’s favorite dactylic pattern (longshort-short). The theme undergoes profound transformations, its character changing from resolute to dreamy; it turns into an energetic dance melody in the scherzo section, before erupting in a virtuosic fugato at the end. This concept had a decisive influence on the evolution of music throughout the 19th century and beyond. The theme itself comes from one of Schubert’s songs, Der Wanderer, written in 1816 to a text by the minor poet Georg Philipp Schmidt (known after his birthplace as Schmidt von Lübeck). Schmidt had managed to express one of the central feelings of Romanticism, the eternal longing for a distant place (“happiness is wherever you are not”)—and Schubert’s setting of this poem soon became one of the composer’s most popular works. A fragment from the song appears in the second section of the fantasy (“Adagio”), followed by a set of extremely virtuosic variations. The variations are preceded by a section marked Allegro con fuoco ma non troppo (con fuoco, “with fire,” is the operative word). Both the energetic opening and the lyrical second idea are fashioned out of the fundamental rhythmic pattern underlying the entire work,

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Princeton senior Katharine Reed shares Latin American protest art from the University archive.

Writing elaborate fugues in a learned style did not come easily to Schubert. The composer was well aware of his lack of experience in this area, and in the last weeks of his short life, he sought instruction in counterpoint from a teacher named Simon Sechter (who later became Bruckner’s teacher). The last section of the “Wanderer” Fantasy shows how uncomfortable Schubert was with fugal writing: he abandons it rather quickly, to crown the work with a display of virtuosity that surpasses everything heard before.

Art, Society & Politics

Here and Now, Above and Beyond: Music, Society, and Politics By Professor Simon Morrison © 2019 Music is but patterned sound. And much like we so often seek to find shapes in the clouds, such patterns have long been allegorized as divine, sublime, abstract, and above all meaningful. Perhaps the power of music lies in its inability to express anything in particular; instead, its uncertainties offer an invitation to imagine. Music confounds us, challenges us, and defies our desire to make sense of its moving, shifting enchantments. It brings us into contact with the spirit world, a timeless time and placeless place somehow beyond the human. Yet we should always remember that composers are people bound by time and place whose thoughts, and thus their works, are shaped by society and politics of their age and our own. In 19th-century Germany, Romanticism as a social, political, and aesthetic force held sway. Franz Schubert’s Gesang der Geister über den Wassern (“Song of the Spirits over the Waters,” 1821) reaches into the mystical beyond not to tap into some eternal ideal, but instead to evoke a particular sense of German national identity nascent at the time. The text speaks of spirits or souls rising to heaven. Strange chords imported into the prevailing tonal realm of the piece suggest a kind of musical elsewhere. By emphasizing the lower registers, Schubert captures a sense of hollowness and even, for one prominent critic, loneliness. “It should be listened to only at night,” a conductor has remarked, “and will make you feel as if you are the last person in the universe.” The text comes from Johann von Goethe, author of Faust. The theme here is escape—from the here and now, from society and politics. Both Schubert and Goethe have now come to define Romanticism, a movement in the arts that arises from the Industrial Revolution, first flourishing of capitalism, ideas of natural law, the French Revolution, and rise of Napoleon. Goethe started his career as a writer within the Holy Roman Empire but came to define the German nation that came into being by 1871. “First smash the world to pieces,” Faust says to Mephistopheles when they enter into their Devil’s bargain. “Then let another rise upon the ruins.” Indeed the world around Goethe and Schubert, even in the latter’s short life, was repeatedly smashed and remade, stitched together in the style of Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, another Romantic masterpiece. Faust, as a Romantic hero, wants to fly so as to escape the “narrow life.” So too Schubert set a poem about spirits, nature, and heaven to music that evokes a sense of radiance above and darkness below.

Must music always bear the weight of our every imagining? Born at the beginning of the twentieth century, French philosopher Vladimir Jankélévitch thought not. He celebrated music’s powers of delight, or what he called charme: the pleasure of little m music (the art of composition) that might point to big M music (the sounds of the spirit world). Jankélévitch allowed music to remain at once materially grounded and open-ended. He insisted that it’s possible to enjoy the here and now while also contemplating the beyond and above. Charm defines Felix Mendelssohn’s incidental music to Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream. That the composer happily yokes himself to the plot suggests that form and function can inspire just as much beauty as much as any fevered, otherworldly imaginings. Theseus, the ruler of Athens, is preparing for his wedding to Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons, but she is glum about it all. At the same time, two younger lovers at court, Lysander and Hermia, are keen to wed but under pressure to find other partners. Similar complications confound the supernatural world in the court of the fairies, proving there’s no escape from the messy realities of love. Mendelssohn’s score all but defines musical charm. The first sounds are the scurrying fairies’ music in the upper strings. Then enters the music for Theseus, Hippolyta, and the court at Athens robustly scored for full orchestra; references to royal fanfares, processionals, and hunts abound. The next theme is associated with love, with a braying donkey reminding everyone that here and now, above and beyond always come together. The chords of enchantment heard right at the start of the score lie at the heart of all other motifs; everything is connected. Mendelssohn’s ideal, like Shakespeare’s, is of a harmonious society—of a politics without difference defined by love both human and divine. Thus Jankélévitch defined music as an “unwoven dialect,” with threads of meanings remaining always loose. Mendelssohn might try to weave them together to track Shakespeare’s story, but the charm of his score quickly forsakes and exceeds the plot. Pyotr Tchaikovsky too energetically mixed genres and styles and plots and musics in a mobile pastiche meant to please specific audiences in specific places and times. Keep in mind that Tchaikovsky wrote on commission—so responding always to society and to politics—throughout his career. His corpus includes operas about Ivan the Terrible and Joan of Arc, luxuriant musical narratives based on Dante and Shakespeare, | 23

Art, Society & Politics

ballets on fantastical subjects, sonatas, choral works, songs, and chamber pieces. Tchaikovsky’s Symphony Pathétique evokes matters of life and death, but he also wrote reams of occasional pieces, among them the gorgeous Moscow cantata and startlingly orchestrated 1812 Overture. Even Tchaikovsky’s most beloved scores, those that have endured beyond his lifetime and into ours, were bound at their conception to specific times and places. He was a product of—and responded to—his circumstance, being very much a court composer of aristocratic sensibilities. Society in Russia (as well as Germany) during the 19th century was defined by the aristocracy and its order under siege by the forces of political change. Hence the Romantic recourse to the natural, the wilderness, fairies, demons, and the heavens might speak to a desire to be anywhere other than the Europe ravaged by Napoleon and held together by the fragile balance of power determined at the Congress of Vienna. The young Tchaikovsky composed his Romeo and Juliet overture at the suggestion of a mentor, Mily Balakirev, but the 1870 premiere came in for a storm of ridicule, compelling the composer, who cared deeply about public reaction to his art, to revise and re-revise it. Balakirev forced the composer to treat the project like an academic exercise, so Tchaikovsky included an opening fugue and chorale along with a panoply of themes fitted within a conventional sonata-allegro form. The sensuousness of the subject matter—Shakespeare’s tragic representation of star-crossed, impossible love—is captured in a grand theme that features a chromatic pass between the fifth and sixth scale degree as a musical marker of the exotic and erotic. Balakirev teased Tchaikovsky for creating the musical equivalent of a hot bath overflowing with scented suds, and the tune became famous, recycled in later years in movie scores and commercials. But it is hardly representative of Tchaikovsky’s output, or of his aesthetics, which he derived from his long-time patron, Nadezhda von Meck.

For the composer and his patron, there were two meanings of the word “music.” On one hand was the actual craft of composing, on the other the sound of the soul. Von Meck imagined Tchaikovsky putting the two things together, thus solving the paradox of the ineffable. “If you like, Pyotr Ilyich, call me a fantasist, prone to outlandishness, but don’t laugh,” she wrote to the composer. “You have written music that transports people into a world of emotions, strivings, and desires inaccessible in life.” But how, really, does the ineffable art of music finally relate to society and politics? Tchaikovsky, with his impeccable command of formal technique, proves a “realist” in the sense that he was interested above all in the constructions of consciousness; he wondered how reality is perceived and shaped by the mind through the accrual of experience in the real world. Perhaps curious about and compelled by the imperatives of his own talent, the composer explored how the mind engages with the material, with each then transformed by the other. Like Schubert and Mendelssohn, Tchaikovsky ruminated about supernatural elsewhere, but he kept his attention more on the here and now than on the above and beyond. Everyone has to eat. Yet at the end of his life, and the end of the 19th century, Tchaikovsky felt free to experiment. His late scores scramble meters and displace gestures across registers before the music fades into nothingness. Life, Tchaikovsky came to believe, really should be but a dream. Simon Morrison is a Professor of Music, and Slavic Languages and Literatures at Princeton University. He specializes in 20th-century music, particularly Russian, Soviet, and French music, with special interests in dance, cinema, aesthetics, and historically informed performance based on primary sources.

“The residency has been a reminder that the arts have the incredible power to bring people together in beautiful and unexpected ways.” —Lydia Veilleux Artistic Director/Trenton Music Makers Orchestra

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Looking to the Future


Looking to the future... The impact of Maestro Gustavo Dudamel’s residency will extend well beyond our 125th Anniversary Season. We look forward to our next 125 years, in which we will reinforce the maestro’s commitment to musical access by continuing our relationship with the Gustavo Dudamel Foundation and the Trenton community. To support these activities a portion of every full-price ticket to the concert on April 26, 2019 will be used to establish a new program that will both invite Trenton students to experience our concerts on Princeton’s campus and will send Princeton University Concerts guest artists to visit students across Trenton. It will also support the Trenton Youth Orchestra—a string ensemble composed of Trenton students who receive free music coaching and private instruction by accomplished Princeton University student musicians. Beginning next season, select musicians on our series will visit Trenton Public Schools in multifaceted visits including:

• performances in classrooms • guest appearances with school orchestras • participation in ensemble rehearsals These initiatives will ensure an enduring impact on our campus and in our region and support a commitment to music as a force for uniting communities, empowering young people, and promoting positive social change. In addition, the Gustavo Dudamel Foundation has offered to make a substantial gift to support these programs. Thanks to all who have contributed to make this possible. | 25

Message from the Chair of the Department of Music

April 2019 Dear Friends,

Maestro Gustavo Dudamel’s residency is a momentous occasion for the Princeton University Department of Music. The Department is at the epicenter of a musical culture that is broad and deep, reaching from edge to edge of the campus, from the classroom to the concert hall. We celebrate the intersection of Composition, Scholarship, and Performance in our wide-ranging attempt to provide a rich framework in which to experience the music all around us. Maestro Dudamel’s residency is the epitome of this kind of inclusive approach to music; his visits encompass everything from premieres by our composition faculty to performances by our students to interdisciplinary discussions on a diverse array of topics. It is thrilling to watch the campus come together in one of the most ambitious celebrations of music in our history. Best,

Wendy Heller Scheide Professor of Music History Chair, Department of Music

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Friday, April 26, 2019, 7:30PM I Richardson Auditorium, Alexander Hall Saturday, April 27, 2019, 4:00PM I Patriots Theater at the Trenton War Memorial Pre-concert talk hosted by Professor Stanley Katz with Professors Javier Guerrero, Simon Morrison, and Rachel Price on Friday, April 26, 2019 at 6:30PM.



GUSTAVO DUDAMEL, Conductor FRANZ SCHUBERT (1797–1828) Gesang der Geister über den Wassern for Men’s Chorus, D. 714 PYOTR ILYICH TCHAIKOVSKY (1840–1893) Romeo and Juliet, Fantasy-Overture after Shakespeare INTERMISSION FELIX MENDELSSOHN (1809–1847) Incidental Music to A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Op. 61 with visual projections by Alberto Arvelo (April 27)

Overture Scherzo (after Act I) Incidental Music and Fairies’ March (Act II, scenes 1/2) Song with Chorus: “You Spotted Snakes” (Act II, scene 3) Incidental Music (Act II, scene 3) Intermezzo (after Act II) Incidental Music (Act III, scenes 1/2) Nocturne (after Act III) Incidental Music (Act IV, scene 1) Wedding March (after Act IV) Fanfare and Funeral March (Act V, scene 1) Dance of Clowns (Act V, scene 1) Incidental Music (Act V, scene 2) Finale with Chorus: “Through the House” Narration: Victoria Davidjohn ’19, Jacy Duan ’21, and Kateryn McReynolds ’20 Vocal soloists: Allison Spann ’20, Soprano and Caroline Zhao ’19, Mezzo-soprano | 27

About the Program, April 26–27, 2019

About the Program, April 26–27, 2019 By Peter Laki © 2019 FRANZ SCHUBERT (1797–1828) Gesang der Geister über den Wassern (“Song of the Spirits over the Waters”), D. 714 In its combination of vivid nature description and deep spirituality, Gesang der Geister über den Wassern is unique in Schubert’s oeuvre. He made no fewer than four attempts to set this mysterious Goethe poem before completing the final version in February 1821, in time for a concert at the Kärtnertor theatre in Vienna a few weeks later. The earlier versions were for voice and piano, but Schubert soon realized that the “spirits” required multiple vocal parts. After two more fragments involving multiple male voices, Schubert found the definitive solution in a combination of tenors and basses with string instruments playing in the same range: violas, cellos, and basses, but no violins.

Goethe’s poem was inspired by a trip to the Swiss Alps, and Schubert, who had never seen the high mountains up to that point, intuitively grasped the awesome grandeur of the landscape. The opening stanza, which contains a philosophical meditation about the human soul, is set to an austere chord progression, accompanied by what has come to be called the “Schubert rhythm:” a quarter-note and two eighths, long-short-short. Between these bookends, a succession of poetic images of cliffs, waterfalls, lakes, and the wind elicits a wide variety of musical responses, traversing many keys and alternating between different types of texture from simple homophony to imitation. The basses rumble menacingly when “the water foams in rage” at the falls; the tenors wax lyrical when they sing about the wind as “the wave’s darling lover.” The opening music returns for the final stanza, in which human destiny is compared to ever-changing, ever-unstable wind that stirs up the quiet mountain lakes.

Gesang der Geister über den Wassern (1779) By Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832)

Song of the Spirits over the Waters Translation by Sterling Lambert (2009)

Des Menschen Seele gleicht dem Wasser: Vom Himmel kommt es, zum Himmel steigt es, und wieder nieder zur Erde muß es, ewig wechselnd.

The soul of man Is like water: It comes from Heaven, It ascends to Heaven, And again It must go down again to the earth, Forever changing.

Strömt von der hohen, steilen Felswand, der reine Strahl, dann stäubt er lieblich in Wolkenwellen zum glatten Fels, und leicht empfangen, wallt er verschleiernd, leisrauschend zur Tiefe nieder.

It rushes from the high, Steep cliff face, The pure stream, Then it sprays delightfully Into clouds Onto the smooth cliff. And gently welcomed, It surges, veiled, Softly rushing Down into the deep.

Ragen Klippen dem Sturz’ entgegen, schäumt er unmutig, stufenweise zum Abgrund.

In the face of rocky cliffs Against the torrent, It foams angrily, Gradually Into the chasm.

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About the Program, April 26–27, 2019

Im flachen Bette schleicht er das Wiesenthal hin, und in dem glatten See weiden ihr Antlitz alle Gestirne.

In a flat bed It creeps down the valley, And in the smooth sea The face of all the stars Is reflected in it.

Wind ist der Welle lieblicher Buhler, Wind mischt von Grund aus schäumende Wogen.

The wind is the Charming lover of the waves; The wind mixes With the foaming waves.

Seele des Menschen, wie gleichst du dem Wasser! Schicksal des Menschen, wie gleichst du dem Wind!

Soul of man, How like you are to water! Fate of man, How like you are to wind!

PYOTR ILYICH TCHAIKOVSKY (1840–1893) Romeo and Juliet, Fantasy-Overture after Shakespeare

Balakirev next suggested that Tchaikovsky tackle an orchestral piece based on Romeo and Juliet and gave him some fairly precise indications on how to go about the project. (He himself had been inspired by Shakespeare to write a King Lear overture shortly before.) Balakirev even gave his friend the four measures the piece ought to start with, as well as a structural outline, complete with sequence of themes, modulation plan, and other technical details. Tchaikovsky didn’t take the opening measures, but in other respects he followed the advice rather closely, at least as far as we can tell from his letters where he freely acknowledged his debt. He sent his mentor the themes of his piece for approval, something that didn’t come easily to Balakirev: “The first theme is not at all to my taste,” he declared. However, he found the great love theme “simply delightful.”

The idea to write an orchestral work based on Romeo and Juliet was not Tchaikovsky’s own. It came from Mily Balakirev, the intellectual leader of the group of composers known as the “Mighty Handful” or the “Russian Five” (besides Balakirev, the group included Modest Mussorgsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Alexander Borodin, and César Cui). Tchaikovsky was not part of this group and indeed, he is often seen as representing an opposite tendency in Russian music. Supposedly, he was a “Westernizer” whereas the members of the “Five” were labeled as “nationalists.” Yet reality is always more complex than labels. It is true that Tchaikovsky was trained in the newly opened St. Petersburg Conservatory, where his teacher was Anton Rubinstein, who himself had been greatly influenced by German music. Yet Tchaikovsky was no less committed to the national idea in music than were his largely self-taught colleagues in the Mighty Handful and was very open to Balakirev’s teaching. For his part, Balakirev wanted to win Tchaikovsky over for his own circle of protégés. Balakirev (1837–1910) was only a few years older than either Tchaikovsky or the rest of the “Five.” Yet he had an acute critical mind and a charisma that made him the unofficial leader of his generation. Although he composed a great deal himself, he was far more important as a catalyst who inspired others and prodded them to write the works he himself was incapable of writing. Tchaikovsky had studied Balakirev’s collection of Russian folksongs and arranged two dozen of them for piano duet. He also sent his symphonic poem Fatum to Balakirev, who conducted a performance in St. Petersburg and then proceeded to tear it to shreds in a letter to the composer. (Tchaikovsky later destroyed the score of Fatum, though after his death it was reconstructed from the orchestral parts.)

“I play it often, and I want very much to kiss you for it....When I play [it] then I imagine you are lying naked in your bath and that Artôt-Padilla* herself is washing your tummy with hot lather from scented soap.” But Balakirev couldn’t help adding some criticism even here: “There’s just one thing I’ll say against this theme; there’s little in it of inner, spiritual love, and only a passionate physical languor (with even a slightly Italian hue)—whereas Romeo and Juliet are decidedly not Persian lovers, but Europeans.” Tchaikovsky was careful not to show Balakirev the entire work until he had heard it as written. After the March 1870 premiere,

* The Belgian soprano Désirée Artôt was the only woman with whom Tchaikovsky had ever been in love; he was devastated when she married the Spanish baritone Mariano Padilla y Ramos. This happened shortly before the composition of Romeo and Juliet. | 29

About the Program, April 26–27, 2019

however, he followed up on the criticism. He threw out the theme that Balakirev didn’t like, wrote a new introduction, and revised the development and the coda. He now sent it to Balakirev, who shared it with his circle. The influential critic Vladimir Stasov, a central figure in that circle, exclaimed: “There were five of you; now you are six!” This judgment was premature, however, for Tchaikovsky was to follow his own artistic path. As for the members of the “Five,” even their association gradually loosened after Balakirev’s influence began to decrease in the 1870s. By the time Tchaikovsky returned to Romeo and Juliet in 1880, he was a mature composer who, although always sensitive to criticism, was no longer dependent on advice. He undertook some further cutting and pasting on his own, resulting in the final form of what is universally considered his first masterpiece. The overture-fantasy begins with a musical portrait of Friar Laurence—a Russian Friar Laurence, one might add, since the slow chorale melody is tinged with some typically Russian polyphonic motifs. A brief transition leads to a stormy “Allegro” theme evoking the feud of the Montagues and the Capulets in an almost graphic way through the rapid alternations of the string and wind sections. The secondary subject is the love theme that made such a strong impression on Balakirev. The development leads to a climactic point where the “feud” music is combined with the Friar Laurence theme, played fortissimo by the brass. The recapitulation gives more ample treatment to the love theme, revealing its hidden connections with the “feud” music. In the final section (“Moderato assai”), the love theme comes to a tragic conclusion, consistent with Shakespeare’s play. The sadness of this passage anticipates the end of the Sixth Symphony—the last music Tchaikovsky ever wrote—in melodic shape, the repeated notes in the accompaniment, and even the key (B minor). But whereas Tchaikovsky ended the Sixth in quadruple pianissimo, in Romeo and Juliet he interrupted the love melody with a few dry and merciless fortissimo chords.

