Positive Negative Magazine Volume 9

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WELCOME TO VOLUME 9 Welcome to the ideas we have conceived, revised, produced, and revised again—all throughout the first 15 weeks of our senior year. This issue is more than just beautiful spreads— these pages are laced with our unwavering dedication and tireless hours spent creating the best publication possible. We have come a long way from our first day of class. For most of us, it was the first experience sharing the skills we have honed over the past three years with another equally talented, yet different, group of artists. However, by the end of the semester, we all grew to know each other and appreciate each other’s fields even more; we became

a unified whole. This journey yielded more than just a magazine—it fostered wonderful, unforgettable memories and new friendships. As an expression of the overall Positive Negative theme, we created a style that contrasts the crisp and clean with edgy and dirty: integrating a minimal, organized space with freeform black paint. The marriage between two different, but interesting, aesthetics mimicked the bond developed between our photographers and designers. The translucent paper in the front and back

serves to further emphasize the “coming together� of two elements to create Positive Negative Volume 9; one does not achieve its goal without the other. As art directors, we have had insight into every single aspect of all the hard work gone into this issue, and we are incredibly proud of what our class has produced. We made sure the mark we left was a myriad of thought-provoking subjects paired with stunning imagery and design. We hope that you enjoy exploring this issue as much as we enjoyed making it.

Kyra Krenitsky

Jenna Hebeler



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Shot on myPhone The New Professional's Camera

Galaxy S6


As a culture, we love photography. Visual information gives us the best context of a situation at a glance. Those who take the photos are visual storytellers, weaving complex narratives within a single snapshot.


Photography is an art, and like any art, it must be honed. However, there is still an industry behind this art. As industries tend to do, they evolve as new technology and methods are introduced. Now the camera phone is surpassing the traditional camera as the go-to professional photography tool, and those whose job it is to tell visual stories are experiencing a change—a swift democratization of the camera—all thanks to those devices in our pockets.

aside, today’s camera phones are implanted with some of the smartest features around. It’s safe to say that companies are designing cameras with smartphone capabilities. Image stabilization, RAW file capabilities, and the manual setting are all becoming the norms. It’s not unreasonable to think that given enough time, camera phone features will do all that a DSLR can do and more. It will become the most viable option for every level of photographer. Even now, it’s on its way.

The Ever-Improving Camera Phone

The Start of the Shift

Camera phones keep pervading our culture because they continue to improve with each cycle. Companies add features that make it seem more like a real digital single-lens reflex (DSLR), but what happens when camera phones match or even surpass the DSLR standard? The average DSLR can shoot somewhere between the 12–25 megapixel range. New models of camera phones released in 2015 easily fit within that range, with mainstream HTC and Panasonic phones hitting 20 megapixels (not to mention the exorbitant 41 megapixels of the Nokia Lumia 1020). Pixel count

A notable case is Apple’s recent famous ad campaign for iPhone6. Beautiful, vibrant photos by different photographers were at center stage in this series of ads. The photos were blown up to very large formats, spanning billboards and covering print ads. The powerful thing was that these stunning images were taken on iPhone6. We are already at a state in which camera phones can flex their muscles and compete with any other option. This, coupled with the emergence of social media creates an entirely different experience to photographers in the industry.


Galaxy S6

Everyone has a camera phone; everyone has a voice—instantly. The Instagram Juggernaut

An Adapting Audience

A major shift started a while ago after the first few waves of smartphones were released. People started to take photos—lots of photos—and social media was there to evolve alongside. The instant access to cameras was unprecedented. Nothing on the market was easier to learn and easier to shape. With that ubiquity and simplicity, everyone jumped on board and photography exploded. Soon social media was formed around the photography community, giving them audience with people they would have never seen or heard of without it.

“As consumers navigate a glut of visual clutter, they are developing a new language on images,”1 says Kelly McBride, a media ethics specialist. We become photographically literate as we wade through the stereotypical pictures of lattes and dogs. We recognize what quality images that are shot by professionals look like, and will overwhelmingly express a preference for them. The best photos are brought to the forefront of the app and get publicized. That way, everyone sees what quality means to the community.

Apps like Instagram have not been around for that long, but they will have a lasting imprint on the photography community because of their democratic nature. Everyone has a camera phone; everyone has a voice—instantly. All this technology opens the door to new artists and inspiration, and it all happens on our camera phones. One could worry about the overabundance of photos in a platform like Instagram. There are millions of profiles with each posting what is important to them, so it is easy to worry about a loss of quality that damages the reputation of photography. But studies in eye-tracking show that good photography isn’t lost to the masses.

Photographers get hired through Instagram now. It is the new place where photographers advocate and market themselves. The work and the talent are visible to all and any audience or style is accessible through hashtags.

Ramifications of a Changing Industry The social dynamic and interaction between photographers and their audiences has changed and now the artist and the work are inextricably linked. There is a large group trying to compete with one another for jobs through this outlet, but the competition is a good thing because it forces the average standard of photography up higher than it used to be in order to remain competitive.2

iPhone 5C

So what does this all mean? Right now, it means layoffs in major news organizations, as one example. Chicago Sun Times, Sports Illustrated, and National Press Photographers Association recently let go of their entire photo department. Why? Hiring photographers for news stories has become trivial. Everyone has a camera on their person, so there are bound to be those who will record any notable event from anywhere on Earth. They simply purchase the best photos of the event, rather than pay an entire fleet of internal photographers.

