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Heroic Uruguay deserves a Nobel peace prize for legalising cannabis The war on the war on drugs is the only war that matters. Uruguay's stance puts the UN and the US to shame Simon Jenkins The Guardian, Thursday 12 December 2013 20.35 GMT

'Uruguay will legalise not only cannabis consumption but, crucially, its production and sale.' Illustration by Satoshi Kambayashi

I used to think the United Nations was a harmless talking shop, with tax-free jobs for otherwise unemployed bureaucrats. I now realise it is a force for evil. Its response to a truly significant attempt to combat a global menace – Uruguay's new drug regime – has been to declare that it "violates international law". To see the tide turn on drugs is like trying to detect a glacier move. But moving it is. Wednesday's statute was introduced by the Uruguayan president, José Mujica, "to free future generations from this plague". The plague was not drugs as such but the "war" on them, which leaves the world's youth at the mercy of criminal traffickers and random imprisonment. Mujica declares himself a reluctant legaliser but one determined "to take users away from clandestine business. We don't defend marijuana or any other addiction, but worse than any drug is trafficking." Uruguay will legalise not only cannabis consumption but, crucially, its production and sale. Users must be over 18 and registered Uruguayans. While small quantities can be

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13/12/2013 12:12 p.m.


Heroic Uruguay deserves a Nobel peace prize for legalising cannabis |...

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http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/12/heroic-urugu...

grown privately, firms will produce cannabis under state licence and prices will be set to undercut traffickers. The country does not have a problem on the scale of Colombia or Mexico – just 10% of adults admit to using cannabis – and stresses that the measure is experimental. This measured approach is still way in advance even of American states such as Colorado and Washington, which have legalised recreational as well as medical cannabis consumption, but not production. While the Uruguayan law does not cover other drugs, by depriving traffickers of an estimated 90% of their market, the hope is both to undermine the bulk of the criminal market and to diminish the gateway effect of traffickers pushing harder drugs. Mujica's courage should not be underrated. His is a gently old-fashioned country, and two-thirds of those polled oppose the move, though this is up from 3% a decade ago. In addition some pro-legalisation lobbies object to his de facto nationalisation. An open question is whether a state cartel will be as effective as a regulated free market. But the drugs chief, Julio Calzada, is blunt: "For 50 years, we have tried to tackle the drug problem with only one tool – penalisation – and that has failed. As a result, we now have more consumers, bigger criminal organisations, money laundering, arms trafficking and collateral damage." The response of the UN's International Narcotics Control Board has been to incant futile bromides. The move, says its chief Raymond Yans, would "endanger young people and contribute to the earlier onset of addiction". It would also be in breach of a "universally agreed and internationally endorsed treaty". Yet the UN admits that half a century of attempted suppression has led to 162m cannabis users worldwide, or 4% of the total adult population . The 78-year-old Mujica notes the irony that many of his South American contemporaries agree with him, but only after leaving office. They include Brazil's Fernando Cardoso, Mexico's Ernesto Zedillo and Colombia's César Gaviria, all of whom have now called for the decriminalisation of the drug market so that they can begin to regulate a trade whose feuding operators are killing thousands of people each year. The value of the drugs trade is second only to the trade in arms. Yet the US resists decriminalisation so it can continue to fight cocaine and opium production in Latin America and Afghanistan, to avoid confronting the real enemy: a domestic consumption that is out of control. For all this, the futility of suppression is leading to laws crumbling across the west. Twenty US states have legalised medical cannabis. California this year narrowly rejected taxing consumption (turning down an estimated $1.3bn in annual revenue) and may yet relent. Drug use is accepted across most of Latin America and, de facto, Europe. Even in Britain, where possession can be punished by five years in prison, just 0.2% of cases prosecuted result in such a sentence. The most intensive drug users are said to be in the state's own jails. The law has effectively collapsed. 13/12/2013 12:12 p.m.


Heroic Uruguay deserves a Nobel peace prize for legalising cannabis |...

http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/12/heroic-urugu...

The difficulty now is to resolve the inconsistency of enforcers "turning a blind eye" to consumption while leaving supply (and thus marketing) untaxed and unregulated in the hands of drug traffickers. This is little short of a state subsidy to organised crime. Indulgence may save the police and the courts from the cost of enforcement, but it leaves every high street open to massive cross-jeopardy, from cannabis to hard drug use. Ending this inconsistency requires action from legislators. Yet they remain seized by a lethal mix of taboo, tribalism and fear of the media. British policy on all intoxicants and narcotics (from booze to benzodiazepines) is chaotic and dangerous. The government on Thursday admitted its inability to control "legal highs", new ones being invented every week. It is running round back-street laboratories waving bans and arrest warrants like the Keystone Cops. The catastrophe of death and anarchy that failed drug suppression has brought to Mexico and to other narco-states makes the west's obsessive war on terror seem like a footling sideshow. The road out of this darkness is now being charted not in the old world but in the new, whose heroic legislators deserve to be awarded a Nobel peace prize. It is they who have taken on the challenge of fighting the one world war that really matters – the war on the war on drugs. It is significant that the bravest countries are also the smallest. Thank heavens for small states.

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13/12/2013 12:12 p.m.


Uruguay aprueba una ley inédita para regular el comercio de marihuana...

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http://sociedad.elpais.com/sociedad/2013/12/10/actualidad/138670606...

Uruguay aprueba una ley inédita para regular el comercio de marihuana El Estado otorgará licencias para cultivarla y venderla en farmacias El Gobierno calcula que saldrá al mercado por un dólar cada gramo ELVIRA PALOMO

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Uruguay ha hecho historia este martes al aprobar una novedosa ley para regular la producción, distribución y venta de marihuana, una medida única en el mundo, no exenta de polémica. La aprobación del texto en el Senado convierte a este país de 3,3 millones de habitantes en el primero en legislar en este sentido en un momento en el que se plantean nuevos métodos para combatir el narcotráfico en América Latina. El proyecto de ley, que fue aprobado el 31 de julio en la Cámara de Representantes con un ajustado resultado, pasó su último trámite en el Senado con 16 votos a favor - todos los senadores del gubernamental Frente Amplio - y 13 en contra. Tras un debate de 13 horas, el resultado fue recibido con aplausos en la tribuna y gritos de “Uruguay, Uruguay” por los activistas que esperaban fuera para escuchar el resultado. La ley permitirá a los mayores de 18 años el cultivo doméstico de hasta seis plantas de cannabis, con un máximo de 480 gramos de producción anual. Además, se permite el cultivo en clubes de membresía con entre 15 y 45 socios (con un máximo de 99 plantas) y la venta en farmacias autorizadas de un máximo de 40 gramos al mes para cada comprador, que tendrá que anotarse previamente en un registro obligatorio. La regulación del cannabis en Uruguay se suma a una serie de leyes liberales que ha aprobado el país en el último año como la despenalización del aborto y el matrimonio homosexual. El gubernamental Frente Amplio defendió en la Cámara Alta que el objetivo de la ley es “minimizar los riesgos y reducir los daños del uso del cannabis”. La sustancia representa el 80% del total de las drogas en Uruguay, donde las autoridades estiman que hay unos 120.000 usuarios de cannabis, aunque las asociaciones aseguran que la cifra alcanza los 200.000. En una sesión que fue seguida por decenas de periodistas de todo el mundo, el senador frenteamplista Roberto Conde defendió la medida alegando que “los problemas que genera el narcotráfico en Uruguay no pueden esperar a los consensos de los organismos multilaterales” y la “ineficiencia” de los enfoques de “criminalización y el castigo” ha llevado al Gobierno de José Mujica a explorar otras vías con esta droga. Clubes para fumar

El legislador afirmó que la ley busca un equilibrio entre la libertad del individuo y su integridad física, y solucionar la "incongruencia

12/12/2013 02:16 p.m.


