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FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, CEPT UNIVERSITY

STUDY OF ARCHITECTURAL DETAILING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF CHANGING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY - A CASE OF PATAN, GUJARAT

Guide: Sankalpa

Prasik Chaudhari


CONTENT I. INTRODUCTION II. HYPOTHESIS III. AIM IV. OBJECTIVE V. NEED FOR STUDY VI. METHODOLOGY VII. SCOPE

CHAPTER 1 INTROCUCTION OF PATAN

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1.1. HISTORY & ARCHITECTURE 1.2. CLIMATE & GEOGRAPHY 1.3. ARCHITECTURE OF THE REGION

CHAPTER 2: Case study TYPES OF HOUSES BASED ON MATERIAL 2.1. TIMER FRAME, BRICK INFILL & SLOPING ROOF

2.1.1. STRUCTURAL SYSTEM 2.1.2. AVALABILITY OF MATERIAL 2.1.3. CRAFTSMAN & TOOL 2.1.4. BUILDING ELEMENTS (& THEIR LOCAL NAMES) 2.1.5. SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION

2.2. BRICK MASONARY & CEMENT CONCRETE SLAB 2.2.1. STRUCTURAL SYSTEM 2.2.2. AVALABILITY OF MATERIAL 2.2.3. CRAFTSMAN & TOOL 2.2.4. SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION

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CHAPTER 3 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS CHANGE IN:

ELEMENTS & DETAILS MATERIAL PROCESS SKILLS AND TOOLS OBSERVATIONS

CONCLUSION ILLUSTRATION CREDITS BIBLIOGRAPHY

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First I would like to thank my family for being patient, helping, understanding and believing in me throughout the tenure of this work. I would like to offer my sincere gartitude to my guide Prof. Sankalpa, for his guidance, interest in the work and invaluable comments to make this study worthwhile.

I am thankful to Prof. Kirit Patel, Pratyush Shankar and Vicky Achnani for bringing intellectual discussions to help develop this Research Study.

I am very grateful for the help I received from Vartika Garg for this work. I am thankful to Karan, Kavan, Gitesh, Namrata, Vaidehi, Karan and Sapan for the help I received while materializing this document. I am also grateful to the administration & library of CEPT University, Ahmedabad for providing the valuable information through their documents. Lastly, I am thankful to all those who have supported me in any respect during my study.


CONTENT I. INTRODUCTION II. HYPOTHESIS III. AIM IV. OBJECTIVE V. NEED FOR STUDY VI. METHODOLOGY VII. SCOPE

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I. INTRODUCTION The history and development of human dwelling presents an interesting co-existence of the forces that shaped it. The changing materials of dwelling bear the imprint of the varied forces and manifest their complex interaction. The continuity of these forms however becomes tradition in which refinement and purity of form, proportion and other aspect are incorporated. “The form develops as man learns to master more complex building techniques and all the construction details are part of a progressive development in a series of almost inevitable steps”.

The technology and techniques involved in the building process went through a great amount of evolution as they are passed on from one generation to other. In this process man also learnt to improvise the building method through use of materials, sequence and order of construction and so on. Elements of building and vocabulary of construction gives an architectural character to place, which is developed through generation of constant search and modification. “The availability and the choice of materials and construction techniques in architectural situation greatly influence and modify the building”. If one closely investigates the making of a built form, the finding reveals the knowledge with which the material was employed and mastered, the techniques that were incorporated in the process of building and the logic behind the method that was then tradition. The making clearly defines the relationship of parts, the way they come together in an assembly, the potential and virtue of material. The assembly of different building system and the construction technique that shaped them and so on.

To study the impacts and evolution of details in a house type and to understand houses through details of construction and how they evolved when there was a change in material, construction process, craftsman and technique, in Patan, Gujarat.

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II. HYPOTHESIS Use of new materials in the same house type in Patan (Nagarwado, Doshiwado), evolved new details.

III. AIM To study detailing in a house type as a outcome of change in material and construction system over time.

IV. OBJECTIVE • To identify various houses following the same type in which change in material & construction system is variable. • To document change in material in a house type.

• To document house type in Patan as a outcome of change in material. • To identify various positions and conditions where materials and details have been employed and compare it to previous materials.

V. NEED FOR STUDY • To understand and document prevailing knowledge of traditional architecture.

• To understand the reasons of transformation and the forces that govern changes. • To study Patan (Nagarwado & Doshiwado) has a rich culture and lifestyle. It has rich traditional architecture.

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VI. METHODLOGY 1. Primary

• Find an appropriate house of Patan that has followed a particular way of construction, and has used wood in both structural and non-structural system of the built form. • Through diagrams and sketches understand the factors that have played an important role in house form. • Document houses in detail to investigate the making of it via the sequence of construction and tools used. • The study relies on the secondary source of information such as books, thesis documents and periodicals for the theoretical base. • While the case study will be done as first hand reference. • Interviewing the local inhabitants and craftsman for the construction techniques, skills and tools in the making of built form.

2. Secondary

• What is the enclosure and spanning system that are gradually evolved in the traditional house of Patan? • How did the different parts of architectural element evolved and how are they assembled? • What is the order of construction of different elements? • What is the process of making the house and its order of construction?

VII. SCOPE • The study looks into the technical aspect of building in the making of language and details evolved out of it. • The study is focused on how the materials are used in domestic architecture. • Study area limited to same type of houses of Patan.

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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION OF PATAN 1.1 HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE 1.2 CLIMATE AND GEOGRAPHY 1.3 ARCHITECTURE OF THE REGION

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1.1 HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE The district was carved out mainly from Mehsana District along with Radhanpur and Santalpur Talukas from Banaskantha District. Its headquarters is the city of Patan, Gujarat. Patan is an ancient fortified town, situated on the banks of the sacred Saraswati river. This town was founded by the Vanraj Chavda in 746 AD and enjoyed a privileged status of the capital of Gujarat, for about 600 years from 746 AD to 1411 AD, after the center of power moved from Saurashtra around the same time and before being sacked by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1024. It was administratively important since earlier time as it was the capital of Gujarat and had attained prosperity under Chavda and Solanki period. It was ruled by a series of dynasties: Chavda, Solanki, and finally Vaghela. Many kings like Bhimdev, Kumarpal and Siddharaj ruled the state. The glory of Patan reached its highest point during the Solanki period. Under the Solanki rule, 942-1244, Anahilvada shone as a center of trade, learning, architectural achievements. The rulers were great patrons of fine arts and architecture and thus constructed various religious and historical places in the Patan. It was also a thriving center for Jainism and the Solanki rulers commissioned a large number of Hindu and Jain temples, as well as other civic and religious constructions. During the Vaghela rule towards the end of the 13th century, Ulugh Khan, commander under Alauddin Khilji, plundered the town and destroyed it completely. In 1411 the capital shifted to the newly founded Ahmedabad, leaving Patan as a shadow of its former glory. One of the positive effects of Muslim rule in Patan is the presence of some of the earliest Muslim buildings in Gujarat, built before even the earliest famous constructions in Ahmedabad. The urban structure of the town is made of several places known as ‘Pols’. These towns contain old beautiful houses with carved wooden facades in traditional Gujarati architectural style. Two historical monuments of Patan, having important place in Gujarat’s history, Sahashtraling Sarovar (lake) and Rani’s Vaav built in the memory of queen Udaymati, wife of king Bheemdev First have been placed in the national monuments list because of their magnificent history and high level architectural values. Besides this, Hemchan Dracharya Library, Jain temples and Samanakalikemataji temple of SiddhrajJaysinh have more importance.

Fig. 1.1 Rani Ki Vav, Patan

Fig. 1.2 Rani Ki Vav, Patan

Fig. 1.3 Sahastraling lake

Fig. 1.4 Wooden house, Patan 9


Fig. 1.5 Aghara Darwaja, Patan

Patan has 12 main gates- Bagwada, Chhidiya, Mira, Aghara, Kothakooe, Phatipaal (Fatipal), Ghoonghdi, Kanasda (also known as Kalika), Khansarovar, Motishah, Bhathi, Lal, 12th is door and 1 window (in middle of city unknown name). Patan was the only center of unique weaving craft of ‘Patola’, but even today, this traditional weaving craft is practiced by some of the families.

1.2 GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

Fig. 1.6 Map of Patan, Gujarat

Patan District is situated in North part of Gujarat and located between 23.02 to 24.45 North latitude and 71.3 to 72.52 east longitudes. It has 7 Taluka. The Geographical area of the Patan district is 5742.16 Sq.Km. The district is surrounded by Banaskantha, Surendranagar, Kutch and Mehsana district. The normal climate of the district is temperate with moderate proportion of heat and cold. There are three main seasons: i) Monsoon - ii) Fair weather - iii) Hot weather.

The normal rain fall of district can be considered at 601 mm.

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1.3 ARCHITECTURE OF THE REGION The construction of the houses in the pols is similar to one which is found in the towns of north Gujarat. The houses have peculiar construction with khadaki, entrance and the open space. There is an otta (otla) outside the house. At main gate, you will find some open space inside which is used to put things like traditional cots etc. Then there is a space open to sky called chowk. The rainwater falls in the chowk. The chowk and parsal are the peculiarities of the houses of the pol. There is a central hall-orada where you can find Paniyara (Matka Stand). In the Parsal there is a place where the housewife can cook in sitting position. There was a provision for chimney (Dhumadiyu) over the fireplace (Chulha) as outlet for smoke of the kitchen. Then you can see a big room with two small ventilators. In the houses of rich people, particularly houses of Nagar community, we can see the swing (hinchko). There is beautiful engraving on the wooden frames and the shutters of the cupboards as well as the door panels. Each door frame has a todla, a large wooden peg driven into the wall, and a recess in the wall beside it. The small recesses or holes in the wall were used for placing lamps. The big recesses in the wall in the inside hall were used to keep things, clothes etc. As there was shortage of drinking water, big water tanks were made in the house to preserve rain water, so that the preserved water can be used in the time of need. When the water work started in the city, these underground water tanks became useless. Residents filled up these underground tanks. Even today, we may find such water tanks in some old houses.

Fig. 1.9 Vernacular house plan

Fig. 1.10 Vernacular house plan

Fig. 1.7 Vernacular house

Fig. 1.8 Vernacular house

Fig. 1.11 Typical house plan 11


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Chapter 2 : Case study TYPES OF HOUSES BASED ON MATERIAL 2.1. TIMER FRAME, BRICK INFILL & SLOOPING ROOF 2.1.1 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM 2.1.2 AVAILABILITY OF MATERIAL 2.1.3 CRAFTSMAN & TOOLS 2.1.4 BUILDING ELEMENTS 2.1.5 SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION

2.2. BRICK MASONARY, CEMENT CONCRETE SLAB 2.2.1 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM 2.2.2 AVAILABILITY OF MATERIAL 2.2.3 CRAFTSMAN & TOOLS 2.2.4 SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION

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2.1. TIMER FRAME, BRICK INFILL & SLOOPING ROOF 2.1.1 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 1. Years of occupancy: 165 yrs. 2. Construction materials: Timer framing, Brick infill. 3. The roof: Manglore tiles, Timber perlins. 4. Finishes: Flooring- Terrazo tiles, Kota stone | Walls- Lime plaster, Paint.

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Axonometric view

Ground floor plan 0

2

5

10

Fig. 2.1 Drawings of the house 15

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Subjects which are of a more technical nature and concern the problems of structure, carpentry and detailing.

Fig. 2.2 Wooden frame structure with brick infill

Partial Half-timbering’s This was a dominant type over the major part of north Gujarat, it may be considered the true representative of the structural technique. The system originated in the urban areas as a response to two factors. Pressure on urban space leading to multistoried buildings needing greater stability; the use of bricks of small size coupled with mud mortar which by themselves did Not provide the stability needed, wood was thus added as a reinforcement to the brickwork to strengthen it. Since, the region was not rich in wood, the system used a moderate quantity of structural wood, but in due course, as wood became more plentiful due to better supplies by ship and railway, it began to be used as a status symbol. The woodwork and carpentry was except­ionally of good quality and also the carving was very intricate. The maximum span, which such a roof can have, depends on the material available and the strength of the horizontal binders.

The next stage of development occurred in the design of the supporting system of the first-floor. The primitive method had been to have a separate set of columns for the loft and as the loft progressed into
a first-floor the latter continued to be supported
by the duplicate columns. This ungainly system was replaced by the following. All the columns were made short, reaching up to the ceiling of the ground-floor, and their tops were connected by horizontal members running in two directions: parallel to the span and parallel to the bay. The Gara connection was made by means of beams which joined up each pair of Gara – columns. The Bay-columns were joined up in series by a long
member embedded within the brickwork - called a wall- plate. The wall-plate was almost identical in location with the earlier primitive loft-beam. By the addition of these various structural timbers, all the columns were linked to each other forming a cage This system is known in modern practice as framing. The two-way frame is a very efficient structure able to bear great loads. The system of joinery of the wooden parts was
by tenon & mortise joint. Apart from providing general stability due to the framing, the beams and wall-plates served to support the floor-joists of the ceiling, over the joists came a layer of planks, over these a layer of bricks, and then the final floor finish made is made of lime mortar, a floor made in this way was extremely solid and heavy, in the first- floor a fresh set of short columns were introduced, aligned with those of the ground-floor, 16


and their feet were embedded (with or without bases) into the solid flooring previously described. The tops were again connected by beams and wall-plates which in turn could now carry the second-floor, and so on. The columns of the first-floor were secured against over-turning in precisely the same manner as the columns of the ground floor. In other words, each floor duplicated the structural conditions of the floor below and between any two floors there was the layer of solid flooring but no link or connection between the two sets of columns.
The discontinuity of the woodwork between individual floors is very characteristic of the system and was dictated by structural necessity. A vertical link between columns was useless (as it was equally so in the tribal house) because of the weakness of the function the structure of the multistoried house was thought of, as a series of layers which duplicated themselves vertically, until at roof level the same technique of construction was brought in, which already existed in the simple village house; namely columns and purlins. The only difference was that now the timber was not left crude and unfinished, but instead was properly planed and polished and all the junctions were made according to rules of carpentry. The thickness of the brickwork was adjusted to that of the columns namely it was either made flush with the column face or was slightly set back from it. A problem was how to ensure that there was a bond or structural link between the brickwork and the columns, as other wise there was nothing to prevent the brickwork from being knocked out from its position by some unforeseen pressure. The subject of bonding between brickwork and woodwork belongs to carpentry
. Timber is very resistant to tension and as it is the tensile force set up by the earthquake, which destroys the wall, this danger was effectively countered by timber bonding. The behavior of the timber within the wall was analogous to that of the steel within reinforced concretes both were meant to counteract tension. Once the material of construction became brick, the attached column below beams became mandatory because brickwork could not safely support the beam. Thus, a composite structural system using both timber bonding and the attached column arose which combined features of two systems but was different from either. It is this composite system which has been called partial half-timbering. Its distinguishing characteristics were the following. The structural woodwork was not extended to form a frame
at all points even though this would have increased its efficiency.

Fig. 2.3 Exploded structural system

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Instead, the frame was partial and appeared only below beams. In all other cases recourse was taken to timber-bonding. The absence of a general two-way frame meant that there were no corner columns and, consequently, also no twin columns clasping the brickwork. Wood frame is used to designate that structural element, which arises when, beams and columns, either attached or freestanding, are joined together to form a supporting system. Basically, we can distinguish two kinds of framing in the Patan houses the : massive frame and the light frame.

The second possibility was that the long beam served to save material. In order to understand this we have to look at the manner in which the joists were spaced. In later practice it is the custom to have a relatively large spacing between joists and to cover these with planks. The flooring thus produced was light because only light loads were expected upon it. In Patan the demands on the flooring were quite different. As already explained, one very important function which the floor had to perform was to provide a solid mass into which the base of the first- floor column could be embedded. To produce such a mass, it was customary to lay a heavy layer of bricks and mortar over the joists, partially supported by planks, and the heavy load which thus arose necessitated a close spacing
of the joists. The quantum of timber thus required for close-spaced joists was far greater than the quantum of timber which went into the beam. A long beam automatically meant short joists and, vice versa, a short beam meant that the span of the joists was lengthened.

