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Music Therapy Today

WFMT online journal Addendum to Volume 16, No. 1

16th WFMT World Congress of Music Therapy July 7-8, 2020, South Africa, Online

Special Issue Proceedings 16th World Congress of Music Therapy 2020 WFMT. All rights reserved. ISSN: 1610-191X


Proceedings of the 16th WFMT World Congress of Music Therapy. July 7-8, 2020, South Africa, Online

CONTENTS EUROPE

DIALOGUE IN MUSIC THERAPY PIANO PARTNER-PLAY IMPROVISATIONS: FIRST RESULTS FROM AN EXPLORATORY FEASIBILITY STUDY ...... 4 Monika Smetana, Laura Bishop, Irene Stepniczka

MEANINGFUL SITUATIONS DURING “PARTNER-PLAY” IMPROVISATIONS: A FEASIBILITY STUDY APPLYING A MIXED METHODS APPROACH ...... 6 Irene Stepniczka, Laura Bishop, Monika Smetana

MUSIC THERAPY RESEARCH IN SPAIN: UPDATE 2020 ...... 8 Patricia L. Sabbatella, María Teresa Del Moral Marcos, Melissa Mercadal-Brotons

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Proceedings of the 16th WFMT World Congress of Music Therapy. July 7-8, 2020, South Africa, Online

EUROPE

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Proceedings of the 16th WFMT World Congress of Music Therapy. July 7-8, 2020, South Africa, Online

DIALOGUE IN MUSIC THERAPY PIANO PARTNER-PLAY IMPROVISATIONS: FIRST RESULTS FROM AN EXPLORATORY FEASIBILITY STUDY Monika Smetana Music Therapy Research Centre Vienna, Institute of Music Therapy, University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Laura Bishop RITMO Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies in Rhythm, Time and Motion, University of Oslo, Norway Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Vienna, Austria Irene Stepniczka Music Therapy Research Centre Vienna, Institute of Music Therapy, University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Objective

Dialogue is one of the core qualities of a relationship as described by humanistic and/or psychodynamic music therapy approaches. We assume that dialogue in music therapy is a highly individual and subjective but at the same time shared and intersubjective process between therapist and client, which occurs when self-awareness and self-other distinction have been achieved (Fitzthum, Smetana, & Storz, in press). In this respect we aim to enhance our understanding of the complex interplay of personal experience, cognition, emotion, and musical parameters in free, dyadic partner-play improvisations. Methods

In a feasibility study with healthy adults (n=9) and music therapists (n=8), data from 17 assessments were collected: free piano partner play improvisations were recorded (video,

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audio, MIDI) and complemented by questionnaires and de-briefing interviews. During the improvisation, physiological measurements (HR, EDA, RSP) of both players were collected. In an exploratory sequential research design, a mixed-methods framework was developed, starting with a qualitative content-analysis to analyze the verbally reported subjective experiences of both players regarding potential meanings for shaping nonverbal dialogue. Time frames of obviously intersubjective relevance (overlapping, complementary, and congruent) were then transferred to quantitative analysis of musical parameters (e.g., dynamics, note density, and temporal regularity) as well as to in-depth analyses of the physiological data, which are currently still ongoing. First Results

First Results show that the experience of “meaningfulness” is frequently associated


Proceedings of the 16th WFMT World Congress of Music Therapy. July 7-8, 2020, South Africa, Online

with change in the quality of a therapeutic relationship with respect to e.g., improved awareness of the self and the other, closeness and distance, or the experience of independence, mutuality, and autonomy, which are at the same time core qualities of dialogue. Selected samples show temporal relations between meaningfully reported situations and musical performance. Regarding the measured physiological performance, at a first glance over the course of selected improvisations, HR data show a parallel development of participant and therapist during moments/phases of intersubjectivity. However, more in-depth analyses are planned.

Discussion/Conclusion

Manifestations of dialogue situations are interpersonal and have an impact on the experience of a relationship. They stem from the subjective awareness about being related to oneself as well as to the other. A first emerging hypothesis is that musical attunement in terms of dynamics, note density, and temporal regularity appears more frequently in prestates of dialogue (e.g., to build trust), whereas dialogic experienced situations and moments show higher deviation and independence between therapist and participant. This is to be further examined by taking into account the entire sample of the feasibility

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study (N=17) and pursued in a subsequent clinical study.

References

Fitzthum, E., Smetana, M., & Storz, D. (in press). Was würde Schmölz dazu sagen? Das Partnerspiel aus heutiger Sicht. In Institut für Musiktherapie (Ed.), Tagungsband: 60 Jahre und (k)ein bisschen weise. Musiktherapie-Ausbildung an der mdw 1959–2019. Vienna: pub.mdw.