FELIX MENDELSSOHN (1809–1847) Incidental Music to A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Op. 61 Felix Mendelssohn started reading Shakespeare as a child during the 1820s. His family spent long hours reading through or acting out entire plays in the German translations by August Wilhelm Schlegel and Ludwig Tieck, two important Romantic literary figures. The Mendelssohn family had a strong personal connection to these translations: Felix’s aunt Dorothea was married to A.W. Schlegel’s brother Friedrich, one of the leading German philosophers of the time. None of the plays captured the young Mendelssohn’s imagination more than A Midsummer Night’s Dream. In a letter written in mid-summer of 1826, the 17-year-old composer told his

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sister Fanny: “I have grown accustomed to composing in our garden; there I’ve completed two piano pieces in A major and E minor. Today or tomorrow I am going to dream there the Midsummer Night’s Dream. It is, however, an enormous audacity...” The overture was completed less than a month later. It made history with its delicate orchestration and the ease with which the young composer moved in the fairytale world of Shakespeare’s play.

Maestro Dudamel converses with Professor Javier Guerrero in a spanish language conversation at Trinity Church in Princeton.

The four opening chords of the overture are played by the woodwind and horns. New instruments are added with each chord, gradually expanding the range. The chords are all major with the exception of the third one, which is minor; a subtle interplay between the modes is thus introduced that will continue throughout the overture. After this exceptional opening, we hear music that will forever be associated with Puck and the other elves and spirits in the forest. The fairy music is complemented by a more majestic, “earthly” melody, which turns out to be a quote from Carl Maria von Weber, whose own Oberon—not based on Shakespeare—was premiered the same year (1826) just two months before Weber’s death at age 40. A third theme invokes the “hee-haw” of Bottom, the artisanactor who, by magic, suddenly grew a donkey’s head and then proceeded to sweep fairy queen Titania off her beautiful feet. The three themes act out their own little comedy, evolving, interacting, and enchanting the listener. If we are to single out one detail, it must be the ending, where the “earthly” theme becomes absolutely celestial, played very softly and slowly by the violins as an exceptionally touching farewell gesture. The years passed. The child prodigy grew up and became one of Europe’s greatest musical stars. As composer, conductor, and pianist, Mendelssohn was much in demand both on the Continent and in England. In 1840, Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King

About the Program, April 26–27, 2019

of Prussia, invited him to Berlin to revitalize the musical life of the capital. Among other things, Mendelssohn was asked to write incidental music for several plays produced at the court theater. The King loved Greek tragedy, and therefore Mendelssohn’s first project was Sophocles’ Antigone in 1841. The second, the following year, was the object of Mendelssohn’s adolescent passion: A Midsummer Night’s Dream. What’s more, the composer, now 33 years old, got to collaborate with Ludwig Tieck, the poet and Shakespearean translator who was also in the King’s service. Tieck was the director of the new production which opened at the New Palace in Potsdam on October 14, 1843. Mendelssohn provided a dozen musical numbers to be performed between the acts and at appropriate moments during the play. Some of these involve solo singers and chorus, others are “melodramas,” that is, instrumental music intended to accompany the recitation of the play. It is uncanny how effortlessly Mendelssohn picked up where he had left off 16 years earlier. The Scherzo continues the tone of the early Overture with a portrait of Puck, in rhythms that can truly be called “sprightly.” Puck’s words “I am that merry wanderer of the night, I jest to Oberon and make him smile” may offer the best commentary to this exquisite movement. The Fairy’s famous speech “Over hill, over dale” will be followed by the scene where Queen Titania’s attendants sing her to sleep. Oberon has cast a spell on Titania, causing her, as we know, to fall in love with the first being she will

see upon awakening (which will happen to be Bottom, with a donkey’s head). The agitated “Intermezzo” relates to the two pairs of young lovers, and Hermia in particular, who is desperately searching for Lysander, who disappeared while she was sleeping. At the end of the movement, the scene suddenly changes and a folk-like dance melody takes us to the rehearsal of “Pyramus and Thisbe” by Bottom, Quince, and their rustic friends. In Romantic music, the horn is often used to evoke nature. The German name of the natural (valveless) horn was Waldhorn (“forest horn”)—an association clearly intended in the “Nocturne,” which opens with a lyrical horn solo, accompanied by two bassoons. It belongs to the scene where the young people fall asleep in the forest, succumbing to Puck’s magic spell. During the pianissimo conclusion, Titania and Bottom appear; Oberon, hidden behind some branches, watches the bizarre scene with glee. When Oberon undoes Titania’s spell, the melody to which the spell was cast earlier reappears in inverted form, played by a single violin. Nothing can now stand in the way of celebration; the wedding march (to which countless couples have gotten married over the years) honors the triple nuptials of Theseus and Hippolyta, Lysander and Hermia, and Demetrius and Helena.

Photo: Frank Magalhaes

In honor of Maestro Dudamel, visual artist Marsha Levin-Rojer created Magical Transformation, for her exhibition Music Made Visible: Metaphors of the Ephemeral at the Bernstein Gallery in the Woodrow Wilson School. | 31

Creative Reactions Winner

It’s Just Like the Water: A Lyric Essay on Art and Faith By Crystal Liu ’19 In January 2015, Princeton University Concerts announced a new initiative, the Creative Reactions Contest­—a writing contest designed to foster reflection on the impact of hearing classical music, as perceived by students on Princeton’s campus. The contest was a resounding success from its inception, and last year, we added a visual arts category.

2018–2019 WINNER

This year’s contest was inspired by Gustavo Dudamel’s residency and his dedication to revolutionizing music as a platform for individual, societal, and world change. Students were asked to consider any of three themes that were explored during the residency: the intersection of Art and Faith, Art and Nature, and Art and Social Change. Over the course of 6 months, roughly 50 students participated, attending concerts and using music as one point of reference. The submission format was flexible, allowing for blank verse, prose, poetry, narrative, lyrics, and any form of visual art that could be documented on a page. From a full field of entries one winner was selected—Princeton senior Crystal Liu. Her work is printed here and will be posted on our website at

“Our Western semantics are bound up with the fact that we’re a monotheistic civilization and we place a significance in signs. From layer to layer, our entire system of signs culminates in filling an ultimate sign—with a transcendence, a plenitude, a center, a meaning.” —Philosopher Roland Barthes I grew up in a house without God. My parents didn’t believe in believing in something, nor did they think it prudent to start. Moving to America had already eroded, against their will, so many of the habits they tried to preserve and plant anew in the dry soil of their first U.S. home. Colorado was windswept and airless and hot. Being stranded in a desert is the kind of situation that can compel conversion. But not for them. On the matter of religion, they were immovable. We did not go to church on Sundays, and there was not much to do in the small university town where my mom had settled us. I was small, maybe four or five, and I don’t remember much from those years. I don’t know what I did all day. I only know I hated going to bed, but I would be allowed to stay up when we were watching American Idol, or, on rarer occasions, when my parents were singing karaoke. The music would be brought out in a flipbook of CDs. Ours had a bright blue fabric cover that zipped up and translucent plastic sleeves

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that got stuck together. The CDs were printed magenta and yellow and labeled with their contents: collected hits from the 80s, mostly Cantonese and Hokkien songs that were popular in my parents’ college years. We would play them from my dad’s black laptop. I would imitate the dances in the music videos as my parents followed the slowly greening lyrics at the bottom of the screen. Later on, I would find karaoke embarrassing. It’s not exactly that I outgrew singing along to cheesy music, but rather I felt that my musical education had precluded the kind of enjoyment my parents took to. It was tasteless to like karaoke because I was taking piano lessons, because I knew music theory. In high school, I joined the jazz band. It was the cool way to play piano at school, and although our uniforms were decidedly uncool—we wore navy, white, and silver suits that made us look like flight attendants—there was something genuinely appealing and School of Rock-cool about the way our band took classically trained music nerds and converted them. That’s how I fell seriously and deeply in love with jazz. I realized quickly, however, that improvisation was not for me. I prefer to contemplate, to sink in—trying to follow chord changes on the fly made me feel like the wind-tube man outside car

Creative Reactions Winner

dealerships. Although I couldn’t play to my satisfaction, I loved the complexity of jazz and the possibilities. I loved the mess, the hectic energy, the interplay. I loved seeing the sweat run down a soloist’s face.

Scheide Librarian Paul Needham shows a copy of the Gutenberg Bible in the Scheide Collection at Princeton University’s Firestone Library.

One night over winter break I am working late in a café when I hear this song: It begins with a single guitar line, an arpeggiated chord progression. Lauryn Hill’s voice comes in holding onto a melody, repeated, six times, seven times. She tells of her search for God, about the tumble of life, the rough-hewn nature of it. Her voice is smooth and cool, rippling over the lines. She sings a counterpoint to the guitar, the tension between them sustained by her suspended melodies, climbing higher, and the continuous stream of the guitar,

until it all melts, in a rush, into the chorus. It is the simplest line of the song, running up and down, playful and exuberant and lush. What is it to find God? It’s just like the water / I ain’t felt this way in years. How spiritually daring women “tell God.” This is the premise of the title piece in Anne Carson’s Decreation. It is an opera in verse, told in parts, one each for Joan of Arc, Marguerite Porete, and Simone Weil. It is about women who are excluded from a certain picture of God and how they make room for faith anyway, how they embrace a love that empties the self, so that God may “rush in.” Carson’s portrait leaves me tender. I, too, wish to be a spiritually daring woman. Music allows me this luxury. If I am lucky, if I am paying attention, I can make room for it. The physical element of it seems true—the metaphor of being depleted or being full finds its place in the body, in the movement of breath through our cavities. When the circumstances are right, we can give ourselves, I want to say literally, to the resonant sounds. I know there must be something to this thought, because my parents, who do not believe in such things, are touched by it anyway. There is one song in particular that affects my dad. It’s called “Red Day,” and it’s a bumping 80s relic that gets him every time. Sometimes I’ll spring it on him while he’s working, and he’ll wander over with a grin, begin singing. I can see the song move him. I can see him start to dance. Crystal Liu is a senior from Seattle, Washington. She studies philosophy and is pursuing a certificate in creative writing. Her poetry thesis was advised by Tracy K. Smith, the current United States Poet Laureate and Director of the Creative Writing Program at Princeton University.

Maestro Dudamel has sparked conversations in our department regarding authentic representation of diversity across ensembles, repertoire, and leadership positions. I will not forget his inclusive, selfless music making.” —Mariana Corichi Gomez ’21 | 33

Princeton University Concerts 2019/20 Season Announcement




2019/2020 SEASON


Our cornerstone series highlights Beethoven’s 250th anniversary, focuses on immersive single-composer programs, celebrates American musicians and composers, and more. 2019 THURSDAY, OCTOBER 10 8PM

THE CHAMBER MUSIC SOCIETY OF LINCOLN CENTER “New World Spirit” featuring Copland’s Appalachian Spring 2019 THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 7 8PM

STEFAN JACKIW Violin JEREMY DENK Piano* The Complete Violin Sonatas of Charles Ives 2020 THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 6 8PM


CALIDORE STRING QUARTET “The Great Fugue,” including Bach’s Art of the Fugue, Beethoven’s Grosse Fuge, and a new work in response by English composer Anna Clyne. 2020 THURSDAY, MARCH 26 8PM


BENJAMIN BEILMAN Violin* ANDREW TYSON Piano* Beethoven, Britten, Prokofiev, and a new work by composer Frederic Rzewski 2020 THURSDAY, APRIL 16 8PM

DOVER STRING QUARTET* Mozart, Bartók, and Ravel 2020 THURSDAY, APRIL 30 8PM

MATTHIAS GOERNE Baritone JAN LISIECKI Piano* All-Beethoven Songs

*PRINCETON UNIVERSITY CONCERTS DEBUT 34 | Princeton University Concerts

Princeton University Concerts 2019/20 Season Announcement

WITH OUR 126TH SEASON... We reaffirm our roots as one of the country’s oldest and boldest chamber music series, channeling the exuberant scope of our 125th anniversary celebration with an exciting season that stays closer to home. As always, we both reunite and expand our star-studded PUC family, welcoming back many fan favorites and introducing fifteen debuts. Here’s to the next 125 years!

With extraordinary artist pairings, PUC gives voice to timeless stories told through a new vocal series. 2019 TUESDAY, OCTOBER 22 8PM

IAN BOSTRIDGE Tenor BRAD MEHLDAU Piano* Schumann and Mehldau



Subscriptions to the 2019/20 season will go on sale in May. Call 609-258-2800 or visit


JOYCE DIDONATO Mezzo-soprano YANNICK NÉZET-SÉGUIN Piano* Schubert Winterreise


All-Beethoven Songs

The Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, Bruce Adolphe, Host “Oceanophony,” music, poetry, underwater photography, and amazing facts about the ocean and its creatures

When Igor Stravinsky was asked late in life what he considered to be the most exciting modern music, his answer was (in addition to a piece by Schoenberg), “Georgian polyphonic folk song… this active musical performance tradition with its roots in the ancient past is something remarkable that offers more to performance than all of the achievements of modern music.” 2019 MONDAY, NOVEMBER 18 7:30PM

ENSEMBLE BASIANI* Georgian State Vocal Ensemble


Presented in collaboration with the Princeton University Glee Club

VISION STRING QUARTET* program 1: Grazyna Bacewicz and Schumann



GABRIELA MONTERO Piano* program 1: Rachmaninoff and Charlie Chaplin’s

“The Immigrant” with improvisation program 2: Schumann and improvisations 2020 THURSDAY, APRIL 9 6PM & 9PM

CONRAD TAO Piano* CALEB TEICHER Tap Dancer* Bach, Tao, and more with tap improvisation






program 2: Jazz




PUC125 began as a gesture towards our 125th anniversary season—and towards the future of the concert experience. In our four-year experiment, we have learned that what it means to be “up close” to the music we love can have ever-evolving meanings. With our 126th season, we embrace this notion by exploring the ARTIST AS IMPROVISER.

PUC nurtures a lifelong love of music by offering kids of all ages a chance to encounter chamber music in person at Richardson Auditorium, Alexander Hall.

The Richardson Chamber Players, our resident ensemble of performance faculty, distinguished guest artists, and supremely-talented students, offer Sunday afternoon concerts of mixed chamber works. 2019 SUNDAY, OCTOBER 20 3PM 2019 SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 24 3PM 2020 SUNDAY, MARCH 8 3PM | 35





Saturday, December 1, 2018

Monday, January 7, 2019




A public conversation between Maestro Dudamel and Don Michael Randel followed by a celebratory concert by Betsayda Machado and Jorge Glem.

Works by Mozart, Pärt, and a new work by Princeton faculty composer Juri Seo. Musical Preview at 6:00PM by students from the Youth Orchestra of Los Angeles (“YOLA”). Post-concert talk moderated by Maestro Dudamel with Professors Alexander Nehamas and Elaine Pagels.

FREE but ticketed

Sunday, December 2, 2018 2:00PM

QUARTET 212 & EMILY D’ANGELO, Mezzo-soprano Works by Haydn, Respighi, Verdi, and a new work by Princeton faculty composer Donnacha Dennehy. Musical Preview at 1:00PM by students of the Boston String Academy, an El Sistema-inspired program. Post-concert talk with Maestro Dudamel and New York Philharmonic President Deborah Borda, free to ticketholders.


Tuesday, January 8, 2019 7:00PM

“LA MÚSICA COMO LIBERTAD: GUSTAVO DUDAMEL EN PRINCETON” A conversation in Spanish between Maestro Dudamel and Professor Javier Guerrero. Trinity Church. FREE

Wednesday, January 9, 2019 4:30PM

EL SISTEMA: A PANEL DISCUSSION Moderated by Professor Stanley Katz. Panelists include Lou Chen ’19, Anne Fitzgibbon (Harmony Program, Founder and Executive Director), and Elsje Kibler-Vermaas (YOLA, Acting Director of Education).


McCosh 10. FREE 6:00PM

MUSIC MADE VISIBLE: METAPHORS OF THE EPHEMERAL A gallery reception. Works by artist Marsha Levin-Rojer. Bernstein Gallery, Woodrow Wilson School. FREE

RELATED EVENT November 30, 2018– January 31, 2019

“Music Made Visible: Metaphors of the Ephemeral,” an exhibition by artist Marsha Levin-Rojer Bernstein Gallery, Woodrow Wilson School. FREE, open Monday–Friday, 9:00AM–5:00PM




Friday, April 26, 2019 7:30PM

With a score by Gustavo Dudamel, this film by Alberto Arvelo recounts Simón Bolívar’s struggle to liberate South America. A Q&A will follow with Professor Robert Karl.

Works by Schubert, Tchaikovsky, and Mendelssohn. Pre-concert panel discussion at 6:30PM moderated by Professor Stanley Katz with Professors Javier Guerrero, Simon Morrison, and Rachel Price.

Screening and tickets at the Princeton Garden Theatre

Tuesday, April 23, 2019 7:00PM


Saturday, April 27, 2019 4:00PM

Works by Schubert, Wagner, and a new work by Princeton faculty composer Steven Mackey. Musical Preview at 6:00PM by students from the Harmony Program of New York City. Post-concert talk moderated by Maestro Dudamel with Professors Jeff Dolven and Kip Thorne.

Wednesday, April 24, 2019 8:00PM

ANNUAL CHAMBER JAM Amateur musicians are invited to join members of the Berlin Philharmonic in a community sight-reading fest! FREE but reservations required


PRINCETON UNIVERSITY ORCHESTRA & GLEE CLUB GUSTAVO DUDAMEL, Conductor The program above is repeated in a concert FREE and open to all with visual projections by Albert Arvelo. Patriots Theater at the War Memorial, Trenton, NJ. FREE but ticketed.

Sunday, April 28, 2019 3:00PM

EL SISTEMA FESTIVAL PERFORMANCE The residency concludes in a public concert featuring hundreds of students from Trenton Music Makers, the El Sistema New Jersey Alliance, and invited guests. FREE, a Communiversity event

Thursday, April 25, 2019 8:00PM

THE ARTIST IN SOCIETY Gustavo Dudamel in conversation with Fintan O’Toole, one of Ireland’s leading public intellectuals, moderated by Professor Melissa Lane. A reception will follow. FREE


In addition to public events, Maestro Dudamel engaged with campus and community partners in a number of ways including: • A conversation about Poverty, the Arts, and Civic Engagement hosted by Professor Melissa Lane at the Center for Human Values • Visits with student musicians in the Trenton Music Makers program, the Trenton Public Schools, and more than 300 visiting students from El Sistema-inspired programs from all over the country • Classroom visits to courses including Verdi taught by Professor Wendy Heller, the Human Voice by Professor Jeff Dolven and Majel Connery ’01, the Great Conductors, and Techniques of Conducting taught by Michael Pratt • Dinner with students in the Human Values Forum hosted by Kevin Zhang ’19 • Salsa party with live music by the Poncho y Bongo band and dance instruction by Arturo Perez

A Reporter’s Journal

Culture, Creativity, Connection, Contemplation: A Reporter’s Journal, By Jamie Saxon © 2019 During the first two residency visits, Jamie Saxon, the arts and humanities writer in the University Office of Communications, shadowed Maestro Dudamel across campus in spaces grand and intimate, from stage to classroom, from Princeton University Chapel to a Trenton public school. Following is a timeline of highlights and impressions from her experience. A PUBLIC WELCOME

“We start with education,” Dudamel says. “It’s important for children to have access to beauty, space to create beauty. The freedom we have to give to our people is culture, creativity, connection, contemplation. I don’t see a better example of how society works than an orchestra or a choir. They get together and listen to each other and create one sound that is beautiful, that transforms the life of the people who are listening.”

Dec. 1, 8:12 p.m., Richardson Auditorium, Alexander Hall. As Dudamel steps onto the stage for his first public appearance at Princeton—a conversation with musicologist Don Michael Randel, a 1962 alumnus and 1967 graduate alumnus in music—the audience breaks into deafening applause, whoops and “bravo’s.” Settling into an armchair, Dudamel waits, as if creating a beat of silence with his lifted baton before the opening of a symphony.

The event concludes with a lively performance by Venezuelan singer Betsayda Machado. “The brightest image of the residency so far is the person who came into the hall [during Machado’s performance] and spread the Venezuelan flag over an entire row of seats,” says Marna Seltzer, Director of Princeton University Concerts.

Down comes the baton. “Hello,” he says, a twinkle in his eye. “I am Gustavo Dudamel.”

Dec. 2, 11:10 a.m., Chancellor Green Rotunda. Dudamel and his wife, Spanish actress María Valverde, enter the ornate octagonal library on a private campus tour led by senior Lou Chen.

He tells a childhood story he would tell multiple audiences during the residency. “After school, at home, I lined up my toys in a perfect orchestra. I stood on a little wooden box. We had LPs back then, recordings of all the great orchestras—Berlin, Vienna, Chicago. I would say ‘Stop!’ constantly. My orchestra made many mistakes! I was very tough with them! I would stop the record, then start again. I destroyed the LPs! That was also the gift of imagination that we have to open for our children.” Dudamel’s devotion to education and social change stems in part from his experience with Venezuela’s El Sistema program as a child. Founded by José Antonio Abreu 40 years ago, El Sistema (“The System”) provides free music education to low-income communities. Around age 11 or 12, Dudamel started playing the violin at his El Sistema nucleo—but only to be with his friends, who were all violinists. Fifteen students shared a single violin. “One day, the conductor was late,” Dudamel says. “I stepped up.” Randel asks him how to make music into a powerful force in society.