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Holanda. La legislación holandesa es un caso único en Europa. La capital de este país, Ámsterdam, es de hecho considerada el paraíso del turismo del porro. La normativa permite el consumo de cannabis dentro de los llamados coffeeshops, aunque el anterior Gobierno de centroderecha aprobó una ley para exigir desde 2012 un carné de socio y ser residente en el país para poder fumar en estos locales. El actual Ejecutivo de centroizquierda suprimió a principios de este año la obligación de ser socio, aunque mantuvo la obligación de residir en el país. No obstante, el Ayuntamiento de Ámsterdam ha decidido aplicar el margen de maniobra que le permite la ley nacional para seguir permitiendo a los turistas la entrada a estos establecimientos. De los siete millones de visitantes anuales que tiene la ciudad, un millón y medio sigue acudiendo a ellos. Alemania. Hace apenas dos semanas los gobernantes de un distrito de Berlín decidieron legalizar la compra y consumo de cannabis y marihuana en coffeeshops, establecimientos autorizados similares a los holandeses. La medida, que aún debe pasar un trámite antes de ser aprobada, pretende acabar con el tráfico de drogas y la criminalidad creciente en el distrito. España. Los coffeeshops no son legales en España, pero existen muchos clubes privados, sobre todo en las grandes ciudades, que gestionan plantaciones colectivas de cannabis para producir la marihuana y el hachís que consumen los socios en sus locales. El Ayuntamiento de Barcelona ha

http://sociedad.elpais.com/sociedad/2013/12/10/actualidad/138670606...

jurídica" existente. En Uruguay está permitido el consumo de marihuana pero no su producción y comercialización, algo que, según los defensores de la norma, llevaba al usuario a recurrir al mercado ilegal. “No se trata de crear un mercado de marihuana, se trata de regular el mercado que ahora está en manos del narcotráfico”. El proyecto de ley, que fue aprobado el 31 de julio en la Cámara de Representantes con un ajustado resultado, sigue sin convencer a la oposición. Esta defiende que la medida minimiza los “peligros” de la marihuana y los “efectos irreversibles a largo plazo”, como el impacto en el aprendizaje, según dijo el senador del Partido Colorado, Alfredo Solari, médico y exministro de Salud. Según la Junta Nacional de Drogas, el 80% de los jóvenes que admitió haber probado la marihuana lo hizo por “curiosidad”. La oposición tachó el proyecto de “improvisado” y auguró un “fracaso” que puede llevar a la “ingobernabilidad” del mercado, en vez de a su control. Una de las preocupaciones de los partidos de oposición es cómo se va a ejercer el control para evitar la venta irregular de marihuana legal. Si bien para tener acceso a la marihuana hay que inscribirse en un registro oficial y no habrá coffee shops al estilo de Ámsterdam -puesto que la ley antitabaco prohíbe fumar en espacios públicos cerrados-, el senador Jorge Larrañaga del Partido Nacional se preguntó qué pasará con el excedente que tengan los consumidores uruguayos y cómo van a asegurarse de que no habrá un mercado irregular de la “marihuana estatal”. El debate también giró en torno a las declaraciones de Mujica a los medios, que se ha referido a esta ley como un “experimento” y ha reconocido que “totalmente preparados no estamos”. Además, ha pedido a la comunidad internacional que contribuya para que funcione y se ha mostrado dispuesto a dar marcha atrás si la ley no da resultados. El senador del partido colorado Pedro Bordaberry contestó a este planteamiento que “los uruguayos no somos cobayas”. En respuesta al argumento de la lucha contra las drogas, Solari señaló que “Montevideo no es Tijuana, ni Uruguay es Paraguay. Nosotros no estamos en el epicentro de la lucha contra las drogas, ni nada que se le parezca” , dijo y advirtió que Uruguay puede convertirse en “un foco de difusión internacional como lo temen nuestros países vecinos”. Debido a la atención que ha suscitado esta medida internacionalmente, el senador dijo a los países que ven con buenos ojos esta ley que “si las consecuencias fueran negativas, tengan la misma disposición a colaborar en su corrección y mitigar secuelas que puedan llegar a ser irreversibles”. Todavía quedan asuntos pendientes como qué tipo de semilla se cultivará, cómo se realizará el registro de los usuarios (algo que ha generado reticencia entre los consumidores) y pendiente el precio final. El Gobierno busca ofrecer una marihuana más barata y de mejor calidad que la que se consigue en el mercado ilegal. La Junta Nacional de Drogas de Uruguay ha adelantado que, para que el producto sea competitivo, se calcula que saldrá al mercado con un precio de un dólar por gramo. Una vez sancionada la ley, el Ejecutivo tiene 120 días para elaborar

12/12/2013 02:16 p.m.


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anunciado que va a poner freno a la proliferación de estas asociaciones con inspecciones para comprobar si, como dicen muchos en sus estatutos, tienen fines terapéuticos. El vacío legal se evidenció a principios de 2012, durante la polémica que generó la intención del Ayuntamiento de Rasquera (Tarragona) de ceder unos terrenos a uno de estos clubes para que plantara marihuana. Una sentencia judicial anuló la cesión, aunque el alcalde la ha recurrido. El Parlamento vasco ha abierto un debate para decidir si debe regularse la actividad de estas asociaciones. México. Una propuesta del Partido de la Revolución Democrática (PRD, de izquierdas) para despenalizar el consumo terapéutico de marihuana en la capital, donde es fuerza mayoritaria, ha encendido el debate en el país. Los progresistas quieren extender su propuesta a todo el territorio nacional.

http://sociedad.elpais.com/sociedad/2013/12/10/actualidad/138670606...

la reglamentación con la que se espera que queden despejadas estas dudas. Si el proceso sigue estos plazos, las primeras licencias concedidas por el Gobierno y los primeros cultivos amparados bajo esta ley podrían comenzar a plantarse en el segundo semestre de 2014. Sobre la participación del Estado en la producción, el prosecretario de Presidencia, Diego Canepa, comentó a un grupo de periodistas en los pasillos que “el Estado puede llegar a producir marihuana en parte, pero también está pensado dar un régimen muy controlado de licencias” a través el Instituto de Regulación y Control del Cannabis (IRCCA), que se crea para controlar que se cumplan las normas y va a ser el que otorgue las licencias para la producción, la comercialización y la distribución. “Es parte de lo que vamos a anunciar en la reglamentación”, señaló. Con ambiente festivo, los partidarios de la ley se concentraron en las puertas del palacio legislativo con una gran pancarta verde en la que se leía: “Cultivando la libertad Uruguay Crece”. “Hoy es un momento para festejar, para estar contento porque es un día histórico, hoy es el último día de la prohibición global. Es la primera vez que se desafía a las convenciones de esta manera y desarrolla una política de regulación del mercado”, señaló a este diario Martín Collado, portavoz de la plataforma Regulación Responsable que ha defendido el proyecto de ley durante un proceso que ha durado más de año y medio. Después de más de un año y medio de debate, la población todavía parece no estar muy convencida con el proyecto. Si bien el porcentaje de ciudadanos a favor de la marihuana médica aumentó al 74%, según la consultora Equipos Mori, el 61% de la población se manifestó en contra de la ley en la última encuesta realizada por la consultora CIFRA en septiembre. El porcentaje es casi similar al de julio de 2012, cuando la oposición era del 66 %. La ley cuenta además con la oposición de los químicos farmacéuticos, contrarios a que la marihuana para uso recreativo sea vendida en las farmacias.

Miles de persona festejan la aprobación de la ley En un ambiente festivo, las organizaciones prolegalización y los partidarios de la ley que regula el cultivo, la distribución y el consumo de la marihuana en Uruguay celebraron a las puertas del Palacio Legislativo la aprobación de la primera ley de este tipo en el mundo. Con tambores a ritmo de candombe, petardos y el tema Legalización del grupo de música español Ska-P de fondo, miles de personas se concentraron en torno a una gran pancarta verde en la que se podía leer “Cultivando la libertad Uruguay Crece”. “Vengo porque no puedo creer esto. Para mí, que me crié en el miedo y que tenía miedo de que a mis hijos les pudiera pasar algo, es un paso muy importante que está dando Uruguay. Me siento muy feliz”, dijo a este diario Cecilia López, de 57 años, quien sostenía uno de los extremos de la gran pancarta. López tiene dos hijos de 25 y 21 años y aconseja a los padres “que no tengan miedo, que conversen con los hijos”. En su opinión, más allá del tema del narcotráfico o de la ética esta ley aborda una cuestión de “libertad del individuo”. “Espero que a Uruguay le vaya bien y podamos ampliar la experiencia a otros lugares del mundo”. La ley permite a los mayores de 18 años acceder a la marihuana mediante el cultivo

12/12/2013 02:16 p.m.


Uruguay aprueba una ley inédita para regular el comercio de marihuana...

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http://sociedad.elpais.com/sociedad/2013/12/10/actualidad/138670606...

doméstico -con un límite de seis plantas por persona-, el cultivo en clubes regulados o comprándola en farmacias autorizadas, con un tope de 40 gramos mensuales por persona y previa inclusión en un registro. Está prohibido fumar marihuana en espacio públicos cerrados, tal y como recoge la ley antitabaco, y publicitar la sustancia. Será el Estado el que conceda licencias para producir marihuana y autorizar los puntos de venta. Otra pareja de jóvenes - Mariana, de 21 años, y Gastón, de 19 años - también celebra la aprobación de la ley sobre la que, aseguran, se han estado informando. “Hemos visto encuestas, foros en internet y esta ley es buena para nosotros”. Gastón asegura que “no molestamos a nadie. Y quien no quiera, que no consuma” a la vez que “nosotros nos sentimos más libres”.