About the Authors

Monika Smetana, PhD, is a music therapist practitioner (psychodynamic approach), lecturer and postdoctoral researcher with main interests in relational aspects and dialogue in music therapy, mixed methods designs and participatory approaches. smetana-m@mdw.ac.at Laura Bishop, PhD, completed degrees in psychology and music cognition and is a postdoctoral researcher focusing on the analysis of performance expression, body movement, and coordination during musical interaction. Irene Stepniczka, MSc, completed studies in musicology and cognitive sciences (main focuses: Psychology, Neuroscience, Artificial Intelligence), and has broad knowledge and experience in applying mixed methods and analyses.


Proceedings of the 16th WFMT World Congress of Music Therapy. July 7-8, 2020, South Africa, Online

MEANINGFUL SITUATIONS DURING “PARTNER-PLAY” IMPROVISATIONS: A FEASIBILITY STUDY APPLYING A MIXED METHODS APPROACH Irene Stepniczka Music Therapy Research Centre Vienna, Institute of Music Therapy, University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Laura Bishop RITMO Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies in Rhythm, Time and Motion, University of Oslo, Norway; Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Vienna, Austria Monika Smetana Music Therapy Research Centre Vienna, Institute of Music Therapy, University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Introduction

This study investigated meaningful situations in “partner-play” piano improvisations, a free dyadic improvisation method in the Viennese tradition of music therapy, characterized by a spontaneous lively interplay of relationship and action. An innovative framework of mixed methods was applied that enabled evidence-based research to be carried out. We were able to assess relevant issues concerning the practicability of such a complex study targeting intersubjective experiences and summarized the pros and cons of the design, tools, and methods used. We explored how to combine the qualitative and quantitative data and found interdisciplinary approaches valuable for music therapy research and practice. This mixed methods approach deli-

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vered fascinating insights concerning subjective and intersubjective experiences. Methods

Seventeen participants (N = 17), composed of nine healthy adult test subjects from various backgrounds (n = 9) and eight trained music therapists (n = 8), took part in 17 assessments. These were divided into three phases: pre/baseline, improvisational, and post. In a triangulation design, qualitative and quantitative data were collected using questionnaires, physiological measures (HR, EDA; RSP), audio (incl. MIDI) and video recordings, as well as de-briefing interviews. Multidisciplinary analyses from music therapeutic, music psychological and cognitive science perspectives were then performed


Proceedings of the 16th WFMT World Congress of Music Therapy. July 7-8, 2020, South Africa, Online

on the data. In a next step exploratory design was carried out and interdisciplinary analyses are still ongoing.

Results The feasibility study’s lab environment, the assessment procedure, and the situation including the cameras and cables for the physiological measures were not perceived as intrusive and did not hinder the piano improvisation. The resting state based on a guided meditation was also perceived as convenient. The online questionnaires from the pre-assessment phase, as well as the forms on the iPads during the assessments were pleasant in their usability. The newly developed questionnaire Dia-SQN, which assesses intersubjective relationship, meaningful situations and music therapeutic techniques threefold (by participant, therapist, and rater/observer) was judged as being easy to answer concerning usability. However, participants gave useful feedback regarding the phrasing of certain questions so we are updating the relevant questions accordingly. Additionally, the Dia-SQN was also identified as having great potential for clinical applications. The de-briefing interview was challenging for the participants in terms of finding words to reflect their musical improvisations, but viewing the videos of the sessions helped a great deal during the conversations. Concerning methodology, we explored how to combine the qualitative and quantitative data in an exploratory sequential design and developed an

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analysis framework (COME_IN: Content, Meaning and Intersubjectivity) for investigating meaningful situations during “partner-play” improvisations. After first results, these analyses are being continued. Conclusions

In terms of evidence-based music therapy research, we were able to show that an interdisciplinary approach embedded in a complex research design sets an innovative direction for future investigations regarding intersubjective research on the topic of dialogue. About the Authors

Irene Stepniczka, MSc, completed studies in musicology and cognitive sciences (main focuses: Psychology, Neuroscience, Artificial Intelligence), and has broad knowledge and experience in applying mixed methods and analyses. irene.stepniczka@hotmail.com Laura Bishop, PhD, completed degrees in psychology and music cognition and is a postdoc researcher focusing on the analysis of performance expression, body movement, and coordination during musical interaction. Monika Smetana, PhD, is a music therapist practitioner (psychodynamic approach), lecturer and postdoc researcher whose main interests lie in relational aspects and dialogue in music therapy, mixed methods designs and participatory approaches.