“The remaining details of the frame were the following. The beam used was almost always square - and this is again contrary to modern practice, which has discovered, by calculation, that the strength of the beam is greater if its height is greater than its width. The square beam is cut out of a single tree, once the hole had been trimmed what emerged was naturally a square piece of timber, and this piece brought into the market. To now produce a rectangular beam out of this square piece would have meant either halving it, which would give two weak beam, or to further trim its sides and thus weaken it and waste the wood. It was much more practical to use the wood as it came on the market and waste none of it by trimming.�

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The usual size of the beam was between 30 and 40 cm
in cross-section and between 500 and 550 cm in span. An attempt was made to try and discover what relationship, if any, existed between these two dimensions. In other words, it was the carpenter working to some rule which determined the ratio between cross-section and span. A large number of measurements and observations were made
but no conclusions could be drawn. The same size of beam, for example, was used to span 550 cm as also 360 cm. Within the same house, in two identical orders, beams of different sizes had been used. Over large parts of north Gujarat it could be observed that beams were not even fully trimmed but had unfinished surfaces which curved into the body of the timber. In one very old house in Patan, a whole tree trunk had been inserted in its natural condition. All these observations showed that what determined the size was not so much the opinion of the carpenter as the condition of the market in timber. It should be recalled that timber was procured either locally from inferior trees or Imported from teak forests at a great distance. Under such circumstances the wood was used as it came and the best that could be done was to match it as far as possible. Particularly in the older houses the discrepancies in size were more striking. One point of special interest is that whenever the two sides of the beam were unequal, say 37 x 34 cm, the beam was always placed on its deeper side, so that the width of the cross-section was always greater than the height. Here again it is contrary to modern practice. The reason for this seems to have been firstly, to create a larger bearing surface for the beam so as to make it
more stable against over-turning, and, secondly, to shorten the span for the joists. Throughout Patan carpentry a similar tendency can be observed towards creating stability by utilizing the broader side of timbers for bearing loads. The height of the frame varied from floor to floor. It was a universal custom to decrease the height of each succeeding floor. The height of the ground-floor frame fluctuated between 240 cm and 280 cm; measured from the finished floor to the upper surface of the beam5 this would give a clear height of between 215 and 250 cm. The lower figure is due to some exceptionally low beams appearing in a few cases. The close range within which the measurements fluctuate is nevertheless revealing and it seems that this again reflects the market conditions. Even though the timber came often by sea it still had to be hauled by carts over the remaining distance, and the loading capacity of the bullock-cart would automatically determine the size of the available timber.

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2.1.2 AVAILABILITY OF MATERIAL I. Timber

Fig. 2.4 Through and through sawn (producing plain and quarter swan timber)

Fig. 2.5 Plain swan timber- growth rings meet the face of the board at an angle less than 45*

Fig. 2.6 Rift swan timber

Fig. 2.7 Conversion geometry 20

This section intends to examine the details of the general state of the workmanship in wood, in so
far as it could be observed in surviving specimens. It is the state of carpentry which
is the theme. In general, it can be said that the carpenter was thoroughly familiar in the use of very large timbers of great cross section and weight, and he needed these
because of the unusually great loads which had to be supported. Despite these great loads, it could be observed in all better class work that the beams had remained perfectly straight and horizontal, i.e. there had been no deflections after 100 to 200 years of use, This meant that the wood must have been very well seasoned before use, and in the case of teak its treatment by girdling. The fact that good timber had to be brought from a great distance automatically resulted in a time lag between the cutting of the tree and the installation of the timber and that itself enabled a natural seasoning to occur. The reason for the preference of teak can be fudged from the followings: “Teak owes its value chiefly to its great durability, ascribed to the fact that it contains a large quantity of fluid resinous matter, which fills up the pores and
resists the action of water. The oil in the wood prevents its getting water-logged, and seems also to safeguard it against weevil and other timber-boring insects. It is specially valued because it does not rust the iron with which worked up.“ And again, “It Is moderately hard, exceedingly durable and strong, does not split, crack, warp, shrink or alter its shape when once seasoned. Apart from teak, many local timbers were also used in the subsidiary members depending upon circumstances. Among the common timbers listed in the Census volume on Wood Carving are :Haldarvo (Adina cordlfolia); Him (Azadir&ehtaindlea); Rayan {Manilkanahexandra); Budhi (Bagenarla Vulgaris);Sajad (Terminal!atomentoea); Mahudo (Madhukaindlca). Some of these were specifically used in particular locations because of their structural qualities; thus Rayan was used in thresholds, Mahuva and Sajad for beams, etc. Most of these timbers are also specified in the Rajavallabhaand it adds a warning that certain combinations of timbers should not come together in the same house; best was if only one timber was used through out. Because there was generally such a scarcity of timber in many cases that even wood from
old houses was indiscriminately re-employed,


and such fine distinctions would have hardly been possible.

Because of the large size of timbers used, the hauling up and Installation of members would have been difficult and there was always the danger of damage to parts. This practical consideration was the reason that the main structural members were mostly without carvings. Beams, joists, attached columns, wall-plates, were all generally plain; the only exception was the free-standing column. This member was so prominent that it had to be carved and there was no alternative to it. But the accompanying strut was added later.

II. The brickwork Brick sizes are given below. The manner of laying the bricks was without any visible system of bonding (111*143,580 ). The bricks were simply laid in thick beds of mortar in a very untidy manner, with most bricks being stretchers. No special precautions were taken at corners. The usual mortar was mud, but in some richer houses lime had begun to be used. The plastering was always in lime, about 2 cm thick. It could be observed during the demolition of some buildings that even where lime mortar had been used, this had become like dust and the brickwork could be pried apart with the greatest of ease. There was simply no binding power left in the lime mortar. Whether this was due to some error during construction or
due to poor mortar bound not be ascertained. It seemed to
be the’ case that the brickwork had not been kept sufficiently moist during laying, so that it had sucked out the moisture from the mortar, making the latter lose its plasticity. The foundations of old buildings could not be seen because even during demolitions these were generally left in situ. BRICK SIZES

8.5’’ x 4.5’’ x 1.5” 8’’ x 4.5’’ x 1.5’’ 6’’ x 4.5’’ x 1.5’’ 8’’ x 4.5’’ x 2’’ 12’’ x 6” x 2” 9” x 6” x 1.5”

Fig. 2.8 Available brick sizes

(cms.)

(12.5 x 11.5 x 4) (20 x 11.5 x 4) (15 x 11.5 x 4) (20 x 11.5 x 5) (30 x 15 x 5) (23 x 15 x 4)

WALL THICKNESS 14’’, 15’’, 19’’ 17’’ 7’’, 14.5’’, 26’’ -

(cms.)

(35, 37, 48) (43) (17.7, 35, 66) -

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2.1.3 CRAFTSMAN AND TOOLS I. Tools

Fig. 2.9 Traditional craftsmans’ tools 22


TOOL

NAME

USE

Pincer

To pinch, cut or pull all object, typically a nail.

Claw Hammer

To nail/hammer. Also to remove nails.

Brace

To make a hole by manual drilling.

Drill tool

To drill.

Clamp

To hold an object (work piece).

Right angle

To check 90* angle.

Adzes

To chop the wood.

Hammer

-To nail -To hammer

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TOOL

NAME

USE

Sash Saw

Thin/flexible saw, used for minoe cutting.

Plier

To hold/pinch/grip/ twist objects.

Hand Saw (Tenon)

To cut pieces of wood.

Chissel

To chisel wood by cutting/carving.

Compass

To transfer dimension. To make equal dim. For making circles.

Smoothing plane

Marking guage

Hammer

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Used on wood surface to achieve finishing. To clean out/peel the wood.

To scrible a line parallel to a reference edge.

To hammer on finishing surfaces.


II. Craftsman and their traditions In India multiple objects are produce by craftsman for the use of people in cities. In village or for primitive men living in tribal society, the root of the creativity process has always been the craft tradition and to assess its place in aesthetic and social life of the country it is necessary to examine the norms that have molded the vision of Indian of craftsman and dictated his vocabulary. In the north lay the oldest road in the world, connecting western China to Syria and eastern Europe . Caravans with merchant, monks, pilgrims and craftsman, carrying myth, icon and artifact meandered over the vast land spaces of Asia. This road was connected through the Himalayan passes to India. Through the centuries, traders, and craftsman and warrior entered India – to trade or conquer. With conquest came foreign craftsman, new vocabulary and techniques. These in turn were absorbed by indigenous craftsman and their comprehension.

III. Carpentry The methods used to form junctions of timbers were
mainly lapping, tenon-and-mortice, tongue-and-groove, plus the use of those peculiar Tollas, All of these carpentry joints are primary joints of great simplicilty and they were already known and practiced by the village carpenter using the simplest of tools. The fact that they continued in even the most sophisticated work was surprising and reflected both the persistence of the tradition as well as the lack of technical innovation. The securing of joints was done with pine and spikes, and occasionally with metal straps. But mainly, the security was dependent upon the weights which pressed down upon the members and forced them upon each other, creating strong frictional forces which prevented slipping and dislocation. The real reason for this was that the whole technical tradition was derived from, and never went much beyond, the village. The refinements which urbanization called forth were prompted, by a desire for show and this was met by an elaborate treatment of the surface rather than what was hidden beneath. It will be recalled that within the dwelling itself, the treatment of the domestic facade was in sharp contrast to the Parsal: the former was left bare
while the latter was covered with decor. The intention here was not to improve the whole domestic milieu, but to only present a wealthy facade to the visitor.

Fig. 2.10 Carpentry & tools

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The highly ornamented door had its rear left plain if not ugly, with nails turned in and exposed. Again and again one can find in the Gujarati architectural environment this dichotomy between elegant surface treatment and primitive technology, and there is thus no reason to assume that the two derived from two different craftsman.

Coupled with the primitiveness of the carpentry was the dominant position of the wooden tradition. It can be recalled that all of those parts of the door which one would have expected to be made in iron, for example the locking arrangements, were in wood, The safety of the house depended on wooden tower bolts and latches, the palace gateway was secured with a wooden bar. Iron bolts and chains, which would have been far stronger, were not used as permanent features. Iron appeared originally when absolutely unavoidable, the reasons for this situation
are not known. The black-smith was as much a part of village society as the carpenter

The dominance of the carpenter in architectural work would also serve to explain why, when confronted with the problem of unstable walls, the solution adopted was one derived from woodwork - the bonding-timber. What is not
yet clear is how such a strong wooden tradition could survive in an area deficient in wood. But the answer to this is already hinted at. the wooden tradition, at least in religious architecture, gave way to an architecture in stone and the carpenter turned stone-mason could continue to occupy his leading position as builder and constructor. The wooden tradition was simply transferred into stone, and all of the structural knowledge and details were transferred along with it. this would then perfectly explain why the construction in stone was so closely modeled on that in wood. In this connection some expert opinions are worth quoting with reference to Patan. Most of the woodwork in the interiors was usually stained with oil and additives to give it a dark colour, but in some more exposed parts it was painted. The use of colours in exteriors was common, and very often the coat of paint was renewed at ceremonies and festivals. This frequently resulted in almost obliterating the finer lines of the carvings.

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IV. Dimension unit PURUSHA VYAMA

UTTAMA MADHYAMA

ANGULA

KA KANISTHA

VYAMA

HASTA

MUSTI

HASTA PADA

Fig. 2.11 Scale & proportion

VITASTI

MUSTI 27


The classical unit was the Angula which was expressed in multiples of the barley corn or as being equal to the finger of the carpenter or the owner. It has been estimated that the Angula comes to about 3/4 inch or 2 cm. Twenty-four Angulas made the Hastha of 48 cm and this was the unit of measurement for buildings. The Saqaranga/nasutradhara gives the recommended widths of the otla or room in three variants, Jyestha, Madhya and Kaniyasa (meaning the superior, median and inferior. Hastha, and this would come to about 816, 480 and 240 cm. Eight meters is an impractical span for timber, and this is reduced to a more realistic level. It gives the range from 5 to 13 Hastha, i.e. 240 to 624 cm. The room sizes in Gujarat do indeed fall within this range very closely and we have here an interesting co-relationship between prescription and actual construction. But it should, therefore, not be automatically assumed that the carpenter was following the text. It is far more likely that the prescription was following the availability of timber, and current practice when it was written. Within the available range of timber, the carpenter could then select the particular dimension which suited
his need, but as we saw, there was no fixed set of dimensions which he was using. Within the same house, two Ordas would show a significant difference in width, and it could not be established that among the various dimensions being used in situ any particular figure was a constant. These few examples will show that while there was certainly a co-relationship, it is not possible to say that the rules were being minutely followed. If we assume that instead of written prescriptions, the artisans were simply following a body of orally handed down rough-and- ready rules which allowed a substantial flexibility in the observance, then the assumption would be closer to recorded fact. Continuing now with the subject of the frame, it was observed that when two frames belonging to joining Ordo were situated back to back with only a party wall separating them, then they were linked together in a manner.

A different kind of junction of frames was affected when there was a free-standing column at either Chowk or Otlo. Here the absence of brick walls made it essential to find some other means to stabilize the system. The usual method in the Chowk was to let the beams run through as continuous members up to attached columns in the next wall.

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At the junction of the beams the joinery was by lapping. In some cases only one beam ran through and the two other shorter ones were notched into the main beam. In the Otlo a different procedure was adopted. It will be seen that here only one beam can run
through, parallel to the Gara, and the other one has to
stop short. The danger in this case was that the part of
the short beam which formed the lap could eventually be sheared off in case of any unexpected movement. To
prevent this, the end of the short beam was projected
beyond the junction and projected beyond
the face of the building. This projected beam-end looked ugly and so it was carved into a fantastic shape. But in many, examples the projection was made even greater and supported by struts running diagonally from the column and on to this useful projection was placed either a balcony or a partition wall of the floor above, This device secured two advantages simultaneously: it produced extra space on the floor above; and by exerting a counter-weight on the projected end of the beam it prevented shear.

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2.1.4 BUILDING ELEMENTS (& THEIR LOCAL NAMES) PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

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I. Column base

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If the flooring is of stone, then it is not necessary to embed the base but it can be permitted to simply rest upon the stone slabs. Then the artisans were questioned upon this peculiarity, namely that there was a danger of the base slipping away under load, once the column had been loaded, the friction between the stone base and the stone floor was so great that it would never move. Some minor experimentation on site proved the truth of this assertion, and it revealed a new aspect about stone construction. If the normal friction in stone was so strong it would easily explain why the stone temples used the material without any mortar and very few dowels, but simply rested one slab upon the other and produced a stable structure. Gravity and friction would safely hold up the construction.

Foundation

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II. Shaft and Capital

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Elevation Tenon for unit B Unit A

Mortice for unit B

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Bracket Capital detail

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Above the base of the column is the shaft, of wood and circular in section and above this come two pieces which together form the capital. The reason for these two members is the following. Timber consists of ‘grains’, which run parallel to the direction of growth, and wood is very resistant in the direction of the grain. It is less so at right-angles to the grain. When a junction occurs between column and beam, the load upon the column is parallel to the grain and so the wood resists it well, but the beam is loaded at right-angles to the grain and at the point of junction there is a tendency for the upper end of the column to press into and dent the surface of the beam. To prevent this, the additional pieces are introduced, so that a broader base comes into being at the point of junction. It is not the narrow at the tip. The column which now presses into the beam but a broad capital. The method of joining all of these parts to each other was the simplest possible, namely by either mortice and tenonor dowels. The shaft was inserted into the base and the capital by tenons, and the capital was fixed by dowels to the bracket-capital. The bracket-capital could be a single piece if it was mounted upon an attached column, or it could be two lapped pieces if the column was freestanding. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

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Four armed Bracket Capital

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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT Column and Capital elevation

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Since this junction was very critical to the frame, the lapping was modified in such a way that the two pieces could not be pulled apart in the horizontal direction. This was achieved by an ingenious looking system of tongueand-groove, which was on different sides of the lap. The cross-section of the column differed, from situation to situation. The free-standing column was generally round at the shaft up to 2/3rds of the height, from there onwards it was square. The square cross-section was necessary to fix the strut. The capital
and bracket-capital was respectively square and rectangular. The details of a typical shaft and typical base are shown in the drawing. The attached column was always half of, and matching in design to, the free standing column. The portion, which was embedded in the wall, was left rough and was fixed by a crude wooden hold fast to the brickwork. All the columns of upper floors were generally square if they were located
in the interiors, and round if in balconies. The reason for the square column was not only to save on cost but also to make it easier to abut partitions on to them. These upper floor columns also generally had no base but were simply embedded into the flooring.

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System of support for bracket capital

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The general details of the junctions were also simpler, as also all the carpentry. PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT One reason for this was that PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT a great many of the houses in this sub-division were recent, and the more recent the building the more
plain was the woodwork. It was clear that there had occurred a decline in workmanship of the traditional kind. System of support for bracket capital

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III. Flooring Flooring can be distinguished according to four categories: 1. Ground-floor 2. Upper floor 3. Loft 4. Roof

PRODUCED Flooring detail BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Flooring of the ground floor: PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

The ground-floor is nearest to the dampness emanating from the soil and foundations, and so there was always a general need to make it impervious to moisture. In open areas such as verandas and courtyards this was even more essential. The courtyard and the Otlo was always paved with stone. The stone slabs were laid upon a bricklayer below and embedded in lime mortar. In the more sheltered spaces, a regular floor of lime mortar was made and given a smooth polish, but whether this had always been part of the original
house or added later, it was not possible to say. In some cases a coloring matter was added, usually a pale yellow or red, to make it attractive. Very seldom marble was used, in parts of North Gujarat, the flooring was of a doubly-baked brick about 20 cm square and of a dark maroon color. The double burning made it very hard and resistant to wear. 0

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Flooring of the upper floor:

Flooring detail

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Lime mortar Brick soling Planks Cover bead Joists

11cm 12cm 15cm 12cm 2 cm thickness differing widths ranging from 15-20 cm. 1x4 cm unrebated 1x4 cm rebited to the joist. 9x ca 13 12 cm. gap 9.5 x ca 12 12 cm gap. Total thickness 38cm 35.5cm

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In the upper floors the material used was generally either lime mortar, or mud, laid upon a soling of brick which was supported by wooden planks resting upon the floor foists. A wooden bead nailed to the planks covered the function of two adjacent planks. The joists themselves were inserted into the surrounding walls and rested there upon wall-plates, it was naturally not possible to examine the inside of floors still in use.