© EDICIONES EL PAÍS, S.L.

12/12/2013 02:16 p.m.


Drogenpolitik: Uruguay erlaubt kontrollierten Marihuana-Handel - Am...

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Uruguay erlaubt kontrollierten MarihuanaHandel 11.12.2013 — 40 Gramm pro Person und Monat: Als erstes Land hat Uruguay den begrenzten Handel mit Marihuana legalisiert. Apotheken sollen das Rauschmittel verkaufen.

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ruguay hat als erstes Land weltweit den Anbau und Verkauf von Marihuana unter staatlicher Kontrolle legalisiert. Der Senat stimmte am Dienstagabend (Ortszeit) mit einer knappen Mehrheit von 16 gegen 13 Stimmen für eine entsprechende Regierungsinitiative, die bereits zuvor von der Abgeordnetenkammer gebilligt worden war. Staatschef José Mujica erhofft sich von der Maßnahme eine effizientere Bekämpfung der Drogenkartelle.

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Ihre Kampagne hatte Erfolg: Verfechter der Marihuana-Legalisierung vor dem Parlament in Uruguays Hauptstadt Montevideo

Der Kauf von monatlich bis zu 40 Gramm Marihuana soll nach dem neuen Gesetz in Apotheken freigegeben werden. Privatpersonen dürfen bis zu sechs Cannabis-Pflanzen züchten. Zudem werden Marihuana-Clubs mit 15 bis 45 Mitgliedern erlaubt. Diese dürfen bis zu 99 Pflanzen pflegen. Start für Mitte 2014 geplant Der Anbau und Handel soll von einer staatlichen Kommission kontrolliert werden. Dadurch soll unter anderem ausgeschlossen werden, dass Marihuana aus illegalem Anbau in den Handel geschleust wird. Die Konsumenten müssen sich in einem Register eintragen. Minderjährigen und Ausländern bleibt der Konsum verboten. Der Start des legalen Verkaufs wird erst für Mitte 2014 erwartet. Die Initiative hat in Uruguay eine heftige Debatte ausgelöst. Eine von der Zeitung „El País“ veröffentlichte Umfrage ergab, dass nur 29 Prozent der Befragten die Legalisierung des Marihuana-Handels unterstützten, während 64 Prozent sich dagegen aussprachen. Cannabis für Eigenbedarf war bereits erlaubt Bislang waren in Uruguay der Konsum und der Besitz von Cannabis zum persönlichen Bedarf erlaubt, aber der Handel und Anbau verboten. Mitglieder der Opposition hatten vor der Abstimmung angekündigt, sie wollten im Fall einer Annahme des Gesetzes ein Referendum anstrengen, um es zu blockieren. In Uruguay können Volksabstimmungen mit Unterstützung von zwei Prozent der Stimmberechtigten erzwungen werden.

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11/12/2013 02:48 p.m.


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http://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2013/10/24/news/uruguay_marijuana-...

Esteri

Costerà un dollaro al grammo: il presidente della Repubblica vuole combattere così i narcos. Andando controcorrente, come il suo modo di essere capo di stato: l'ex tupamaro (è stato 15 anni in carcere) vive con la moglie in una casa modesta in periferia di Montevideo con 1000 euro al mese (il resto del suo stipendio lo dà associazioni di promozione sociale) e coltiva la terra di OMERO CIAI

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47 giorni fa

Presidente della Repubblica Italiana subito! Rispondi Condividi gabaudio

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47 giorni fa

ero in Uruguay durante la campagna elettorale: passione, partecipazione popolare, nessuna spesa faraonica per la campagna. Già allora avevo invidiato quella politica, e oggi sempre di più invidio quel presidente Rispondi Condividi revenger

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47 giorni fa

La gente lo ama, ma in realtà fa solo il lavoro che ogni presidente dovrebbe fare, servire il proprio popolo, non i propri interessi. Il fatto che sia l'unico che lo fa lo rende speciale. Rispondi Condividi cariboou

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47 giorni fa

Great Man the President Pepe, please Giorgio follow him Rispondi Condividi Lara Sebastianelli

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47 giorni fa

Certo che è giusto lui è più evoluto di: Giovanardi, Fini, Letta, Renzie messi insieme,. queste persone sono sottosviluppate mentalmente per questo fanno solo POLITICA , è quello gli è stato permesso di fare da chi li ha messi li a leggiferare soilo per affari propri. Rispondi Condividi maru02

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47 giorni fa

Si, come stile di vita ineccepibile. Ma mi chiedo allora, davvero sconfiggerà il Narco - traffico? In America-latina più grossi proventi li ricava dalle piantagioni di coca. Legalizziamo anche quella? Rispondi Condividi brokenboa

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47 giorni fa

Questo è un presidente! Rispondi Condividi quainiroberto

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47 giorni fa

Da noi è inimmaginabile un presidente del genere: con papa Francesco a capo della chiesa e Pepe a capo dello stato si potrebbe stare davvero bene in Italia. Ma noi abbiamo Silvio e la sua orchestra (anzi la sua banda). Che schifo! Rispondi Condividi 1 risposta micktravis

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32 giorni fa

11/12/2013 02:33 p.m.


Marijuana di Stato, aborto e nozze gay in Uruguay: la rivoluzione di "...

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http://www.repubblica.it/esteri/2013/10/24/news/uruguay_marijuana-...

C'E' UN MODO per fermare i narcos? L'Uruguay ci prova: grazie ad una legge già approvata dalla Camera e in discussione al Senato (approvazione prevista entro novembre) lo Stato produrrà e venderà direttamente marijuana diventando il primo paese al mondo ad autorizzare e applicare regole per la produzione, la distribuzione e la vendita di droghe leggere. Una rivoluzione che - ha detto il presidente José Mujica parlando all'Onu - "vuole provare a strappare il mercato ai trafficanti" rendendo legale l'acquisto di modiche quantità e regolando la produzione che sarà affidata sia allo Stato che a singole persone o a cooperative di consumatori. Ieri il governo ha stabilito il prezzo di questa "Cannabis di Stato" che oscillerà intorno ad un dollaro al grammo. In Uruguay si calcola che su un totale di 3 milioni e mezzo di abitanti circa 120 mila cittadini consumino marijuana almeno una o due volte all'anno. La marijuana legale dovrebbe diventare disponibile entro la seconda metà dell'anno prossimo ed avrà l'obiettivo di combattere il traffico illegale che proviene dal vicino Paraguay. Il Paraguay infatti è oggi il maggior produttore di cannabis in America Latina ed esporta grandi quantità di marijuana essiccata che costituisce la base del rifornimento illegale.

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Nei mass media l'Uruguay è già diventato "l'Olanda del Sudamerica" ma quello della legalizzazione delle droghe leggere non è, per ora, un progetto facile per "Pepe", il nickname con il quale è popolarmente conosciuto José Mujica, presidente dal 2010. Un sondaggio recente ha fissato nel 62% il numero di uruguayani contrari alla legge sulla marijuana e la sua approvazione in prima istanza nel Congresso ha sollevato l'ostilità di Chiesa e opposizione. E non è l'unica legge contestata nell'Uruguay che "Pepe" ha trasformato in un laboratorio politico sui diritti civili in America Latina. Prima c'è stata la legalizzazione dell'aborto (libero nelle prime 12 settimane), quella dei matrimoni gay e, ultima, la legge sulla donazione degli organi che la prevede in forma automatica a meno che non si firmi una dichiarazione per rifiutarla. VIDEO IL GIORNO DELL'ELEZIONE A PRESIDENTE Ex guerrigliero tupamaro, 78 anni, "Pepe" Mujica è diventato molto famoso fuori dal suo paese quando la rivista londinese "Monocle" lo ha definito "il miglior presidente del mondo". Titolo che "Pepe" s'è guadagnato grazie al suo stile esemplare e modesto. Per "Le Monde" è diventato "il presidente più povero del mondo", mentre "El Paìs" lo descrive come leader di un nuovo "radicalismo a bassa intensità", opposto e lontano, in America Latina, dal populismo alla Chávez e dalla demagogia Kirchner. Appena eletto Mujica ha rifiutato la residenza presidenziale e continua a vivere, insieme alla moglie, la

11/12/2013 02:33 p.m.