38 | Princeton University Concerts


On this Sunday morning, all is quiet. Then, the Princeton University Glee Club, standing on the second-floor balcony, bursts into the Venezuelan folk song “Apure en un Viaje,” conducted by Gabriel Crouch, senior lecturer in music. Dudamel puts his arm around his wife, his face alight. When they finish, he thanks the choir: “For us, it is like coming to heaven.” He asks if anyone is from a Latin American country. Sophomore Mariana Corichi Gomez calls out, “Sí.” Dudamel asks “De donde [what part]?” She replies, identifying the region. “Bueno!” he says, then to everyone, “I look forward to working with you soon!” The tiny entourage walks to the next stop, Mathey College Common Room. Chen picks up a baton and leads the Trenton Youth Orchestra—who have been waiting at the ready, instruments in hand—in a suite from the Harry Potter movies. A meaningful moment for senior Mary Kim, a TYO coach, happened when the mini-concert ended. “He asked one of the girls if he could hold her violin. Gently turning it over in his hands, he told the kids how his very first violin ‘looked just like this one.’ It was a touching reminder that everyone starts from somewhere, and every child has seeds of talent and passion that need to be cultivated with a lot of love and attention,” she said.

A Reporter’s Journal

Kim, a violinist in the Princeton University Orchestra, said she is “excited to play under his infectious energy and his quick wit and humor. I know that under his guidance and wisdom and his intense focus, the orchestra will be pushed towards a musical and emotional maturity surpassing anything we’ve ever experienced as an ensemble.”

Lane, the Class of 1943 Professor of Politics and director of UCHV, asks: “How do we envision the arts as central to society and to areas of concentrated deprivation?” Patricia Fernández-Kelly, professor of sociology and the director of the Center for Migration and Development, and Ekédi Mpondo-Dika, a researcher in sociology, unpack examples from their own research—from the rise of worldfamous rapper Pitbull, the son of impoverished Cuban immigrants, to the ways rap music provides solace and camaraderie in underserved Trenton communities. Dudamel shares the story of starting an El Sistema program in a remote community of immigrants in Sweden, which now serves 10,000 children. “Art is an essential human right,” he says.

Princeton alumnus Don Michael Randel and Maestro Dudamel contemplate Art and Society in a public conversation.

A WORLD PREMIERE Dec. 2, 3:44 p.m., Richardson Auditorium. Donnacha Dennehy, associate professor of music, jumps up onstage for a bow after his new work, Strange Folk, is performed by Quartet 212, an ensemble of principal members of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, in a concert program curated by Dudamel. It is the first of three works commissioned from members of the Princeton music faculty for the residency. Following the concert, Dennehy, a native of Dublin, said the inspiration for Strange Folk came from “the incredible fascination that we had for all things American when I was a kid. It’s like someone from way off—an immigrant like me—imagining a different and slightly weird folk culture in a kind of idealized place. Of course, I enjoyed the extra complication that American folk music is itself influenced by Irish music, among others.” Dudamel takes part in a post-concert talk with Deborah Borda, president of the New York Philharmonic and former president of the LA Philharmonic. “This is the beginning of a beautiful journey,” he says. “It is such a privilege to be sharing music with you and the children and that we keep having fun!” “ART IS AN ESSENTIAL HUMAN RIGHT.” Jan. 7, 12:16 p.m., Marx Hall, Room 301. In a discussion hosted by the University Center for Human Values, Melissa

Kim Worthington, a graduate student in history, said a highlight of the panel was Dudamel’s description “that ‘poverty’ is a relative term and we should broaden our understanding beyond concerns with money.” “One thing Dudamel said that made a deep impression on me was, ‘What is worse than being poor is to be no one,’” said senior Kevin Zhang, a philosophy major and member of the Princeton Pianists Ensemble. “Dudamel said music is so powerful because it provides people with an identity and a dignity.” HOW MUSIC FEEDS THE SOUL Jan. 7, 9:14 p.m., Richardson Auditorium. An ensemble of members of the LA Philharmonic finish their concert with Mozart’s Clarinet Quintet. The stage is cleared and three stools brought in. Dudamel hops onto one, notepad in hand. Elaine Pagels, the Harrington Spear Paine Foundation Professor of Religion, and Alexander Nehamas, the Edmund N. Carpenter II Class of 1943 Professor in the Humanities and professor of philosophy and comparative literature, take the others. Dudamel says Mozart’s Quintet “touches the stars. It is pure beauty. For me, that is faith.” He asks Pagels and Nehamas what connections they’ve experienced between art and faith. Nehamas shares a memory of his parents taking him to the Salzburg Festival at age 7, where he judged Hindemith “a little heavy.” At age 10, he heard Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro and loved it. He agrees with Dudamel’s reflection on the quintet they’ve just heard. “If I die, play the larghetto of the quintet,” he says. “There is a contradiction there: It makes you happy to be sad.” | 39

A Reporter’s Journal

Dudamel makes a show of dropping his notebook on the floor, abandoning his prepared questions. He just wants to listen to the two professors talk. Pagels, who lost her 6-year-old son and her husband within a year of each other, says that Christmases have been difficult for her. She recalls hearing her daughter sing in the choir at Trinity Church Princeton one Christmas Eve. “The church was packed. The music helped my heart. I thought to myself, ‘This story is about the miraculous birth of a child and the death is coming. This story is woven out of countless stories.’”

and it was a lot of fun. I was making a lot of mistakes, but I was having a lot of fun.” One of the young musicians, a violinist, asks: “When you are conducting, is it hard?” “Playing the violin is hard, conducting is easy,” Dudamel answers. “Everything has a complexity, but if you do what you love, you can conquer everything.”

Pagels continues: “Music is the most direct access to what I think is a spiritual dimension. The mass is constructed to open you up. Which the psalms, the whole world makes music.” A week later, Christina Jeanes, a Princeton resident and Spanish teacher who grew up in Argentina and Spain, was still thinking about Nehamas’ comment about feeling happy to be sad. Dudamel had responded, “That is also what happens with boleros.” “I grew up listening to boleros,” Jeanes said, “so I know exactly what he means. I am so grateful to Princeton University for offering this once-in-alifetime opportunity!”

Surprise! Maestro Dudamel joins the violin section of the Trenton Central High School Orchestra.

Jan. 8, 2:32 p.m., Hedgepeth-Williams Middle School of the Arts, Trenton. As the Trenton Central High School Orchestra tunes up on the auditorium stage, Reed Gusciora, mayor of Trenton, welcomes Dudamel.

Maestro Dudamel meets his biggest fan at a rehearsal of the Trenton Central High School Orchestra.

ENGAGING WITH YOUNG TRENTON MUSICIANS Jan. 7, 4:09 p.m., Woolworth Center, Room 102. Trenton Music Makers, an El Sistema-inspired program for fourthto ninth-graders, plays Rossini’s “William Tell” overture. Dudamel leans his chin in his left hand, smiling broadly, his head nodding in time to the rousing music. At the end, Dudamel jumps up and shakes the hands of all the musicians in the front row. “Bravo! You know I played in an orchestra like you. Listening to you I was remembering,

40 | Princeton University Concerts

The orchestra launches into a tribute to Aretha Franklin. In between pieces, Dudamel takes questions from the audience of Trenton politicians, educators and students. He encourages the students not to compare themselves to others, but rather to believe in themselves and enjoy the music. “In the orchestra, you learn how to listen to each other. What a beautiful world we would have if we all listened to each other.” Suddenly, Dudamel says he wants to play. Someone produces a violin, he settles his chair next to one of the violinists and, despite the brace on his right hand from a recent fall where he broke two fingers, he jumps in for a medley from Phantom of the Opera. PEEKING INTO PRINCETON’S HIDDEN GEMS Jan. 9, 11 a.m. Princeton University Chapel. The booming chords of Cortège Académique by Canadian composer Ernest MacMillan, performed by University organist Eric Plutz, resound under the vaulted ceiling.

A Reporter’s Journal

Dudamel sits in one of the pews. The Chapel Choir, directed by Penna Rose, sings “Come Thou Fount of Every Blessing,” Robert Robinson’s 18th-century hymn. As soon as the choir finishes, Dudamel rushes up to talk to them. “I don’t want to leave this place,” he says. “I am so touched.” Across the plaza, in Princeton University Library’s Scheide Library, Dudamel views rare manuscripts including a Beethoven sketchbook.

“Let’s go to 53. That moment is huge,” Dudamel says, emitting a long, low growl to mimic the bass tones. He and Bova conduct in sync. “You have to fight to be alive!” Dudamel exclaims, shaking his arms, his body electric with the music. Later, Bova gushes: “That was the 20 greatest minutes of my life!”

Leading Dudamel’s second campus tour, Dasha Koltunyuk, a 2015 alumna and marketing and outreach manager for the Department of Music and Princeton University Concerts, makes a stop on the way to the Princeton University Art Museum. “I showed Maestro Dudamel a [copy of a] photo of Martin Luther King Jr. taken after his 1960 sermon on universal brotherhood at the chapel as we passed the location where the photo was taken,” she said. “I will never forget the excitement in Maestro Dudamel’s eyes as history came alive before us, and the clear awe that he—someone who strives for universal brotherhood through music—holds for Reverend King.” MASTER CLASS: “DON’T BE AFRAID!” Jan. 9, 2:52 p.m., Lee Rehearsal Room, Lewis Arts complex. The warm cacophony of the 100-plus members of the Princeton University Orchestra tuning up suddenly quiets as Dudamel enters for a master class with three students who are studying conducting in the Program in Musical Performance. Junior Reilly Bova steps onto the podium to conduct “March to the Scaffold,” the fourth movement from Symphonie fantastique by Berlioz. The piece begins with the crash of loud timpani, the swell of violins, then the brass dives in. As Bova conducts, Dudamel stands to the side, instinctively moving his right hand. Bova, his arms moving vigorously, ushers in each section of the orchestra energetically to the end. Looking at the percussion section, Dudamel asks, “What happens with the timpani in the beginning? Do it a little slower, have the clarity of those 12 notes. What is the dynamic? Pianissimo mysterioso. If it’s too fast, then I can’t hear the pianissimo.” He stops again, hums the melody. “To make the pianissimo sound more intense than the fortissimo is the thing. Then, the effect is better. Hey, my friend! Try it!” The orchestra launches in.

Lou Chen ’19, Anne Fitzgibbon, Director of the Harmony Program New York City, and Professor Stanley Katz discuss El Sistema with Maestro Dudamel.

CHANGING LIVES, ONE CHILD AT A TIME Jan. 9, 4:32 p.m., McCosh Hall, Room 10. The January visit closes with a panel discussion about El Sistema led by Stanley Katz, lecturer with the rank of professor in public and international affairs, Woodrow Wilson School. Dudamel, Lou Chen, and Anne Fitzgibbon, a 1998 graduate alumna and founder of the Harmony Program in New York City, share their experiences and take questions from a packed audience. A few weeks later, Katz, who is also director of Princeton’s Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies, reflected: “For me the Dudamel visit has been a special thrill. Meeting Dudamel was a chance to shake the hand and bend the ear of history come alive.” For Chen, the experience was unforgettable. “Maestro Dudamel’s parting words to me were, ‘Keep doing the amazing work you’re doing.’ This, coming from the global champion of accessible music education—I felt like I had been infused with new energy. And I have no intention of letting him down. He has leveraged his musical talent to uplift children across the world. There’s no reason we students can’t do the same.” | 41

About Gustavo Dudamel

About Gustavo Dudamel

A lifelong advocate for music education and social development through art and champion of access to the arts for young people around the world, Gustavo Dudamel is in his tenth year as Music and Artistic Director of the Los Angeles Philharmonic. Under his direction, the LA Phil has become one of the leading orchestras in the world, admired for its unmatched commitment to new music, diversity and inclusion, and the development of groundbreaking digital initiatives. Shaped by his childhood experience with El Sistema, the extraordinary program of immersive musical training initiated in 1975 by José Antonio Abreu, Dudamel also marks his 19th season as Music Director of the Simón Bolívar Symphony Orchestra of Venezuela. Dudamel carries on the work of the late Maestro Abreu with his ongoing commitment to El Sistema in Venezuela and by supporting numerous Sistema-inspired projects around the world, including Big Noise in Scotland, Vienna’s Superar program, SerHacer in Boston, and El Sistema Sweden. His 2018 “Americas” tour with the Vienna Philharmonic was highlighted by an Art and Citizenship workshop in Mexico City bringing together 300 young people from across North and South America in an expression of cultural solidarity. He has worked to raise awareness of the importance of music education by appearing at the United Nations and The White House and delivered an address on the unity of the Arts and Sciences at the 2017 Nobel Prize Concert. Dudamel also

42 | Princeton University Concerts

continues to expand the reach of his Youth Orchestra Los Angeles (“YOLA”) initiative. Founded in 2007, the program has provided access to quality music education to tens of thousands of children from underserved communities around Los Angeles. 2019 will see the construction of a new Frank Gehry-designed facility for YOLA in Inglewood, California. One of the few classical musicians to truly reach mainstream audiences while maintaining the highest musical integrity, Gustavo Dudamel has been featured three times on CBS’ 60 Minutes and was the subject of a PBS special, Dudamel: Conducting a Life. He has been interviewed by Christiane Amanpour on CNN, Conan O’Brien on Late Night with Conan O’Brien, Stephen Colbert on The Late Show, and Elmo on Sesame Street. He had a cameo role in Amazon Studio’s award-winning series Mozart in the Jungle and, together with members of YOLA, became the first classical musician to participate in the 2016 Super Bowl halftime show, appearing alongside pop stars Coldplay, Beyoncé, and Bruno Mars. In 2017, he was the youngest-ever conductor to lead the Vienna Philharmonic’s famous New Year’s Day Concert, watched annually by over 60 million people in 90 countries. At John Williams’ personal request, Dudamel guest-conducted on the soundtrack for Star Wars: The Force Awakens; he also recorded James Newton Howard’s soundtrack to Disney’s holiday blockbuster The Nutcracker and the Four Realms, in which he makes an on-screen cameo.

About Gustavo Dudamel

Dudamel’s cinema, TV, radio, and online broadcasts have reached hundreds of millions of people around the world. Dudamel’s Grammy® Award-winning discography also includes landmark recordings of John Adams’ Gospel According to the Other Mary (commissioned and performed by the Los Angeles Philharmonic); the soundtrack to the motion picture The Liberator, for which Dudamel composed the score; a Richard Strauss disc with the Berlin Philharmonic; Mahler Symphonies 5 and 7 with the Simón Bolívar Symphony Orchestra; and Mahler 9 with the Los Angeles Philharmonic. A special charity LP release of Mendelssohn’s “Scottish” Symphony with the Vienna Philharmonic raised funds for music education projects in Latin America, and children from Vienna’s El Sistema-inspired Superar program participated in his most recent Deutsche Grammophon release, Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition. Dudamel has independently produced an all-Wagner recording available exclusively for download and streaming, a set of the complete Beethoven symphonies from Barcelona’s Palau de la Música, and a broadcast of two Stravinsky ballets in cooperation with the Berlin Philharmonic’s Digital Concert Hall. In recognition of his advocacy for the proliferation of the arts in the Americas, he received the 2018 Paez Medal of Art and the Pablo Neruda Order of Artistic and Cultural Merit, the Americas Society Cultural Achievement Award in 2016, and the 2014 Leonard Bernstein Lifetime Achievement Award for the Elevation of Music in Society from the Longy School of Music. He was named Musical America’s 2013 Musician of the Year, one of the highest honors in the classical music industry, and was voted into the Gramophone Hall of Fame. In October of 2011, he was named Gramophone Artist of the Year, and, in May of the same year, was inducted into the Royal Swedish Academy of Music in consideration of his “eminent merits in the musical art.” The previous year, he received the Eugene McDermott Award in the Arts at MIT. Dudamel was

inducted into l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres as a Chevalier in Paris in 2009 and received an honorary doctorate from the Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado in his hometown of Barquisimeto, Venezuela. He also received an honorary doctorate from the University of Gothenburg in 2012. In 2008, the Simón Bolívar Youth Orchestra was awarded Spain’s prestigious annual Prince of Asturias Award for the Arts and, along with his mentor José Antonio Abreu, Dudamel was given the “Q Prize” from Harvard University for extraordinary service to children. He was named one of Time magazine’s 100 most influential people in 2009. Gustavo Dudamel was born in 1981 in Barquisimeto, Venezuela. He began violin lessons as a child with José Luis Jiménez and Francisco Díaz at the Jacinto Lara Conservatory. He continued his violin studies with Rubén Cova and José Francisco del Castillo at the Latin American Academy of Violin. His conducting studies began in 1993 when he was hired as an Assistant Conductor with the Amadeus Chamber Orchestra. In 1996, he studied with Rodolfo Saglimbeni and was named Music Director of the Amadeus Chamber Orchestra. In 1999, he was appointed Music Director of the Simón Bolívar Youth Orchestra and began conducting studies with the orchestra’s founder, Dr. Abreu. Dudamel achieved international attention by winning the inaugural Bamberger Symphoniker Gustav Mahler Competition in 2004. He then went on to become Music Director of the Gothenburg Symphony (2007–2012), where he currently holds the title Honorary Conductor. Inspired by Dudamel’s early musical and mentoring experiences, the Gustavo Dudamel Foundation, a registered charity, was created in 2012 with the goal of promoting access to music as a human right and a catalyst for learning, integration, and social change. For more information about Gustavo Dudamel, visit his official website:

About the Gustavo Dudamel Foundation The Gustavo Dudamel Foundation is committed to highlighting and enriching the crucial nexus between the arts and society. The Foundation believes that music provides a universal language that transcends differences and encourages individual empowerment and social integration. For that reason, its mission is to expand access to music and art for as many children as possible, while providing tools and opportunities for young people to shape their creative futures.

The Dudamel Foundation is proud to contribute to the lasting impact of Maestro Dudamel’s 2018/19 residency at Princeton University by supporting the ongoing engagement between Princeton University and vital musical-social initiatives in Trenton, New Jersey and the Tri-State region. For more information about the Foundation, please visit | 43

About the Participants

About the Participants DIEGO “EL NEGRO” ÁLVAREZ Percussion, Betsayda Machado (12/1) Diego “El Negro” Álvarez is a master percussionist, Latin Percussion artist, and cajón player born in Venezuela. Son of Afro-Venezuelan mezzo-soprano Morella Muñoz, Diego grew up in and around both traditional percussion and academia. He lived in Spain for sixteen years, where he propelled his career mixing Latin Percussion with the Spanish cajón and performing alongside the most prestigious flamenco companies in the world, such as Joaquín Cortés, Antonio Canales, Sara Baras, Nuevo Ballet Español, and Paco Peña, among others. Álvarez has 12 Latin Grammy nominations, and he is a Latin Grammy Awardwinner for his involvement in Sera by La Vida Bohème in 2010. He promotes the cajón as a universal instrument, showing its roots to Peruvian and flamenco music. He now lives in Los Angeles where he continues work on different flamenco and jazz projects. ALBERTO ARVELO Film Director Visual projections A Midsummer Night’s Dream (4/27) Alberto Arvelo is a writer, musician, and director known for A House with a View of the Sea (Una Casa con Vista al Mar) (2001), Cyrano Fernández (2007), and Libertador (2013). His films have won more than 30 international awards. His documentary Play and Fight (Tocar y Luchar) (2006), first shown at the Los Angeles AFI Festival, delves into the life of several children in the renowned Venezuelan Child and Youth Orchestra System (Sistema de Orquestas Infantiles y Juveniles de Venezuela), accompanied by classical-music figures such as tenor Plácido Domingo, and conductors Claudio Abbado, Sir Simon Rattle, and Gustavo Dudamel. This documentary narrates the “El Sistema” phenomenon. Arvelo’s connection to El Sistema goes back to his beginnings as a cellist with the Youth Orchestra in Mérida. Play and Fight became the most watched documentary in Venezuela; it was translated into 15 languages. Play and Fight was followed by a second documentary based on the international projection of “El Sistema:” Dudamel, Let the Children Play (2010). The documentary focuses on Gustavo Dudamel as the person who inspired an international movement that spread to over 50 countries. For this project, Alberto Arvelo was supported by Video Art Producer Gabriela Camejo and Visual Effects Artist Miguel Guerrero. About his visual projections for A Midsummer Night’s Dream,

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Arvelo says: “Few literary works have been reinterpreted by artists such as A Midsummer Night’s Dream. From Mendelssohn’s overture of 1826 to the 1960 Britten Opera; from the 1935 film by Max Reinhardt to Julie Taymor’s version in 2014; from William Blake’s canvas in 1786 to Sir Edwin Landseer’s in 1851— the arts have paid homage over the centuries to this masterpiece that narrates the triumph of love and the power of dreams. I was always struck by the poetic challenge of merging the visions of those who found inspiration in A Midsummer Night’s Dream within the medium of a video art. The experience of fusing Mendelssohn’s overture with paintings from the 18th and 19th century is a revealing aesthetic journey. The video art that accompanies my version of A Midsummer Night’s Dream is based on paintings by Joseph Noel Paton, William Blake, Henry Fuseli, and Sir Edwin Landseer, among others.” ENSEMBLE BERLIN (4/23) Colleagues in the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra (BPO) got together for the first time in 1999 at the Landsberger Sommermusiken. At the end of the first performance of this small but refined festival of chamber music the group expressed a desire to perform more concerts in that setting, and the Ensemble Berlin was born. Soon afterwards the Bavarian Broadcasting Company transmitted a live recording, and a growing public audience became aware of the group all over Germany and abroad. In 2006 the ensemble introduced itself in the Berlin Philharmonic to the friends of chamber music in the capital city and also played at the Mozart Festival in Würzburg. Concerts all over Europe, China, and Japan followed. In the meantime several CDs documented its growing repertoire. In addition to original compositions for chamber music from classical, romantic, and modern music, the ensemble performs musical adaptations like the ones you will hear tonight. To date, a series of musical jewels have resulted from the exceptionally fertile collaboration between the Berlin musicians and the arranger Wolfgang Renz. These arrangements, which have been set for the Ensemble, open up completely new interpretations of repertoire. The inspirational home of all the activities of the ensemble is, and has always been, the Landsberger Sommermusiken.