It will be seen how thick(mass) the flooring was and
the load it exerted can well be imagined. The lime mortar had been laid in two layers and while demolition each layer came away separately. The bricks had been laid in mud mortar. The joists were placed, as in the case of beams, with the height being less than the width. The reason was the same, namely to provide a larger bearing surface for the load above, and to ensure against over-turning. The planks were then placed over the beads in such a way that their edges met over the head and were hidden by it from below. This procedure must have been very cumbersome, for each rebate had to be cut in accordance with the width of the planks, and since these were not uniform all the work had to be done in 35


PRODUCED BYBY ANAN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODU PRODUCED AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRO

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Flooring detail situ. The sizes of both planks and joists were by no means uniform. A variety of sizes had been used, and it will be recalled that the same thing had occurred with the beams of the frame. What these measurements clearly prove is that timber was used exactly as it became available. The great thickness of the floor created no aesthetic problems when it abutted against a wall, but when it terminated at chowkor otlo then some means had to be to give it an attractive DUCEDfound BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT frontage. The solid part of the flooring was closed off with a CED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT kind of wall-plate which had a very finely curved profile. It was fixed to the floor by wooden hold-fasts. Flooring detail

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Flooring of the lofts:

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In those cases where the loft had remained in its original condition, i.e. was not developed into a regular first-floor, the flooring was extremely primitive. A number of joists carried thin planks of wood, and that was all. The reason for this stark simplicity was not only that the loft was considered inferior, but also because there was no necessity to embed the column bases above into massive flooring. The only column which came above belonged to the roof, and having light loads to support, with stability guaranteed by the walls, a light flooring was sufficient.

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IV. The roof and weather shade:

Roof system


V. Wooden Stairs

Wooden Staircase

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It has already been mentioned that the wooden stairs evolved from the wooden ladder and hence retained a great many of its characteristics. The most prominent was
the steepness and the lack of a permanent fixture. The traditional stairs were made by carpenters as readymade units which could be bought and installed anywhere (this custom still exists). The inclination at which they were placed depended upon the owner, and in this he was generally hampered by the lack of space within the depth of the Parsal- the usual location of stairs. But no particular inconvenience was felt because the upper floors were in any case not the main floors of the majority of houses, and the younger members of the family found them tolerable. The steepness was such that it was not convenient for carrying any heavy loads upstairs, but then even this was not required as the storage spaces were on the ground-floor, as also the water supply. The ready-made meant they could not be fully fitted into any part of the existing structure. The usual method was to simply lean them against a cross-joist or wall-plate and let them stand by friction against the floor. Sometimes an iron chain ran from them to a staple in the woodwork and served to prevent slippage. 39

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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Staircase system The traditional design of the stairs is it consisted of two diagonal stringers which held together the treads and risers made of planks. These were grooved into the stringers at the sides, and the two stringers were bolted together by two long bolts of wood. This unique piece of wood had at one end
a knob and at the other a slot into which could be hammered in a thick wedge to tighten the joint. The one bolt was placed in reverse of the other. On top of the stringers and at the meeting places of tread and riser, was placed an additional bar of wood, nailed to the stringer, and its purpose was PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK PRODUCED EDUCATIONAL BY ANPRODUCT AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUC to take the weight of the foot. The function can be understood by analogy. In a ladder 0 50 100 200 500 mm the weight is taken by the 0 50 100 200 500 mm rungs; in the stairs it was taken in exactly the same manner by the bar. The planks of the tread were by themselves too thin to bear the full weight and were intended mainly to provide a bearing surface for the toes. The riser and tread were equal, about 20 cm each, and the angle of inclination measured by keeping the tread horizontal was about 60. Around the stair-well on each floor was a low railing of wood to guard the opening. One interesting feature found in some houses was a sliding trap-door. 0

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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT Staircase system

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It has already been mentioned that in many of the larger houses provision was made for future partition, and that openings were deliberately left in ceilings with temporary coverings to enable stairs to be later inserted. The ready-made stairs unit was easy to install in such cases, and one set of stairs could even shifted to a new location without any difficulty. This light and shifting character of the traditional stairs was very curious in a permanent dwelling and it remained so even in the best houses. There were no variants in the design until the coming of the colonial style. With this there began to be installed the typical European dog-leg stairs, not only in the newer house, but also in the older ones. The old stairs were simply removed and within the same stair-well, after some slight modification, the new dog-leg was introduced. The cutting of joists to accommodate the dog-leg was plainly visible in these examples. This is one reason why the presence of such late features does not necessarily indicate the late age of the building. In those cases where the loft had remained in its original condition, i.e. was not developed into a regular first-floor, the flooring was extremely primitive. A number of joists carried thin planks of wood, and that was all.

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Staircase elevation

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The reason for this stark simplicity was not only that the loft was considered inferior, but also because there was no necessity to embed the column bases above into massive flooring. The only column which came above belonged to the roof, and having light loads to support, with stability guaranteed by the walls, a light flooring was sufficient.

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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT Perspective of door frame

Scale 1:20

Elevation

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VI. The double tolla door: The name given has been derived from a very unusual wooden member, locally called Tolla. This piece is so distinctive that it virtually characterizes the type. The method of construction was determined by the fact that the structural stability was derived from a combination of woodwork and brickwork, both had to be erected simultaneously and all the details of construction were tailored to this need. The basic principle followed was to separate the structure into two parts each with its own frame, and to then to lock these two frames together. The one frame was designed to support that portion of the wall which came over the opening of the door; the other frame was for the shutters to close against and be secured, the latter frame was simple and has here been called the inner frame. This whole arrangement was then placed on site and the next step
was to fit the wall into it. As the brick-laying progressed to either side (partly weighing down the lower most frame) and reached lintel level, two or three extra members were now put into position across the. Two Tollas and parallel to the width of the door. These were one vertical piece of bonding-timber which faced the entrance and projected to either side into the wall. 43


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT Behind this came a thick plank placed horizontal and flat, and in it was a hole to take the pivot of the shutter. The third piece (optional) was a filler and had the same purpose as the bonding-timber to front. Now the brick-laying over the door could be continued and be supported by the three timbers just placed. The weight of the brickwork held them down and also held the bonding timbers, and the composite structure was now complete. The shutters were inserted just before the upper brickwork was started. At their lower ends the pivots fitted into small metal studs in the lower-most facia. This description of the door is very involved because that was how it was constructed.

The construction of the shutter (there were always two) was as follows. There were a number of thick planks which formed the body of the shutter and were bound with iron straps placed at intervals along the length. The straps were fixed by spikes which were turned on the other side and acted as rivets. On the front side of these planks were fixed additional ledges running both horizontally and vertically and secured with spiked rivets of a larger size and often with knobs, which exactly fitted into the pattern of the carvings.

Isometric view 0

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Very often these knobs formed the center of the carved flowers, The shutter moved on pivots above and below which were differently designed, the upper swivel was of wood and fixed as an extra piece to the upper corner of one plank with the iron straps. It was housed in the hole left in the plank forming part of the outer frame. At the lower end there was an iron pivot nailed to the plank, and its tapering end rested upon an iron stud which had a round groove and was fixed Front elevation to the lower-most frame. The method of swiveling the shutters was very efficient and caused no difficulty despite the heavy weight of the wood work. The above PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT construction of the typical door remained unchanged Plan in essentials but variations could be produced
by varying the individual details of the PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT Tolla door ledges and the fixings. It was the ledges, which carried the main carvings, and numerous variations of these occurred, producing a
great variety of designs. The construction of the typical door remained unchanged in essentials but variations could be produced
by varying the individual details of the ledges and the fixings.

Tolla door PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

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VII. The window & ventilators:

Window frame detail

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The general structural details of windows closely followed those of the doors and little fresh material has to be added. The need for securely supporting the wall above the opening made the upper folia essential, but this was not repeated below. Instead, the solid Sill made of thick planks was substituted, The shutter of the window (there were always two) being much lighter than that of the door, there was no need for the metal pivot below. The part of the window which differed from the door was in the various kinds of grills which were inserted into the opening to serve a variety of functions.

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The wall niche existed already in the mud wall and was simply a scooped out hole in it meant for keeping things. In the brick house, it became more regular in shape and needed support for the portion of wall over the opening. The other wooden lintels were needed, and in due course wooden shelves were added to the niche, the addition of doors to the shelf and niche converted it into a regular cupboard. The fixing of the shutter was by means of iron hinges which were nailed to the wooden parts. The fact that such hinges were used in the cupboard, rather than pivots, was because of the light weight of the shutter but an additional reason was that it enabled the shutter to be installed after the remaining woodwork was already fitted in. This was very convenient in the case of such small features.

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2.1.5 SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION I. Line out

Line out begins with marking the position for excavation. They generally construct 1.5 haath wide and 2 haath deep foundation, so the marking is done for the center line of the wall and then offset of 3/4 haath on both sides of the center line, which acts as a reference line for the excavation.

Fig. 2.12 Man tying a string for lining out the foundation excavation.

Fig. 2.13 Marking the corner for the foundation using peg.

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Once the lineout is done the Mason helper starts to excavate the marked places, with Trikam and Pavda. It is generally 1 to 1.5 haath deep and 2-3 haath wide trench. At the same time Mistry starts the make the Column and its base.

II. Excavation

Fig. 2.14 Mason helper excavating

Excavation

Fig. 2.15 Excavation for foundation

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III. Foundation

As soon as the excavation is done, they lay down a layer of gravel and lime mixture. To construct the foundation of brick & lime/mud, they set up a reference line. The exterior surface of the foundation is leveled above the ground. Its 3 to 4’ above the ground according to the site condition.

Fig. 2.16 Foundation

IV. Column

Once the foundation is completed it is left to dry for 2-3 days. They leave a gap in foundation where-ever a column is supposed to be constructed. Column base is made out of stone. After the foundation is dried they place the wooden column.

Fig. 2.17 Column and its base 49


Generally the distance between two column is 13-14 haath and height 8-10 haath.

Fig. 2.18 Column

V. Beam

Fig. 2.18 Frame structure

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MATIRI

PROCESS

VI. Wall construction

-Brick -Cement -Sand - cement mortar

Fig. 2.21 Set up a reference line

OBSERVATION

Fig. 2.20 Spirit level

TOOLS

Fig. 2.19 Wall construction

Fig. 2.22 Fill the middle with mortar

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VII. Flooring

Fig. 2.23 Flooring system

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VIII. Roof construction

Fig. 2.26 Roof with Manglore tiles

Fig. 2.24 Roof with rafters

Fig. 2.25 Roof with batterns

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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 2.2. BRICK MASONARY & CEMENT CONCRETE SLAB 2.2.1 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

1. Years of occupancy: 9 yrs. 2. Construction materials: Brick masonary & cement concrete slab. 3. The roof: Concrete slab. 4. Finishes: Flooring- Terrazo tiles, Walls- Cement plaster, Paint.

Axonometric view

First floor plan

Ground floor plan Fig. 2.27 Drawings of the house

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2.2.2 AVALABILITY OF MATERIAL I. Brick History of Brick Making Fig. 2.28 Bricks

A brick is a block made of clay burnt in a kiln. It is one of the primary building materials known to mankind. Over time, bricks have appeared, gained prominence, lost importance and then come to the forefront again with various styles of architecture. Burnt bricks were used in ancient Indian, Babylon, Egypt and Roman civilizations. They are still being used as filler materials for framework structures as well as to construct load bearing structures. Down the ages, there have been various interesting historic and cultural references to bricks. •  Bricks find mention in the Bible; the tower of Babel was built with burnt bricks. •  Bricks were predominantly used in the Indus valley civilisation. In fact, the civilisation was first discovered when;    ancient bricks being used to build railway ballast came to the notice of a passing archaeologist. •  While the Taj Mahal was built in white marble, it had extensive scaffolding made entirely out of brick, which was pulled down after completion.

Making the Brick

The process of making a brick has not changed much over the centuries or across geographies. Traditionally the main steps followed to make a brick are explained below.

Fig. 2.29 Tempering

Fig. 2.30 Moulding

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1. Material Procurement: The clay is mined and stored in the open. This makes the clay soft and removes unwanted oxides. 2. Tempering: This clay is then mixed with water to get the right consistency for moulding. Mixing is done manually with hands and feet. Sometimes and in certain areas, animal driven pug mills are used. 3. Moulding: A lump of mix is taken, rolled in sand and slapped into the mould. Initially moulds were made of wood, now metal moulds are used. Sand is used so the brick does not stick to the mould.


4. Drying: The mould is emptied onto the drying area, where the bricks are arranged in a herring bone pattern to dry in the sun. Every two days they are turned over to facilitate uniform drying and prevent warping. After two weeks they are ready to be burnt. 5. Firing: The green bricks are arranged in a kiln and insulation is provided with a mud pack. Fire holes left to ignite the kiln are later sealed to keep the heat inside. This is maintained for a week. Firing like other operations also depends on the knowledge and experience of the brick maker.

Fig. 2.31 Drying

6. Sorting: After the kiln is disassembled, the bricks are sorted according to colour. Colour is an indication of the level of burning. Over burnt bricks are used for paving or covering the kiln while slightly under burnt bricks are used for building inner walls or burnt once again in the next kiln.

Though the overall method remains the same, there are certain regional variations considering the local soil and climatic conditions. In different areas, different soil types are used with respect to local situation. The three general approaches for firing bricks include using a massive fire, a massive volume and insulation. In Africa and South America, a massive fire using wood fuel is built, and insulated with mud or grass. In India and Mexico, they fire large volumes together and the volume itself acts as an insulator to prevent escape of heat. Fuel ranges from wood to coal to biomass to even garbage and trash in the absence of others.

Fig. 2.32 Sorting

Brick Kilns

Brick Kilns can be classified as intermittent and continuous. Clamps, Scotch, Scove and Downdraft kilns are intermittent while the Bull Trench (BTK), Hoffman, Zig-zag, Tunnel and Vertical Shaft Brick Kilns (VSBK) are continuous. The continuous kilns are more efficient as they have heat recovery features from both the heat in fired bricks and flue gases unlike the intermittent ones. Intermittent Kilns The oldest kiln is the clamp. Invented in 4000 BCE, these are still very common in India. Clamps are temporary constructions made of green bricks or clinker. The clinker can be reused while the green bricks are sold. A slight variation is the Scove with a pile of dried bricks with tunnels at the bottom allowing heat from fires to pass through and upward in the pile of bricks. It is plastered with mud (scoved) to insulate it.

Fig. 2.33 Clamp 57


Certain brick makers use permanent clamps made of refractory bricks. Two basic variations of kilns are the updraft and the downdraft kilns, named after the direction of heat movement. The updraft ones or Scotch have flues running through the floor of the kiln with spaces between the stacks of bricks to allow heat to circulate, while the top is covered for insulating the kiln. The downdraft ones are circular with the flue running from the floor to the chimney stack. The hot air is then directed downwards from the dome through the stacks of bricks. Continuous Kilns Continuous Kilns can be based either on the principle of moving fire or on moving ware. The Hoffman, BTK and Zig-zag work on the principle of moving fire. In the Tunnel and VSBK, the firing zone remains constant while the bricks move.

Fig. 2.34 Chinese Hoffman Kiln

Fig. 2.35 Bull’s Trench Kiln

Hoffman’s kilns are continuous domed kilns invented in Germany. They have a permanent arched masonry and tall chimney. The circular arched tunnel surrounding the chimney has various chambers where green bricks are placed and the fuel is added via vents in the roof.

The Bull Trench Kiln The Bull Trench Kiln (BTK), which is very popular in the Indian sub continent, is an arch-less modification of the Hoffman’s kiln. It is circular or elliptical in shape. Bricks to be fired are arranged in a trench and tall movable metal chimneys are placed on the brick setting. They are moved as the firing progresses. There are also modifications of the BTK which have a permanent fixed chimney. The Habla Zig-Zag Kiln is also a German invention. It is an automated tunnel kiln. This one has a fire zone moving through a stack of stationary bricks. The fire moves with the help of an axial fan. The bricks are arranged such that hot flue gases move between them in a zig-zag manner resulting in better heat utilization and energy efficiency.

The Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln (VSBK) is a Chinese technology based on the traditional updraft intermittent kiln. The kiln consists of one or two shafts in a rectangular structure insulated with agriculture residue and clay. The shaft is loaded from the top in a pre determined pattern. After being fired in the shaft they are removed batch wise from the bottom via an unloading tunnel. It is well suited to the context of the South Asian brick sector. 58


II. Cement The basic construction materials required for marine work are: cement; aggregates (sand and stones); reinforcing steel; rubble; timber or steel piles; fastenings; timber sections; and some other minor items.

Cement is a green-grey powder that sets hard within a few hours after the addition of water. It therefore acquires strength with time. There are many types of cement available on the market, the most common type is known as ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The most suitable type of cement for marine works, however, is sulphate-resisting cement (SRC). Cement usually comes in paper bags containing 50 kg of cement each. To make good concrete individual pieces of stone should be bound with a cement paste to produce a mix as dense and nonporous as possible. The aggregate (both the sand and the stone) has to be hard for the concrete to be durable. Good aggregate is so hard that it can only just be scratched by a steel penknife. Concrete made with soft coral stone is not durable and will disintegrate. Pieces of crushed aggregate are angular in shape whereas river or beach gravel is rounded. Aggregate obtained from the sea will contain salt which is harmful to concrete. Sea aggregate must, therefore, be washed repeatedly with fresh water before being used in concrete. Coral aggregate should be used only as a last resort and then only if environmental conditions permit the harvest of living coral.

The most reliable source of stone rubble for construction is the quarry. A quarry is usually worked for a whole range of sizes of stone and the yield of the right sizes depends on the capability of the person carrying out the blasting as well as on the geological composition of the ground. As with aggregate, the durability of the concrete depends on the hardness of the stone. Again, as a general rule, a steel penknife should just be able to scratch the stone. If the stone scratches very easily, it is not suitable for breakwaters, quays or any structure in contact with sea water and a supply of harder stone should be sought.

Fig. 2.36 Cement storage

Fig. 2.37 Cement bags should be stored off the ground on wooden pallets. It should be covered with water proof material.

Fig. 2.38 Cement

Fig. 2.39 Aggregate

Fig. 2.40 Rubble

Fig. 2.41 Mortar 59


III. Reinforcement Steel

Fig. 2.42 Steel reinforcement, bars

Fig. 2.43 Welded mesh

Fig. 2.44 Reinforcement steel storage

Fig. 2.45 Contruction site

60

Reinforcing steel is used inside a concrete section to make the section stronger. In marine work, the steel should have a minimum concrete cover of 50 mm to prevent sea-water corrosion. Steel bars for reinforcing concrete come in a range of diameters, from as little as 6 mm up to 32 mm. Steel bars are usually supplied by weight, in kilograms per length of bar. The most commonly used sizes are: 6-mm diameter, 0.222 kg/m; 8-mm diameter, 0.395 kg/m; 10-mm diameter, 0.6 17 kg/m; 12-mm diameter, 0.888 kg/m; 14-mm diameter, 1.208 kg/m; 18-mm diameter, 1.998 kg/m; 20-mm diameter, 2.466 kg/m; 24-mm diameter, 5.55 1 kg/m.

Bars are seldom more than 12 m long. Reinforcement is also available as welded steel mesh.


2.2.3 CRAFTSMAN & TOOLS I. Tools TOOL

NAME

USE

Aluminium Rectangle Sec Reapers/ Scale

To level the cemented surface.

Brush (Coconut)

To bruch the surface.

Saw

To cut the wood.

Grubber

To dig the soil. Also for manualy mixing PCC.

Trowel

To level the cemented surface.

Shovel/Spade

For digging, lifting and moving material.

Pickaxe

To break rocky surfaces or other hard surfaces.

Brick Trowel

For leveling/spreading, shaping mortar or concrete. 61


.

TOOL

NAME

USE

Metal Dish

To carry/keeping materials such as PCC, gravels, cement, etc.

Pipe Level/Water Level

Tub

62

To check levels.

To carry/keeping materials such as PCC, gravels, cement, etc.

Hammer

To hammer.

Sledge Hammer

To hammer/break objects.

Square Trowel

To level the cemented surface.

Chisel

To chisel an object. For shaping, carving or slicing a material.


TOOL

NAME

USE

Lever

To bend reinforcement or other bars.

Coconut Fiber Brush

To apply liquid substance on the surface such as lime, etc.

Lever

To bend reinforcement or other bars.

Nut & Bolt

For holding things or components together by fastening.

Nut & Bolt

For holding things or components together by fastening.

Tamper

For ramming a surface to a level it especially ground.

Paint brush

To paint the surface.

Lever

To bend reinforcement or other bars.

63


TOOL

64

NAME

USE

Claw

To bend the wire.

Wire brush

For making surface rough, especially plastered surface.

Lever

For making surface rough, especially plastered surface.

Basket

To carry materials.

Tape

To measure.

Tape

To measure smaller dimensions.

Plumb

To check vertical alignment.

Basket on a carriage:

To sieve the sand.


II. Craftsman & their traditions The new concrete dwellings are designed by contractors who are not trained. Traditional masons are not formally educated but practice based knowledge is passed on over generations. Educating the traditional masons about modern building design constructions will help them use modern materials innovatively along with their traditional knowledge. Efficient use of local materials and technology can be achieved by newly trained practitioners consisting of a team of masons and engineers. The construction industry has already started facing a shortage of skilled workers and the prices of cement, steel rods, bricks and other input materials have steadily increased. It is important to preserve and document the knowledge of traditional masons, and encourage them to practice in the new urban environment.

III. Brick Masonay 1. Brick work in Cement/ Lime Mortar

Brick work in Cement or Lime Mortar: In this type of Brick work cement or lime mortar is used. Cement mortar consists of Cement and sand with water in appropriate proportions and the lime mortar consist of lime and Surkhi with water in appropriate proportions. The thickness of the joint in this type of work is kept not more than 10.0 mm.

The end view of the brick facing long side is called “stretcher” and the end view of the brickwork which faces breadth of the brick is called “header”. It means that when we view the brick work from the front and see the face 9″ × 3″ it is stretcher and when we see the face 4.5″ × 3″ it is header.

Strecher

Flemish Bond

Fig. 2.46 Brick Masonary

Header

Strecher

Engish Bond

Header

65


The Bricks should be fully soaked in water before starting the brick work. If the bricks get dried during transportation from the wetting site to the place where brickworks is going to be carried out, then again it should be made fully wet before putting it for use in brickwork. In any case very wet or dried bricks should not be used in brick work.

Fig. 2.47 Consumption of Cement in one Cubic meter of Cement Mortar

Fig. 2.48 Consumption of Cement and Sand per Cubic meter of Brick work

Fig. 2.49 Consumption of Cement in 115mm thick Brick work per sq. mt.

2. Method of making Mortar for brick work

Fig. 2.50 Removing unwanted stones from sand

For example, to make a mortar of ratio 1 : 4 take 4 volumes of sand on a flat space. Then lay 1 volume of cement over it and continue to mix it thoroughly with shovel till uniform color is obtained. After this, pour water over it only to the extent that it becomes workable but water does not flow out of it. The mortar must be consumed in Brick work within 30 minutes of pouring water otherwise it starts setting. Petty or Boxes are used for measuring sand. The size of the box is generally 30 cm Ă— 30 cm Ă— 38 cm deep. For different ratios of mix, boxes of special sizes can also be made as per the direction of the Engineer.

66


Fig. 2.53 Brick masonary Fig. 2.51 Amount of Cement and Sand per cub. m. of mortar

Fig. 2.52 Consumption of materials per cubic m. of Brick work

At a time not more than 1.0 m height of Brickwork should be carried out. Spirit level should be used at the time of Brick work. Pipe or water level should not be used. The excess mortar should be removed from the joints before setting of the Cement. The brickwork is cured for a minimum period of 7 days.

To start the brickwork at any place first of all the corners of the wall are fixed and centre lines of both the walls are demarcated. The cotton thread is stretched on the corners of both the walls by wrapping it around the brick and kept attached to the outer face of the wall, so that the outer face remains in line and at the same time it remains horizontal too. As per the requirement of the bond, Queen closers are provided and at a time four layers of bricks are constructed. It’s total height should be measured to the accuracy up to 1.0 mm. The requirement of layers to be laid should be in whole numbers. If required the thickness of mortar between the bricks can be adjusted as per requirement. A big stick should be used as gauge and marking should be done on it. In this manner more no. of stick gauges can be made. At least two gauges should be available at a time of constructing a wall. At the time of construction of wall these gauges are required to be kept erect on both the sides of the wall and every time the cotton thread should be raised for keeping the height of brick layer same throughout its length.

Fig. 2.54 Watering the building after construction

67


At some places it is required to leave holes of the size of header for holding bamboo scaffolding or platforms for brickwork at higher levels from the ground. Sometime for decorative purposes also holes are left. In that case, this type of brickwork is called “honeycomb brickwork”.

Fig. 2.55 Honey comb brickwork

It should be ensured that the brick being used is as per requirement.

• The brick should be wet for atleast two hours before starting the construction for which a water tank is needed at the work site. • The brick should be properly placed on the even surface and the mortar should fully cover the brick surface before laying the other course. • The brick work should be raised in layers in an uniform manner and it due to any reason it is not possible stepping should be made in brick wall under construction for future work.

Fig. 2.56 Process to be observed before laying a freas course of brick work

2. Plinth Beam

It has become very necessary these days to cast a beam at the plinth level. It joins all the walls from each side. Its thickness and width is kept as per design. It keeps the total building binded together and helps in the providing safety to the building during earthquake etc. In the same way at plinth level also ring beam is provided which joins all the walls. 68


IV. Concrete construction Concrete

A composite material that consists essentially of a binding medium, such as a mixture of portland cement and water, within which are embedded particles or fragments of aggregate, usually a combination of fine and coarse aggregate. The properties of the end product depend not only on the various constituent materials listed above but also on the way they are proportioned and mixed, as well as on the methods of placing and curing the composite.

Concrete is by far the most versatile and most widely used construction material worldwide. It can be engineered to satisfy a wide range of performance specifications, unlike other building materials, such as natural stone or steel, which generally have to be used as they are. Because the tensile strength of concrete is much lower than its compressive strength, it is typically reinforced with steel bars, in which case it is known as reinforced concrete.

Fig. 2.57 Concerete beam

Fig. 2.58 Construction site

-Cement

There are many different kinds of cements. In concrete, the most commonly used is portland cement, a hydraulic cement which sets and hardens by chemical reaction with water and is capable of doing so under water. Cement is the “glue� that binds the concrete ingredients together and is instrumental for the strength of the composite.

Fig. 2.59 Column reinforcement

-Aggregate

The aggregate is a granular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, or iron-blast furnace slag. It is graded by passing it through a set of sieves with progressively smaller mesh sizes. By carefully grading the materialand selecting an optimal particle size distribution, a maximum packing density can be achieved, where the smaller particles fill the void spaces between the larger particles. Such dense packing minimizes the amount of cement paste needed and generally leads to improved mechanical and durability properties of the concrete. The aggregate constitutes typically 75% of the concrete volume, or more, and therefore its properties largely determine the properties of the concrete.

69


-Admixtures While aggregate, cement, and water are the main ingredients of concrete, there are a large number of mineral and chemical admixtures that may be added to the concrete. The four most common admixtures will be discussed. 1. Air-entraining agents are chemicals that are added to concrete to improve its freeze–thaw resistance. Water expands when forming ice crystals and can easily fracture the cement matrix, causing damage that increases with each freeze–thaw cycle. To avoid the damaging internal stresses these agents are used.

2. Water-reducing admixtures, also known as super plasticizers, are chemicals that lower the viscosity of concrete in its liquid state, typically by creating electrostatic surface charges on the cement and very fine aggregate particles. This causes the particles to repel each other, thereby increasing the mix flow ability, which allows the use of less water in the mix design and results in increased strength and durability of the concrete. 3. Retarding admixtures delay the setting time, which may be necessary in situations where delays in the placement of concrete can be expected. Accelerators shorten the period needed to initiate cement hydration—for example, in emergency repair situations that call for the very rapid development of strength or rigidity. 4. Color pigments in powder or liquid form may be added to the concrete mix to produce colored concrete. These are usually used with white Portland cement to attain their full coloring potential. -Reinforcing steels

Fig. 2.60 Column reinforcement

70

Because of concrete’s relatively low tensile strength, it is typically reinforced with steel bars. These bars are produced in standard sizes. To improve the bond strength between the bars and the concrete, the bars are fabricated with surface deformations or ribs.


2.2.4 SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION I. Line out

Line out begins with marking the position for excavation. They generally construct 1.5 haath wide and 2 haath deep foundation, so the marking is done for the center line of the wall and then offset of 3/4 haath on both sides of the center line, which acts as a reference line for the excavation.

Fig. 2.61 Man tying a string for lining out the foundation excavation.

Fig. 2.62 Marking the corner for the foundation using peg.

71


Once the lineout is done the Mason helper start to excavate the marked places, with Trikam and Pavda. It is generally 5-6ft deep and 2.53ft wide trench. At the same time Mistry starts the make Column and its base.

II. Excavation

Fig. 2.63 Mason helper excavating

Excavation

Fig. 2.64 Excavation for foundation

72


III. Plinth Beam

Profiles must be positioned well away from the proposed excavations to allow an adequate working sapce.

Setting trenches and profile

Wall

Foundation

Profiles boards Fig. 2.65 Positioning of profiles

Profiles boards Cords between profiles Trench width marked with lines of dry lime powder for hand excavation

Concrete strip foundation

Fig. 2.66 Positioning of profiles

73


IV. Foundation Foundation process

Fig. 2.67 Concrete Masonary foundation

74


V. Column construction Construction of a RCC Coulmn

Section of a RCC Column

Fig. 2.68 Column construction

Fix the reinforcement bars for the columns.

Built the wooden form work around the reinforcement and pour concrete and leave it to dry.

Remove the wooden form work after the mixture dries and there we get our column.

Fig. 2.69 Reinforcement for column construction

75


VI. Beam construction Construction of a RCC Coulmn

Wooden form work is set up to construct the reinforced concrete beam.

Concrete is poured into the formwork to form concrete beam.

Wooden form work is removed after 28 days when concrete dries it.

Fig. 2.70 Beam construction

SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM

FIXED BEAM

CONTINUOUS BEAM

CANTILIVER BEAM

Fig. 2.71 Types of RCC Beam 76


VII. Slab construction

Fig. 2.74 Wooden form work is assembled over the columns and is supported by

Fig. 2.72 Concrete ground slab

Fig. 2.75 Reinforcement cage is placed in between the gaps

Fig. 2.76 Steel cage is inserted, this will give strength to the slab

Fig. 2.73 Two way slab

Fig. 2.77 Concrete is then poured inside and left to dry. 77


MATIRIA

PROCESS

-Brick -Cement -Sand - cement mortar

VIII. Wall construction

Spirit level

Fig. 2.79 Spirit level

Fig. 2.78 Wall construction

TOOLS

Fig. 2.80 Set up a reference line

OBSERVATION

Fig. 2.81 Fill the middle with mortar

Fig. 2.82 Mortar is used as an adhesive between the bricks.

78


IX. Staircase construction

1. Calculate the stairs’ dimension -Rise 7 inches (standard) -Tread 11 inches (standard)

2. Build the formwork

3. Pour the motor

4. Finishing/smoothing it using wood. Let it dry for a week.

Fig. 2.83 Staircase construction

79


There are various types of windows. The choices of windows not only affect the physical look of a building, but also the natural lighting, ventilation, potential view and interior spaces spatial quality.

X. Window construction

Fig. 2.84 Fixed window

Fig. 2.85 Sliding window

Architrave Window frame Head

Sash and Glazing

Jamb

Exterior casing

Sil

Fig. 2.86 Window construction system

80


XI. Door construction

Fig. 2.91 Traditional door frame Fig. 2.87 Verify the door location and the dimension of the rough opening.

Fig. 2.92 Sub frame system

Fig. 2.88 Ensure the alignment of the door frame and oppening. Ensure the door frame is straight by using the plumb bob.

Fig. 2.89 Positioning the door frame using metal stap. Grout the gap between oppeing and frame.