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senatrice Lucia Topolansky, in una "chacra" (una piccola fattoria) alla periferia di Montevideo dove si dedica all'orto e alla coltivazione di fiori. Non usa Twitter, non ha email e neppure un conto in banca. Per il fisco locale possiede soltanto due vecchi maggiolini Volkswagen (comprati nel 1987) e tre trattori (la piccola fattoria è intestata alla moglie). Vive con il 10 percento del suo stipendio da presidente, circa mille euro dei diecimila che riceve, visto che il 90 percento lo versa ad associazioni di promozione sociale. Ciclista professionista da giovane, Mujica ha trascorso tredici anni (1972-85) in carcere.

Uruguay: "Pepe" Mujica, il "presidente più povero al mondo"

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Fu uno dei famosi "nove ostaggi" durante la dittatura, definiti così perché i militari dichiararono che li avrebbero fucilati se i guerriglieri Tupamaros ancora in libertà avessero commesso attentati. Fu un'epoca terribile - ricorda Mujica trascorsa nel più totale isolamento. "Sette anni senza poter leggere un libro", ha detto. Anti-consumista, alfiere dell'austerità personale che - dice - "è parte della lotta per la libertà", ateo dichiarato, Mujica è discendente di spagnoli (per parte di padre) e italiani (liguri, per parte di madre). Uomo dallo stile molto diretto - è rimasto negli annali quando disse della vicina presidente argentina Cristina Kirchner: "Questa vecchia è peggio del guercio" (riferito al marito Nestor morto nel 2010) - Mujica come spesso accade in Sudamerica è oggi amatissimo dai ceti più poveri e odiatissimo dall'oligarchia. Ma non smette di dare l'esempio. L'ultimo qualche giorno fa dopo un concerto degli Aerosmith a Montevideo. Il gruppo gli ha regalato una chitarra elettrica autografata e lui l'ha subito messa all'asta per versare i soldi raccolti al fondo per la costruzione di case popolari.

Rock & tupamaros, l'omaggio degli Aerosmith a Mujica

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11/12/2013 02:33 p.m.


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ma chi è! finalmente un uomo questo è un uomo. noi andiamo alla ricerca di qualcosa e poi ti accorgi che ci sono persone speciali proprio li a portata di mano che ti segnano la via, la strada maestra da seguire. "Pepe Mujica "è un grande capo rivoluzionario che sta lottando per il suo popolo , noi seguiamo la sua battaglia con grande ansia affinchè lui possa portarla avanti con successo.Come Allende,così Mujica sono le avanguardie delle rivoluzioni senza armi la lotta per la democrazia solo la violenza fascista militare aiutata dagli stati uniti potrà sconfiggere questi Rispondi Condividi

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Azzurra Marea

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47 giorni fa

che meraviglia un presidente che ama il suo popolo. Rispondi Condividi

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11/12/2013 02:33 p.m.


Uruguay, marijuana venduta dallo Stato. Passa la legge - Repubblica.it

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Il presidente: "Ma non diventeremo il paese del fumo libero". Saranno concesse licenze ai privati, l'erba sarà disponibile in farmacia 11 dicembre 2013

MONTEVIDEO - ll Senato uruguayano ha approvato in via definitiva il progetto di legge che prevede che sarà lo Stato a farsi carico della produzione, distribuzione e vendita della marijuana, dopo una lunga giornata di dibattito. La norma è passata con i soli voti del Frente Amplio, la coalizione di sinistra al governo a Montevideo. I partiti Manifestanti pro marijuana libera a dell'opposizione si sono opposti Montevideo (ansa) alla storica riforma, con un risultato di 16 voti a favore e 13 contrari, su un totale di 30 seggi (uno dei senatori dell'opposizione era assente). IMMAGINI Il presidente più povero del mondo La legge prevede la creazione di un Istituto di regolamentazione della cannabis (Inc), che concederà licenze ai privati per la coltivazione delle piante da parte di singoli (massimo sei piante a testa), associazioni di consumatori (massimo 45 soci e 99 piante) e produttori più importanti, che venderanno la marijuana attraverso una rete di farmacie autorizzate, per un massimo di 40 grammi mensili a persona. Per rendere possibile il controllo del mercato della marijuana sarà creato anche un registro di consumatori, la cui privacy sarà garantita dalle norme già esistenti in materia di protezione dei dati. Il presidente José Mujica ha ribadito che l'obiettivo della riforma non è "diventare un Paese del fumo libero", ma piuttosto tentare un "esperimento al di fuori del proibizionismo, che è fallito" per riuscire a "strappare un mercato importante ai trafficanti di droga". I senatori del Fronte Ampio hanno argomentato, durante le 12 ore che è durato il dibattito, che la riforma rappresenta un punto di equilibrio fra la proibizione e la legalizzazione del cannabis, attraverso la regolamentazione e il monitoraggio del ciclo produttivo della marijuana in ognuna delle sue fasi. IL RITRATTO La rivoluzione di "Pepe" Mujica L'opposizione, da parte sua, ha sostenuto che la legge approvata rappresenta una chiara violazione dei trattati internazionali in materia di droghe, presenta grosse difficoltà di implementazione e potrebbe risultare incostituzionale, perché prevede la creazione di un organismo statale, l'Inc, meno di un anno prima delle elezioni politiche e presidenziali previste per novembre del 2014, il che è proibito dalla carta magna uruguayana. Lo stesso Mujica ha ammesso che "forse l'Uruguay non è pronto per questa

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11/12/2013 02:35 p.m.


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esperienza", come dimostrano i sondaggi, secondo i quali oltre il 60% dei cittadini si oppone alla riforma, sottolineando che se l'opposizione riunisce le firme necessarie non si opporrà alla convocazione di un referendum abrogativo della discussa riforma. Concluso l'iter parlamentare, l'anno prossimo - dopo l'estate australe - si passerà alla prova dei fatti. Responsabili del governo hanno detto che la produzione e la vendita della marijuana di Stato sarà pronta verso giugno o luglio e hanno garantito un prezzo competitivo con quello del mercato illegale: un dollaro al grammo.

44 commenti flaviorosa

2 ore fa

Mi meraviglia che nessuno, nè le grandi multinazionali nè i trafficanti, abbiano ancora provato a farlo fuori. Meglio, la sua scorta è il popolo uruguiano che sa quanto sia una persona che pensa solo al loro bene Rispondi Condividi Egidio Mazzuoli

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2 ore fa

Temo fortemente per la vita del presidente, la mafia mondiale deve fermarlo altrimenti tutti, (tranne giovanardi) capiranno che così facendo si batte la mafia stroncando lo spaccio clandestino con la famosa legge del mercato, se lo stato vende a prezzo 10 volteb più basso, la mafia chiude, certo non basta a fermare del tuto la mafia ma le toglie il mercato della droga che è quello dove guadagna di più grazie agli idioti che comprano ed il mondo è pieno di idioti!! Rispondi Condividi voloalto

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3 ore fa

In Uruguay, grazie a questo 79enne presidente e' stato anche legalizzato il matrimonio gay,,, Non solo, del suo guadagno mensile eveolve ogni mese il 70 o 80% in beneficenza, ha rinuciato a vivere nel palazzo presidenziale ed ancora si coltiva il suo piccolo appezzamento di terreno con la anziana moglie.. Perche' i politici, e non solo quelli italiani, non prendono esempio da lui? Rispondi Condividi titanio

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4 ore fa

L'importante è fare girare soldi nel paese. L'Uruguay ha fatto una cosa furba ed intelligente, non lo dico come consumatore, in quanto l'idea di perdere capacità cognitiva a favore di qualsiasi stupefacente od alcolico è qualcosa che mi fa inorridire, ma il fatto di legalizzare un commercio fonte di crimine diretto e/o indiretto è secondo me molto positivo sotto diversi punti di vista, maggiore controllo, più soldi che girano nell'economia interna, galere meno affollate, quindi costi di mantenimento delle galere per lo stato inferiori, costi per il controllo inferiori o comunque indirizzabili altrove, maggiore snellezza nei tribunali, eventualmente anche più turismo. Se ci mettono qualche santo fanno il tutto esaurito, dovrebbero chiedere consulenza agli italiani in questo, siamo ferrati in entrambi i settori, arricchirci sui santi e sfornarne molti ogni secolo. Rispondi Condividi 4 risponde peppe8103