About the Participants

Here the group works in a naturally relaxed manner. The amount of pure enjoyment contained in this expression becomes audible in the concert hall. The effect continues to be felt long after evenings around a camp fire with their hosts.

member in 2012. Coelho is a winner of the German Musical Instruments Fund competition of the German Foundation for Musical Life and since February 2007 has played a Lorenzo Storioni Cremona violin from 1774 owned by the Federal Republic of Germany.

KonstKnekt began when Norwegian violinist Marianne Thorsen invited oboist Christoph Hartmann to her festival, Vinterfestspill i Bergstaden (“ViB”), in Norway eight years ago. Since then, a number of musicians from Berlin have visited ViB—where Christoph Hartmann himself was artistic director of the festival in 2015. The collaboration culminated in a performance by the Berlin Philharmonic in a church in Røros, Norway on May 1, 2016. The performance was broadcast live on television in Germany, Turkey, China, Japan, and Norway, and was sold to several other countries with a potential number of viewers in the 100 million range.

Over the course of his 15 years as Artistic Director for the Trondheim Soloists, cellist Øyvind Gimse (KonstKnekt) has developed the orchestra into a professional international touring ensemble. Seven Grammy nominations and two Spellemann prizes are the crowning achievements of his six major recordings with the Trondheim Soloists, and he has toured as far afield as South America and Japan. Øyvind has also conducted several of Norways’ professional symphony orchestras as well as orchestras in Spain, Lithuania, and Vietnam. Øyvind is an internationally renowned teacher who, alongside his position at the Institute of Music at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), has taught masterclasses in Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Spain, and Brazil. He has performed at all of the major Norwegian chamber music festivals, where he has played with musicians such as pianist Leif Ove Andsnes, clarinetist Martin Fröst, violinist Anthony Marwood, and vocalist Bobby McFerrin. Øyvind was the man behind the “Trondheim model” a unique collaboration between the Trondheim Soloists and the Trondheim Symphony Orchestra. He was also central to the development of the music venue Dokkhuset as a forum for chamber music, jazz, and classical music in Trondheim. He was involved in the establishment of the Trondheim Chamber Music Festival and also set up a national talent development program for young musicians. In recognition of his contribution to cultural life in Trondheim he was awarded the 2013 Trondheim Municipal Cultural Prize. Since the summer of 2015 Øyvind has played a Francesco Goffriller cello (1735) borrowed from the Sparebank Foundation/Dextra Musica, a fantastic instrument which earlier belonged to the legendary cellist Jacqueline du Pré.

KonstKnekt is a continuation of this collaboration. Young musicians are given the opportunity to receive coaching from leading members of the Berlin Philharmonic. This has been made possible thanks to ViB’s unique link with the orchestra. The project also offers an unusual opportunity to create links between Norwegian music education institutions and the Berlin Philharmonic including their Orchester– Akademie (OABPO). The Academy is an incubator for young musicians seeking to focus on a career as an orchestral musician. Students are taught by musicians and conductors of the BPO and are trained in the style and sound cultivated by the orchestra. Today, about a third of the BPO’s members have been recruited via the Academy. The institution provides a fantastic springboard for an international career as an orchestral musician, and the continued collaboration between ViB and the BPO benefits the entire Norwegian music community. Candidates selected for the KonstKnekt project are required to have achieved the level of a Masters or Diploma degree and must be qualified deputies at one or more of Norway’s institutional orchestras. This is to ensure a high standard at the outset—the project is not aimed at students but rather top qualified musicians who have a chance of gaining a place at the OABPO and who at a later stage might occupy prominent positions on the Norwegian music scene. Luíz Fïlíp Coelho (Berlin Philharmonic) began playing the violin at the age of four. He received his first lessons in his home town of São Paulo, Brazil from Elisa Fukuda. He later continued his education in Europe: in 2001, he became a student of Ulf Wallin at the Academy of Music Hanns Eisler Berlin, and from 2004 to 2005, he studied at the School of Music in Piteå, Sweden. He then returned to Berlin to attend the University of the Arts and perfected his skills with Guy Braunstein and Axel Gerhardt. In 2007 and 2008, Coelho was a student of the OABPO. He became a regular

Christoph Hartmann (Berlin Philharmonic) got his first oboe at the age of ten. Two years later he was studying with Georg Fischer at the conservatory in Augsburg. In 1984 he continued his training with Günther Passin at the Munich Musikhochschule, where after passing his final examination he also became an instructor. He began his career as an orchestral musician in 1991 with the Stuttgart Philharmonic and the following year moved to Berlin. A teacher since 1993 in the Berlin Philharmonic’s Orchestra Academy, in 1999 Hartmann, together with colleagues, founded the Landsberger Sommermusiken (Landsberg Summer Music), out of which evolved the Ensemble Berlin. In recent years he has devoted himself increasingly to research and has discovered and enriched his own repertoire with compositions by the once legendary, now nearly forgotten oboe virtuoso Antonio Pasculli. | 45

About the Participants

Walter Küssner (Berlin Philharmonic) would really rather have learned the cello, but his brother already played it. Besides that, he had the opportunity of borrowing a viola from his school, and so he decided for the deeper instrument. He received his professional musical training from Jürgen Kussmaul in Düsseldorf, Kim Kashkashian in New York City, and Michael Tree in St. Louis. In 1987 he became a member of the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra in Munich. Two years later he moved to the Berlin Philharmonic, where he also takes part in numerous chamber music ensembles, including the Philharmonic String Octet and the Athenaeum Quartet. As visiting professor of viola, Walter Küssner, an enthusiastic chess and skat player, teaches at Berlin’s Hanns Eisler Hochschule für Musik. He is also the orchestra’s historical archivist. Tone Langsrud (KonstKnekt) is a Norwegian french horn player based in Oslo. In 2007 she was offered a place in the Young Talents Program at the Norwegian Academy of Music as a student of Kjell Erik Arnesen (former principal horn of the Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra). In 2017 she finished her Bachelor Degree at the Norwegian Academy of Music, with professors Julius Pranevicius and Steinar Granmo Nilsen. During her studies she frequently played with many of the orchestras and military bands in Norway, such as the Oslo Philharmonic Orchestra, Trondheim Symphony Orchestra, and the Norwegian Staff Band. She is a founding member of the Oslo Horn Quartet and the outdoor music concept Lyden av Båntjern. She teaches summer school at the Norwegian Association of Marching Bands. Magnus Mihm (KonstKnekt) was born in 1994 in Wuppertal, Germany. He started playing the flute at age seven after hearing a cassette tape of Prokofiev’s Peter and the Wolf. Early on he participated in the German National Youth Music Competition, earning him multiple prizes. In 2011, while still attending school, he took up his studies with Dirk Peppel at the University of Music in Cologne. He studied in Freiburg from 2013 to 2017 with Mario Caroli, where he discovered a passion for contemporary chamber music in the school’s Institute for New Music. He is currently finishing his Master’s Degree with Pirmin Grehl in Karlsruhe, Germany. During the 2017/18 season he was an intern with the SWR Radio Symphony Stuttgart and is currently member of the Orchestra Academy of the Rhineland-Palatinate State Philharmonic. In 2015 Magnus won the third prize at the Bertold Hummel Competition in Würzburg, Germany and in 2017 fifth prize at the International Flute Competition in Kraków, Poland. Ingeborg Moe (KonstKnekt) began playing clarinet in Skjold Skoles Musikkorps in Bergen, Norway. She was also active as pianist and took part in national competitions on both instruments. During a year at the Toneheim Folk

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High School, she decided to be a professional clarinet player. She has since studied at the Norwegian Academy of Music with Leif Arne Pedersen and Björn Nyman as tutors and completed her master’s degree in the autumn of 2017. Ingeborg is an active freelancer, working with the Norwegian Radio Orchestra, Norwegian National Opera Orchestra, Norwegian Arctic Philharmonic, and the staff band of the Norwegian Armed Force, Kongelige. Bryndís Tórsdóttir (KonstKnekt) started playing bassoon at the age of 14 in Reykjavík, Iceland. In the spring 2017 she finished her Bachelor degree at The Royal Danish Academy of Music where she studied with Audun Halvorsen and Sebastian Stevensson, both principal bassoonists of the Danish National Symphony Orchestra. She has attended private lessons and masterclasses with Professor Ole Kristian T. Dahl, Joost Bosdijk, Eirik Birkeland, and Riccardo Terzo. Bryndís has played with the Copenhagen Philharmonic, Aarhus Symphony Orchestra, the Icelandic Symphony Orchestra, and the Danish National Symphony Orchestra. Bryndís is also active as a chamber musician and has performed with many chamber orchestras both in Iceland and in Scandinavia. Bassist Ulrich Wolff (Berlin Philharmonic) started learning the violin and later added the double bass because a small chamber ensemble with whom he played in his native city occasionally needed that instrument. Two ambitious teachers motivated him to eventually become a professional player. Wolff studied with Rainer Zepperitz at the Berlin Hochschule der Künste. In 1977 he was a member of the World Youth Symphony Orchestra directed by Leonard Bernstein in Seoul and Tokyo, and in the following year he began playing with the Berlin Philharmonic, interrupting his service from 1981 to 1985 in order to play as principal double bass under Sergiu Celibidache in the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra. From 1997–99 he also was in the Bayreuth Festival Orchestra. He performs with many chamber ensembles, including the Ensemble Berlin, which he co-founded, and the Philharmonic String Octet. Wolff has also appeared with the late violinist Isaac Stern, the Auryn Quartet, and the Philharmonia Quartet of Berlin. His special love is early music. A former member of Musica Antiqua Köln and a member of Concerto Melante, Ulrich Wolff is proficient on such historic instruments as the violone and the viola da gamba. His engagement on behalf of young musicians is seen in the numerous master classes that he gives. Since 2005, he has taught at the Gustav Mahler Academy in Potenza, Italy founded by Claudio Abbado.

About the Participants

DEBORAH BORDA President and Chief Executive Officer, New York Philharmonic Post-concert speaker (12/2) Throughout her career, Deborah Borda has extended the artistic, commercial, and technological boundaries of American symphony orchestras. She became President and Chief Executive Officer of the New York Philharmonic in September 2017. Prior posts include President and CEO of the Los Angeles Philharmonic; Executive Director of the New York Philharmonic; General Manager of the San Francisco Symphony; President and Managing Director of The Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra; and Executive Director of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra. Within her first few months after returning to the New York Philharmonic in 2017, Ms. Borda assembled a new leadership team to support her and Music Director Jaap van Zweden’s vision for the Orchestra. A $50 million launch fund to usher in a new era of fiscal stability was completed in November 2017. During her first decade in Los Angeles, Ms. Borda reinvigorated plans to build and launch Walt Disney Concert Hall, oversaw the addition of a new shell for the Hollywood Bowl, and reimagined and diversified programming at both venues. She also spearheaded the appointment of music director Gustavo Dudamel, with whom she invested in groundbreaking educational initiatives, including the founding of YOLA (Youth Orchestra Los Angeles) and the National Take a Stand initiative. She received an Honorary Doctor of Music degree from the Curtis Institute of Music. In 2018 she was elected to the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and was also named Chair of the Avery Fisher Artist Program. BOSTON STRING ACADEMY (12/2) Boston String Academy (BSA) is non-profit organization, inspired by the Venezuelan El Sistema model which believes in music as a vehicle for social change. The organization provides rigorous string instrument instruction to children in underserved communities. BSA aims to provide instruction of the highest quality, laying a musical foundation that could take a child to college or conservatory. The program makes mastery of a string instrument reachable by eliminating obstacles that stand in an inner-city family’s way. 100% of tuition is subsidized, programs are offered in/near the children’s schools, and private lessons and instrument rentals are included in the orchestral training. BSA was founded in November 2012 by Marielisa and Mariesther Alvarez and Taide Prieto. They are graduates from The Boston Conservatory and of El Sistema programs in their home countries of Venezuela and Peru and have modeled BSA on that experience. It currently offers three programs in the Chinatown and Allston neighborhoods, serving more than 100 students. As part of an effort to expose

students to the highest level of musical expression, BSA provides students with opportunities to perform and work with internationally acclaimed artists including violist Rictor Noren, violinists Midori, Lynn Chang and Martin Chalifour, cellists David Ying and Mihail Jojatu, bassist Edicson Ruiz, and world renowned conductors Gustavo Dudamel and Sir Simon Rattle. BSA students have performed out of state and internationally and have been selected to participate in festivals such as the Dudamel Foundation’s “Encounters/ Encuentros” in Mexico City, National Take a Stand Festival in Los Angeles, Boston University Tanglewood Institute, Sphinx Performance Academy, Greenwood Music Camp, and Kinhaven Music School, among others. Violin Simón Benaim Peter Cho Alphie Detemple Scarlet Falcón Rian Finn Sofía Francisco Zhuo Rui Jiang Zhuo Yan Jiang Annabelle Lee Anne Liang Angelina Moy Estrella Sanchez Lalwani Surpitski Eliza Youngman Annie Yuan Fiona Yuan Lola Zulps Viola Samuel Benaim Edward Brodney-McDevitt Ana Isabel Cardona

Lydia Cho Kento Lind Aaron Moy Cello Daylan Comas Erick Liang Clarice Mullady William Parkes Darren Seto Yulia Yuan Faculty Marielisa Alvarez, Co-Director, Violin/Viola Mariesther Alvarez, Co-Director, Violin/Viola Taide Prieto, Co-Director, Cello Anthony Morales, Violin/Viola Instructor Jorge Soto, Conductor

CENTER FOR HUMAN VALUES Campus Residency Partner, Princeton University Panel discussion (1/8); Private student dinner (4/22); Discussion with Fintan O’Toole (4/25) Established in 1990 through the generosity of Laurance S. Rockefeller ‘32, the University Center for Human Values fosters ongoing inquiry into important ethical issues in private and public life and supports teaching, research, and discussion of ethics and human values throughout the curriculum and across the disciplines at Princeton University. Today, the Center is the hub of a lively and exciting community that brings together Princeton faculty members, graduate students, undergraduates, visiting faculty fellows, and other visitors. The Center is home to a growing number of faculty members with teaching and research interests in various aspects of human values, most of whom are jointly appointed in their disciplines. It sponsors a series of Freshman Seminars. The | 47

About the Participants

undergraduate certificate program in Values and Public Life defines a pathway through the curriculum for students interested in developing a focus on human values. We sponsor an array of activities, from specialized seminars and lectures to large campus events, aimed to stimulate and inform members of the Center and of the greater campus community. And we support research on human values by Princeton faculty members, graduate students, and undergraduates. Through all of these activities, the Center strives to provide the larger community with the space and resources to reflect systematically about fundamental questions of value—how we should understand our moral identities, how we should treat each other, and how we should try to shape our world.

music ensemble Gallicantus, with whom he has released six recordings under the Signum label to rapturous reviews, garnering multiple Editor’s Choice awards in Gramophone Magazine and a place on BBC Radio’s CD Review list of the top nine classical releases of the year. His recording of Lagrime di San Pietro by Orlando di Lasso was shortlisted for a Gramophone Award in 2014, and his most recent recording Sibylla (featuring music by Orlando di Lasso and Princeton professor Dmitri Tymoczko) was named “star recording’” by Choir & Organ magazine in the summer of 2018.

LOU CHEN ’19 Founder, Trenton Youth Orchestra

Canadian-Italian mezzo-soprano Emily D’Angelo, winner of the 2016 Metropolitan Opera National Council Audition Finals, made her professional operatic debut in 2016 as Cherubino in Le nozze di Figaro at the Spoleto Festival dei Due Mondi under the baton of James Conlon. She is currently in her second year as a member of the Lindemann Young Artist Development Program at the Metropolitan Opera. As well as being a winner of the Metropolitan Opera National Council Audition Grand Finals, D’Angelo was also the 2018 Operalia winner of the First Prize, Zarzuela Prize, Birgit Nilsson Prize, and Audience Prize. She was the First Prize winner of the 2018 George London Competition, the 2017 Innsbruck International Cesti Competition for Baroque Opera, the 2017 Gerda Lissner International Voice Competition, the 2017 Canadian Opera Company Quilico Awards Competition, the 2016 American National Opera Association Competition, and the 2015 Canadian Opera Company Centre Stage Competition. She was awarded Second Prize, the Radio-Canada Audience Choice Award, and the Best Canadian Artist Award at the 2018 Montreal International Competition and was also awarded Second Prize at the 2017 Neue Stimmen Competition and the 2015 OREL Foundation Ziering-Conlon Competition. In 2016 she was honored with the Premio Monini from the Spoleto Festival dei Due Mondi, was a grateful recipient of the Jacqueline Desmarais Foundation Grant, and was named one of Canada’s “Top 30 Under 30” Hot Classical Musicians.