Fig. 2.90 Installing the sub frame to main frame using nails. 81


82


CASE STUDY

83


HOUSE 1

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Axonometric view

Ground floor plan 0

Fig. 2.93 Drawings of the house 84

2

N 5

10


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Mangalore tiles 420 x 220 mm Timber batterns 35 x 35 mm Timber rafter 60 x 80 mm 25 mm wide metal strip Timber planks 15-20 mm thick Timber joist

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Timber eave plate Timber beam Timber member inserted under column for support. 100 x 100 mm timber piece inserted for the door frame. Timber frame and shutter

Brick wall with 25 mm thick lime plaster

Brick decorate wall for reeling

100mm thick lime concrete Timber planks 100 x 100 timber beam 100mm x 300mm timber beam Cast iron plate, articulated with pattern wooden column leth work. wood column Timber beam to support door lintel

Tolla door

Column base

Brick and lime mortar wall for plinth

Brick wall Sand filling

Scale 1:50

Wall Section 85

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


1. Lime mortar finishes 2. Brick and mud bed 3. Bed 4. Bonding timber. Also for wall plate 5. Bonding timber

Flooring

1 2

ED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 4

3 5

6

1. Timber rafter 2. Metal starp 3. Supporting rafter 4. Beam

Scale 1:20

Roof system 1

2

3

4

Scale 1:20 86


Tenon for above

Unit A

2

1

3

Unit B

Junction seen from above

Scale 1:20

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

1. Unit B shown in reverse, fits over unit A 2. Tennon 3. Beam line

1. Finishes 2. Lime & Brick bed 3. Joist 4. Beam 5. Railing 6. Tie member 7. Stair planks

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Four armed Bracket Capital

Mortice for unit B

Scale 1:20

Staircase

1 2 3

4

5 6 7

Scale 1:20

Scale 1:20

87


Perspective of door frame

Scale 1:20 1. Upper Tolla 2. Rear jamb 3. Front jamb 4. Metal stud for pivot

1

1. Pacia 2. Hole for shutter pivot 3. Tolla lintel front 4. Lower frame 5. Cradel reversed 6. Tolla

Plan

4

6

88

2

2 4

3

3

1

5

5

Section through door Scale 1:20


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

HOUSE 2

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Axonometric view

Axonometric view

Ground floor plan Fig. 2.94 Drawings of the house

First floor plan 0

2

5

N 10

89

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


Mangalore tiles 420 x 220 mm Timber batterns 35 x 35 mm Timber rafter 60 x 80 mm

Timber eave plate

Timber fixed shutter Timber door frame Timber member as the hand rest for the railing Cast iron plate,articulated with pattern. 80 x 100 mm timber runner, acting as binder. Lime concrete Timber joist Cast iron bracket to support balcony. Wooden beam used timber trunk for beam. Timber joist. 20x150 timber plank . Lime concrete Timber column Timber beam part of frame structure.

Stone base for column Plinth articulation

Lime concrete 600 mm thick brick wall for foundation Sand filling

Scale 1:50 90

Wall Section


Brick parapet wall articulation.

PCC

300x300 Cement concrete beam 300 mm thick brick wall 100 mm think lintel beam Glass shutter

Timber door

Brick parapet wall articulation.

Wooden joist. Wooden beam used timber trunk for beam. Timber joist. 20x150 timber plank . Lime concrete I section

Timber beam part of frame structure Timber column

Stone base Stone base

Sand filling Lime concrete steps 600 mm thick brick wall

Wall Section Scale 1:50 for foundation

91


Roof detail

Column detail

1

2

4

3

1

2

4

Scale 1:20

1. Manglore tiles 2. Batterns 3. Joint fot batterns 4. Timber rafters

Door frame detail

6

3 1

2 3

1. Lintel 2. Front jamb 3. Rear jamb

92

Scale 1:20 1. Mortice for beam 2. Tennon for column 3. Shaft 4. Stone base 5. Stone base which go in brick masonary. 6. Two armed bracket capital.

4

5

Scale 1:20


System of support for bracket capital

1. Beam 2. Coffered ceiling 3. Bracket capital 4. Extended arm of bracket capital 5. Bracket capital 6. Capital 7. Shaft 8. Strut

2 1

3

4

5

6

8 7

Scale 1:20

Foundation

1. Shaft 2. Stone base 3. Tenon for stone base 4. Brick foundation 5. Soil filling 6. Gravel for foundation base 1

2 3 4

5

6

Scale 1:20 93


1. Supporting beam 2. Beam 3. Bracket capital 4. Shaft 5. Beam 6. Joist

System of support for bracket capital

2

1

5

3

6

4

Scale 1:20

1. Lime finishes 2. Brick bed 3. Timber planksapital 4. Joist 5. I Beam 6. Shaft

Flooring detail 2

1 5

4

3

6

Scale 1:20

1. Brick parapet wall 2. Articulation through lime plaster

Parapet wall detail

1

2

Scale 1:20 94


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

HOUSE 3

Axonometric view

Ground floor plan

First floor plan

N 0

2

5

10

Fig. 2.95 Drawings of the house 95


Pre - cast concrete slab Pre - cast concrete railing

Brick wall with cement plaster 250x300 concrete beam 100mm thick concrete slab 300mm thick wall with cement plaster 100mm thick concrete Lintel Door frame

Plywood door Pre - cast concrete slab Pre - cast concrete reeling 300mm thick brick wall with cement plaster Bcc and pcc 250x300 concrete beam 100mm thick concrete slab 300mm thick wall with cement plaster 100mm thick concrete Lintel Door frame Plywood door

250x300 concrete beam 100mm thick concrete slab 450mm thick wall for foundation

Scale 1:50 96

Wall Section


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

HOUSE 4

Axonometric view

Ground floor plan

Fig. 2.96 Drawings of the house

0

2

N 5

10

97

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


Mangalore tiles 420 x 220 mm Timber batterns 35 x 35 mm Timber rafter 65 x 80 mm 20x200 timber plank wooden member to support roof Timber eave plate Timber patti Timber patti to connect column and beam 300x350 Timber beam 50x50 timber patti Door frame

Timber piece to cast iron bracket 110mm thick wooden column for roof support Mangalore tiles 420 x 220 mm Timber batterns 35 x 35 mm Timber eave plate Timber bracket to support upper floor

Timber member for roof support Timber piece for support the wheather shade member

Brick wall with lime plaster Timber beam to support the balcony Leth work on timber column Brick wall with lime plaster Timber lintel above the door Timber door frame frame Timber circular column 200mm dia

Stone base for column Stone piece for the plinth 550mm thick brick wall

Sand filling

Scale 1:50 98

Wall Section


concrete casting for tie

Brick reeling wall Concrete beam 250mmx300mm Concrete slab100mm Brick wall with cement plaster

concrete casting for tie Brick reeling wall Timber beam 300mmx350mm 20mmx180mm timber plank Brick wall with cement plaster Timber lintel above the door frame

concrete casting for tie

Brick reeling wall concrete beam 250mmx300mm Timber beam Leth work on timber column Brick wall with lime plaster Timber circular column 200mm dia Timber lintel above the door frame Timber door frame

Stone base for column Bcc and Pcc Stone piece for the plinth 550mm thick brick wall Sand filling

Scale 1:50

Wall Section

99


1. Wooden Column 2. Tenon and Mortice joinery 3. Stone Base 4. Brick bed 5. Brick foundation

Foundation

1

2 3

4

Scale 1:20

1. Beam & Column joinery 2. Bracket 3. Wooden column

1 2

3

Scale 1:20 100


PRODUCED BY AN AUTOD

1

3

2 3

2 4

6

5

Scale 1:20

1. Planks for weather shade 2. Metal strap 3. Wooden column 4. Supporting member

3

5

2

4

4

1

1

1. Support for beam 2. Metal strap 3. Rafter 4. Eave plate 5. Supporting member

Scale 1:20

1. Eve plate 2. Planks 3. Beam 4. Beading 5. Strut 6. Extended arm of bracket capital

Scale 1:20 1. Beam 2. Extended arm of bracket capital 3. Strut 4. Shaft 5.Bracket capital

1 2

5 3

Scale 1:20

DUCATIONAL PRODUCT

4

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUC PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL P

Scale 1:20

101


Tolla door

Plan

1

2

5

6

3

4

4

4

1. Lintel 2. Tolla 3. Strap 4. Spike 5. Wooden pivot 6. Planks

102

Elevation

Scale 1:20


Wooden Staircase

Scale 1:20

103


1 3

4

5

2

6

7

D BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

1. Joist 2. Wall plate 3. Filler 4. Bead 5. Beam 6. Bracket capital 7. Short bonding timber

Scale 1:10

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

1. Bead 2. Planks over joist 3. Joist

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT 1. Bracket capital 2. Capital 3. Mortice for joinery 4. Tenon for beam

1

3

2

Scale 1:10

1 2

3

4

Scale 1:20

ODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

104


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

HOUSE 5

Axonometric view

Axonometric view

Ground floor plan

First floor plan 0

2

5

Fig. 2.97 Drawings of the house

10

N

105

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


Country tiles Timber rafter 60 x 80 mm Timber batterns Timber eave plate Timber bracket to support the roof Leth work on timber column Brick and mud wall Timber plank act as lintel Door frame (todla) act as little beam Tolla door

Stone base for column Stone piece for the plinth 350mm thick brick wall for foundation Sand filling

Scale 1:50 106

Wall Section


Scale 1:50

Wall Section 107


1 2 2

3

4

3

Scale 1:10 5

1. Purlin 2. Capital 3. Post

6 1. Batterns 2. Beam 3. Bracket capital 4. Rafters 5. Supporting beam 6. Column

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PR 1. Joinery 2. Rafter 3. Post 4. Beam

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODE

Scale 1:10

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PR 108

BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT RODUCED BYPRODUCED AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

1

2

1

3

4

Scale 1:10


HOUSE 6

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Axonometric view

Axonometric view

Ground floor plan

Fig. 2.98 Drawings of the house

0

2

5

10

N

109

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


Timber batterns 35 x 35 mm Timber rafter 60 x 80 mm Timber eave plate Timber bracket to support the roof Timber member inserted in column to support the braket 150 x 170 todla for door frame and lintel Tolla door 100 x 100 timber column

Stone piece for plinth 500mm thick wall for foundation soil infill

Scale 1:50 110

Wall Section

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Mangalore tiles 420 x 220 mm


250x300 concrete beam 100mm thick concrete slab

450mm thick wall for foundation

soil infill

Scale 1:50

Wall Section 111


1. Beam 2. Joinery for two side beam 3. Capital 4. Beam

1

1

2 3

1

2

CED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Cast iron barcket

Scale 1:10 112

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Scale 1:20


Tolla door

1. Tolla 2. Planks 3. Door frame 4. Spike 5. Ledge

Plan 1 2

3

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

4 5

Elevation

Scale 1:20 1. Beam 2. Metal strap 3. Rafter 4. Metal tie member

2 3 4

Scale 1:10

113

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

HOUSE 7

Axonometric view

Axonometric view

Ground floor plan Fig. 2.99 Drawings of the house

First floor plan

N

0

2

5

114

10

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


Mangalore tiles 420 x 220 mm Timber batterns 35 x 35 mm Timber rafter 60 x 80 mm

Timber eave plate Cast iron bracket to support the roof Timber column 200dia Brick and mud 300mm thick wall Door frame (todla) also a lintel beem Wall niche (gokhla) Tolla door Timber railing Timber planks

Timber bracket Timber beam to support the bracket Timber beam Timber planks Timber circular column Niche (gokhla) Timber door frame(todla) act as lintel Timber tolla door

Stone column base

Stone for flooring Brick wall 450mm thick Soil infill

Scale 1:50

Wall Section 115


Scale 1:50 116

Wall Section


Tolla door

1 2

3

4

Isometric view 1. Pivot 2. Planks 3. Leddge 4. Metal pivot

Elevation Scale 1:20

117


Column & beam detail 1 1

2

2

3

4

4

Roof detail 3

Beam & rafter detail

1 2

4

2

4

118

3

4

3 2

1. Manglore tiles 2. Eave plate 3. Rafter 4. Battern

1

1. Rafter 2. Post capital 3. Post 4. Beam

Scale 1:20

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

1. Beam 2. Bracket 3. Tenon 4. Column

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Scale 1:20


Flooring detail

Column detail

1

1

1

2 3

3

2

4

Scale 1:20

1. Timber plank 2. Joist 3. Beam 4. Column

3

4

Scale 1:20

1. Beam 2. Bracket capital 3. Indhoni pattern overlayed on column 4. Column

Flooring detail

1. Joist 2. Filler 3. Beam 4. Beads

1 2

3

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK ED 4

Scale 1:20 119


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

1. Bracket capital 2. Capital 3. Column 4. Column base

Column detail

2

1

3

4

Elevation Plan

Scale 1:20

Four armed bracket capital

Top view

Scale 1:20 120


Tolla door

2

1

5

6

4

3 4

8

7

Elevation

Plan 1. Lintel 2. Tolla 3. Strap 4. Spike 5. Wooden pivot 6. Planks 7. Rope for door lock 8. Stone base

Scale 1:20

121


HOUSE 8

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Axonometric view

Ground floor plan

Fig. 2.100 Drawings of the house 122

0

2

5

10

N


Door frame Plywood door

Scale 1:50

Wall Section 123


HOUSE 9

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

Axonometric view

Ground floor plan

N 0

Fig. 2.101 Drawings of the house 124

2

5

10


Scale 1:50

Wall Section 125


126


Chapter 3 ANALYSIS CHANGE IN:

ELEMENTS & DETAILS MATERIAL PROCESS SKILLS AND TOOLS OBSERVATIONS

127


PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

3

7

4

1. Foundation 2. Column & Capital 3. Wall 4. Slab & Flooring 5. Door & Window 6. Staircase 7. Roof & Weather shade

5

2

1

Scale 1:50

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

128

Wall Section

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

1. Timber frame, Brick infill & Sloping roof


2. Brick masonary & Cement concrete slab

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

5

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

4 3

1. Foundation & Plinth Beam 2. Column & Beam 3. Wall 4. Slab & Flooring 5. Door & Window 6. Staircase

2

1

Scale 1:50

Wall Section 129


吀䤀䴀䈀䔀刀 䌀伀一匀吀刀唀䌀吀䤀伀一

ⴀ䜀爀愀瘀攀氀 愀渀搀 戀爀椀挀欀 瀀攀椀挀攀猀 ⴀ䌀氀愀礀 戀甀爀渀琀 戀爀椀挀欀猀⸀ ⴀ䌀氀愀礀 洀漀爀琀愀爀 ⴀ猀漀椀氀 椀渀渀椀氀氀

伀䈀匀䔀刀嘀䄀吀䤀伀一

吀伀伀䰀匀

倀刀伀䌀䔀匀匀

䴀䄀吀䔀刀䤀䄀䰀

䈀唀䤀䰀䐀䤀一䜀 䔀䰀䔀䴀䔀一吀

䘀伀唀一䐀䄀吀䤀伀一

䤀琀猀 愀 爀椀琀甀愀氀 琀漀 搀漀 䈀栀甀洀椀 瀀甀樀愀渀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 挀漀洀攀渀挀攀洀攀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀椀渀攀 漀甀琀⸀ 䜀攀渀攀爀愀氀氀礀 琀栀攀 攀砀挀愀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 椀猀 ㄀ 琀漀 ㄀⸀㔀 栀愀愀琀栀 搀攀攀瀀 愀渀搀 ㈀ⴀ㌀ 栀愀愀琀栀 眀椀搀攀 琀爀攀渀挀栀⸀ 匀漀氀椀搀 氀愀礀攀爀 漀昀 戀爀椀挀欀 ☀  䜀攀渀攀 氀椀洀攀 椀猀 挀漀渀猀琀爀甀挀琀攀搀 昀漀爀 䘀漀甀渀搀愀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 最攀渀攀爀愀氀氀礀 㔀  ⴀ㘀  洀洀 琀栀椀挀欀 眀愀氀氀⸀ 吀栀攀 攀砀琀攀爀椀漀爀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀  昀漀甀渀搀愀琀椀漀渀 愀戀漀瘀攀 琀栀攀 最爀漀甀渀搀 氀攀瘀攀氀 椀猀 氀攀瘀攀氀攀搀⸀ 吀栀攀 瀀氀椀渀琀栀 椀猀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀氀礀 ㌀ᤠ 琀漀 㐀ᤠ 愀戀漀瘀攀 琀栀攀 最爀漀甀渀搀Ⰰ 愀挀ⴀ 挀漀爀搀椀渀最 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀椀琀攀 挀漀渀搀椀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 氀攀愀瘀攀 愀 最愀瀀 椀渀 昀漀甀渀搀愀琀椀漀渀 眀栀攀爀攀瘀攀爀 愀 挀漀氀甀洀渀 椀猀 猀甀瀀瀀漀猀攀搀 琀漀  戀攀 攀爀攀挀琀攀搀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 瀀氀愀挀攀 愀 猀琀漀渀攀 戀愀猀攀 昀漀爀 眀漀漀搀攀渀 挀漀氀甀洀渀⸀ 䄀猀 猀琀漀渀攀 椀猀 最漀漀搀 椀渀 昀爀椀挀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 椀琀 眀漀甀氀搀  猀愀昀攀氀礀 栀漀氀搀 甀瀀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀猀琀爀甀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ 䄀渀漀琀栀攀爀 爀攀愀猀漀渀 昀漀爀 瀀氀愀挀椀渀最 猀琀漀渀攀 戀愀猀攀 椀猀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀 眀漀漀搀攀渀 挀漀氀甀洀渀  搀漀攀猀渀ᤠ琀 琀漀甀挀栀 琀栀攀 最爀漀甀渀搀 漀琀栀攀爀眀椀猀攀 椀琀 洀椀最栀琀 最攀琀 搀愀洀愀最攀搀⸀