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3 ore fa

in italia si farebbe un torto alle mafie da un lato e un torto alla falsa moralità ecclesiastica dall'altro e siccome i nostri governanti sono ben concussi sia con gli uni che con gli altri non si andrà mai contro ne contro le mafie ne contro la chiesa.... l'esempio lampante è quello della prostituzione legale in italia ma in nessun modo regolamentata ne fiscalmente ne giuridicamente, l'ipocrisia la fa da padrona Rispondi Condividi 3 risponde titanio

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2 ore fa

Scusami peppe8103, sulla prostituzione ti ho già risposto in un altro msg, ma sul fatto di fare torto alle mafie legalizzando alcuni settori di loro competenza devo ancora capirlo. Oggi, il mafioso vende stupefacenti e per farlo deve comprarsi poliziotti, assessori, giudici, chi non si compra si cerca di eliminare. Quindi, in pratica le varie mafie spendono milioni in bustarelle, ed una parte inferiore in armi od esplosivi per uccidere, senza dimenticare la possibilità di finire comunque in galera a carcere duro, quindi dimenticando la libertà, la propria famiglia etc. In caso di legalizzazione, i milioni spesi per le bustarelle se li terrebbero in tasca, la galera non sarebbe vivibile in quanto non commetterebbero più reato, sarebbero liberi di comprarsi il paese intero senza preoccuparsi di riciclare soldi sporchi, quindi niente più prestanomi, quindi dove sta

11/12/2013 02:35 p.m.


Uruguay, marijuana venduta dallo Stato. Passa la legge - Repubblica.it

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il torto?? Rispondi Condividi 2 risponde titanio

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2 ore fa

Non che già ora...non riescano, se volessero, comprarsi il paese intero comunque Rispondi Condividi Egidio Mazzuoli

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2 ore fa

Mi dici dove sarbbe il guadagno della mafia se lo stato vendesse la droga 10 volte meno di quanto la vendonomi criminali??? Rispondi Condividi capovilla

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4 ore fa

La lotta alla criminalità organizzata passa inevitabilmente per la legalizzazione delle sostanze stupefacenti ed inebrianti. Più si proibisce, più soldi fanno le mafie. Mujica lo sa, e agisce di conseguenza. Coraggioso e intelligente. Rispondi Condividi

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Javier Rodriguez

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4 ore fa

dall'Uruguay vi commento che il 60% di uruguaiani non siamo d'accordo con la droga facile in farmacia. Il governo è disperato perché non vengono i turisti e la crisi lo colpisce. Questa è una legge per fare venire in Uruguay i turisti peggiori e per aver dollari da qualunque parte. Il resto è propaganda. Rispondi Condividi 4 risponde Edu Zinho

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3 ore fa

di dove hai presso questi dati? perché nei giornali non ho letto questo Mujica ha dato un colpo basso al narcotraffico internazionale Rispondi Condividi peppe8103

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3 ore fa

caro javier anche in olanda le droghe leggere sono legalizzate ma hanno uno tra i più bassi tassi d'europa di tossicodipendente e un livello di civilizzazione eccelso, e i turisti se son li si adeguano al target del paese che possano fumare o no, se in olanda un poliziotto la becca anche con una bottiglia di birra in mano per strada son pene per il turista, si va incontro a multe salatissime!! e te la fanno pagare tutta!!! Rispondi Condividi franco100001

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2 ore fa

Mi riesce difficile comprendere come i turisti che cercano droga dovrebbero spendere per un viaggio in Uruguay quando, dappertutto, possono trovare quello che cercano al mercato nero sotto casa. Comunque non discuto su luoghi che non conosco; la mia approvazione, e quella di molti altri, nasce dalla triste constatazione che, in Italia, molta corruzione viene finanziata con denaro sporco. Rispondi Condividi Egidio Mazzuoli

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2 ore fa

Guarda che la droga facile è adesso, in tutto il mondo, se è il guadagno più grande per le meafie vuol dire che è facile smerciarla invece se lavendesse lo stato anche a metà prezzo la mafia dovrebbe per forza chidere con lo spaccio! Rispondi Condividi Claude Tadolti

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5 ore fa

Finalmente qualcuno che mette una droga sotto il controllo della legge invece che lascairla completamente nelle mani del mercato nero raccontando la favoletta della "lotta alla droga" per prendere i voti dei benpensanti e dei bigotti. Rispondi Condividi 3 risponde titanio

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4 ore fa

Un applauso di cuore, ma ti sei dimenticato di rammentare i soldi che vanno ai corrotti....e li prendono proprio da lì. E' forse questo il vero motivo più che molti altri. Rispondi Condividi 2 risponde peppe8103

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3 ore fa

il presidente dell'uruguai si è ridottissimo il suo stipendio a livello di quello di un operario e continua a vivere nella capanna dove ha sempre vissuto rifiutando il palazzo "dorato" destinato ai presidente, ci vedo poca corruzione in quest'uomo!!! Rispondi Condividi 1 risposta titanio

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3 ore fa

11/12/2013 02:35 p.m.


Uruguay, marijuana venduta dallo Stato. Passa la legge - Repubblica.it

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Infatti non mi riferivo al presidente di cui onestamente non conoscevo le sorti, senza considerare che di solito chi stai ai vertici in assoluto non ha mai grandi vantaggi diretti, in quanto è sottoposto all'occhio vigile di qualche centinaio di telecamere. Mi riferisco ai subalterni in catena gerarchica, mi riferisco ai poliziotti locali, mi riferisco ai legislatori, mi riferisco al potere giudicante, etc. Rispondi Condividi maximobari

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5 ore fa

Un esempio di democrazia sociale libera e condivisa. Ricordiamolo ai nostri rappresentanti Parlamentari. Rispondi Condividi

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rocap

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5 ore fa

E' un tentativo per togliere il potere ai narcotrafficanti. Degno di uno Stato moderno e con governanti di buon senso! (e sopratutto non collusi coi narcos). Speriamo che riesca e che sia uno stimolo per USA ed Europa. Rispondi Condividi 2 risponde

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titanio

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3 ore fa

Così non togli minimamente il potere ai narcos, anzi, gli permetti di convertirsi parzialmente e quindi di adottare metodologie meno cruenti per portare avanti i loro affari. Senza dimenticare l'aspetto più importante, più soldi puliti ai narcos significa maggiori soldi sul mercato interno, e meno corrotti che intascano mazzette fra politici locali e forze dell'ordine, cosa a mio parere, peggiore dei narcos. In Europa c'è già Amsterdam che potrebbe essere un esempio di gestione intelligente dei traffici illegali, dove prostituzione e droga sono liberalizzati a favore dello stato e dell'economia interna, ma nessuno recepisce i vantaggi della cosa, probabilmente troppi ipocriti e corrotti. Rispondi Condividi 1 risposta Egidio Mazzuoli

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2 ore fa

Non è che cosi li combatti, cosi li fai chiudere togliendo loro il guadagno se lo stato vende a prezzo molto più basso gli spacciatori devono cambiare mestiere, è come per il contrabbando delle sigarette, ti sei mai chiesto perchè ci sono periodi in cui il contrabbando è fiorente mentre in altriperiodi scompare? semplice quando il prezzo all'estero è uguale a quello in italia il contrabbando non ha motrivo di esistere: è la famosa legge del mercato"!!! Rispondi Condividi ubimaiorminorcessat

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6 ore fa

¡Ay Pepe! ¡cómo qusiera yo que tú fueras mi presidente! Segni di grande modernismo e di grande saggezza. Questo è saper leggere la situazione e provare a cambiare. Qui in Italia il meglio che sanno fare è terrorismo per le strade e se ti fumi una canna sei un criminale. Nonostante sia chiaro che l'uso di Maria è un chiaro costume sociale ci accaniamo e perpetriamo un cieco proibizionismo..si ma ora se la vede Renzi (sigh)!

Rispondi Condividi 1 risposta

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Edu Zinho

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3 ore fa

e pensa che la madre dal Peppe mujica è genovese ma non fatte paragoni col genovese prestato a la politica nostrano perché non c'entra nulla Rispondi Condividi

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11/12/2013 02:35 p.m.


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La loi régulant la production et la vente de cannabis en Uruguay sous autorité de l'État a été définitivement approuvée par le

11/12/2013 02:43 p.m.


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11/12/2013 02:43 p.m.


L'Uruguay adopte la loi sur la légalisation du cannabis

http://www.lemonde.fr/ameriques/article/2013/12/11/l-uruguay-legalise...