El Sistema panelist (1/9) Originally from San Bernardino, CA, Lou Chen is a senior at Princeton University in the Music Department with certificates in Orchestral Conducting and American Studies. He currently serves as Founder/Director of the Trenton Youth Orchestra, Associate Conductor of the Princeton University Sinfonia, Outreach Director of the Princeton Chamber Music Society, and Founder/Director of the Trenton Central High School—Princeton University Collaborative Concert Series. For his work with the Trenton Youth Orchestra, he has received the Santos-Dumont Prize for Innovation and the Fisher Award. He is also a recipient of Princeton’s Shapiro Prize for Academic Excellence and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa last fall. For more information about the Trenton Youth Orchestra visit GABRIEL CROUCH Senior Lecturer in Music; Director of Choral Activities; Associate Director, Program in Musical Performance Princeton University Gabriel Crouch began his musical career as an eight-yearold in the choir of Westminster Abbey, where he performed a solo at the wedding of HRH Prince Andrew and Miss Sarah Ferguson. After completing a choral scholarship at Trinity College, Cambridge, he was offered a place in the renowned a cappella group The King’s Singers in 1996. In the next eight years he made a dozen recordings on the BMG label (including a Grammy nomination) and gave more than 900 performances in almost every major concert venue in the world. Since moving to the USA in 2005, he has built an international profile as a conductor and director, with recent engagements in Indonesia, Hawaii, and Australia, as well as Europe and the continental United States. In 2008, he was appointed musical director of the British early

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EMILY D’ANGELO Mezzo-soprano with Quartet 212 (12/2)

VICTORIA DAVIDJOHN ’19 Student Narrator, A Midsummer Night’s Dream (4/27) Victoria is a senior in the English Department, with certificates in Theater and Music Theater. A director, lighting designer, actor, and musician, her work primarily focuses on amplifying unheard voices and nurturing new pieces of theater. She has been involved with the Princeton University Players as its president and as the director of In the Heights (2017) and Evita (2018). Most recently, she directed a community theater production of The Odyssey (2019) at the Berlind Theater as her senior thesis. This

About the Participants

year’s winner of the Martin A. Dale Fellowship, she will spend a year writing a new piece of musical theater based on Ella Jo Baker—a community organizer and champion of the civil rights movement. DONNACHA DENNEHY Associate Professor of Music, Princeton University Composer of Strange Folk, premiered (12/2) Donnacha Dennehy’s music has been featured in festivals and venues around the world, such as the Edinburgh International Festival, Carnegie Hall, The Barbican London, The Wigmore Hall London, The Linbury at the Royal Opera House London, BAM New York, Tanglewood Festival, Holland Festival, Kennedy Center, Huddersfield Contemporary Music Festival in the UK (which opened its 2012 Festival with a portrait concert devoted to Dennehy’s music), Dublin Theatre Festival, ISCM World Music Days, Bang On A Can, Ultima Festival in Oslo, Musica Viva Lisbon, the Saarbrucken Festival, and the Schleswig-Holstein Festival. Dennehy has received commissions from, among others, Alarm Will Sound, Bang On A Can, Contact (Toronto), Dawn Upshaw, Doric String Quartet (London), Fidelio Trio, Joanna MacGregor, Kronos Quartet, Icebreaker, Nadia Sirota, National Symphony Orchestra of Ireland, Orkest de Volharding (Amsterdam), Percussion Group of the Hague, San Francisco Contemporary Music Players, So Percussion, St. Paul Chamber Orchestra, Third Coast Percussion, Ulster Orchestra, United Instruments of Lucilin (Luxembourg), and Wide Open Opera (Dublin). Collaborations include pieces with the writers Colm Tóibín (The Dark Places), Paul Muldoon (in progress) and Enda Walsh (including the two operas The Last Hotel and The Second Violinist). In 2010 his single-movement orchestral piece Crane was recommended by the International Rostrum of Composers. Returning to Ireland after studies abroad, principally at the University of Illinois, Dennehy founded Crash Ensemble, Ireland’s now-renowned new music group. Previously a tenured lecturer at Trinity College Dublin, Donnacha joined the music faculty at Princeton University in 2014. His music is published by G. Schirmer, part of the Music Sales Group. DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC Campus Residency Partner, Princeton University Classroom visits; Concerts with Princeton University Orchestra and Glee Club (4/26 & 27) Princeton’s Department of Music is at the epicenter of a musical culture that is broad and deep, reaching from edge to edge of the campus, from the classroom to the concert hall, and from faculty-led groups to those run exclusively by students. There are several levels of involvement that students can have with the Department of Music: Graduate

students can earn a Ph.D. in two main areas— composition or musicology—including opportunities to focus on theory or ethnomusicology. Undergraduate students can major in music, in a program with emphasis on writing music or writing about music. Undergraduates can also earn certificates in the Program in Music Performance, both as music majors and as majors of other departments. Those who do not plan to pursue a degree or certificate in music are welcome to take courses with world-renowned composers and music historians, take instrumental or voice lessons in the private studios of top professionals, and audition to perform with our many ensembles: six jazz groups, three choruses, two orchestras, a wind ensemble, an opera theater, a musical comedy troupe, at least a dozen chamber music ensembles, a laptop orchestra, and almost twenty small a cappella singing groups. Community members can attend numerous concerts throughout the academic year. In addition to student performances, world-renowned artists appear on the Princeton University Concerts series; leading performers of contemporary music showcase compositions by faculty and graduate composers through the Princeton Sound Kitchen; So Percussion, the Edward T. Cone Artists-in-Residence, perform and engage with the community. An important feature hard to discern from a list of courses and ensembles is the Music Department’s emphasis on collaboration. This manifests not only within the department (graduate composers composing for the undergraduate orchestra, graduate musicologists making a performance edition for an undergraduate opera production), but in collaboration with other departments as well. Frequent interdisciplinary collaborators with the music department include students and faculty from Architecture, African American Studies, Computer Science, Irish Studies, and the programs in Theater, Dance, Visual Art, Music Theater, and Creative Writing all housed within the Lewis Center for the Arts. JEFF DOLVEN Professor of English, Princeton University Classroom visit; Post-concert panelist (4/23) Jeff Dolven teaches poetry and poetics, especially of the English Renaissance. He is the author of three books of criticism, Scenes of Instruction, Senses of Style, and the admittedly hasty Take Care, as well as essays on a variety of subjects, including Renaissance metrics, Edmund Spenser, Shakespeare’s reading, Fairfield Porter, and player pianos. His poems have appeared in magazines and journals in the United States and the United Kingdom and are collected in a volume, Speculative Music. He is also an editor-atlarge at Cabinet magazine and was the founding director of Princeton’s Interdisciplinary Doctoral Program in the Humanities. | 49

About the Participants

JACY DUAN ’21 Student Narrator, A Midsummer Night’s Dream (4/27)

JORGE GLEM Cuatro with Betsayda Machado (12/1)

Jacy Duan is a sophomore at Princeton studying Sociology and Theatre. She has acted in and directed many productions at Princeton and is a member of the Triangle Club. She is originally from Los Angeles where she developed her love for the arts from a young age.

Virtuoso of the Venezuelan cuatro, Jorge Glem is a Latin Grammy winner born in Cumaná, Venezuela. He started his musical training at age of six under masters Eberto Zapata and Alexander Mariña. In 2004 he was awarded first place for “Best Cuatrista” in the Llanero Festival “El Silbón de Oro” and second place in the 1st International Exhibition “La Siembra del Cuatro.” He has collaborated with world class musicians such as the Puerto Rican band Calle 13, Gustavo Dudamel, keyboard player Jordan Rudess, singer Rubén Blades and clarinetist Paquito D’Rivera. Using unconventional techniques Glem draws a seemingly limitless array of sounds from the cuatro, a four-stringed Venezuelan folk instrument. He is also a mandolinist and producer. Jorge Glem has represented Venezuela and its musical traditions in more than twenty countries including the United States, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Austria, Germany, China, Portugal, Spain, Panama, and many others.

PATRICIA FERNÁNDEZ-KELLY Professor of Sociology; Director of the Center for Migration and Development, Princeton University Panelist (1/7) Fernández-Kelly is a social anthropologist with an interest in international economic development, gender, class and ethnicity, and urban ethnography. As part of her dissertation research in the late 1970s, she conducted the first global ethnography focusing on export-processing zones in Asia and Latin America. Her book on Mexico’s maquiladora program, For We Are Sold, I and My People: Women and Industry in Mexico’s Frontier (1983) was featured by Contemporary Sociology as one of twenty-five favorite books in the last decade of the 20th century. She has written extensively on migration, economic restructuring, women in the labor force, and race and ethnicity. With Paul DiMaggio, she produced Art in the Lives of Immigrant Communities in the United States (2010). With Alejandro Portes she is the editor of The State and the Grassroots: Immigrant Transnational Organization in Four Continents. Her book, The Hero’s Fight: African Americans in West Baltimore and the Shadow of the State (2016) received a C. Wright Mills Finalist Award from the Society for the Study of Social Problems. She is currently working on a book entitled Hialeah Dreams: The Making of the Cuban-American Working Class in South Florida. ANNE FITZGIBBON Founder and Executive Director, the Harmony Program Panelist (1/9) Anne Fitzgibbon is Founder and Executive Director of the Harmony Program in New York City, a non-profit music education organization inspired by Venezuela’s national system of youth orchestras, El Sistema, which Ms. Fitzgibbon studied on a year-long Fulbright Fellowship in 2007. Prior to founding the Harmony Program, Ms. Fitzgibbon worked for five years as a policy advisor in the New York City Mayor’s Office. She holds a Master’s Degree in Public Affairs from the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University, graduated from Barnard College, and studied clarinet at The Juilliard School.

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JAVIER GUERRERO Associate Professor, Department of Spanish & Portuguese; Program in Latin American Studies, Princeton University Host of Spanish-language discussion (1/8); Pre-concert panelist (4/26) Javier Guerrero’s research focuses on the intersection between visual culture and sexuality in twentieth and twenty-first century Latin America. His scholarship traces the multiple alterations that the body has undergone in contemporary art, cinema, and literature, but also and most importantly at the intersections of these media. In recent years, he has paid special attention to new materialities and conditions, such as synthetic bodies and darkness, that allow him to reconsider concepts, archives, and knowledges shaped by tradition and binary oppositions. Guerrero is the author of many books including Tecnologías del cuerpo, a book on the Venezuelan filmmaker Mauricio Walerstein, and the novel Balnearios de Etiopía. He is currently working on two new books, Synthetic Skin: On Dolls and Miniature Cultures and The Impertinence of the Eyes: Darkness, Opacity, Blindness. Javier Guerrero holds a Ph.D. in Latin American Studies from New York University and a Licenciatura in Film Studies from the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Before coming to the U.S., he was President of the Venezuelan Cinemateca Nacional, where he curated more than twentyfive international film series and festivals.

About the Participants

HARMONY PROGRAM OF NEW YORK CITY (4/23) For more than a decade, the Harmony Program has been bringing intensive musical training into underserved communities across New York City and Long Island. Arguably the first “El Sistema”-inspired program in the United States, the Harmony Program was founded by Princeton University alumna, Anne Fitzgibbon, who spent a year in Venezuela studying El Sistema’s model on a Fulbright Fellowship in 2007. Committed to its mission of social change through music, the Harmony Program has adopted El Sistema’s tenets of community-based instruction, intensive study, and ensemble learning, and has, since its founding, trained over 1,000 young musicians, many of whom advance from the Harmony Program to highly selective study and performance opportunities. Today, the Harmony Program operates 12 locations across the City, providing students with free musical instruments, instruction, and cultural experiences, in an effort to support their healthy social development and academic achievement. Conductor Tristan Rais-Sherman* Piano Accompanist Antonio Truyols* Violin Soloist (“Orange Blossom Special”) Angelo Chery** Violin Alice Wong, Concertmaster Victoria Wheby Haerim Elizabeth Lee* Weng Ying Chong, Principal 2nd Ashley Allen Jackie Levine*

Viola/Violin 3 Ken Aida, Principal Viola Joshua Hunton* Desiree Dadie Melanie Liu Cello Jun Nam Lee, Principal Cello Romina Moreno Renata Moreno Elad Kabilio* Bass Ryan Hau *Harmony Program Teaching Artist **Harmony Program Alumnus

companion volume Anthology of Music in the Baroque, an essay on Bach’s Magnificat BWV 243, and the volume Staging History: Historical Drama in Britain and America, 1780–1860, co-edited with Michael Burden, Jonathan Hicks, and Ellen Lockhart. Heller is currently completing a book entitled Animating Ovid: Opera and the Metamorphoses of Antiquity in Early Modern Italy and critical editions of Handel’s Admeto and Francesco Cavalli’s Veremonda, L’amazzone di Aragona, which was presented at the 2016 Schwetzingen Festival. A former member of the Board of the American Musicological Society, Heller is currently vice president of the Society for Seventeenth-Century Music, a member of the Board of Directors of the American Handel Society, and on the Venetian Advisory Board for the Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation, and serves on numerous editorial boards, including the Journal of Musicology and Cambridge Opera Journal. HUMANITIES COUNCIL Campus Residency Partner, Princeton University Classroom visit (4/23) The Humanities Council is the academic home to the undergraduate certificate program in Humanistic Studies and the Interdisciplinary Doctoral Program in the Humanities, as well as the Ferris Seminars in Journalism and the Harold W. McGraw Jr. Seminars in Writing and Publishing, which bring distinguished journalists and nonfiction writers to teach undergraduate seminars each year. We also support certificate programs in American Studies, European Cultural Studies, Linguistics, and Medieval Studies, along with graduate initiatives in the Ancient World, Classical Philosophy, and Renaissance and Early Modern Studies. The Council fosters intellectual exchange within and across the humanities and brings the campus together for major intellectual occasions such as the Gauss Seminars in Criticism, the annual Belknap Visitor in the Humanities Council, the Stewart Seminars in Religion, the Eberhard L. Faber IV Lectures, and the annual Humanities Colloquium.

WENDY HELLER Scheide Professor of Music History; Chair, Department of Music, Princeton University

ROBERT KARL Assistant Professor of History, Princeton University

Essayist (Art and Faith); Classroom visit (4/23)

Post-film discussion (4/22)

Recognized as one of the leading scholars in baroque music, Heller has published widely on 17th- and 18thcentury opera from interdisciplinary perspectives, with special emphasis on gender and sexuality, art history, Italian literature, dance history, and the classical tradition. Author of the award-winning Emblems of Eloquence: Opera and Women’s Voices in Seventeenth-Century Venice, Heller’s recent publications include Music in the Baroque and its

Robert Karl is a historian of modern Latin America and the Caribbean history, with broad interests in the interaction between conflict, peace, and society in the twentieth century. His research explores how people in the region experienced and made sense of three key problems in contemporary history: violence, development (particularly inequality), and impunity. He is the author of Forgotten Peace: Reform, Violence, and the Making of Contemporary Colombia (2017), which has | 51

About the Participants

been published in Spanish translation as La paz olvidada: Letrados, políticos, campesinos y el surgimiento de las FARC en la formación de la Colombia contemporánea (2018). STANLEY KATZ Professor of Public and International Affairs; Director, Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University Host, El Sistema panel (1/9); Host, Art exhibition (December/January); Host, Pre-concert talk (4/26) Stanley Katz is President Emeritus of the American Council of Learned Societies, the national humanities organization in the United States. Mr. Katz graduated magna cum laude from Harvard University in 1955 with a major in English History and Literature. He was trained in British and American history at Harvard (Ph.D., 1961), where he also attended Law School in 1969–70. His recent research focuses upon developments in American philanthropy. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History, and the Editor Emeritus of the Oliver Wendell Holmes Devise History of the United States Supreme Court. He also writes about higher education policy and has published a blog for The Chronicle of Higher Education. He is the co-founder and editor of the history of philanthropy blog ( Formerly Class of 1921 Bicentennial Professor of the History of American Law and Liberty at Princeton University, Katz is a specialist on American legal and constitutional history and on philanthropy and non-profit institutions. The author and editor of numerous books and articles, Katz has served as President of the Organization of American Historians and the American Society for Legal History and as Vice President of the Research Division of the American Historical Association. He was awarded the National Humanities Medal by President Obama in 2011. MELISSA LANE Class of 1943 Professor of Politics; Director, Center for Human Values, Princeton University Host, Poverty, Arts, and Civic Engagment panel (1/9); Host, Discussion with Fintan O’Toole (4/25) Melissa Lane is the Class of 1943 Professor of Politics and the Director of the University Center for Human Values at Princeton University. An associated faculty member in the Princeton Department of Classics and Department of Philosophy, she researches and teaches in the area of the history of political thought, with a special expertise in ancient Greek thought, and in normative political philosophy, including especially environmental ethics and politics. Her books include The Birth of Politics: Eight Greek and Roman Political Ideas and Why They Matter (translated into Chinese); Eco-Republic; Plato’s Progeny; and Method

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and Politics in Plato’s Statesman. Having delivered numerous named lectures, including the Carlyle Lectures at Oxford University, and received residential fellowships at Auckland, Paris, Stanford, and the American Academy in Rome, among her other honors are a Guggenheim Fellowship, a Phi Beta Kappa teaching prize, and recurrent participation in the In Our Time program on BBC Radio 4. MARSHA LEVIN-ROJER Visual Artist Exhibition (December/January) Marsha is local artist whose exhibit, “Music Made Visible: Metaphors of the Ephemeral,” responded to Maestro Dudamel’s understanding that the power of music lies in its invisible beauty, “the fact that sound, vibration, and harmony can create something in us.” The exhibit was curated by Mary Hamill for the Bernstein Gallery at the Woodrow Wilson School. She is a pioneer of participatory photo-based art regarding social issues. Her exhibit “Constructs of Frailty” led to a medical mission in remote rural Vietnam. MUSICIANS FROM THE LOS ANGELES PHILHARMONIC (1/7) Clarinetist Boris Allakhverdyan was appointed Principal Clarinet of the Los Angeles Philharmonic in 2016. He previously served as Principal Clarinet of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra and Associate Principal Clarinet of the Kansas City Symphony. Allakhverdyan is a founding member of the Prima Trio, the Grand Prize and Gold Medal winner of the prestigious 2007 Fischoff National Chamber Music Competition. Boris Allakhverdyan has appeared as a soloist with the Seattle, Bakersfield, and Springfield Symphony Orchestras. He has participated in the Lucerne Festival Academy in Switzerland, the MecklenburgVorpommen Festival in Germany, and the Emilia Romagna Music Festival in Italy. Allakhverdyan is a winner of the Rimsky-Korsakov International Woodwind Competition, the Rozanov International Clarinet Competition, the Hellam Concerto Competition, and the Tuesday Musical and the Oberlin Concerto Competitions. An active educator, Allakhverdyan served on the faculty at the Pacific Music Festival in Sapporo, Japan, Interlochen Clarinet Institute in Michigan, and Philadelphia International Music Festival. He has given master classes at Manhattan and Mannes Schools of Music, Oberlin Conservatory of Music, Oregon University, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Truman State University, Latin American Clarinet Academy in Caracas, Venezuela, and Shenzhen International Music Festival in Shenzhen, China. As a chamber musician, Boris Allakhverdyan has performed throughout the United States and Europe on such series as the Chicago Chamber Music

About the Participants

Society, La Jolla Athenaeum, Dumbarton Oaks, the Dayton Art Institute, CityMusic Columbus, Da Camera Society, Fontana Chamber Arts, and Cleveland Chamber Music Society, to name a few. Cellist Ben Hong joined the Los Angeles Philharmonic in 1993 at age 24 as Assistant Principal Cello. He currently serves as Associate Principal Cello, appointed in 2015 by Gustavo Dudamel. Hong also performs frequently as soloist and as a member of chamber music ensembles. He has collaborated with such artists as pianists Emanuel Ax and Yefim Bronfman, violinist Janine Jansen, pianist Lang Lang, and conductors Sir Simon Rattle and Esa-Pekka Salonen. Concerto appearances with the LA Phil have included the U.S. premiere of Mark-Anthony Turnage’s cello concerto Kai, with Sir Simon Rattle conducting at the Ojai Music Festival, and the premiere of Tan Dun’s Crouching Tiger Concerto, conducted by Long Yu at the Hollywood Bowl. In 2009, Hong was hired by DreamWorks Pictures to train several members of the cast of the movie The Soloist, including actor Jamie Foxx. In addition, he was the featured soloist on the soundtrack, which was released on the Deutsche Grammophon label. Born in Taipei, Taiwan, Hong won his native country’s National Cello Competition three years in a row before leaving home at age 13 for The Juilliard School. Later he studied with Lynn Harrell at the University of Southern California before joining the LA Phil. In 2012, Hong joined the faculty of USC’s Thornton School of Music as an Adjunct Professor. Violist Teng Li is Principal Violist of the Los Angeles Philharmonic and spent more than a decade as Principal with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra. Ms. Li is also an active recitalist and chamber musician participating in the festivals of Marlboro, Santa Fe, Mostly Mozart, Music from Angel Fire, Rome, Moritzburg (Germany) and the Rising Stars Festival in Caramoor. She has performed with the Guarneri Quartet in New York City, at Carnegie Hall (Weill Recital Hall), and with the 92nd Street Y Chamber Music Society. Teng was featured with the Guarneri Quartet in their last season and was also a member of the prestigious Lincoln Center Chamber Music Society Two program. She is a member of the Rosamunde Quartet (led by Noah Bendix-Balgley, Concertmaster of the Berlin Philharmonic) and the Toronto-based Trio Arkel. Ms. Li has been featured as soloist with the National Chamber Orchestra, the Santa Rosa Symphony, the Munich Chamber Orchestra, the Haddonfield Symphony, Shanghai Opera Orchestra, the Canadian Sinfonietta, and Esprit Orchestra. Her performances have been broadcast on CBC Radio 2, National Public Radio, WQXR (New York City), WHYY (Philadelphia), WFMT (Chicago), and Bavarian Radio (Munich). She has won top Prizes at the Johanson International and the Holland-America Music Society

competitions, the Primrose International Viola Competition, the Irving M. Klein International String Competition, and the ARD International Music Competition in Munich, Germany. She was also a winner of the Astral Artistic Services 2003 National Auditions. Teng is a graduate of the Central Conservatory in Beijing, China and The Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia. Violinist Rebecca Reale began studying the violin when she was just two and a half years old. Her passion for music led her to Boston at an early age to attend boarding school for the arts. While there, she studied with Muir Quartet member and Boston University professor Peter Zazofsky. She then went on to receive her bachelors degree from Rice University as a full scholarship student, where she studied with Kathleen Winkler. Ms. Reale was a fellow with the New World Symphony for their 2015–2016 season. During her time there, she won the concerto competition and performed Mozart’s Violin Concerto No. 5 in A Major with the orchestra. Prior to joining the Los Angeles Philharmonic, Rebecca was the Associate Principal Second Violin of the Houston Symphony, and served as Acting Principal Second for the 2016–2017 season. Violinist Bing Wang joined the Los Angeles Philharmonic as Associate Concertmaster in 1994. She previously held the position of Principal Second Violin of the Cincinnati Symphony and has served on the faculty and as concertmaster at the Aspen Music Festival and School since 2003. Since 2009, she has also been Guest Concertmaster of her hometown orchestra, the Shanghai Symphony Orchestra, where her tenure was highlighted by a televised New Year’s concert conducted by Riccardo Muti. As a soloist, Wang has won critical praise for her appearances with the Los Angeles Philharmonic. In September 1997, during the Philharmonic’s celebration of the Brahms anniversary year, she performed the composer’s Double Concerto with Music Director Esa-Pekka Salonen at the Hollywood Bowl. She made her Walt Disney Concert Hall concerto debut in May of 2005 and appears annually as both concertmaster and soloist at the Hollywood Bowl under the baton of composer John Williams. Wang has appeared regularly with the American Youth Symphony since 1997, and she has also been featured as a soloist with the Cincinnati Symphony. In 2002, she gave her first performances in China since emigrating to the U.S., touring as a soloist with the Shanghai Symphony Orchestra. Active as a chamber musician, Wang has collaborated with such distinguished artists as pianists Lang Lang, Yefim Bronfman, Emanuel Ax, and Jean-Yves Thibaudet. She also performs regularly on the Philharmonic’s Green Umbrella and Chamber Music series. In 2012, Bing Wang was named Adjunct Associate Professor at the USC Thornton School of Music. | 53