Proceedings of the 16th WFMT World Congress of Music Therapy. July 7-8, 2020, South Africa, Online

MUSIC THERAPY RESEARCH IN SPAIN: UPDATE 2020 Patricia L. Sabbatella University of Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain

María Teresa Del Moral Marcos Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca (UPSA), Salamanca, Spain Melissa Mercadal-Brotons Escola Superior de Música de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

Introduction

In Spain, the music therapy profession started at the beginning of the 1960s. In the 1990s, the first university music therapy training programs began, but it was not until the beginnings of the 21st century that research interest started to develop properly (Mercadal-Brotons & Sabbatella, 2016; Del Moral, 2015; Mercadal-Brotons, et al., 2017, Sabbatella et al., 2017). Method The purpose of this study was to provide updated information about research studies conducted by Spanish authors. Data collection covers the period 1990-2020. Information was identified from:

a) Scientific documents published by Spanish author(s) and indexed in the databases: SCOPUS, WOS, MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, PUBMED, CINAHL. The keywords used were "music therapy*"(Title) AND Spain (Address/Location/Country affiliation, depending on databases options). b) Doctoral dissertations written and defended in Spanish Universities using the Spanish Dissertation Database TESEO, searched with the keyword “musicotera-

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pia” (music therapy) or “musicoterapéutica” (music therapeutic) in the title.

Results

The total number of documents founded was N = 184. Databases: WOS (67), Scopus (51), Psycinfo (18), Cinahl (18), Pubmed (15), Medline (15). The selection process was:

1) removing duplicate documents n = 89, total results after removing duplicates n = 95; 2) removing documents according the inclusion criteria: music therapy articles and congress papers written by Spanish authors indexed in the selected databases and the exclusion criteria: other types of documents (book chapters, editorials, interviews, reviews, letters to the editor) (n = 8). The final number of articles analysed was 80, and the number of congress papers 7. A total of 30 dissertations were found including the keywords “musicoterapia” (music therapy) (27) or “musicoterapéutica” (music therapeutic) (3) in the period 1990-2020. After applying exclusion criteria (music therapy is not the main topic of clinical interven-


Proceedings of the 16th WFMT World Congress of Music Therapy. July 7-8, 2020, South Africa, Online

tion) 28 theses were analysed. The first one was written by Dr. Serafina Poch in 1972, but it is not indexed in the database TESEO because it started on 1976. Conclusion

This paper presented an overview of the status of Music Therapy research in Spain, and gives clinicians and researchers valuable information in regard to:

a) The current status of research activities connected with clinical practice and other professional areas in music therapy in Spain. b) A better understanding of those areas where the collective efforts should be directed to show that the professionalization of music therapy can move forward. c) Identify the areas that need to increase the quality of research and publications to focus them on the theoretical issues of the discipline.

References

Del Moral, M. T. (2015). Investigación en Musicoterapia: Análisis de la situación actual en España y propuestas de mejora (Tesis doctoral). Salamanca, Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca. Mercadal-Brotons, M., & Sabbatella, P. (2016). Music therapy methods and assessment

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practices of professional music therapists in Spain: A descriptive study. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 25 (sup1), 141. DOI: 10.1080/08098131.2016.1180181. Mercadal-Brotons, M., Sabbatella, P. L., & Del Moral Marcos, M. T. (2017). Music therapy as a profession in Spain: Past, present and future. Approaches: Music Therapy & Special Music Education, 9 (1), 111-119. http://approaches.gr/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/8-Approaches-9-1-2017brotons.pdf Sabbatella, P., Mercadal-Brotons, M. & Del Moral, M. T. (2017). Descriptive Research in Music Therapy in Spain. In M. MercadalBrotons & A. Clements-Cortes (Eds.). Proceedings of the 15 World Congress of Music Therapy. Special Issue of Music Therapy Today 13 (1), 138-139. Retrieved from http://musictherapytoday.wfmt.info

About the Authors

Patricia L. Sabbatella, PhD, EMTR, SMTAE. Senior Lecturer in Music Therapy. (UCA). laboratorio.musicoterapia@uca.es María Teresa Del Moral Marcos, PhD, MTAE. Lecturer at Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca. mtmoralma@upsa.es Melissa Mercadal-Brotons, PhD, MT-BC, SMTAE. Director of Music Therapy Master Program (ESMUC). President WFMT. brotons@compuserve.com

Profile for World Federation of Music Therapy

Music Therapy Today WFMT online journal Addendum to Volume 16, No. 1  

Music Therapy Today WFMT online journal Addendum to Volume 16, No. 1