L'Uruguay adopte la loi sur la légalisation du cannabis Le Monde.fr avec AFP et Reuters | 11.12.2013 à 02h08 • Mis à jour le 11.12.2013 à 02h14

A l'issue de douze heures de débats, la loi a été approuvée par le Sénat uruguayen par 16 voix sur 29. | AP/Matilde Campodonico

Le Sénat uruguayen a approuvé, mardi 10 décembre, le texte régulant la production et la vente de cannabis sous autorité de l'Etat, expérience sans précédent dans le monde. Une initiative qui va bien plus loin que les celles lancées notamment aux Pays-Bas ou en Espagne . A l'issue de douze heures de débats, la loi a été approuvée par 16 voix sur 29, grâce aux seuls suffrages des sénateurs membres du Frente amplio – le parti de gauche au pouvoir –, dans la foulée des députés ayant déjà voté le texte en juillet. La mise en œuvre de ce texte sera suivie de près par d'autres pays où la légalisation fait débat, comme le Guatemala par exemple (http://americalatina.blog.lemonde.fr/2012/11/15/la-legalisation-du-cannabis-avance-chez-les-latinos/) ,

ou la ville de

Mexico (/ameriques/article/2013/08/08/la-ville-de-mexico-envisage-de-legaliserle-cannabis_3459292_3222.html) .

Des partisans du projet munis de ballons verts, de drapeaux jamaïcains et parfois de joints s'étaient rassemblés aux abords du Parlement. Les pouvoirs publics ont 120 jours pour établir un conseil de contrôle de la drogue chargé d'édicter les règles en matière de culture , de fixation des prix et de suivi de la consommation . Les consommateurs de cannabis seront autorisés à acheter au maximum 40 grammes par mois dans des pharmacies homologuées par l'Etat. Il devront avoir 18 ans et être enregistrés dans une base de données publique qui suivra leurs achats mensuels. Les Uruguayens seront également autorisés à cultiver six plants de cannabis à domicile par an, ou l'équivalent de 480 grammes. Ils pourront, en outre, créer des clubs de 15 à 45 membres qui seront autorisés à faire pousser 99 plants par an. ALTERNATIVE À LA GUERRE CONTRE LA DROGUE Les efforts de l'Uruguay pour mettre fin au trafic de drogue sont suivis de près en Amérique latine où la légalisation de certaines substances psychotropes suscite un intérêt croissant des autorités qui y voient un moyen de mettre fin aux violences liées au commerce de la cocaïne. Les pays riches, où la légalisation du cannabis fait débat, s'intéressent aussi au projet uruguayen, qui a le soutien du spéculateur philanthrope George Soros en tant qu'« expérience » susceptible d'offrir une alternative à la politique américaine de « guerre contre la drogue » qui a largement échoué. L'an dernier, les Etats du Colorado et de Washington aux Etats-Unis ont

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11/12/2013 02:38 p.m.


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Uruguay legalises production and sale of cannabis Government experiment reaches new heights as it attempts to regulate marijuana business and find alternative to war on drugs Jonathan Watts, Latin America correspondent The Guardian, Wednesday 11 December 2013

A marijuana sample at Uruguay's second Cannabis Cup in Montevideo in June. A new law opens the way for the state to regulate the production, distribution, sale and consumption of marijuana. Photograph: Andres Stapff/Reuters

The world's most far-reaching cannabis law has been passed by the Uruguayan parliament, opening the way for the state to regulate the production, distribution, sale and consumption of the planet's favourite illegal drug. The law, effective from next year, will: allow registered users to buy up to 40g of marijuana a month from a chemist's; registered growers to keep up to six plants; and cannabis clubs to have up to 45 members and cultivate as many as 99 plants. A government-run cannabis institute will set the price – initially likely to be close to the current black market rate of $1 a gramme – and monitor the impact of the programme, which aims to bring the industry under state control and push illegal traffickers out of business. Julio Bango, one of the politicians who helped draft the bill, said it would probably be four months until the first harvest of legal cannabis, by which time the government

11/12/2013 02:39 p.m.


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would have a licensing system in place. "We know this has generated an international debate and we hope it brings another element to discussions about a model [the war on drugs] that has totally failed and that has generated the opposite results from what it set out to achieve." Before the passage of the bill, president José Mujica called on the international community to assist in what he admitted was an experiment aimed at finding an alternative to the deadly and unsuccessful war on drugs. "We are asking the world to help us with this experience, which will allow the adoption of a social and political experiment to face a serious problem – drug trafficking," he said earlier this month. "The effects of drug trafficking are worse than those of the drugs themselves." If the results of the law prove negative, Mujica has said it could be rescinded. The current illegal market in Uruguay is estimated to be worth $30m (£18m) a year, according to Martin Fernández, a lawyer working for the Association of Cannabis Studies, who says one in five Uruguayans have tried marijuana. The government estimates 115,000 people are regular users. Consumption of marijuana has been permitted for many years in Uruguay – one of Latin America's most tolerant nations – but production and sales are prohibited and largely run by gangs who smuggle drugs in from Paraguay. The government is taking a political risk by trying to regulate the business – a move not supported by most voters. Opposition politicians have demanded a referendum. "Public perception, reflected in public opinion polls, is that this measure is the wrong way to address a serious problem," Gerardo Amarilla of the National party said. Drug rehab workers have mixed views about the likely risks and benefits. Nancy Alonso, a psychologists who runs an addiction treatment centre, believes the law will create social and health problems. "Marijuana is highly addictive. It's 15 times more carcinogenic than tobacco. It produces psychological disorders like depression, anxiety and – for big consumers – schizophrenia," she said. "As a healthcare agent, I think the social harm will be huge." However, staff at the government-funded Ciudadela treatment centre are more upbeat. "I think the law is a positive step," said Pablo Anzalone, a programme co-ordinator. "State regulation will reduce problematic consumption. We also hope that it will generate more money for us and other treatment centres." Growers were ecstatic that their pastime will no longer get them thrown in jail. To celebrate, several planned what they called "a final march with illegal cannabis" through the streets of Montevideo.

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Marcelo Vazquez said he now had the opportunity to fulfil an ambition. "It's a utopia," he said. "I want to work, pay taxes and grow cannabis for clubs, for medicine, for whatever." Juan Guano, who runs a small shop selling growbags, heat lamps and books on cannabis cultivation, said he expected his market to expand. More hopefully, he predicted the measure could help Uruguayan and world society. "Uruguay doesn't need to prove anything to anyone, but obviously the outside world will be watching how this works. We are not regulating marijuana with the aim of encouraging others to follow our lead, we are doing it because this is what we need as a society. But one possible positive is that, if things go well, other countries in the region could take this as a model for marijuana regulation." Additional reporting by Mauricio Rabuffetti in Montevideo Sign up for the Guardian Today Our editors' picks for the day's top news and commentary delivered to your inbox each morning. Sign up for the daily email

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Uruguay Legalizes Pot, Recasting Drug War Senate vote gives government monopoly over pot sales and distribution Email

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MONTEVIDEO, Uruguay窶認or years, organized crime groups shuttled drugs through this small South American nation, leaving behind a legacy of crime and violence. On Tuesday, Uruguay's government took a radical new tack: To fight the traffickers, it formed a kind of drug cartel of its own.

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The Uruguay Senate approved a bill to legalize marijuana and put its trade into state hands, in what many experts said marks a new model for the war on drugs in its principal battleground of Latin America. President Josテゥ Mujica plans to sign the bill, which passed the lower house of Congress in July, into law.

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Under the law, which is among the world's most liberal marijuana initiatives, private companies will grow pot and a state agency will oversee its distribution and sale. Residents who are 18 or older will be allowed to grow up to 480 grams, or 1.06 pounds of pot per year, or buy from licensed pharmacies up to 40 grams of the drug monthly, the equivalent of about 60 cigarettes.

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The law is intended to cut out drug traffickers from the lucrative business and reduce the violence and social ills connected to the trafficking. Uruguay's experiment is being watched across the region. Leaders have become skeptical of U.S.-backed drug-prohibition strategies that have sparked armed conflicts. In Mexico and Colombia, the fight against cartels has killed thousands. Central America has among world's highest homicide rates, much of it linked to the drug trade. "The war against drugs has been a failure in Latin America," said Diego Cテ。nepa, Mr. Mujica's chief of staff. "It's been seen that the U.S. has given the dollars and we have given the bodies."