About the Participants

BETSAYDA MACHADO Singer (12/1) Betsayda Machado is a prodigious singer and folk music artist from Venezuela. She is one of fourteen siblings born to Nicolasa Martinez and Pedro Machado, a street musician and legendary trumpet player from the rural region of Barlovento. Growing up in the tradition of Parrandas she was accustomed to singing in the street and performing home-by-home concerts in her town. For over twenty years she lived between El Clavo and Caracas, Venezuela maintaining a close connection to the town’s local parranda but also joining traditional projects in the city such as Vasallos del Sol and Un Solo Pueblo with whom she traveled throughout Venezuela, America, Europe, and Asia. In 2016, she recorded the traditional songs of her village for the first time with producer Juan Souki in the album Loe Loa - Rural (Recordings Under the Mango Tree). The album was featured in The New York Times Best Albums of the Year list in 2017. Since then she has traveled with the Parranda throughout the United States, Canada, and Europe and has been nicknamed “The Voice of Venezuela.” Her work has been featured by NPR’s Tiny Desk, CNN’s Great Big Story, Songlines Magazine and defined by Jon Pareles of The New York Times as “The kind of group that world music fans have always been thrilled to discover: Vital, accomplished, deeply rooted.” Very few know the universe of traditional Venezuelan music like Betsayda Machado. Her dream and determination is for the traditional genres to be known, preserved and respected in Venezuela and abroad. STEVEN MACKEY William Shubael Conant Professor of Music Princeton University Composer of Measuring, premiered (4/23) Steven Mackey is regarded as one of the leading composers of his generation, with compositions ranging from orchestral and chamber music to dance and opera. Born in 1956 to American parents stationed in Frankfurt, Germany, his first musical passion was playing the electric guitar in rock bands based in northern California. He blazed a trail in the 1980s and ‘90s by including the electric guitar and vernacular music influences in his classical concert music. He regularly performs his own work, including three electric guitar concertos and numerous solo and chamber works. He is also active as an improvising musician and performs regularly with his band Big Farm. Mackey’s orchestral music has been performed by major orchestras and ensembles around the world. There are a dozen CDs devoted exclusively to Mackey’s music and many others that contain individual works. His numerous honors and awards include a Grammy, several awards from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, a Guggenheim Fellowship, the Stoeger Prize from the Chamber Music Society

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of Lincoln Center, and a Kennedy Center Friedheim Award. He has also been the composer-in-residence at major music festivals such as Tanglewood, Aspen, and the Holland Festival. Mackey is currently Professor of Music and former chair of the Department of Music at Princeton University, where he has been a member of the faculty since 1985. Helping to shape the next generation of composers and musicians, he teaches composition, theory, twentieth century music, improvisation, and a variety of special topics. He regularly coaches and conducts new work by student composers, as well as 20th-century classics. He was the recipient of Princeton University’s first Distinguished Teaching Award in 1991. Mackey’s music is published by Boosey & Hawkes. KATERYN MCREYNOLDS ’20 Student Narrator, A Midsummer Night’s Dream (4/27) Kateryn McReynolds is a junior studying International Relations in the Politics department, with certificates in Theatre and Music Theatre. She has been involved in the arts at Princeton as an actress in various theatrical productions, a member of the Princeton Tigerlilies a cappella, and a student of voice in the Music Department, having recently performed as Penelope in The Odyssey, in Richardson Auditorium in Mozart’s La finta giardiniera, and in Allison Spann’s Masquerade. She’s also a student ministry leader with the Aquinas Institute and cofounder of the cultural group Princeton Filipino Community. SIMON MORRISON Professor of Music, and Slavic Languages and Literatures Princeton University Essayist (Art and Society); Pre-concert panelist (4/26) Simon Morrison specializes in 20th-century music, particularly Russian, Soviet, and French music, with special interests in dance, cinema, aesthetics, and historically informed performance based on primary sources. Morrison is the author of Russian Opera and the Symbolist Movement (2002, 2019) and The People’s Artist: Prokofiev’s Soviet Years (2009) as well as editor of Prokofiev and His World (Princeton, 2008) and, with Klara Moricz, Funeral Games: In Honor of Arthur Vincent Lori (2014). His biography of Sergei Prokofiev’s first wife, The Love and Wars of Lina Prokofiev (2013), was dramatized as the “Book of the Week” on BBC radio and covered on BBC World News television. His 2016 Bolshoi Confidential has been published in English and translated in six countries. Among his distinctions are the Alfred Einstein Award from the American Musicological Society (for outstanding musicological article), an American Council of Learned Societies Fellowship, a Phi Beta Kappa Society Teaching Award, and a Guggenheim Fellowship.

About the Participants

EKÉDI MPONDO-DIKA Postdoctoral Research Associate, Sociology; Lecturer in Sociology, Princeton University Panelist (1/7) Ekédi Mpondo-Dika is an ethnographer and a social theorist, working on emotions, institutions, and poverty. Her research examines the affective underside of urban poverty and its management by the welfare state: how poor individuals and families cope with the repeated distress of job loss, eviction, incarceration, and violence and what these chronic difficulties do to their intimate bonds; how state and nonprofit agencies influence the material and emotional resources poor people can draw on; and the role that the rising concern of welfare state actors with the mental health of the poor plays in this process. She got her Ph.D. in Sociology from Harvard University. ALEXANDER NEHAMAS Carpenter Professor in the Humanities, Philosophy, and Comparative Literature, Princeton University Post-concert panelist (1/7) Alexander Nehamas was born in Athens and attended Swarthmore College and Princeton University. Before returning to Princeton, he taught at the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Pennsylvania. He is the author of Nietzsche: Life as Literature, The Art of Living: Socratic Reflections from Plato to Foucault, Virtues of Authenticity: Essays on Plato and Socrates, Only a Promise of Happiness: The Place of Beauty in a World of Art, and On Friendship. He has also translated, with Paul Woodruff, Plato’s Symposium and Phaedrus into English. At Princeton, he has chaired the Council of the Humanities, directed the Program in Hellenic Studies, and was the Founding Director of the Society of Fellows in the Liberal Arts. In 1993, he was the Sather Lecturer at the University of California at Berkeley. He has received a Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Award for Distinguished Achievement in the Humanities, he was named a Commander of the Order of the Phoenix by the Greek Government, and he was recently elected to the Chair of the History of Philosophy in the Academy of Athens. FINTAN O’TOOLE Visiting Lecturer in Theater; Acting Chair, Fund for Irish Studies (Spring 2019), Princeton University Discussion (4/25) Fintan O’Toole, one of Ireland’s leading public intellectuals, is a columnist for The Irish Times and Leonard L. Milberg ’53 visiting lecturer in Irish Letters at Princeton. He also contributes to The New York Review of Books, The New Yorker,

Granta, The Guardian, The Observer, and other international publications. His books on theater include works on William Shakespeare, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, and Thomas Murphy. His books on politics include the best sellers Ship of Fools and Enough is Enough. In 2011, The Observer named O’Toole one of “Britain’s top 300 intellectuals.” He has received the A.T. Cross Award for Supreme Contribution to Irish Journalism, the Millennium Social Inclusion Award, and Journalist of the Year in 2010, the Orwell Prize, and the European Press Prize. O’Toole’s History of Ireland in 100 Objects, which covers 100 highly charged artifacts from the last 10,000 years, is currently the basis for Ireland’s postage stamps. His most recent books are Heroic Failure: Brexit and the Politics of Pain and Judging Shaw: The Radicalism of GBS, published by the Royal Irish Academy, and he has recently been appointed official biographer of Nobel Prize-winning poet Seamus Heaney. ELAINE PAGELS Harrington Spear Paine Professor of Religion Princeton University Post-concert discussion (1/7) Elaine Pagels joined the Princeton faculty in 1982, shortly after receiving a MacArthur Fellowship. Perhaps best known as the author of The Gnostic Gospels, The Origin of Satan, and Adam, Eve and the Serpent, she has published widely on Gnosticism and early Christianity and continues to pursue research interests in late antiquity. Her most recent books include Beyond Belief: The Secret Gospel of Thomas (on The New York Times best-seller list) and Revelations: Visions, Prophecy, and Politics in the Book of Revelation (2012). In 2016 President Obama awarded her a National Humanities Medal for her exploration of faith and its traditions. MICHAEL PRATT Conductor, Princeton University Orchestra; Director, Program in Musical Performance, Princeton University Classroom visits (1/9 & 4/24) Michael Pratt is in his 40th year serving on the faculty at Princeton University. His principal duties are as Conductor of the Princeton University Orchestra and as Director of the Certificate Program in Music Performance since its inception in 1991. The program he has built at Princeton has come to serve as a model for other American universities as an effective platform from which students can deepen their musical skills and insights in the context of a liberal arts program. The Princeton University Orchestra has grown since 1977 from around 50 members to an ensemble of 110+ strong, one that plays the most challenging standard repertory: the Orchestra regularly takes on Mahler, Strauss, Stravinsky, plus numerous world premieres by graduate | 55

About the Participants

students and faculty in the Department of Music. Additionally, he has taken the Princeton University Orchestra on thirteen international tours since 1990, including two visits to the Royal College of Music, London. Other destinations have included Munich, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Lisbon, Frankfurt, Amsterdam, Madrid, and Barcelona. Strongly committed to opera performance for students since his first year, under his leadership the Princeton University Opera Theater has produced all three Mozart/DaPonte operas, plus The Magic Flute, Der Freischütz, Fidelio, Gianni Schicchi, and L’Enfant et les Sortileges. In recent years he has focused on the early Baroque, with performances of Cavalli’s La Calisto, Egisto, and Monteverdi’s The Return of Ulysses and Poppea. He has conducted a partial concert performance of Tristan und Isolde and Act 1 of Die Walküre. Pratt provided the original inspiration for directs Princeton’s partnership with the Royal College of Music, London. For eight years, gifted Princeton performers and composers have spent a semester in London as full time students at the College, which has enabled them to have an immersion experience in music. Pratt was educated at the Eastman School of Music and lists among his mentors Gunther Schuller, Otto Werner Mueller, and Gustav Meier. He co-founded the Opera Festival of New Jersey, serving as Director for eleven years. His has conducted several highly regarded US ensembles, including the Boston Symphony Chamber Players, and the orchestras of Detroit, Atlanta, Indianapolis, New Jersey, Buffalo, and Rochester. He has also been a guest conductor with the Odessa (Ukraine) Philharmonic. RACHEL PRICE Associate Professor, Department of Spanish & Portuguese Princeton University Pre-concert panelist (4/26) Rachel Price works on Latin American, circum-Atlantic and particularly Cuban literature and culture. Her essays have discussed a range of topics, including digital media, slavery, poetics, environmental humanities, and visual art. She has published The Object of the Atlantic: Concrete Aesthetics in Cuba, Brazil and Spain 1868–1968 and Planet/Cuba: Art, Culture, and the Future of the Island. She is currently working on several projects, including intersections between aesthetics and energy, and a book-length study rethinking communication technologies and literature in the nineteenth-century slaveholding Iberian Atlantic. PRINCETON GARDEN THEATRE Off-Campus Residency Partner Film host (4/22) The Garden is Princeton’s local movie theater. It is operated as a nonprofit, tax-exempt entity. All revenues,

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memberships, and gifts are reinvested in the theater. The organization also runs three golden-age movie theaters in Pennsylvania­ —the County Theater in Doylestown, the Ambler Theater in Ambler, and the Hiway Theater in Jenkintown. The Garden is committed to excellent programming and to meaningful community outreach. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY GLEE CLUB (4/26 & 27) Gabriel Crouch, Music Director Ulysses S. Grant was president, Verdi’s Requiem was premiered, and the Battle of Little Big Horn was still two years in the future when the Princeton University Glee Club was founded in 1874 by Andrew Fleming West, the first Dean of the Graduate College. In its early years, the group consisted of a few young men and was run entirely by its student members, but in 1907, Charles E. Burnham became the first of a long line of eminent professional musicians to lead the Glee Club. Since then, the ensemble has established itself as the largest choral body on Princeton’s campus, and has distinguished itself nationally and overseas. Today the Glee Club performs frequently on Princeton’s campus, enjoying the wonderful acoustic and aesthetic of Richardson Auditorium in Alexander Hall. Led by Gabriel Crouch, Director of Choral Activities and Senior Lecturer in Music at Princeton University, the choir embraces a vast array of repertoire. The spectrum of Glee Club members is perhaps even broader: undergraduate and graduate students, scientists and poets, philosophers and economists—all walks of academic life are represented, knit together by their belief in the nobility and joy of singing. PRINCETON UNIVERSITY ORCHESTRA (4/26 & 27) Michael Pratt, Music Director The Princeton University Orchestra began with a group of professional musicians from the New York Symphony and Philharmonic Societies who performed a series of concerts at Alexander Hall in 1896. The proceeds were “devoted to the funds for the establishment of a School of Music for the study of Musical Composition, Theory, and History at Princeton University.” In the ensuing 123 years, the orchestra has come to be an almost exclusively student organization; some 90–100 undergraduate and graduate musicians representing a broad spectrum of academic departments come together for concerts in Richardson Auditorium, Alexander Hall. Under the direction of Michael Pratt, the Princeton University Orchestra performs ten to fifteen concerts a year on campus, in addition to international tours. These concerts include both new music and works from the standard repertory. The orchestra also serves an important role in Princeton’s Department of Music by both reading

About the Participants

and performing new works by graduate composition students. In addition, the orchestra has also been invited to give command performances for special University events, such as the installation of President Harold Shapiro and the celebration of Princeton’s 250th Anniversary. In April 2001, the Orchestra appeared at Lincoln Center for a special performance called “Beethoven and Homer, The Heroic Moment,” a program which combined the Fifth Symphony of Beethoven and Professor Robert Fagles reading from his translations of Homer’s The Iliad and The Odyssey. The Orchestra has represented Princeton on tours both of the United States and Europe. Recent tours have seen visits to London, Glasgow, Dublin, Belfast, Edinburgh, Madrid, Barcelona, Prague, Bratislava, Budapest, Munich, Frankfurt, Amsterdam, and Vienna. In January 2007, the Orchestra’s performance in Bratislava was taped for later broadcast on Slovak television. Participation in the orchestra is voluntary and extracurricular; students commit many hours to rehearsal above and beyond the time required for academic course work. Graduates of the orchestra have gone on to be performers, music teachers, and arts administrators, but the list of professions also includes lawyers, physicians, business executives, government officials, economists, architects, research scientists, and journalists. The orchestra offers an important opportunity for students to pursue musical interests in a way that significantly enhances their overall growth in a strong academic environment. PROGRAM IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES Campus Residency Partner, Princeton University Host, Spanish-language conversation (1/8) Launched in fall 1967, the Program of Latin American Studies (PLAS) is one the nation’s first centers dedicated exclusively to Latin American area studies. At the program’s core is a mission to increase knowledge of the histories, cultures, economies, and environments of Latin America, including Brazil and the Caribbean, and to foster cooperation and understanding across the Americas by bringing Latin American scholars, artists, politicians, and scientists to campus, and to provide support for collaborative research, community service, and cultural exchanges in the region. JOSEPH PUCCIATTI Music Director, Trenton Central High School Orchestra Host, Visit to Hedgepeth-Williams Middle School (1/8) Joseph Pucciatti grew up in the Chambersburg section of Trenton. He attended Trenton State College (now The College of New Jersey) and earned his teaching degree in music. He has taught in the Trenton schools for more

than 30 years, currently teaching at an urban high school not far from where he spent his childhood. He met his wife Sandra Milstein-Pucciatti in the music department of Trenton State, where she was working on her graduate degree in music after earning her undergraduate degree from Temple University. Together, they established Boheme Opera NJ in 1981 and dedicated themselves to making the art form of opera more accessible to audiences of all ages. QUARTET 212 (12/2) Quartet 212 is an exciting new ensemble on the international scene. Comprising four leading players from the legendary Metropolitan Opera Orchestra in New York City, the quartet was formed at the Musique et Vin au Clos Vougeot festival in the Burgundy region of France. The quartet’s name pays homage not only to the group’s Manhattan roots (212 is the area code for New York City), but also to the town of Beaune, France (postal code 21200), where the quartet played its first concert in 2012. Quartet 212 has collaborated with many of today’s greatest artists including cellists Yo-Yo Ma and Gary Hoffman, violinist Cho-Liang Lin, tenor Matthew Polenzani, and pianists Menahem Pressler and Jean-Yves Thibaudet. Individually, the members of the quartet are distinguished soloists and teachers in their own right and have been prize winners at the Tchaikovsky, Piatigorsky, Casals, and Indianapolis international competitions. The players of Quartet 212 share a passion for mentoring leading instrumentalists and singers of the younger generation and for the fine wines of Burgundy. Their first recording, a disc of the Mozart and Weber clarinet quintets with French clarinetist Pierre Génisson, has won numerous awards including The Sunday Times (London) “Album of the Week” and the prestigious “Choc de l’Année” award from the French press. Quartet 212 worked with Maestro Dudamel for the first time when he made his MET opera debut conducting Verdi’s Otello in 2018. DON MICHAEL RANDEL President Emeritus, The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, The University of Chicago Discussion host (12/1) Don Michael Randel has devoted his venerable career to the performing arts, higher education, and philanthropy. Mr. Randel is President Emeritus of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation (2006–2013) and President Emeritus of the University of Chicago (2000–2006). He is the editor of The Harvard Dictionary of Music, The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music, and The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians. He has served as editor-in-chief of the Journal of the American Musicological Society. After serving on the faculty of Syracuse University, he joined the music faculty of Cornell University, where he remained for more than three decades, ascending | 57

About the Participants

from Department Chair to Vice Provost, to Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, and, ultimately, to Provost. He is a member of the board of the New York City Ballet, the Lyric Opera of Chicago, and CNA Financial. He has also served on the boards of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Argonne National Laboratory, and Rockefeller University. He is a current member of the Princeton University Concerts Committee and the Advisory Council of the Princeton University Department of Music. Mr. Randel earned bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees in music from Princeton University. His scholarly interests include medieval liturgical chant, especially in Spain, medieval Arabic music theory, secular polyphony in France and Spain in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Latin American popular music, and the songs of Robert Schumann and Cole Porter. BAM RODRIGUEZ Bass with Betsayda Machado (12/1) Grammy award winner bassist Bam Rodriguez started his career with the prestigious El Sistema youth orchestra program in Venezuela, where he performed with Gustavo Dudamel. Soon after he moved to Belgium and the Netherlands to continue his studies. Today he resides in New York City, from where he has toured, recorded and performed with pianist Chucho Valdés, clarinetist Paquito D’ Rivera, pianist Arturo O’Farrill, author Deepak Chopra, vocalist Claudia Acuña, saxophonist Ray Santos, and the San Francisco Symphony. He has performed at Carnegie Hall, Lincoln Center, The Kennedy Center, and Davies Hall in San Francisco. JURI SEO Assistant Professor of Music, Princeton University Composer of Lost Songs, premiered (1/7) Juri Seo seeks to write music that encompasses extreme contrast through compositions that are unified and fluid, yet complex. She merges many of the fascinating aspects of music from the past century—in particular its expanded timbral palette and unorthodox approach to structure— with a deep love of functional tonality, counterpoint, and classical form. With its fast-changing tempi and dynamics, her music explores the serious and the humorous, the lyrical and the violent, the tranquil and the obsessive. She hopes to create music that loves, that makes a positive change in the world—however small—through the people who are willing to listen. Her composition honors include a Guggenheim Fellowship, a Koussevitzky Commission from the Library of Congress, a Goddard Lieberson Fellowship from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the Kate Neal Kinley Memorial Fellowship, Copland House Residency Award, and the Otto Eckstein Fellowship from