Fig. 2.102 Timber frame, Brick infill & Sloping roof house : Foundation 130


䈀唀䤀䰀䐀䤀一䜀 䔀䰀䔀䴀䔀一吀

䘀伀唀一䐀䄀吀䤀伀一 ☀ 倀䰀䤀一吀䠀 䈀䔀䄀䴀

䘀椀爀猀琀 愀渀搀 猀攀挀漀甀渀搀 挀漀甀爀挀攀

吀栀椀爀搀 挀漀甀爀挀攀

䘀漀漀琀椀渀最 愀渀搀 昀漀甀渀搀愀琀椀漀渀 挀漀洀瀀氀攀琀攀

ⴀ䌀氀愀礀 戀甀爀渀攀搀 戀爀椀挀欀猀 ⴀ䌀攀洀攀渀琀 ⴀ匀愀渀搀  ⴀ䄀最最爀攀最愀琀攀猀 ⴀ刀攀椀渀昀漀爀挀攀洀攀渀琀 猀琀攀攀氀

伀䈀匀䔀刀嘀䄀吀䤀伀一

吀伀伀䰀匀

倀刀伀䌀䔀匀匀

䴀䄀吀䔀刀䤀䄀䰀

䘀漀爀琀栀 挀漀甀爀挀攀

䈀刀䤀䌀䬀 ☀ 䌀伀一䌀刀䔀吀䔀 䌀伀一匀吀刀唀䌀吀䤀伀一

䜀攀渀攀爀愀氀氀礀 猀琀攀瀀瀀攀搀 猀琀爀椀瀀 昀漀漀琀椀渀最 椀猀 愀搀漀瀀琀攀搀 昀漀爀 氀漀愀搀 戀攀愀爀椀渀最 眀愀氀氀 挀漀渀猀琀爀甀挀琀椀漀渀 椀渀 琀栀椀猀 爀攀最椀漀渀⸀ 䴀愀琀攀爀椀愀氀㨀 䤀琀 椀猀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀攀搀 琀栀愀琀 戀甀爀渀琀 挀氀愀礀 戀爀椀挀欀猀 漀爀 挀漀渀挀爀攀琀攀 戀氀漀挀欀 ㌀ᤠᤠ 琀漀 㘀ᤠᤠ 琀栀椀挀欀 漀爀 戀攀搀 漀昀 挀漀渀挀爀攀琀攀  椀猀 瀀氀愀挀攀搀 甀渀搀攀爀 琀栀攀 昀漀甀渀搀愀琀椀漀渀⸀ 吀栀攀 挀漀渀挀爀攀琀攀 洀椀砀 瀀爀漀瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀猀 昀漀爀 琀栀椀猀 戀攀搀 椀猀 ㄀㨀㐀㨀㠀⠀挀攀洀攀渀琀Ⰰ  猀愀渀搀Ⰰ 挀爀甀猀栀攀搀 愀最最爀攀最愀琀攀猀⤀⸀ 䐀攀瀀琀栀 漀昀 昀漀甀渀搀愀琀椀漀渀㨀 㐀ᤠ 琀漀 㔀ᤠ 戀攀氀漀眀 最爀漀甀渀搀 氀攀瘀攀氀⸀ 䠀攀椀最栀琀 漀昀 瀀氀椀渀琀栀㨀 ㈀ᤠⴀ㘀ᤠᤠ 琀漀 ㌀ᤠ⸀ 圀栀攀爀攀瘀攀爀 琀栀攀 栀椀最栀攀爀 瀀氀椀渀琀栀 椀猀 爀攀焀甀椀爀攀搀 琀栀攀 眀愀氀氀猀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 昀漀甀渀搀愀琀椀漀渀  䠀攀椀 椀猀 琀栀椀挀欀攀爀⸀ 䄀 瀀氀椀渀琀栀 戀攀愀洀 椀猀 瀀爀漀瘀椀搀攀搀 漀昀 爀攀椀渀昀漀爀挀攀搀 挀漀渀挀爀攀琀攀⸀  

Fig. 2.103 Brick masonary & Cement concrete slab house : Foundation

131


吀䤀䴀䈀䔀刀 䌀伀一匀吀刀唀䌀吀䤀伀一

ⴀ吀椀洀戀攀爀 ⴀ匀琀漀渀攀 戀愀猀攀⸀ ⴀ一愀椀氀猀 ⴀ倀愀椀渀琀

伀䈀匀䔀刀嘀䄀吀䤀伀一

吀伀伀䰀匀

倀刀伀䌀䔀匀匀

䴀䄀吀䔀刀䤀䄀䰀

䈀唀䤀䰀䐀䤀一䜀 䔀䰀䔀䴀䔀一吀

䌀伀䰀唀䴀一 ☀ 䌀䄀倀䤀吀䄀䰀

吀椀洀戀攀爀 挀漀渀猀椀猀琀猀 漀昀 ᠠ最爀愀椀渀猀ᤠⰀ 眀栀椀挀栀 爀甀渀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀 琀漀 琀栀攀 搀椀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 最爀漀眀琀栀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 眀漀漀搀 椀猀 瘀攀爀礀 爀攀猀椀猀ⴀ 琀愀渀琀 椀渀 琀栀攀 搀椀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 最爀愀椀渀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 氀攀猀猀 猀漀 愀琀 爀椀最栀琀ⴀ愀渀最氀攀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 最爀愀椀渀⸀ 䄀戀漀瘀攀 猀栀愀昀琀 挀漀洀攀猀 琀眀漀  瀀攀椀挀攀猀 漀昀 眀漀漀搀 眀栀椀挀栀 昀漀爀洀 琀栀攀 䌀愀瀀椀琀愀氀⸀ 圀栀攀渀 愀 樀甀渀挀琀椀漀渀 漀挀挀甀爀猀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 挀漀氀甀洀渀 愀渀搀 戀攀愀洀Ⰰ 琀栀攀  氀漀愀搀 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀 挀漀氀甀洀渀 椀猀 瀀愀爀愀氀氀攀氀 琀漀 琀栀攀 最爀愀椀渀 愀渀搀 猀漀 琀栀攀 眀漀漀搀 爀攀猀椀猀琀猀 椀琀 眀攀氀氀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 琀栀攀 戀攀愀洀 椀猀  氀漀愀搀攀搀 愀琀 爀椀最栀琀ⴀ愀渀最氀攀猀 琀漀 琀栀攀 最爀愀椀渀 愀渀搀 愀琀 琀栀攀 瀀漀椀渀琀 漀昀 樀甀渀挀琀椀漀渀 琀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 愀 琀攀渀搀攀渀挀礀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 甀瀀瀀攀爀  攀渀搀 漀昀 琀栀攀 挀漀氀甀洀渀 琀漀 瀀爀攀猀猀 椀渀琀漀 愀渀搀 搀攀渀琀 琀栀攀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 戀攀愀洀⸀ 吀漀 瀀爀攀瘀攀渀琀 琀栀椀猀Ⰰ 䌀愀瀀椀琀愀氀 椀猀 椀渀ⴀ 琀爀漀搀甀挀攀搀Ⰰ 猀漀 琀栀愀琀 愀琀 琀栀攀 樀甀渀挀琀椀漀渀 琀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 戀爀漀愀搀攀爀 戀愀猀攀⸀ 䴀愀椀渀氀礀 吀攀渀渀漀渀 ☀ 䴀漀爀琀椀挀攀 漀爀 搀漀眀攀氀猀 椀猀 甀猀攀搀 愀猀 樀漀椀渀攀爀礀⸀

Fig. 2.105 Timber frame, Brick infill & Sloping roof house : Column & Capital 132


䈀刀䤀䌀䬀 ☀ 䌀伀一䌀刀䔀吀䔀 䌀伀一匀吀刀唀䌀吀䤀伀一

ⴀ䌀攀洀攀渀琀 ⴀ匀愀渀搀  ⴀ䄀最最爀攀最愀琀攀 ⴀ刀攀椀渀昀漀爀挀攀洀攀渀琀 猀琀攀攀氀

伀䈀匀䔀刀嘀䄀吀䤀伀一

吀伀伀䰀匀

倀刀伀䌀䔀匀匀

䴀䄀吀䔀刀䤀䄀䰀

䈀唀䤀䰀䐀䤀一䜀 䔀䰀䔀䴀䔀一吀

䌀伀䰀唀䴀一 ☀ 䈀䔀䄀䴀

吀栀攀 挀漀氀甀洀渀 椀猀 洀漀猀琀氀礀 爀攀挀琀愀渀最甀氀愀爀 漀爀 猀焀甀愀爀攀 戀甀琀 猀漀洀攀琀椀洀攀猀 挀椀爀挀甀氀愀爀⸀ 䘀椀爀猀琀氀礀 琀栀攀 爀攀椀渀昀漀爀挀攀洀攀渀琀  挀愀最攀 椀猀 瀀氀愀挀攀搀 瘀攀爀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 愀渀搀 琀椀攀搀⸀ 匀栀甀琀琀攀爀椀渀最 椀猀 瀀氀愀挀攀搀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀氀礀 猀漀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 搀漀攀猀渀ᤠ琀 猀瀀氀椀琀 眀栀攀渀 挀漀渀ⴀ 挀爀攀琀攀 椀猀 瀀漀甀爀攀搀⸀ 䌀漀渀挀爀攀琀攀 漀昀 搀攀猀椀爀攀搀 洀椀砀 椀猀 瀀漀甀爀攀搀 猀氀漀眀氀礀 愀渀搀 最爀愀搀甀愀氀氀礀 愀渀搀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀氀礀 瘀椀戀爀愀琀攀搀 猀漀  琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 渀漀 愀椀爀 最愀瀀⸀ 䄀昀琀攀爀 爀攀洀漀瘀椀渀最 琀栀攀 猀栀甀琀琀攀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 挀漀渀挀爀攀琀攀 椀猀 挀甀爀攀搀 昀漀爀 愀琀 氀攀愀猀琀 ㄀  搀愀礀猀  戀礀 瀀氀愀挀椀渀最 最甀渀渀礀 戀愀最猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 愀爀攀 欀攀瀀琀 洀漀椀猀琀⸀ 吀栀攀 爀攀椀渀昀漀爀挀攀洀攀渀琀 挀愀最攀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 戀攀愀洀 椀猀 瀀氀愀挀攀搀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀氀礀 愀渀搀 琀椀攀搀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀 挀漀氀甀洀渀猀 愀琀 琀栀攀 椀渀琀攀爀ⴀ 猀攀挀琀椀漀渀⸀ 匀愀洀攀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀 昀漀氀氀漀眀猀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 戀攀愀洀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 猀椀搀攀 猀栀甀琀琀攀爀椀渀最 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 戀攀愀洀猀 椀猀 爀攀洀漀瘀攀搀  眀椀琀栀椀渀 ㄀㈀ⴀ㄀㔀 栀漀甀爀猀⸀ 䈀甀琀 琀栀攀 戀漀琀琀漀洀 猀栀甀琀琀攀爀椀渀最 挀愀渀 戀攀 爀攀洀漀瘀攀搀 愀昀琀攀爀 ㄀  琀漀 ㄀㐀 搀愀礀猀⸀

Fig. 2.106 Brick masonary & Cement concrete house : Column & Capital

133


吀䤀䴀䈀䔀刀 䌀伀一匀吀刀唀䌀吀䤀伀一

ⴀ䈀爀椀挀欀 ⴀ䴀甀搀 洀漀爀琀愀爀 ⴀ䰀椀洀攀 洀漀爀琀愀爀 ⴀ匀愀渀搀 

伀䈀匀䔀刀嘀䄀吀䤀伀一

吀伀伀䰀匀

倀刀伀䌀䔀匀匀

䴀䄀吀䔀刀䤀䄀䰀

䈀唀䤀䰀䐀䤀一䜀 䔀䰀䔀䴀䔀一吀

圀䄀䰀䰀

吀栀攀 焀甀愀氀椀琀礀 漀昀 戀爀椀挀欀猀 昀漀甀渀搀 椀渀 琀栀攀猀攀 漀氀搀 栀漀甀猀攀猀 眀愀猀 攀砀琀爀攀洀攀氀礀 瀀漀漀爀⸀ 吀栀攀 戀爀椀挀欀猀 眀攀爀攀 漀昀 猀洀愀氀氀  猀椀稀攀猀Ⰰ 椀洀瀀爀漀瀀攀爀氀礀 戀愀挀欀攀搀 愀渀搀 漀昀 甀渀攀瘀攀渀 猀椀稀攀猀Ⰰ 氀椀琀琀氀攀 猀琀爀攀渀最琀栀 愀渀搀 爀愀爀攀氀礀 氀愀椀搀 椀渀 栀攀愀搀攀爀 ☀ 猀琀爀攀挀栀攀爀⸀  吀栀攀猀攀 瀀漀漀爀 焀甀愀氀椀琀礀 漀昀 戀爀椀挀欀猀 眀攀爀攀 氀愀椀搀 椀渀 琀栀椀挀欀 戀攀搀猀 漀昀 戀愀搀 焀甀愀氀椀琀礀 氀椀洀攀 洀漀爀琀愀爀 漀爀 洀甀搀 洀漀爀琀愀爀⸀ 䄀  眀愀氀氀 洀愀搀攀 漀昀 猀甀挀栀 椀渀昀攀爀椀漀爀 洀愀琀攀爀椀愀氀 栀愀搀 氀椀琀琀氀攀 爀攀猀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 琀漀 猀琀爀攀猀猀 愀渀搀 瀀爀漀洀瀀琀氀礀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀攀搀 挀爀愀挀欀猀  甀渀搀攀爀 瀀漀椀渀琀 氀漀愀搀⸀ 匀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀 昀漀爀 琀栀椀猀 瀀爀漀戀氀攀洀 眀愀猀 琀漀 攀洀瀀氀漀礀 琀椀洀戀攀爀 愀琀 愀氀氀 挀爀椀琀椀挀愀氀 瀀漀椀渀琀猀⸀ 吀栀愀琀ᤠ猀  眀栀礀 戀漀渀搀椀渀最 琀椀洀戀攀爀 眀攀爀攀 攀洀瀀氀漀礀攀搀⸀

Fig. 2.107 Timber frame, Brick infill & Sloping roof house : Wall 134


圀䄀䰀䰀

䈀刀䤀䌀䬀 ☀ 䌀伀一䌀刀䔀吀䔀 䌀伀一匀吀刀唀䌀吀䤀伀一

䈀唀䤀䰀䐀䤀一䜀 䔀䰀䔀䴀䔀一吀

䴀愀砀椀洀甀洀 搀椀猀琀愀渀挀攀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 挀漀氀甀洀渀猀 㨀 㐀⸀㔀 洀 䴀愀砀椀洀甀洀  昀爀攀攀 栀攀椀最栀琀 ㌀洀

䈀攀愀洀

䌀漀氀甀洀渀

圀愀氀氀

ⴀ䈀爀椀挀欀 ⴀ䌀攀洀攀渀琀 ⴀ匀愀渀搀  ⴀ 挀攀洀攀渀琀 洀漀爀琀愀爀

伀䈀匀䔀刀嘀䄀吀䤀伀一

吀伀伀䰀匀

倀刀伀䌀䔀匀匀

䴀䄀吀䔀刀䤀䄀䰀

䘀漀甀渀搀愀琀椀漀渀

䈀爀椀挀欀 椀猀 挀甀爀攀搀 愀琀氀攀愀猀琀 昀漀爀 愀 眀攀攀欀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 洀愀猀漀渀爀礀 猀琀愀爀琀猀⸀ 䴀漀爀琀愀爀 椀猀 洀椀砀攀搀 漀渀 猀椀琀攀 椀琀猀攀氀昀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀  洀漀爀琀愀爀 洀椀砀 椀猀 渀漀琀 洀攀愀猀甀爀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 眀攀椀最栀琀 戀甀琀 戀礀 琀栀攀 瘀漀氀甀洀攀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 氀攀愀瘀攀 愀 栀漀氀攀 椀渀 琀栀攀 眀愀氀氀 琀漀  氀愀琀攀爀 琀椀攀 愀 戀愀洀戀漀漀 瀀愀氀愀欀栀 ⠀愀 瀀氀愀琀昀漀爀洀⤀Ⰰ 琀漀 戀甀椀氀琀 栀椀最栀攀爀 眀愀氀氀⸀ 吀栀攀 栀攀椀最栀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀愀氀氀 椀猀 甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 ㌀ ⴀ  ㌀⸀㔀 洀琀⸀  䈀爀椀挀欀 眀漀爀欀 椀猀 瘀攀爀礀  氀攀砀椀戀氀攀 愀氀氀漀眀椀渀最 猀甀戀猀琀愀渀琀椀愀氀 昀爀攀攀搀漀洀 椀渀 琀栀攀 氀愀礀漀甀琀 漀昀 椀渀琀攀爀渀愀氀 猀瀀愀挀攀猀⸀ 匀漀洀攀琀椀洀攀猀 琀栀攀 戀爀椀挀欀 眀漀爀欀 椀猀 渀漀琀 最漀漀搀 ⠀渀漀琀 愀氀椀最渀攀搀⤀Ⰰ 戀甀琀 椀琀 搀漀攀猀 渀漀琀 洀愀琀琀攀爀 琀漀 琀栀攀 䴀愀猀漀渀 戀攀ⴀ 挀愀甀猀攀 椀琀 椀猀 渀漀琀 最漀椀渀最 琀漀 戀攀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 愀昀琀攀爀 瀀氀愀猀琀攀爀椀渀最⸀