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The U.S. spent decades and billions of dollars pushing the drug war to its source in

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Latin America, funding governments to battle drug lords on their own turf. Now, the sponsors of those efforts have become among the driving forces to legalize marijuana. Among them are Guatemalan President Otto Pérez Molina, who is advocating marijuana legalization, and Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos, who has signaled he wants a debate over his country's drug-war tactics. Neither has proposed a law. Mexico City legislators are considering drafts of bills that would legalize pot. Lawmakers in Puerto Rico, Chile, Belize, Barbados, and Trinidad and Tobago all are drawing up similar plans. "We need to find our way out of this trap now," said Vicente Fox, a former Mexican president who began Mexico's drug war in 2005 with an assault in the border town of Nuevo Laredo. Since he left office, Mr. Fox has become an ardent voice for legalizing not just marijuana but all drugs, and says he hopes one day to grow cannabis on the ranch where he retired.

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Some Latin American leaders saw opportunities in the moves by Colorado and Washington to legalize the drug for recreational use last year. In October, a group of politicians from Uruguay and Mexico made a field trip to Colorado, where they took notes while touring cannabis farms and dispensaries. Mr. Fox said he traveled to San Francisco this fall to observe the pharmacy system there for medical marijuana. "We know the Colorado and Washington [state] initiatives and they've had a big impact on our thinking," said Sebastián Sabini, the Uruguayan legislator who sponsored the law in the country's lower congressional chamber. For its part, the Uruguayan government says the law isn't aimed at setting an example for other countries, but is rather the next step in a tradition of progressive laws. In 2009, the country elected Mr. Mujica, a former leftist guerrilla fighter, whose government then legalized gay marriage and abortion and banned outdoor ads for cigarettes. The shifting tide doesn't please everyone. Two-thirds of Uruguayans said in a poll early this year that they were against the law that the Senate passed on Tuesday. "It's unacceptable for the government to use this country and its youth for an experiment," said Senator Jorge Larrañaga, a former presidential candidate for the center right Partido Nacional opposition party, during debate over the bill. While Uruguay has never been a major narcotics market, it is sandwiched between large consumer countries like Argentina and Brazil as well as Paraguay, the secondlargest pot producer after Mexico. As more drugs made their way illegally through Uruguay, violence followed. By 2012, drug- related homicides accounted for one in three of the total in Uruguay, from fewer than one in five a decade earlier, said Mr. Sabini, the lawmaker. Some saw legalization as a means to shield Uruguay against crime groups. "When there was cholera here we defended ourselves," said Mónica Xavier, the president of the center-left coalition that proposed the law. "The idea was to avoid the contagion of the area."

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The idea was that if the state controlled the marijuana market, then outside gangs would lose profits, and the government could invest the tax money to pursue criminals. Geoffrey Ramsey, who studied the law for the Open Society Foundations, a nonprofit founded by George Soros, said 20 to 30 private companies would be given the rights to grow the plants in the country's warmer north. Mr. Ramsey said it was too early to say how much revenue the government would reap, but it could be sizable given that 20% of Uruguay's 3.4 million people say they have used the drug. He said criminal gangs would still traffic a popular cocaine derivative, but that "even if cocaine is more profitable, these groups will take a major hit under this law." Some politicians worry over a public backlash. Unlike in the U.S., where the legalization support has come from grass-roots efforts, Latin America's legalization drives have been led by elites. "When a politician says he wants to legalize drugs there is fear," said Ricardo Lagos Weber, the son of a former Chilean president now pushing for legalization laws in his own country. "It's hard to tell a mother there is a senator who wants to legalize drugs when they feel threatened by drug traffickers at every corner."

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Or as ex-president Mr. Fox puts it: "Some people may think their president went crazy. But I will tell you that prohibition doesn't work and that I have never heard of someone dying of an overdose of marijuana." —Ken Parks contributed to this article. Write to Nicholas Casey at nicholas.casey@wsj.com

High Times The new law would put marijuana sales and distribution under government control and set rules: Private companies may grow marijuana with permits. Uruguayans over age 18 may purchase up to 40 grams of marijuana at licensed distributors. State monopoly maintains control over all aspects of commercial production. Individuals may grow up to six plants. No exports allowed. Email

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Uruguay Acts to Legalize Marijuana

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By SIMON ROMERO Published: December 10, 2013

SANTIAGO, Chile — Uruguay’s Senate approved legislation on Tuesday that will allow the country to legalize the cultivation and sale of marijuana on a nationwide scale. Uruguay’s leftist president, José Mujica, a supporter of the measure, has signaled that he will enact the legislation in coming days.

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Under the legislation, approved by a Connect With vote of 16 to 13, Uruguay would create Us on Twitter a state-run Institute for the Follow @nytimesworld for Regulation and Control of Cannabis to international oversee the planting, harvesting and breaking news and headlines. sale of marijuana. The drug would be Twitter List: Reporters and Editors sold at pharmacies, with buyers signing up in a state registry, a process enabling them to purchase up to 40 grams a month at $1 a gram.

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The action on the bill followed years of debate in Uruguay, which has been grappling with an increase in drug-related violence. Opponents contended the measure would open the way for greater drug use in Uruguay, while supporters claimed it would remove the marijuana trade from the domain of illegal traffickers, allowing the authorities to regulate its consumption. “We are convinced that we can apply our own policy to drugs in compliance with international norms,” said Roberto Conde, a senator in Uruguay’s governing Broad Front coalition. Under Mr. Mujica, Uruguay has emerged as one of Latin America’s most socially liberal nations, moving to legalize gay marriage and abortion. The lower house of Uruguay’s Congress approved the marijuana bill in July. Most Uruguayans oppose the legalization of marijuana, according to polls, but the Broad Front coalition of leftist parties still seemed to be popular enough to expose itself to disapproval over the law. “This is seen as forming part of a new agenda, which in terms of legal rights Uruguay has advanced in recent years,” said Adolfo Garcé, a political scientist at the University of the Republic in Montevideo, the capital. While marijuana is already tolerated to a large degree in Uruguay, the law would allow households to grow up to six plants each, and cooperatives to form to grow up to 99 plants together. All growers would be required to register their production with the government, which plans to import seeds from abroad and control the potency of plants.

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Some opposition to the law has been voiced in neighboring countries, while the International Narcotics Control Board of the United Nations has also expressed concern. “We could turn into a regional center of cannabis tourism, as the region fears,” said Alfredo Solari, an opposition senator in Uruguay. Still, the law would limit purchases of marijuana in pharmacies to Uruguayan citizens over the age of 18 in an attempt to prevent drug tourism. Fabián Werner contributed reporting from Montevideo, Uruguay.

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A version of this article appears in print on December 11, 2013, on page A8 of the New York edition with the headline:

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Uruguay votes to legalize marijuana - The Washington Post

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Uruguay votes to legalize marijuana

Andres Stapff/REUTERS - Uruguay’s Senate voted for a government-sponsored bill establishing state regulation of the cultivation, distribution and consumption of marijuana during a session in Montevideo on Tuesday. The law makes the small South American nation the world’s first to allow its citizens to grow, buy and smoke marijuana. By Nick Miroff, Published: December 10 E-mail the writer

MEXICO CITY — Lawmakers in the small South American nation of Uruguay voted Tuesday to legalize and regulate marijuana, going further than any other country in the world toward decriminalizing the plant and lifting the stigma from its use. With the move, Uruguay leaps to the forefront of nations that have sought alternatives to criminal anti-narcotics enforcement, frustrated with the human and economic costs of fighting a drug war that rarely shows signs of progress. The Uruguayan government will have 120 days to implement its plans for a sprawling reefer bureaucracy — the Institute for the Regulation and Control of Cannabis — to manage the country’s new marijuana marketplace.

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“Uruguay has taken a step forward,” said Sen. Luis Rosadilla, from the ruling Broad Front party, just before voting in favor of the measure, which passed 16 to 13 in the upper chamber. “We’ll see how it works, and we’ll continue looking for solutions.” Unlike Mexico, Colombia and many other countries in Latin America that are mired in

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purchases. Growers will be allowed to cultivate up to six plants in their homes each year, not to exceed 480 grams. Aficionados will also be able to join forces and establish smoking clubs of 15 to 45 members with the ability to produce 99 plants a year. The green stuff won’t be allowed over the borders.

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least 18 years old and registered in a database to monitor their cumulative

Uruguay votes to legalize marijuana Nick Miroff 1:20 AM ET

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ounces) each month from governmentregulated outlets, provided that they are at

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Nor will foreign tourists will be eligible to buy Uruguay’s legalized weed, making it improbable that Montevideo, the capital, will turn into a southern Amsterdam besieged by a flood of global stoners. The experiment in Uruguay will be closely watched by other countries in Latin America and around the world, including the United States, where the Obama administration opposes marijuana legalization but has

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softened to state-driven ballot initiatives that decriminalize its use. Voters in Colorado and Washington state have already approved recreational use of the drug, and 15 other states also have eased restrictions, many ostensibly for medical use.