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Tanglewood. She has received commissions from the Fromm Foundation, Barlow Endowment, Tanglewood Music Center, the 21st Century Piano Commission Competition from the University of Illinois, and the Renée B. Fisher Piano Competition. Her debut album “Mostly Piano” was released by Innova Recordings in 2017. She holds a D.M.A. (Dissertation: Jonathan Harvey’s String Quartets, 2013) from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign where she studied with Reynold Tharp. She has also attended the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia (Rome, corsi di perfezionamento with Ivan Fedele) and Yonsei University (Seoul, B.M.). Since 2009, she has been a composition fellow at the Tanglewood, Bang on a Can, and SoundSCAPE Festivals, the Wellesley Composers Conference, and the Atlantic Center for the Arts. In Fall 2014, she joined the composition faculty at Princeton University as Assistant Professor. Visit for more information. KIP THORNE Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics, Emeritus California Institute of Technology Post-concert panelist (4/23) Kip Thorne received his BS in Physics in 1962 from Caltech and his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1965, then returned to Caltech on the professorial faculty in 1967. Kip was co-founder (with Rainer Weiss and Ronald Drever) of the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) Project. LIGO­ —in the hands of a younger generation of physicists—made the breakthrough discovery of gravitational waves arriving at Earth from the distant universe on September 14, 2015. For his contributions to LIGO and to gravitational wave research, Kip shared (with Weiss and LIGO Director Barry Barish) the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics and several other major awards. In 2009, Kip stepped down from his Caltech professorship to focus on the interface between art and science, including work on Christopher Nolan’s blockbuster movie Interstellar (which sprang from a treatment Kip co-authored, and for which he was Executive Producer), a book called The Science of Interstellar, a new movie project that is shrouded in secrecy, a collaboration with composer Hans Zimmer and visual effects guru Paul Franklin on multimedia concerts about the warped side of the universe, and finally a forthcoming book on the warped side of the universe, composed of paintings by the artist Lia Halloran and poetic prose by Kip. TRENTON CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL ORCHESTRA Joseph Pucciatti, Music Director Presentation at Hedgepeth-Williams Middle School (1/8) As part of its district-wide motto “Children Come First/ Los Niños son Primero,” the Trenton Public School District

About the Participants

promotes a robust arts education for its 13,000 students across its twenty schools. Through visual arts, dance, drama, and instrumental and vocal music curriculum, the district nurtures its students to become creative, critical thinkers, and problem solvers who are motivated and confident individuals. The mission is to provide world-class arts education in the Trenton Public Schools, knowing that joyful engagement with high quality, diverse arts experiences results in engaged citizens who are curious, empathetic, resilient, and prepared for success in the 21st Century. Led by Joseph Pucciatti, the Trenton Central High School Orchestra is the lead ensemble of a growing instrumental and orchestral music feeder program from Trenton’s Grant Elementary, Jefferson Elementary, and Dunn Middle Schools. VH1 Save the Music Foundation recognized the incredible work of the TCHS Orchestra by awarding the district a $460,000 grant, which allowed a district-wide relaunch of instrumental music programs in all of its K–8 schools. In Fall 2019, a new 374,000-square foot high school will open, boasting a 1,000-seat auditorium to further support the mission of the TCHS Orchestra and its young artists. Violin Edgar Cambara Andy Dilone Aariana Flippin Francisco Guerra Deborah Htu Javier Martinez Michael Martinez Grace Mitchell Nayely Rivas Vocals Gisela Bramonte Clarinet Bailey Carlucci Mariasol Herrera-Corcuera Maura Perez-Hernandez Andrea Solano Axel Velazquez Flute Margarita Escamilla Yaquelyn Rivera Naileny Rodriguez Angelica Velazquez

Trumpet Crisbel Castillo Raymaellene Gomez Ramon Rodriguez Nason St Clair Saxophone Cristal Castillo Cesar Gonzalez Andres Guadron Christian Ortiz Collin Thompson Trombone Edward Garcia Tajimere Roundtree Christopher Tax Percussion Davontae Leak Kilder Sanic-Gil Julio Vazquez Bass Guitar Ny’eem McFadden Rafiq Salim Piano Wimar Pena

TRENTON MUSIC MAKERS Off-Campus Residency Partner Host, musical presentation (1/7); El Sistema seminario and community presentation (4/28) The Trenton Music Makers Orchestra brings together young people from second grade through high school into one community orchestra. As part of the El Sistema movement in the United States they use music as a platform for social change. The program takes place after school on four school sites in Trenton, including pre-orchestra for second graders, ensembles for third to fifth and sixth to eighth graders, and a string sectional for high schoolers. The players also study violin, viola, cello and bass in studio classes, develop their reading, improvisation and musicianship, learn bucket drumming, and choral singing, all the while building collaboration skills, peer leadership and learning the value of a shared struggle. Students perform in public regularly and join together twice per year with the member organizations of the El Sistema NJ Alliance, playing and celebrating together as an orchestra of over 250. The El Sistema New Jersey Alliance is a statewide network of El Sistema-inspired programs whose mission is to support the programs, enhance students’ learning by creating high-impact shared performance experiences, and help to propel a wider movement for intensive, high-quality music education for all children in New Jersey, particularly those residing in the most underserved communities. Participants in this year’s event include: El Sistema Alliance New Jersey Alliance Programs Trenton Music Makers / Paterson Music Project / Sister Cities Girl Choir / NJSO Champs / Union City Music Project Sonic Explorations: Sharing Sounds of Oakwood /Keys 2 Success Guests Programs Play On, Philly! /D’Addario Ascenté Chamber Orchestra; Harmony Program Trenton Music Makers Violin LaShaun Cooper Niyaliz Cruz Perla Diaz Aveianna Ellerbe Andrea Garcia Fransisco Guerra Thomas Heads Olivia Keith-Henry Deborah Htu Mahoganny Marshall Abigail Pena Ricardo Perez

Malaysia Rice Rose Rivera Viola Jayvon Brown Grethel Galardo Carlenys Santana Jesai Wise Cello DeJonna Dasher Bryelle Garita Martha Ramirez Steven Tiburcio Bass Ezran Bell | 59

About the Participants

YOUTH ORCHESTRA LOS ANGELES (“YOLA”) (1/7) Through Gustavo Dudamel’s Youth Orchestra Los Angeles (YOLA) program—inspired by Venezuela’s revolutionary El Sistema— the LA Phil and its community partners provide free instruments, intensive music training, and academic support to over 1,200 students from vulnerable communities, empowering them to become vital citizens, leaders, and agents of change. YOLA provides each student, from the Audrey Chung, Horn Daniel Egwurube, Flute* John Gonzalez, Bassoon* Fabiola Marinero, Violin Alice Morales, Oboe* Sergio Paez, Violin Gizelle Polanco, Cello Jackelinne Rodriguez, Cello Juliana Rodriguez, Viola* Jennifer Santos, Viola Dameon Williams, Clarinet

*YOLA Alumni

ages of 6 to 18, with a strong musical and social foundation through participation in 12–15 hours of programming each week. With YOLA sites in South L.A., the Rampart District, and East L.A., YOLA engages students from more than 200 schools in L.A. County. Music study is complemented by leadership development opportunities, parent workshops, and performances. YOLA’s young musicians have performed on great stages all over the world, including the LA Phil’s two iconic venues— the Hollywood Bowl and Walt Disney Concert Hall; in many other locations throughout Southern California; on national and international television broadcasts; and alongside the greatest artists. Located in South Los Angeles and founded in collaboration with the Harmony Project in 2007 as the first YOLA site, YOLA at EXPO Center is a partnership

of the Los Angeles Philharmonic, Harmony Project, and the EXPO Center, a City of Los Angeles Department of Recreation and Parks facility. YOLA at HOLA is located in the Rampart District, one of L.A.’s most densely populated and diverse neighborhoods. Founded in 2010, this program is a partnership of the Los Angeles Philharmonic Association and Heart of Los Angeles (HOLA). In East Los Angeles, what began in 2014 as YOLA at LACHSA, in partnership with the L.A. County Office of Education and with support from Supervisor Hilda L. Solis, is continuing this school year at East LA Performing Arts Magnet at Torres High School. Now known as YOLA at Torres, the program establishes a long-term relationship with LAUSD and Beyond the Bell. YOLA at Camino Nuevo, located in the Westlake/MacArthur Park area of Los Angeles, is the first in-school YOLA model, allowing the LA Phil to bring music instruction into the school day and extend it after school. Launched in 2017, this program will serve all students at the Kayne Siart Campus of Camino Nuevo Charter Academy. On August 15, 2018, the Los Angeles Philharmonic unveiled the architectural design by Gehry Partners, LLC, for its new Judith and Thomas L. Beckmen YOLA Center @ Inglewood: the first permanent, purpose-built facility for YOLA. KEVIN ZHANG ‘19 Host, Human Values Forum student dinner (4/22) Kevin Zhang is a senior studying philosophy at Princeton. He is currently writing a senior thesis about moral objectivity, and on campus he serves as the Co-Director of the Human Values Forum, an undergraduate dinner series dedicated to the discussion of contemporary ethical issues. As a musician, he has also led the 44-member Princeton Pianists Ensemble as its President, and he has been a piano student of Francine Kay ever since arriving at Princeton.

Princeton University Concerts is deeply grateful to the many others who have volunteered their time to welcome Gustavo Dudamel to campus. Together we have truly united our community through music, and we hope that the collaborative spirit of the residency will resound for years to come.

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About the Participants

MEMBERS OF THE PRINCETON UNIVERSITY GLEE CLUB Soprano Hannah Bein ‘22 Hansini Bhasker ‘19 Marcia Brown ‘19 Lucy Dever ‘22 Alex Giannattasio ‘22 Chloe Horner ‘22 Cecilia Hsu ‘20 Marley Jacobson ‘22 Zoe Kahana ‘21 Hinako Kawabe ‘19 Madeline Kushan ‘20 Annika Lee ‘19 Siyang Liu ‘21 Megan Pan ‘22 Noel Peng ‘22 Hannah Postel GS Jacqueline Pothier ‘22 Charlotte Root ‘22 Jessica Schreiber ‘20 Allison Spann ‘20 Natalie Stein ‘21 Catherine Sweeney ‘20 Helena Tenev ‘19 Audrey Yan ‘22

Alto Alisya Anlas GS Eli Berman ‘20 Harry Bound ‘21 Grace Collins ‘21 Mariana Corichi Gómez ‘21 Emily Cruz ‘22 Matré Grant GS Meredith Hooper ‘20 Caroline Jones GS Mari Kawakatsu GS Ishani Kulkarni ‘22 Sophie Lewis GS Margaret Li ‘19 Amber Lin ‘19 Natalie O’Leary ‘21 Megan Ormsbee ‘20 Apolline Pernet GS Brooke Phillips ‘19 Soojin Robinson ‘22 Lucina Schwartz ‘19 Yang Shao ‘20 Tara Shawa ‘22 Ava Troje GS Rosamond van Wingerden ‘20 Joanna Zhang ‘21 Caroline Zhao ‘19

Tenor Adam Ainslie GS Timothy Amarell ‘22 Fergus Binnie ‘21 Jake Caddeau ‘20 Colton Casto ‘21 Sean Crites ‘22 Daniel Granberg ‘19 Charles Hemler ‘20 Jay Lee ‘19 TJ Li ‘21 Iman Lulla ‘21 Ashwin Mahadevan ‘22 Jonathan Makepeace ‘20 Ryan Melosini ‘19 Neel Nagarajan ‘21 Paul Nix GS Timothy Peterson ‘22 Tajin Rogers ‘20 Nathan Spilker ‘21 Sergei Tugarinov ‘19 Reuben Zeiset ‘19 Stephen Zheng ‘22

Bass Stephen Bork ‘19 Jack Bound ‘22 James Brown-Kinsella ‘19 Tyler Bruno ‘22 Damien Capelle GS Ilia Curto Pelle ‘22 Samuel Duffey ‘19 Julius Foo ‘21 Tynan Gardner ‘20 Nicolas Gregory ‘22 Raymond Guo ‘19 Matthew Higgins Iati ‘22 Christopher Howard ‘20 Devin Kilpatrick ‘19 Alan Lin ‘22 David Nie ‘19 Ben Parker ‘20 Michael Rahimzadeh ‘19 Mel Shu ‘19 Sriram Srinivasan ‘22 David Timm ‘22 Theo Trevisan ‘21 Kevin Williams ‘21 Michael Yeung ‘21

Flute/Piccolo Haeley Ahn Christine Deng +Nicholas Ioffreda +*Queenie Luo Gabriella Tummolo Annie Zou

Trumpet/Cornet +*Liz DiGennaro Arjun Guthal Stephan Ko Lucas Makinen +Christian Venturella

MEMBERS OF THE PRINCETON UNIVERSITY ORCHESTRA Violin I +Haeun Jung +*Hyunnew Choi *Mary Kim *Evelyn Wu *Yinan Zheng *Katherine Park *Connie Zhu Katie Liu Dane Jacobson Fumika Mizuno Emiri Morita Sophia Winograd Michelle Yoon Lawrence Chiang Nicholas Schmeller Katherine Leung Allie Mangel Violin II +Janice Cheon +Hana Mundiya *Elijah Ash Philippa Marks Joanna Kuo Sean Lee Abe Chien Lukas Mann Isabella Khan Daniel Choo Bryant So Cameron Lee Allen Liu Nanako Shirai Binglun Shao *= Class of 2019 += Principal player

Viola +*Tess Jacobson +*Amy Zhang Noah Pacsis Preston Johnston Caroline Holmes Ethan Glattfelder David Ramirez Joanna Linna Edwina Xiong Kevin Tsao Violoncello +*Rohana Chase +*Calvin Van Zytveld *Sophie Wheeler *Bartek Kaczmarski *Simon Lee David Basili David S. Kim Thomas Morris Daniel T. Kim Caleb Kim Ian Kim Joyce Luo Daniel Wey Contrabass +*Megan Chung Andrea Reino Debby Park Thomas Graul Daniel Strayer Chaz Bethel-Brescia Luke Begley Jack Hill

Oboe/English Horn Roshini Balasubramanian Vedrana Ivezic +Christine Kwon Camille Liotine +Ethan Petno Clarinet Henry Ando Joseph Gelb Michael Hauge +*Hanson Kang Neerav Kumar +Yang Song Bassoon +*Emily de Jong +Gabriel Levine Greg Rewoldt Jack Thompson French Horn Thomas Jankovic Parker Jones Colin Vega Linus Wang +Oliver Whang +Jacob Williams

Trombone +Justin Bi Matthew Myers Kevin Nuckolls +Bradley Spicher Tuba +Sebastian Quiroga +Cara Giovanetti Harp Julia Ilhardt Allana Iwanicki An-Ya Olson Timpani Henry Peters Steven Chien Percussion Reilly Bova Allen Dai Noah Kim *Adam Petno Madeline Song Orchestra Manager Dan Hudson | 61

History of Structuring a Discourse on Color

History of Structuring a Discourse on Color An excerpt of the prologue to the second edition of Reflection on Color, Paris, 2009

By Carlos Cruz-Diez Š 2019 Since I started my adventure as a painter, I developed and held a deep affection for color. I believe each stroke of the paintbrush is an emotional message of great importance, a statement worth communicating immediately. I have strived to make color a life experience, capable of producing an emotional impact that would go beyond the mere act of painting and I embarked on a long reflective journey, nourished by reading, with the purpose of understanding the essence of things and acquiring a universal notion of art and of my time. The great masters of the past structured a discourse, they invented painting in their own way, opening paths or defining their era in a timeless universal language. Besides knowledge, discovery and invention, art is communication. This does not mean many artists have not expressed the contrary. Some artists are not interested in people and communication. They only show interest in their own existence and personal self-expression. Yet sustaining this position already implies communicating information as to what art may be and its many facets. Specifics of Plasticity Strictly pictorial discourses can sometimes become exhausted. In search of new solutions, one has to resort to the extra-pictorial. This is where tendencies integrating religion, politics and philosophy are born; or where painting simply mingles with the world of ideas and literary illustrations. The perception and enjoyment of a pictorial or plastic experience is so specific that it cannot be compared to music, poetry or theatre. Listening to a melodic or rhythmic phrase does not produce the same effect as looking at the blue surface of a painting. Each of these artistic disciplines has its own perceptive and emotional specificity. This is why I was anxious to give color a main role in my work, as it is a specific and fundamental instrument of painting. My intention was to highlight the importance and enjoyment of the pictorial experience, free from any other connotation. Connections or emotional associations established by viewers result from a dialogue that arises between them and the work they are observing. I am neither a poet nor a writer, nor a historian, nor a philosopher. I am only a painter. I believed that by researching the eminently pictorial and perceptive world of color, I would find a way of reflecting the world I was living in, which had not yet been a point of reflection for other artists.

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Color revealed itself as a powerful means to stimulate the perception of reality. Our perception of reality today is not that of 12th century men, for whom life was a step towards eternity. On the contrary, we believe in the ephemeral, with no past and no future, and where everything changes and is transformed in an instant. The perception of color reveals such notions. It highlights space, ambiguousness and ephemeral and unstable conditions, whilst underpinning myths and affections. Experience showed me I needed more than ideas to create a different and unprecedented work. Everyone has ideas, and ideas without a structure remain in the domain of ideas, just as intelligence without structure is useless for human beings. The first step consisted, therefore, in elaborating a conceptual platform. In Search of Information In 1952, I discovered the Theory of Colors by Goethe, a fascinating text that encouraged me to deepen my theoretical and technical knowledge of chromatic phenomena. Then came the writings of Malevich, Albers, Klee, Kandinsky, Itten, etc. I wanted to learn what artists had thought and experimented in relation to this subject throughout history. Even when several ideas were being debated, the use of color always played a secondary role and never enjoyed a real autonomy. Form was always favored over color, since its content was linked to the paradigm of the imitation of reality. Aristotle believed color resulted from a conflict between light and darkness, whereas the alchemists saw it as a condition of matter that loses color when entering obscurity. However, these concepts, which reveal the ephemeral and unstable character of chromatic perception, had not aroused the artists’ curiosity or their need for conceptual development. My knowledge of the processes and systems used since the 18th century to reproduce color images - such as additive and subtractive processes and their photomechanical application in printing and lithography, or the different processes that perfected color photography - gave me a path to follow and helped in producing a conceptual platform concerning color. A platform where color would be treated and viewed as an event in constant change, a circumstance in space and time. Building a Discourse In spite of being interested in scientific theories of color, I

History of Structuring a Discourse on Color

did not intend to create another theory myself. My goal was to find a method and a support that could change the notion of color in art, a concept that had not changed in centuries. In 1839, Eugène Chevreul published De la loi du contraste simultané des couleurs. This publication revealed completely new information regarding the behavior of color, and encouraged a new generation of painters to find the truth behind light and the relativity of color. These artists were against the rigid forms of studio light established by the Academics and painted outdoors in order to depict the ever-changing reality and the truth of color and light, they were called Impressionists. But in the end, this truth was unintentionally the same as that of its predecessors: a transposition of reality on an immobile surface that froze the fleeting and subtle character of light and color. Just as what the Academics captured on canvas was a memory of the observed. By the time they mixed the colors on the palette and applied the first stroke, the nuance had already disappeared. The solution found by Monet was to paint the same subject several times. In short, figurative or representational painting was founded on the same contradiction: an elaborate code of symbols invented by man with the impossible task of stopping time. This representational or imitative code of reality improved over the centuries, to the point of convincing us and helping us understand that what is on a flat canvas is actually a river, a flower or a hand. But nothing is true or real on the surface, as it does not evolve through time or space like the world it tries to reproduce. Malevich’s Suprematism and its non-representation of reality, Piet Mondrian’s mystical conception of eternal perfection in an orthogonal structure, Paul Klee and Robert Delaunay’s commitment to the combinational poetics of color and Albers’ Homage to the Square were natural progressions of this new order. All their works, however, were conceived on a two-dimensional, eternally immobile surface, following the concept of stability and permanence in traditional painting. Color was only “an anecdote of form”, a ground for reminiscence. It was never considered in its true nature, as a changing, unstable and ambiguous reality, conditioned to the fortuitous circumstances of light. I found a different approach to this subject in an article published by the magazine Art d’aujourd’hui in 1950. The author, artist Felix Del Marle, spoke of “color as a slave to form” and the need of giving color autonomy and an important role in architectural forms. Until that moment, color had not been considered as a situation, an event, an ambiguous, ephemeral and unstable element, an instant in space in any disciplines related to art. This accumulation of information was the starting point of a multitude of experiences.