Fig. 2.108 Brick masonay & Cement concrete slab : Wall

135


吀䤀䴀䈀䔀刀 䌀伀一匀吀刀唀䌀吀䤀伀一

ⴀ䰀椀洀攀 ⴀ吀椀洀戀攀爀 ⴀ䌀氀愀礀 洀漀爀琀愀爀 ⴀ䈀爀椀挀欀 椀渀渀椀氀氀 ⴀ戀爀椀挀欀 瀀椀挀攀猀 ⴀ猀愀渀搀

伀䈀匀䔀刀嘀䄀吀䤀伀一

吀伀伀䰀匀

倀刀伀䌀䔀匀匀

䴀䄀吀䔀刀䤀䄀䰀

䈀唀䤀䰀䐀䤀一䜀 䔀䰀䔀䴀䔀一吀

匀䰀䄀䈀 ☀ 䘀䰀伀伀刀䤀一䜀

吀栀攀 最爀漀甀渀搀  氀漀漀爀 椀猀 渀攀愀爀攀猀琀 琀漀 琀栀攀 搀愀洀瀀渀攀猀猀Ⰰ 猀漀 琀栀攀爀攀 眀愀猀 愀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀 渀攀攀搀 琀漀 洀愀欀攀 椀琀 椀洀瀀攀爀瘀椀漀甀猀  琀漀 洀漀椀猀琀甀爀攀⸀ 䤀渀 漀瀀攀渀 愀爀攀愀猀 猀甀挀栀 愀猀 嘀攀爀愀渀搀愀栀猀Ⰰ 伀琀氀漀 愀渀搀 䌀漀甀爀琀礀愀爀搀猀Ⰰ 椀琀 眀愀猀 愀氀眀愀礀猀 瀀愀瘀攀搀 眀椀琀栀  猀琀漀渀攀⸀ 䤀渀 猀栀攀氀琀攀爀攀搀 猀瀀愀挀攀猀Ⰰ 愀 爀攀最甀氀愀爀  氀漀漀爀 漀昀 䰀椀洀攀 洀漀爀琀愀爀 眀椀琀栀 猀洀漀漀琀栀 瀀漀氀椀猀栀 眀愀猀 洀愀搀攀⸀ 䤀渀 猀漀洀攀  挀愀猀攀猀 愀 挀漀氀漀甀爀椀渀最 洀愀琀琀攀爀 眀愀猀 愀搀搀攀搀Ⰰ 甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 瀀愀氀攀 礀攀氀氀漀眀 漀爀 爀攀搀 琀漀 洀愀欀攀 椀琀 愀琀琀爀愀挀琀椀瘀攀⸀ 䤀渀 琀栀攀 甀瀀瀀攀爀  氀漀漀爀猀 琀栀攀 洀愀琀攀爀椀愀氀 甀猀攀搀 眀愀猀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀氀礀 攀椀琀栀攀爀 氀椀洀攀 洀漀爀琀愀爀Ⰰ 漀爀 洀甀搀Ⰰ 氀愀椀搀 甀瀀漀渀 愀  猀漀氀椀渀最 漀昀 戀爀椀挀欀 眀栀椀挀栀 眀愀猀 猀甀瀀瀀漀爀琀攀搀 戀礀 眀漀漀搀攀渀 瀀氀愀渀欀猀 爀攀猀琀椀渀最 甀瀀漀渀 琀栀攀  氀漀漀爀 昀漀椀猀琀猀⸀ 

Fig. 2.109 Timber frame, Brick infill & Sloping roof house : Slab & Flooring 136


䈀刀䤀䌀䬀 ☀ 䌀伀一䌀刀䔀吀䔀 䌀伀一匀吀刀唀䌀吀䤀伀一

ⴀ䈀爀椀挀欀 瀀愀椀挀攀猀 ⴀ䌀攀洀攀渀琀 ⴀ匀愀渀搀  ⴀ䄀最最爀攀最愀琀攀 ⴀ刀攀椀渀昀漀爀挀攀洀攀渀琀 猀琀攀攀氀

伀䈀匀䔀刀嘀䄀吀䤀伀一

吀伀伀䰀匀

倀刀伀䌀䔀匀匀

䴀䄀吀䔀刀䤀䄀䰀

䈀唀䤀䰀䐀䤀一䜀 䔀䰀䔀䴀䔀一吀

匀䰀䄀䈀 ☀ 䘀䰀伀伀刀䤀一䜀

吀栀攀 猀氀愀戀 椀猀 猀瀀愀渀渀攀搀 愀挀挀爀漀猀猀 琀栀攀 眀愀氀氀猀 漀爀 琀栀攀戀攀愀洀猀⸀ 䘀漀爀 愀 猀瀀愀渀 漀昀 愀戀漀甀琀 ㌀ ⴀ 㐀 洀攀琀攀爀猀Ⰰ 琀栀攀 猀氀愀戀  琀栀椀挀欀渀攀猀猀 椀猀 甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 ㄀㄀ ⴀ ㄀㈀㈀ 挀洀⸀ 吀栀攀 挀漀渀挀爀攀琀攀 洀椀砀 椀猀 甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 ㄀ 㨀 ㄀⸀㔀 㨀 ㌀⸀ 吀栀攀 爀攀椀渀昀漀爀挀攀洀攀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀  猀氀愀戀 椀猀 渀漀爀洀愀氀氀礀 漀昀 㠀 ⴀ ㄀  洀洀 搀椀愀洀攀琀攀爀 愀渀搀 椀猀 氀愀椀搀 椀渀 戀漀琀栀 琀栀攀 搀椀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀猀⸀ 匀琀攀攀氀 猀栀甀琀琀攀爀椀渀最 椀猀  最漀漀搀 昀漀爀 甀渀搀攀爀 猀甀爀昀愀挀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀氀愀戀⸀ 䘀椀爀猀琀 椀琀 椀猀 挀氀攀愀渀攀搀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀氀礀⸀ 䄀 䈀椀琀甀洀椀渀 挀漀愀琀 椀猀 琀栀攀渀 愀瀀瀀氀椀攀搀 漀渀  琀栀攀 琀漀瀀 猀甀挀栀 琀栀愀琀 挀漀渀挀爀攀琀攀 搀漀攀猀 渀漀琀 猀琀椀挀欀 琀漀 琀栀攀 猀栀甀琀琀攀爀椀渀最⸀ 䌀漀渀挀爀攀琀攀 漀昀 搀攀猀椀爀攀搀 洀椀砀 椀猀 瀀漀甀爀攀搀  猀氀漀眀氀礀 愀渀搀 最爀愀搀甀愀氀氀礀 愀渀搀 瀀爀漀瀀攀爀氀礀 瘀椀戀爀愀琀攀搀 猀漀 琀栀愀琀 琀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 渀漀 愀椀爀 最愀瀀⸀ 䄀昀琀攀爀 爀攀洀漀瘀椀渀最 琀栀攀 猀栀甀琀ⴀ 琀攀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 挀漀渀挀爀攀琀攀 椀猀 挀甀爀攀搀 昀漀爀 愀琀 氀攀愀猀琀 ㄀  搀愀礀猀⸀ 䘀漀爀 挀甀爀椀渀最Ⰰ 眀愀琀攀爀 瀀漀漀氀猀 挀愀渀 戀攀 洀愀搀攀 漀渀 琀漀瀀 漀昀  琀栀攀 猀氀愀戀 戀礀 洀愀欀椀渀最 猀焀甀愀爀攀 甀猀椀渀最 猀愀渀搀 愀渀搀  椀氀氀椀渀最 琀栀攀洀 眀椀琀栀 猀漀洀攀 眀愀琀攀爀⸀ 琀栀攀 猀氀愀戀 

Fig. 2.110 Brick masonary & Cement concrete slab house : Slab & Flooring

137


吀䤀䴀䈀䔀刀 䌀伀一匀吀刀唀䌀吀䤀伀一

ⴀ吀椀洀戀攀爀 ⴀ匀琀漀渀攀 ⴀ䤀爀漀渀 猀琀爀愀瀀  ⴀ䤀爀漀渀 猀瀀椀欀攀

伀䈀匀䔀刀嘀䄀吀䤀伀一

吀伀伀䰀匀

倀刀伀䌀䔀匀匀

䴀䄀吀䔀刀䤀䄀䰀

䈀唀䤀䰀䐀䤀一䜀 䔀䰀䔀䴀䔀一吀

䐀伀伀刀 ☀ 圀䤀一䐀伀圀

吀栀攀 猀琀爀甀挀琀甀爀愀氀  氀攀砀椀戀椀氀椀琀礀 眀愀猀 搀攀爀椀瘀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 愀渀 挀漀洀戀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 眀漀漀搀眀漀爀欀 愀渀搀 戀爀椀挀欀眀漀爀欀 戀漀琀栀  栀愀搀 琀漀 戀攀 攀爀攀挀琀攀搀 猀椀洀甀氀琀愀渀攀漀甀猀氀礀 愀渀搀 愀氀氀 琀栀攀 搀攀琀愀椀氀猀 漀昀 挀漀渀猀琀爀甀挀琀椀漀渀 眀攀爀攀 琀愀椀氀漀爀攀搀 琀漀 琀栀椀猀 渀攀攀搀⸀ 

吀栀攀爀攀 眀攀爀攀 琀眀漀 昀爀愀洀攀猀⸀ 伀渀攀 昀爀愀洀攀 眀愀猀 搀攀猀椀最渀攀搀 琀漀 猀甀瀀瀀漀爀琀 琀栀攀 瀀漀爀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 眀愀氀氀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀  椀渀渀攀爀 昀爀愀洀攀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 猀栀甀琀琀攀爀猀⸀ 䘀漀爀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀猀琀爀甀挀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀栀甀琀琀攀爀猀 ⠀琀栀攀爀攀 眀攀爀攀 愀氀眀愀礀猀 琀眀漀⤀ 琀栀攀爀攀  眀攀爀攀 渀甀洀戀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀椀挀欀 瀀氀愀渀欀猀 眀栀椀挀栀 昀漀爀洀攀搀 琀栀攀 戀漀搀礀⸀ 䤀爀漀渀 猀琀爀愀瀀猀 眀攀爀攀 甀猀攀搀 昀漀爀 戀漀渀搀椀渀最⸀ 匀琀爀愀瀀猀  眀攀爀攀  椀砀攀搀 戀礀 猀瀀椀欀攀猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 漀渀 琀栀攀 漀琀栀攀爀 猀椀搀攀 愀挀琀攀搀 愀猀 爀椀瘀攀琀猀⸀

Fig. 2.111 Timber frame, Brick infill & Sloping roof house : Door & Window 138


䈀刀䤀䌀䬀 ☀ 䌀伀一䌀刀䔀吀䔀 䌀伀一匀吀刀唀䌀吀䤀伀一

ⴀ吀椀洀戀攀爀 氀漀最 ⴀ吀椀洀戀攀爀 瀀氀愀渀欀猀 ⴀ䤀爀漀渀 猀琀爀愀瀀  ⴀ䤀爀漀渀 渀愀椀氀猀 ⴀ䤀爀漀渀 猀挀爀攀眀

伀䈀匀䔀刀嘀䄀吀䤀伀一

吀伀伀䰀匀

倀刀伀䌀䔀匀匀

䴀䄀吀䔀刀䤀䄀䰀

䈀唀䤀䰀䐀䤀一䜀 䔀䰀䔀䴀䔀一吀

䐀伀伀刀 ☀ 圀䤀一䐀伀圀

䐀漀漀爀 愀渀搀 眀椀渀搀漀眀 瀀爀漀瘀椀搀攀 瘀攀渀琀椀氀愀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 搀愀礀氀椀最栀琀 愀渀搀 椀琀 椀猀 愀渀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀 愀攀猀琀栀攀琀椀挀愀氀 攀氀攀洀攀渀琀⸀ 䴀漀猀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 搀漀漀爀 愀渀搀 眀椀渀搀漀眀猀 愀爀攀 洀愀搀攀 漀甀琀 漀昀 琀椀洀戀攀爀⸀ 吀栀攀爀攀 椀猀 渀漀 匀椀氀氀 椀渀 琀栀攀 眀椀渀搀漀眀猀⸀ 吀漀 挀漀渀琀椀渀甀攀 戀爀椀挀欀眀漀爀欀 愀戀漀瘀攀 琀栀攀 眀椀渀搀漀眀 琀栀攀礀 瀀氀愀挀攀 愀 挀漀渀挀爀攀琀攀  䰀椀渀琀攀氀⸀

Fig. 2.112 Brick masonary & Cement concrete slab : Door & Window

139


吀䤀䴀䈀䔀刀 䌀伀一匀吀刀唀䌀吀䤀伀一

ⴀ吀椀洀戀攀爀 ⴀ䤀爀漀渀 猀琀爀愀瀀  ⴀ䤀爀漀渀 猀瀀椀欀攀

伀䈀匀䔀刀嘀䄀吀䤀伀一

吀伀伀䰀匀

倀刀伀䌀䔀匀匀

䴀䄀吀䔀刀䤀䄀䰀

䈀唀䤀䰀䐀䤀一䜀 䔀䰀䔀䴀䔀一吀

匀吀䄀䤀刀䌀䄀匀䔀

䄀猀 眀漀漀搀攀渀 猀琀愀椀爀 攀瘀漀氀瘀攀搀 昀爀漀洀 眀漀漀搀攀渀 氀愀搀搀攀爀 栀攀渀挀攀 椀琀 爀攀琀愀椀渀攀搀 洀愀渀礀 漀昀 椀琀猀 挀栀愀爀愀挀琀攀爀椀猀琀椀挀猀⸀ 吀栀攀  洀漀猀琀 瀀爀漀洀椀渀攀渀琀 眀愀猀 琀栀攀 猀琀攀攀瀀渀攀猀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 氀愀挀欀 漀昀 愀 瀀攀爀洀愀渀攀渀琀  椀砀琀甀爀攀⸀ 匀琀攀攀瀀渀攀猀猀 眀愀猀 猀甀挀栀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 眀愀猀 渀漀琀 挀漀渀瘀攀渀椀攀渀琀 琀漀 挀愀爀爀礀 栀攀愀瘀礀 氀漀愀搀猀 甀瀀猀琀愀椀爀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 爀椀猀攀爀 ☀ 琀爀攀愀搀  眀攀爀攀 攀焀甀愀氀 椀渀 搀椀洀攀渀猀椀漀渀Ⰰ 愀戀漀甀琀 ㈀  洀洀 攀愀挀栀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 愀渀最氀攀 漀昀 椀渀挀氀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 洀攀愀猀甀爀攀搀 戀礀 欀攀攀瀀椀渀最  琀栀攀 琀爀攀愀搀 栀漀爀椀稀漀渀琀愀氀 眀愀猀 愀戀漀甀琀 㘀 ⨀⸀ 刀攀愀搀礀ⴀ洀愀搀攀 甀渀椀琀猀 眀攀爀攀 戀爀漀甀最栀琀 愀渀搀 椀渀猀琀愀氀氀攀搀⸀