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Advocates for marijuana decriminalization in the United States followed Uruguay’s efforts closely, even helping to finance advertising campaigns in favor of the law. Other Latin American nations have also expressed interest in trying a regulatory approach to their drug problems, and could be encouraged to follow suit.

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“For the first time, a country has said we’ll take the profits out of the drug trade and give criminals no reason to traffic the stuff,” said Sanho Tree, a drug policy expert at the Institute for Policy Studies in Washington. “It’s a counterintuitive solution to the problem.”

2w

Many Uruguayans have been less enthusiastic, with polls showing that a majority of voters were not in favor of the measure. 8d

“I hope I’m wrong, but this is going to contribute to the further deterioration of our education system, especially among the poorest classes,” said Sen. Alfredo Solari, before voting against the measure after more than 12 hours of debate. The legislation has already cleared Uruguay's lower house and has the backing of the country’s quirky president, José “Pepe” Mujica , a former Marxist guerrilla who says he has never smoked pot.

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Duncan-20903 wrote: 4:21 AM GMT-0200

Anyone that thinks Morethat there's risk to re-legalizing cannabis can relax. I know that it sux but the only reason you would be afraid is because you've been played for a chump by by professional confidence artist who we call the prohibitionist parasites. It's a shame but until you own that fact you won't be able to move forward. There really

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Wireless is Changing US healthcare James Vetzel wrote: 4:05 AM GMT-0200

"Global Stoners", As if that's a bad thing. I'm in Amsterdam right now, flying back to 'no weed at all, period!, Indiana. Amsterdam almost banned weed sales last year, but someone said 'look at how much money (Taxes) we will lose'. That woke them up real frickin' fast! The funny thing about Amsterdam is that it legal to smoke weed for the Coffee Houses But it's illegal to grow for the Coffee Houses (you can grow it at home). What they say here is that (describing the coffee houses) 'Front door legal (where you come in), back door illegal' (where the weed comes in), A whole lot of "Wink, wink, nudge, nudge" here when it come to weed. Also, any place that you can legally smoke tobacco, you can smoke weed. Yahoo for the stoners.

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rvpinwf wrote: 12:45 AM GMT-0200

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Prohabition has failed! The damage caused by one day's prohibition policy is thousands of times worse then a life time of cannabis use! No one has ever died from cannabis yet thousands die each year because of it's

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Folha de S.Paulo - Mundo - Uruguai legaliza produção e comércio da ...

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Uruguai legaliza produção e comércio da maconha

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O Uruguai, que já permitia o consumo de maconha, se tornou hoje o primeiro país a legalizar a produção e venda da droga. A nova lei foi aprovada no Senado por 16 votos a 13 e deverá entrar em vigor no primeiro semestre de 2014. Saiba mais sobre os efeitos da maconha e o consumo no mundo

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Em alguns dias, o presidente José Mujica deve sancioná-la. O mandatário repetiu ao longo do ano que a legalização era a única maneira de combater o tráfico de droga no país. Em julho, o projeto de lei havia sido aprovado na Câmara de Deputados por 50 votos a 46. Editoria de Arte/Folhapress

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Pela nova legislação, os uruguaios e estrangeiros que residem no país e têm mais de 18 anos poderão comprar até 40 gramas da erva por mês em farmácias credenciadas. Para isso, o consumidor terá que se registrar _mas sua identidade fica preservada pela lei de proteção de dados. O grama da maconha será vendido inicialmente a US$ 1 (R$ 2,31), mesmo preço praticado no mercado negro, segundo Julio Calzada, secretário-geral da Junta Nacional de Droga do país. O fornecimento da erva ficará a cargo de empresas ou clubes registrados junto às autoridades, com o limite de produção de 20 a 22 toneladas por ano.

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O cultivo de cannabis também fica liberado em casa, com o máximo de seis plantas, e em associações ou clubes que tenham entre 14 a 45 membros. O cidadão que for pego plantando maconha sem autorização do governo pode ser condenado a até dez anos de prisão.

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A lei proíbe o fumo em locais públicos fechados, assim como o cigarro, e não permite que o cidadão dirija sob o efeito da droga. Também estão vetados anúncios promovendo a substância. O governo uruguaio terá que se encarregar de ampliar a campanha de prevenção às drogas, alertando a população sobre seus efeitos. Uma pesquisa divulgada em setembro pela consultoria Cifra mostrou que 61% dos uruguaios não estão de acordo com a legalização da maconha. SENADO O projeto foi alvo de críticas da oposição durante a votação do texto no Senado ma terça-feira (10). O senador opositor Jorge Larrañaga afirmou que o projeto é "inconstitucional" e que o governo abria uma porta ao abismo. Seu colega Sergio Abreu, pré-candidato à Presidência pelo Partido Nacional, disse nunca ter visto um projeto "tão burguês, tão capitalista e tão afastado da sensibilidade social". À tarde, o presidente José Mujica disse que o Uruguai não está "totalmente preparado" para a nova lei, mas que, como tudo, aprenderá trabalhando. VEJA OUTROS TEXTOS PARA VISITANTES COMENTAREM

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Página/12 :: Ultimas Noticias :: "No libera, sino que regula el mercado"

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11:48 › URUGUAY APROBO LEGALIZAR Y REGULAR LA VENTA DE MARIHUANA

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"No libera, sino que regula el mercado"

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10:14

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"Avizoramos una perspectiva de normalización en cada una de las provincias"

La Junta Nacional de Drogas (JND) de Uruguay defendió la ley aprobada ayer por el Congreso, que legaliza la producción y la venta de marihuana, bajo control del Estado. La nueva norma permite el autocultivo y habilita la venta en farmacias. "Regula el mercado que ya existe", explicó el titular de la JND.

13:35

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Bonfatti denunció a los policías por sedición DE A POCO VUELVE LA CALMA

10:50

Tres muertos y al menos 100 heridos en Tucumán

La nueva norma "es una herramienta orientada a la desestructuración del mercado ilegal que tanto daño causa", sostuvo Julio Calzada, titular de la

15:25

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Chequeo con "resultados normales"

JND, una institución que funciona en la órbita de la Presidencia del país y que gestiona los temas relacionados con las drogas.

12:14

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Las reservas aumentaron 20 millones en tres días

Cinco equipos interministeriales están trabajando para ajustar detalles de la

10:28

CONGRESO

implementación de la ley, que todavía debe ser promulgada por el Poder Ejecutivo y reglamentada. El funcionario explicó que habrá que organizar licencias para producir, acopiar, distribuir y expender para autocultivadores,

Los pliegos de Milani y Lorenzino 10:54

SUDAFRICA

El último adiós a Mandela

para los clubes de cannabis y para el uso medicinal de la marihuana.

URUGUAY APROBO LEGALIZAR Y REGULAR LA VENTA DE MARIHUANA

Aunque la ley aún no está vigente, a partir de hoy ya no se penalizará a quienes tengan plantas en sus casas para el consumo personal, siempre

11:48

"No libera, sino que regula el mercado" 12:42

MAS REVERENCIAS

que no superen las seis unidades y los 480 gramos y demuestren que no los van a comercializar. En el primer trimestre del año entrante se procederá a

The Papa Time ELECCIONES MUNICIPALES EN VENEZUELA

las primeras licitaciones para conceder licencias, y hoy se informó en Montevideo que una empresa estadounidense expresó su intención de radicarse en Uruguay.

12:33

Maduro dijo que le dio una "tremenda paliza" a la oposición

La oposición al gobernante Frente Amplio anticipó que presentará recursos

ES C RI BE N H OY

de inconstitucionalidad de la ley y el precandidato presidencial del Partido Nacional (PN) Jorge Larrañaga prometió que si gana las elecciones del año

Beatriz Vignoli Cristian Vitale Emanuel Respighi Fernando Krakowiak Gustavo Lesbegueris Irina Hauser Javier Aguirre José Maggi Julián Bruschtein Karina Micheletto Laura Vales Leonardo Moledo Lorena Panzerini Luis Bastús Marcelo J. García y Roberto Samar Marcelo Justo Mario Wainfeld Marta Riskin María Zentner Natalia Massei Nicolás Lantos Noé Jitrik Oscar Laborde Oscar Ranzani Paola Bianco Roque Casciero Sebastián Premici

próximo derogará la norma.

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11/12/2013 04:34 p.m.


Medios internacionales sobre la regulación del mercado de marihuana