I intended to find a support through which I could reveal color in the process of becoming, continually appearing and disappearing before our eyes. I experimented with the instability in the perception of the plane, the afterimage and phosphene phenomenon, the discontinuity of the image through a stroboscope, the effects of retinal fatigue, color radiation, additive and subtractive processes, the aberrations of perception, etc. Finding an appropriate means to express the concept could not be a simple phenomenological demonstration of circumstances. I had to invent a new language that would force me to create an alphabet, a grammar, a syntax, a vocabulary and new materials in my mission of creating a complete work of art. In Search of Discursive Consistency The course of any investigation is rarely straightforward. Steps forward and backward are taken until the way clears and the path becomes straighter. I had already structured the first concepts of my work, which was meant to be shared through participative interaction. However, I was still preoccupied with my long-suffering commitment: man and his presence in art. After a period of hesitation, my doubts finally dissipated with the first projects for Murales para lugares públicos (“Walls for Public Places”), Objetos Rítmicos Móviles (“Mobile Rhythmic Objects”), and Parénquimas (“Parenchymas”) or Signos Vegetales (“Organic Signs”), which I began in Caracas in 1954 and concluded in Spain between 1955 and 1956. In my attempt to create an autonomous object, these structures were formed of geometric and linear shapes, with no reference to nature whatsoever. Back in Caracas, I began to explore the instability of the picture plane. I wanted to grant movement to this element that had always been static. The eye usually examines a vertical structure first and shortly after retinal fatigue reverses the process, revealing a horizontal structure. The longer we look at the structures, the more obvious the effect of instability becomes. Vibration in Space and Retinal Persistence obeys this mechanism of perception. In this case, I added dark planes on each side, so that the after-image remained on the retina. In these areas, the central image appears to be inverted for an instant. In other words, black becomes white and white becomes black. I then created Chain Construction using black in addition to a range of colors that replaced the white spaces. Atop this phenomenon of perceptive instability, I added another called chromatic radiation. By tracing a series of parallel bands at specific distances, their color influenced the surrounding space and produced a virtual color in the neighboring zones. This phenomenon demonstrated each | 63

History of Structuring a Discourse on Color

primary color’s capacity for radiation. This was the last of my works on the instability and ambiguousness of the picture plane, and served as a guideline for my research on Couleur Additive and Physichromies. The Couleurs Additives were the result of my experiments with, and analyses of, a phenomenon described two centuries earlier. Attentive observation reveals that a darker virtual line forms when two color planes touch each other. By isolating the space where both colors come together, I obtained the chromatic event modules, which are in part responsible for the continuous transformation of color. The Need for New Proposals From the 50s up to the 70s, virtually a whole generation of artists felt the need to find new supports and ideas to sustain art. Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art emerged in the United States, as well as Op Art, a term that became popular during an exhibition held at the Museum of Modern Art in 1965. I was invited to this exhibition along with other European-based artists, who were also researching perception and the viewer’s involvement with the work of art. In Paris, Milan and several other European cities, Kinetic Art developed a set of new ideas. Described as the last vanguard, Kinetic Art was an international movement that reached its peak in Paris between 1955 and 1975. It involved artists of various origins: mainly Hungarian, Israeli, Italian, German, French, Yugoslavian, Swiss, Argentinian, Brazilian, and Venezuelan. Galerie Denise René fully supported us and spread our ideas. Museums and galleries from all over the world then followed.

Transmitting the Discourse As concepts of autonomy and independence evolved, communication between the work of art and the viewer became more and more precarious and was almost lost. This phenomenon was especially felt during the period of Art Informel which focused on the individual’s pleasure or suffering before the canvas, and showed no concern in establishing communication with the spectator. Kinetic Art sought to re-establish communication between the viewer and the work, not in the passive manner of representational art, but in a participative dynamic of an artwork meant to be shared with the public. A discourse between the work and the spectator had to be established. Being in front a kinetic artwork is a call to participate, it becomes complete when the viewer moves around it or manipulates it. If we stop, it dies. There is no need to decipher or interpret a code. We are in front of an event that is taking place in time and space, whose effects are numerous, offering the possibility to choose what suits us most. Eppur si muove The perception of color is one of the most ancient and static notions in art. It does not lead to any new ideas other than those associated with colored forms. For most people, color has been resolved; it is a tool that needs to go no further. Describing my discourse in detail responded to the difficulty and need of making others enjoy and understand what for me was plainly obvious. I felt the frustration of someone trying to make a blind person see or a deaf person hear. The artist, just like the scientist, reveals and brings to light things that are evident to him and that he wishes to share and enjoy.

Members of the Trenton Central High School Orchestra with Maestro Dudamel. 64 | Princeton University Concerts

About Carlos Cruz-Diez

About Carlos Cruz-Diez “In my works, color appears and disappears during the course of a dialogue with real space and time. What also emerges is the undeniable fact that the information we have acquired and the knowledge we have memorized throughout our lifetime are, probably, not true... at least to some extent. When we view color through an ‘elementary prism’ that has been stripped of pre-existing meanings, it can awaken other sensory perception mechanisms that are more subtle and complex than those that have been ingrained in us by our cultural conditioning and the constant, ubiquitous barrage of information we face in our contemporary society.” ­—Carlos Cruz-Diez, Reflexión sobre el color (“Reflection on Color”), Fundación Juan March, Paris, 2009

The French-Venezuelan artist Carlos Cruz-Diez (Caracas, 1923) has lived and worked in Paris since 1960. He is a major protagonist in the field of Kinetic and Optical art, a movement that encourages “an awareness of the instability of reality.” (Jean Clay, “La peinture est finie” [Painting is finished], Robho. [Paris: s.n.], no. 1 [1967]). His body of work has established him as one of the key 20th-century thinkers in the realm of color. Carlos Cruz-Diez’s visual art explores the perception of color as an autonomous reality evolving in space and time, unaided by form or support, in a perpetual present. His artworks are housed in permanent collections of prestigious institutions such as the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York; Tate Modern, London; Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris; Centre Pompidou, Paris; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston; and Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne.

We are grateful to Carlos Cruz-Diez for allowing us to use the artwork on the cover of this program.

About the Cruz-Diez Art Foundation “We want to become a source of inspiration, to rouse curiosity, to promote discovery, to encourage inventiveness and to think outside the box, regardless of the field.” ­ Adriana Cruz Delgado, — President of the Cruz-Diez Art Foundation. The Cruz-Diez Art Foundation is a non-profit organization committed to preserving, promoting and transmitting the artistic and conceptual legacy of Carlos Cruz-Diez, a major kinetic artist and thinker of color theory of the 20th century. Created in Houston, Texas in 2005 at the Cruz-Diez family’s initiative and continued participation, the activities of the Cruz-Diez Art Foundation are diverse and globally-reaching. The Cruz-Diez Art Foundation considers safeguarding the future of the artist’s works, his research on color, his life philosophy and artistic education its priorities. Cruz-Diez has always included family in his work, making the next generation conscious of his legacy and through sharing their expertise.

The Cruz-Diez Art Foundation holds an extensive art collection. Selected and donated by the artist, with both historical and recent artworks that encompass all of Cruz-Diez’s artistic researches, the collection is available for lending to exhibitions, along with curated pedagogical exhibitions. Thanks to privileged access to Cruz-Diez’s meticulously kept archives the Cruz-Diez Art Foundation is able to issue Certificates of Authenticity and update the artist’s Catalogue Raisonné. The Cruz-Diez Art Foundation also focuses on education and culture by developing pedagogical activities for a new public audience of children and young people. For more information about the Foundation and our activities, please visit | 65

Students from the Boston String Academy enjoy some time with Maestro Dudamel.

Musicians from the Trenton Music Makers play for Maestro Dudamel. 66 | Princeton University Concerts

Reilly Bova ’19 Maestro Dudamel visited a techniques of conducting class.

“This class was the 20 greatest minutes of my life!” —Reilly Bova ’19

Lou Chen ’19

All photography by Nick Donnoli

Mariana Corichi Gomez ’21 | 67

Celebrating 125 Years of Music Making


2018-2019 SEASON

Glimpses of a Remarkable History: Princeton University Concerts over the Past 125 Years By Professor Emeritus Scott Burnham © 2018 Imagine Princeton in 1894, the year Princeton Borough began governing itself as an entity fully independent from Princeton Township. And now imagine the Old Princeton Inn, a building that stood where Borough Hall stands today. At half past three on a Monday afternoon in late October, a group of music enthusiasts gathered there to enjoy a concert performance by the renowned Kneisel Quartet. They concluded with a piece of new music, namely Antonin Dvorák’s most recent string quartet, the so-called “American” quartet, which the Kneisel players had premiered in Boston some months earlier and which was one of the fruits of Dvorák’s extended stay in America. That inaugural concert was organized by the “Ladies Musical Committee,” founded in 1894 by Philena Fobes Fine. Mrs. Fine was a remarkable spirit who persuaded the community to rally round and underwrite this new venture, which in its early years presented about six concerts annually. She was the first in a long line of such spirits: to an extraordinary degree, the history of Princeton University Concerts is a history of determined women making wonderful things happen. The initial committee was all women, and the driving forces for supporting and managing the concert series throughout the entire history of Princeton University Concerts have been mostly women, exclusively so for the first fifty years. Mrs. William F. Magie became chair of the committee after Mrs. Fine’s death in 1928 (in an interesting parallel, her husband, William F. Magie, had succeeded Mrs. Fine’s husband, Henry B. Fine, in the role of Princeton University’s Dean of Faculty back in 1912). And for a fifteen-year span during the 20s and 30s, Mrs. Williamson U. Vreeland did much of the heavy lifting, organizing the concerts, choosing the artists, and managing the finances. Had you been around in the 1920s, you would have caught the Princeton debut of violinist Fritz Kreisler in March of 1920;

68 | Princeton University Concerts

or heard Pablo Casals, then lauded as the world’s greatest cellist, play Bach in 1922; or heard 23-year-old Jascha Heifetz play five encores after his concert on April 7, 1924; or attended the historic concert in 1925 that featured Polish pianist, composer, and statesman Ignacy Jan Paderewski in a program including Beethoven’s “Waldstein” Sonata and Liszt’s Hungarian Rhapsody. Not to mention a steady array of orchestral performances by the New York Philharmonic, The Philadelphia Orchestra, and the Boston Symphony Orchestra. A turning point for the Ladies Musical Committee came in 1929, marking a new and crucial stage in its relationship with Princeton University. The first move was to stabilize and augment the committee’s finances. Mrs. Fine had led the concert series for over thirty years at the time of her death. During those years, she had managed to raise about $35,000 to support the concerts. In 1929, Mrs. Jenny Hibben and others helped increase that number to about $52,000, and the committee established a fund in Mrs. Fine’s memory, stating that the monies had “been raised for the purpose of securing for Princeton audiences better music than they could otherwise afford.” The name of the committee changed to Princeton University Concerts Committee at this time as well, but its constitution insisted that “at least a majority of the members shall be women” (this wording was not altered until 1977!). In accordance with the name change, the University became increasingly involved throughout the 1930s and 40s. Nominations to the committee had forthwith to be approved by the President of Princeton University (the President at the time was John Grier Hibben, husband of Mrs. Jenny Hibben); the university Controller’s Office soon began keeping the books; and in 1946 President Harold Dodds authorized payment for the building of a stage set that would enable the chamber concerts to move to McCarter Theater, where the orchestral concerts and showcase recitals were already happening. When Mrs. Magie resigned in 1944, Professor Roy Dickinson Welch took over as head of the committee. Welch was also the father of the Music Department, which began in 1934 as a subsection of the Art and Archaeology Department. A dozen years later, in 1946, Music became an official university department, housed in Clio Hall. In that same year, Welch hired Mrs. Katharine (“Kit”) Bryan as concert manager. They had collaborated before: in 1935, Mrs. Bryan co-founded the Princeton Society of Musical Amateurs with Welch; the group still exists today. Among the many highlights during Mrs. Magie’s tenure was the historic 1937 appearance of American singer Marian Anderson, who sang four sets of arias and lieder and then concluded with a stirring set of spirituals. Also notable were several concerts by the Trapp Family Singers in the early 1940s. Highlights of Mrs. Bryan’s early years as concert

Celebrating 125 Years of Music Making

manager include performances by the recently formed Bach Aria Group, founded and directed by Princeton legend William H. Scheide. When Mrs. Bryan retired in 1964, she was replaced by Mrs. Maida Pollock, who greatly professionalized the entire operation, bringing it up to speed in ways that are still in effect today. A force of nature, Mrs. Pollock ran the Princeton University Orchestra as well and was also very involved with the Princeton Friends of Music. Due to the greatly increased expense of hiring symphony orchestras, the concert series stopped programming orchestras in 1975 and began focusing exclusively on chamber music. In a recent interview, Pollock asserted that her most cherished goal was to get a worthy concert hall for chamber music up and running at the university, and in the 20th year of her 22-year tenure, her efforts were finally rewarded. Richardson Auditorium became the concert hall it is today in 1984, thanks to a donation from David A. Richardson ‘66, in memory of his father David B. Richardson ’33, a lifelong enthusiast of classical music. One of the most memorable nights of Mrs. Pollock’s reign was almost a disaster, because Spanish singer Victoria de los Ángeles had to cancel at nearly the last minute. Pollock quickly obtained the services of Russian soprano Galina Vishnevskaya, who happened to be the wife of Mstislav Rostropovich; he played the piano for her in an electrifying performance. After Mrs. Pollock retired, Nate Randall took over in 1988. Randall broadened the purview of Princeton University Concerts, introducing programs of jazz music and world music. He also oversaw the 100th anniversary season of the series, and assisted with the inauguration of the Richardson Chamber Players, along with their Co-Founding Director, Michael Pratt. Our current Concert Director, Marna Seltzer, came to Princeton in 2010. Recognized by Musical America in 2017 as one of their

“30 Movers and Shapers,” Seltzer’s many audience-friendly innovations have clearly established Princeton University Concerts at the forefront of the future of classical music. These include new ways to interact with the musical artists, such as live music meditation sessions, late-night chamber jams, and “Performances Up Close” that feature onstage seating. In introducing these additional ways to get involved in music, Marna Seltzer continues to honor the original and sustaining intention of Philena Fobes Fine: that Princeton University Concerts should reflect the values of our community as a whole. As such, it enjoys pride of place as perhaps the finest ongoing town/gown affiliation in Princeton. The history of Princeton University Concerts has been remarkably consistent for these past 125 years. Passionate, committed women (and a few men) have presented the premier musical artists of their age, from fiery 20-somethings taking the concert world by storm to larger-than-life stars who can captivate us merely by taking the stage. An exalted lineup of the world’s finest string quartets has always maintained pride of place in the series, from the Kneisel Quartet in the first decades through the Budapest Quartet in the 1930s to the Takács, Brentano, and Jerusalem Quartets today. A special relationship has always endured between all these musical artists and their Princeton presenters. Back in the day, Mrs. Fine, Mrs. Magie and Mrs. Vreeland often entertained artists after the concert; as an early history of the Concerts Committee put it: “the artists came to think of Princeton people as their friends.” That holds true now more than ever, for our visiting artists regularly declare that they love playing in Richardson Auditorium, they love the way they are treated by Marna and her staff, and they love all of you, who so demonstrably value the experience of music, who take in and give back the brilliant energy of their cherished performances. “Music offers infinite capacity for infinite self-renewal.” This is what Music Department founder Roy Dickinson Welch fervently believed, and this is what Princeton University Concerts will continue to offer us, one unforgettable concert after another.

Thank You Princeton University Concerts is grateful for the partnership of the following organizations that have contributed programming and support to make Gustavo Dudamel’s residency possible: Bernstein Gallery, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs | Center for Arts & Cultural Policy Studies at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs I Cruz-Diez Art Foundation I Gustavo Dudamel Foundation Humanities Council: David A. Gardner ‘69 Magic Project | Lewis Center for the Arts I Princeton Garden Theatre I Princeton University Center for Human Values I Princeton University Department of Music | Princeton University Program in Latin American Studies I Trenton Music Makers I This printed program was made possible by the Gustavo Dudamel Foundation. | 69

SUPPORT US Supporting Princeton University Concerts is critical to our future. Ticket sales cover less than half of the cost of presenting the very best in world-class music. Remaining funds come, in part, from our generous endowment, left to PUC by the Ladies’ Musical Committee in 1929. We remain eternally grateful for the support of the Philena Fobes Fine Memorial Fund and the Jesse Peabody Frothingham Fund.

Other support comes from donors like you. We are grateful to the individuals whose support at all levels ensures that the musical performance remains a vital part of Princeton, the community, and the region. If you wish to make a donation to Princeton University Concerts, call us at 609-258-2800, visit, or send a check payable to Princeton University Concerts to: Woolworth Center, Princeton, NJ 08544.

We are grateful for all of the support we receive from our donors, staff and volunteers. The list below acknowledges gifts of $100 or more, received between April 1, 2018 and March 31. 2019. If you see an error, or would like to make a change in your listing, please contact the Concert Office at 609-258-2800. Brahms ($500+) Carolyn Ainslie John & Leigh Constable Bartlett Douglas Blair & Ann Reichelderfer Scott Burnham & Dawna Lemaire Melanie & John Clarke Angela Creager Doug DeVincens Anne & Klaus Florey Lor & Michael Gehret Hinda Greenberg Stan & Adria Katz Norman & Nancy Klath Gail E. Kohn Andrew Moravcsik & Anne-Marie Slaughter Reba Orszag Don Michael Randel Runestone Family Foundation Marue Walizer Ralph & Joan Widner Mitsuru Yasuhara Mendelssohn ($250-499) Victor & Beth Brombert Chris Coucill & Liz Fillo Ellis & Phyllis Finger Brandon C. Gaines Patricia Graham Russell & Helene Kulsrud Harold Kuskin Melissa Lane & Andrew Lovett Maurice D. Lee, Jr. Marsha Levin-Rojer Anya & Andrew Littauer Donald Mills Jacqueline Mislow Ellen Morehouse Lucy Anne S. Newman Harriet Rubenstein Anne & Mitch Seltzer Marcia Snowden Kurt & Judit Stenn William Stowe & Karin Trainer Jeanette Tregoe Alec Tsuo & Xiaoman Chen Helmut & Caroline Weymar Susan Wilson Inkyung & Insu Yi Beethoven ($100-249) Sigmund Amster Rita Z. Asch Gisella Berry Karen I. Blu 70 | Princeton University Concerts

Barbara Broad John H. Burkhalter III Theodore Chase, Jr. Elliot Cohen Radu Constantinescu John Madison Cooper Julia Denny Joanne Elliott Arthur C. Eschenlauer Mort Gasner Roe Goodman Nancy Greenspan & John Ricklefs Lilian Grosz Judith Guder Henry Halpern Aline Haynes Pei Ying Hsiang Janet Joshua Judith Klotz Richard Kraeuter Phyllis Lehrer Lydia Lenaghan Celia Lidz Daniel Lister Edward Martinsen Ruth & Bernie Miller Elizabeth Morgan & Steven Lestition Armando Orozco Elaine Pascu Suzanne & Charles Rebick Paul Rorem & Kate Skrebutenas Naomi Rose Stephen T. Schreiber Inez & Richard Scribner Laura Sinderbrand Alice Small Elly Stein Claire H. Thomas Andros Thomson Anne M. VanLent Rhoda Wagman Ariana Wittke Princeton University Concerts Marna Seltzer Director Shinya Blattmann Project Manager John Burkhalter Subscription Manager Kerry Heimann Operations & Patron Services Manager Dasha Koltunyuk Marketing & Outreach Manager Bryan Logan Interim Production Manager Deborah Rhoades Accounts Manager Frutuoso Santana Assistant for Maestro Dudamel Lisa Tkalych Project Manager

2018–2019 Princeton University Concerts Committee Michael Gehret Chair Scott Burnham Gabriel Crouch Ellis Finger Christine Gage Brandon Gaines John Hoffmeyer ’19 Wendy Heller Gail E. Kohn Dorothea von Moltke Don Michael Randel Marcia Snowden William Stowe Marue Walizer 2018­–2019 Student Ambassadors of Princeton University Concerts Sérgio Martins De Iudicibus ’20 Co-Chair Tim Ruszala ’20 Co-Chair Campus Venue Services Nick Robinson Director Kathleen Coughlin Assistant Director, Performing Arts Services James Allington Audio Engineer Anne Cutrona Theater Operations Technician Matthew Halbert Theater Operations Technician Lindsay Hanson Artist Services Manager Mary Kemler Assistant Director, Client Resources Bryan Logan Production Manager, Performing Arts Services Sharon Maselli Audience Services Manager Bill Pierce Theater Operations Technician James Taylor Systems and Support Manager

Presenting the world’s leading classical musicians at Princeton University since 1894, Princeton University Concerts aims to enrich the lives of the widest possible audience. We are grateful to Wendy Heller, Chair/Scheide Professor of Music History, and the Department of Music for its partnership in and support of this vision. For more information about the Department and its vibrant student and faculty-led programming, please visit

The artwork on this program cover, Induction Chromatique à double fréquence Ire, is by artist Carlos Cruz-Diez. Chromatic Inductions are closely related to the phenomenon of post-image, which is also known as the retinal persistence or simultaneous contrast effect. This means that if a viewer stares at a red plane briefly and then looks away, the retina preserves the image for a few seconds, but the image appears green, which is the induced color, or the complementary color. In other words, the retina of the eye, after gazing at a colored plane for a certain length of time, retains, even after it looks away, an image of the colored plane, which is perceived as a complementary color. These phenomena occur separately, one after the other; Chromatic Inductions, however, reproduce them all at the same time. They therefore manage to stabilize—and render visible—a phenomenon that can only be captured fleetingly and under very special circumstances. The color that appears is both there and not there; it has a virtual existence, but is just as real as the pigments that have been used. The artist has said “These are linear structures that simplify the perception of the phenomenon of complementary color or simultaneous contrast that is normally a fleeting, more complex event.” Carlos Cruz-Diez, a friend of Maestro Dudamel, is considered to be one of the greatest artistic innovators of the 20th and 21st centuries. His art draws out the kinetic energy of color much in the same way that Maestro Dudamel energizes our world through music.


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