Fig. 2.113 Timber frame, Brick infill & Sloping roof house : Staircase 140


䈀刀䤀䌀䬀 ☀ 䌀伀一䌀刀䔀吀䔀 䌀伀一匀吀刀唀䌀吀䤀伀一

ⴀ吀椀洀戀攀爀 瀀氀愀渀欀猀 ⴀ䌀攀洀攀渀琀 ⴀ匀愀渀搀  ⴀ䄀最最爀攀最愀琀攀 ⴀ刀攀椀渀昀漀爀挀攀洀攀渀琀 猀琀攀攀氀

伀䈀匀䔀刀嘀䄀吀䤀伀一

吀伀伀䰀匀

倀刀伀䌀䔀匀匀

䴀䄀吀䔀刀䤀䄀䰀

䈀唀䤀䰀䐀䤀一䜀 䔀䰀䔀䴀䔀一吀

匀吀䄀䤀刀䌀䄀匀䔀

匀琀愀椀爀挀愀猀攀 椀猀 洀愀搀攀 椀渀 挀漀渀挀爀攀琀攀⸀ 

吀栀攀 猀氀漀瀀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀椀爀挀愀猀攀 椀猀 渀漀爀洀愀氀氀礀 戀攀琀眀攀攀渀 ㈀㔀⨀ 琀漀 㐀 ⨀ 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 眀椀搀琀栀 椀猀 㤀  洀洀⸀ 䴀漀猀琀氀礀 琀栀攀 爀椀猀攀爀 愀渀搀 琀爀攀愀搀 椀猀 ㄀㔀 洀洀 ☀ ㌀  洀洀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 最攀渀攀爀愀氀氀礀  椀渀椀猀栀攀搀 戀礀 洀愀爀戀氀攀 漀爀 最爀愀渀椀琀攀⸀

Fig. 2.114 Brick masonary & Cement concrete slab : Staircase

141


吀䤀䴀䈀䔀刀 䌀伀一匀吀刀唀䌀吀䤀伀一

ⴀ吀椀洀戀攀爀 ⴀ䤀爀漀渀 猀琀爀愀瀀  ⴀ䤀爀漀渀 猀瀀椀欀攀

伀䈀匀䔀刀嘀䄀吀䤀伀一

吀伀伀䰀匀

倀刀伀䌀䔀匀匀

䴀䄀吀䔀刀䤀䄀䰀

䈀唀䤀䰀䐀䤀一䜀 䔀䰀䔀䴀䔀一吀

刀伀伀䘀 ☀ 圀䔀䄀吀䠀䔀刀 匀䠀䄀䐀䔀

䴀漀猀琀氀礀 猀氀漀瀀椀渀最 爀漀漀昀 眀愀猀 洀愀搀攀⸀  䤀琀 椀猀 挀漀洀戀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 搀椀昀昀攀爀攀渀琀 瀀愀爀琀猀⸀ 刀愀昀琀攀爀猀 愀爀攀 瀀氀愀挀攀搀 漀渀 琀椀洀戀攀爀 戀攀愀洀 昀漀爀 猀甀瀀瀀漀爀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 爀漀漀昀⸀  唀猀甀愀氀氀礀 㘀㔀砀㠀  洀洀 琀栀椀挀欀 猀攀挀琀椀漀渀椀猀 甀猀攀搀⸀ 䤀琀 椀猀 猀甀瀀瀀漀爀琀攀搀 戀礀 戀爀愀挀椀渀最猀⸀ 匀漀洀攀琀椀洀攀猀 琀栀攀礀 甀猀攀 洀攀琀愀氀  猀琀爀愀瀀 昀漀爀 樀漀椀渀攀爀礀⸀ 圀漀漀搀攀渀 戀愀琀琀攀爀渀猀 眀栀椀挀栀 愀爀攀 猀洀愀氀氀攀爀 椀渀 猀攀挀琀椀漀渀Ⰰ 愀爀攀 瀀氀愀挀攀搀 漀渀 爀愀昀琀攀爀猀 昀漀爀 猀甀瀀瀀漀爀琀 漀昀 䴀愀渀最氀漀爀攀  琀椀氀攀猀⸀ 匀椀稀攀 漀昀 䴀愀渀最氀漀爀攀 琀椀氀攀猀 椀猀 甀猀甀愀氀氀礀 㐀㈀ 砀㈀㈀ 洀洀 猀漀 琀栀愀琀 漀渀攀 瀀攀爀猀漀渀 挀愀渀 挀愀爀爀礀 琀栀攀 琀椀氀攀猀 攀愀猀椀氀礀⸀  䔀愀瘀攀 瀀氀愀琀攀 椀猀 瀀氀愀挀攀搀 愀琀 琀栀攀 攀搀最攀 猀漀 琀栀愀琀 爀愀昀琀攀爀猀 愀渀搀 戀愀琀琀攀爀渀猀 愀爀攀 渀漀琀 瘀椀猀椀戀氀攀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 漀甀琀猀椀搀攀⸀

Fig. 2.115 Timber frame, Brick infill & Sloping roof house : Roof & Weather shade 142


COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

143


144

Brick masonary & Cement concrete slab

Timber frame, Brick infill & Slooping roof

1 2 3


Brick masonary & Cement concrete slab

Timber frame, Brick infill & Slooping roof

4 5 6

145


146

Brick masonary & Cement concrete slab

Timber frame, Brick infill & Slooping roof

7 8 9


Brick masonary & Cement concrete slab

Timber frame, Brick infill & Slooping roof

10 11 12

147


1. Foundation

- In both the houses same process follows for cleaning the site and line out for excavation. - The excavation for the old house (Timber frame, brick infill & slopping roof), was wider and deeper because the wall was thicker and so more load, hence it needed broader foundation. - Earlier it was point load because of column-beam structure and not its uniform because of load bearing structure. - If there is column-beam than it required wider foundation to remove shuttering. - The first layer of base it almost the same, except lime is replaced by cement. - In the old house the foundation masonry is of stone and hence it was more stable because it does not absorb water.

2. Column foundation

-In the old house they place a stone base in foundation for wooden column, so that it does not absorb water and is more stable. - In the new construction reinforced cement concrete column is used. Reinforced cage for column is tied to the reinforcement of the foundation and once it is in place, shuttering is done and concrete is poured for column.

3. Plinth beam

- In the new house there is plinth beam which tie with brick wall. There is more stability because of the plinth beam and also does not absorb moisture.

4. Column

- Earlier the column for pre-fabricated and placed fixed on site. It is made in parts and assembled on site. - In the new construction, column is casted on site and it can be casted according to the requirement. It is monolithic casting. 148


5. Column & Beam

- In the old construction the column was a combination of shaft and capital (for more stable structure). It was prefabricated and placed fixed on site. It is made in parts and assembled on site. In the new construction, column is casted on site and it can be casted according to the requirement. - Before, according to the size of available timer, the division of spaces was decided. In the new construction the beam is made according to the size wanted. It is monolithic casting.

6. Door frame

- They place the door frame after completion of the column construction and before starting of the wall construction in both the cases. - For alignment of the door frame they use plumb and its supported by rope and supporting members (tekka).

7. Wall

- In the old construction the quality of brick was not good. Now good quality brick and cement is available easily in the market. - Earlier the masonry was done with Brick and mud mortar, now it is replaced by brick and cement mortar. - Earlier the wall were very thick is size and now it is almost half the width. - Earlier it was infill structure, now it is load bearing.

8. Slab & Flooring

- Earlier the roof was in layers and parts like beam, joist and planks. In the new construction it is simplified by reinforcement concrete slab. - In the old times they first placed wooden planks with a layer of brick bed on top and finished with lime mortar. Now they place BCC - Cement slurry - finished with stone/granite or vitrified tiles. 149


9. Roof & Weather shade

- In the old construction they used manglore tiles in the sloping roof. Manglore tiles were small in size, there was a danger of leaking roof and so they gave a sloping roof for the water to drain easily. - Now as they are getting a huge surface that is why they use flat slab with a little slope.

10. Staircase

- Earlier the wooden staircase was pre- fabricated and it was placed on site. - Now the reinforced cement concrete staircase is casted on site.

11. Door

- In both old and new the material is the same. - Earlier it was more intricate work and the door was thicker and now it is very simple. - Earlier there was nothing such as lintel, the door frame use to take the load of the above wall. In new times they construct lintel and so the door frame became thinner.

150


151


Timber frame, Brick infill & Slooping roof Brick masonary & Cement concrete slab

Foundation

- In both the houses same process follows for cleaning the site and line out for excavation. - The excavation for the old house (Timber frame, brick infill & slopping roof), was wider and deeper because the wall was thicker and so more load, hence it needed broader foundation. - If there is column-beam than it required wider foundation to remove shuttering. - The first layer of base it almost the same, except lime is replaced by cement. - In the old house the foundation masonry is of stone and hence it was more stable because it does not absorb water. 152

Column foundation

-In the old house they place a stone base in foundation for wooden column, so that it does not absorb water and is more stable. - In the new construction reinforced cement concrete column is used. Reinforced cage for column is tied to the reinforcement of the foundation and once it is in place, shuttering is done and concrete is poured for column. - Earlier it was point load because of column-beam structure and not its uniform because of load bearing structure.

Plinth Beam

- In the new house there is plinth beam which tie with brick wall. There is more stability because of the plinth beam and also does not absorb moisture.


Timber frame, Brick infill & Slooping roof Brick masonary & Cement concrete slab

Column

- Earlier the column for pre-fabricated and placed fixed on site. It is made in parts and assembled on site. - In the new construction, column is casted on site and it can be casted according to the requirement. It is monolithic casting.

Column & Beam

- In the old construction the column was a combination of shaft and capital (for more stable structure). It was prefabricated and placed fixed on site. It is made in parts and assembled on site. In the new construction, column is casted on site and it can be casted according to the requirement. - Before, according to the size of available timer, the division of spaces was decided. In the new construction the beam is made according to the size wanted. It is monolithic casting.

Door frame

- They place the door frame after completion of the column construction and before starting of the wall construction in both the cases. - For alignment of the door frame they use plumb and its supported by rope and supporting members (tekka).

153


Timber frame, Brick infill & Slooping roof Brick masonary & Cement concrete slab

Wall

- In the old construction the quality of brick was not good. Now good quality brick and cement is available easily in the market. - Earlier the masonry was done with Brick and mud mortar, now it is replaced by brick and cement mortar. - Earlier the wall were very thick is size and now it is almost half the width. - Earlier it was infill structure, now it is load bearing.

154

Slab & Flooring

- Earlier the roof was in layers and parts like beam, joist and planks. In the new construction it is simplified by reinforcement concrete slab. - In the old times they first placed wooden planks with a layer of brick bed on top and finished with lime mortar. Now they place BCC - Cement slurry - finished with stone/granite or vitrified tiles.

Roof & Weather shade

- In the old construction they used manglore tiles in the sloping roof. Manglore tiles were small in size, there was a danger of leaking roof and so they gave a sloping roof for the water to drain easily. - Now as they are getting a huge surface that is why they use flat slab with a little slope.


Timber frame, Brick infill & Slooping roof Brick masonary & Cement concrete slab

Staircase

- Earlier the wooden staircase was prefabricated and it was placed on site. - Now the reinforced cement concrete staircase is casted on site.

Door

- In both old and new the material is the same. - Earlier it was more intricate work and the door was thicker and now it is very simple. - Earlier there was nothing such as lintel, the door frame use to take the load of the above wall. In new times they construct lintel and so the door frame became thinner.

155


HYPOTHESIS Use of new materials in the same house type in Patan (Nagarwado, Doshiwado), evolved new details.

CONCLUSION Structure:

In old times pressure on urban spaces lead to multi story buildings. It needed greater stability. The use of bricks of small size coupled with mud mortar did not provide the needed stability. Hence came the use of wood frame to designate that structural element which arise when beams and columns are joined together to form a supporting system. Secondly, longer span of beam saved material and it was a custom to have relatively large spacing between joist and cover it up using planks. The structural system was mostly without carving, there was always the danger to damage parts. The only exception was the free standing column. This member was so prominent that it had be carved. In Patan it was in demand to have solid mass flooring, to produce such mass they use to lay heavy layer of bricks and mortar over joist.

With time the availability and quality of bricks became good. So the brick work provided more stability than the older one and did not need more support except for tie beam at plinth level and beam to support the slab. The beam was mostly made out of reinforced concrete. Concrete column and beams is also used in verandahs instead of brick walls so that there is more space. However the concrete used was for column, beam, slab and lintel, it was more monolithic and less joint and joinery.

Availability of materials:

156

The fact that good timber was brought from a great distance, automatically resulted in time lag between the cutting of the tree and installing it. The locally available timber is not a good quality. Using teak was expensive so they also used other timber. In the new house construction, mostly the building materials were sand, cement and aggregates, except for the finishing materials. All these materials were locally available.


Craftsman & Tools :

Primarily the joinery was of great simplicity and they were known to the carpenters and practiced by them using simple tools. The most intricate work was persistant and reflected traditional innovation. They mostly used tennon & mortice or tongue & grove for joinery. As the time passed new materials came in the market. So new tools and technique was adapted. There was also lack of craftsman and slowly carpentry work dissolved. As the reinforcement concrete construction was not traditional, it required new tools and techniques. But the masons and contractors were not trained to construct with concrete. There was a lack of knowledge and they just tried to imitate the urban.

Elements :

As I have discussed earlier, due to change in building construction technology (structure, material, craftsman & tools and process) there was a major change in building elements as well.

157


BIBLOGRAPHY PUBLISHED

1. Farrely, lorraine, Construction+materiality Book, Swizerland AVA Publishing SA 2009.

2.Dan,Maria Bostenaru & others eds. Materials, technology and practice in historic haritage structures Book. London Springer 2010 3. 3.om, Binumol, Traditional conservation of timber architecture: a case study of Thai Kottaram, Kerala Book. New Delhi INTECH 2007

4. Madhvi desai, traditional architecture – house form of the Islamic community of Bohras in Gujarat, Ahmedabad: Pragati offset Pvt.Ltd, Hyderabad, 2007. P-2. 5. Haveli: Wooden houses and mansions of Gujrat, Mapin, Ahmedabad : 1989 6. A history of building materials, Phoenese House, London. 1961. 7. Architecture of Ahmedabad The capital of Gujrat.

8. Raje, Nitin, Dwellings of the Bohra community in Gujarat: a study of Vernacular habitat between A.D.1750-1900. P-84. UNPUBLISHED

1. Vasavada, Bindi.Context and its influence on architecture decision : undestandin limits and potention of the situation. . Unpublished undergraduate thesis, school of architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad 2. Mistery nilkumar, Influence of new material and construction technique: case study of varneculer house form of dadra and nagar haveli. Unpublished undergraduate thesis, school of architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad

3. Patel mehul, Architecture of Raj Rewal: a critical inquiry into the reinterperetation of indian tradition into contemporary expression. Unpublished undergraduate thesis, school of architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad 4. Panchal, sneha, Understanding the influence of construction materials and techniques on contemporary earthen architecture on kutch. Unpublished undergraduate thesis, school of architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad 5. A study of construction in traditional architecture: Focus of wooden Houses of old city of Ahmedabad, Unpublished undergraduate thesis, school of architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad 158


6. Soni, Darshan D, Reading the built fabric - bohra neighborhood at Kapadvanj.p-07 Suthar, Sweta; Cross culture influences and their impact in interior of Bohra houses of Siddhpur.

7. Shukla, Kandarp; Urban environment: a study of an urban block, Bohra community in Siddhpur town.p-96 8. Goklani, BIndu; Bohra settlement and houseform at Kapadvanj manifestation of a culture in built-form.p-94 9. Achnani, Vicky; Making of house form of Dhrangadhra understanding the role of craftsman and elements coming together in the process of making.

IMAGE CITATION All illustrations have been done by the author except those specified below Chapter 1

Fig. 1.1 http://www.ranikivav.org/photogallery/photogallery.html Fig. 1.2 https://www.sahapedia.org/ran-ki-vav-images-of-deities Fig. 1.3 https://www.sahapedia.org Fig. 1.4 https://www.pinterest.com/pin/349521621050487139/ Fig. 1.5 http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Asia/India/West/Gujarat/Patan/photo1267035. htm Fig 1.6 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gujarat_Patan_district.png Fig. 1.7 - Fig. 1.11 Vasavada, Bindi.Context and its influence on architecture decision : undestandin limits and potention of the situation. . Unpublished undergraduate thesis, school of architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad Chapter 2

Fig. 2.4 - Fig. 2.7 http://woodtools.nov.ru/books/carp_join/carp_join_1.pdf Fig. 2.9 Vasavada, Bindi.Context and its influence on architecture decision : undestandin limits and potention of the situation. . Unpublished undergraduate thesis, school of architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad

Fig. 2.10 https://baazkart.wordpress.com/category/uttarakhand/handicraft-uttarakhand/ Fig. 2.11 Vasavada, Bindi.Context and its influence on architecture decision : undestandin limits and potention of the situation. . Unpublished undergraduate thesis, school of architecture, CEPT, Ahmedabad Fig. 2.28 - Fig.2.35 http://ecobrick.in/BrickMakinginIndia.aspx

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STUDY OF ARCHITECTURE DETAILING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF CHANGING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY - PATAN  

To study the impacts and evolution of details in a house type and to understand houses through details of construction and how they evolved...

STUDY OF ARCHITECTURE DETAILING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF CHANGING CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY - PATAN  

To study the impacts and evolution of details in a house type and to understand houses through details of construction and how they evolved...

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