The goal of the industry is just to get the best photos possible. Good photographers will still be good, but there are social ramifications as the camera takes on new roles and is available to more people. But what is a photographer to do in the midst of all of this? Keep shooting; shoot with whatever you have. Visual storytellers will never go away; they only change with the times. +


The consequences of the increased access to camera phone technology seem scary, like no photography job is sacred. This is more of an awkward transition phase into the future than anything else. This is the natural progression of the camera and the industry surrounding it. The best part of this movement is that a photographer doesn’t have to have all the expensive accessories to be a part of the club.




hether you’re fighting for Burberry or Aquascutum, one textured history is shared by both of these iconic companies of the fashion industry. Originally tailor‑made for use by soldiers, trench coats were a necessary solution to military obstacles created by the heavy uniforms worn by the British and French armies. Specifically during World War I, trench warfare was highly prevalent and created difficult conditions for soldiers to navigate as they held ground against opposing forces, such as bitter winds and thick mud. A lighter, shorter, and less noticeable coat was needed. Emerging from the fashion industry in 1879, Thomas Burberry pursued a solution for this matter by developing gabardine, which became a standard for Tielocken coats. Unlike previously worn coats that had been waxed or rubberized, gabardine is a very tightly woven and water-repellent cloth of lightweight and breathable form. First tested in a military setting with the Boer War in 1895, the coat proved successful and led to the distribution of half a million during World War I.

Across the table, Aquascutum sat, claiming to have developed a design as early as the 1850s. With waterproof wool patented by the company, their trench is claimed to have been fitted to soldiers fighting in the Crimean War. Being mass-produced by these very dominant companies, the trench coat seemed to be a standard to a soldier’s uniform. While the coat appeared to be a solution to the mobility problems of a soldier, the warmth and protection it offered military personnel was also needed at the time. The coat began to be used outside of the military realm, and money was meant to be made from the design which would later become one of the most iconic articles of clothing in modern fashion. With multiple fashion companies emerging, trench coats became a trend noticeable among the public rather than military. The khaki coat originally meant to thwart the discovery of foot soldiers became a sleek and “cool” look because of many Hollywood personalities, such as Audrey Hepburn and the detective characters of Humphrey Bogart.

This celebrity endorsement formed a sense of heroism and honor in wearing the new fashion, and in turn the public became a nationalistic figure resembling the military. In today’s industry, the trench coat iconography splashes across many campaigns by Aquascutum and Burberry as supermodels form the body of individuals now wearing the military design. Withstanding the test of time and wars subsequent to the first World War, the trench coat has remained a powerful article of fashion that much of the world’s population holds in its closet. Whether you know military history or not, the true victor of late 19th and early 20th century warfronts has been the trench coat’s unmistakable image. +


TRENCH from wartime to wardrobe, ­­­the evolution of the trench coat




The Negative Effects of GMOs written and photographed by ERICA WELLMAN


o you know where your food came from? From seed to store, most consumers aren’t aware of the processes throughout the lifetime of their food. The truth is, most of us are eating GMOs, or genetically modified organisms. Eighty percent of food grown in the U.S. is genetically modified. What is a GMO? In terms of food, it is a plant genetically engineered to withstand direct application of herbicide, insecticide, and pesticide.1 Is this safe? More than sixty countries say no, and it is restricted and banned from their soil. As for the U.S., the government approved them based on studies done by the companies that produce and profit from GMOs.1

of effects on humans: fertility issues, cancer, headaches, neurological disorders, birth defects, difficulty breathing, nausea, hormone disruption, damage to thyroids, convulsions, etc.6 Pregnant women and children are at a higher risk of experiencing the negative effects of GMOs.5 For us and our environment, GMOs have encouraged the skyrocketing increase of use of

Common chemicals used in GMO farming include Glyphosate, Atrazine, Chlorpyrifos, Metolachlor, and Metam sodium. These chemicals have a wide variety pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Since 1996, the USDA has shown a 500 million pound increase in their use of overall herbicide.3 The general impact on the environment is jaw-dropping. The contamination of the

pesticides spreads to waterways, wildlife, and surrounding plant life.3 Recently, weeds and pests have shown resistance to the chemicals. To “fix” this, a new and improved, higher concentration of toxic chemicals will be introduced to the crops.3 Today, those that are aware of GMOs are fighting to have them labeled in stores. These consumers want to know what they are putting in their bodies. By labeling the products “GMO” and “Non-GMO”, consumers would have the right to choose.2 Companies are afraid that the labeling will decrease the sales of GMO foods. How do you avoid GMOs? Many packaged foods today are acquiring a label that reads “Non GMO Project Verified.” Those foods are GMO free and usually close to the same price as their

GMO counterparts.4 Eating organic produce will significantly cut down your GMO and pesticide intake. The price increase on organic foods is unfortunate but worth it. Growing your own food is also a great way to have full control. − 1 “GMO Facts,” The Non-GMO Project RSS, 2015. 2 Hannah Winston, “Wellington Residents March Against Genetically Modified Organisms,” McClatchy Tribune Business News, May 16, 2015.  3 Ramon Seidler, “Pesticide Use On Genetically Engineered Crops,” The Economic and Environmental Impacts of Agbiotech, 2014.  4 “What Is Non-GMO? What Are Genetically Modified Foods?” The Organic & Non-GMO Report, 2014. 5 “Pesticides Harmful Effects on Human Health,” Guardian Liberty Voice. June 27, 2014.  6 “Invisible Monsters: 5 of The Most Common Pesticides & Their Impact on Your Health,” Organic Authority, October 19, 2011.




ello, Stranger, welcome to 2015, where the latest obsession of college students has frat guys worldwide rejoicing: the Dad Bod. What was once reserved for dads who gained a little cushion around the middle after the kids came along is now embraced by men in their 20s. It is described as “a nice balance between a beer gut and working out” that says “I go to the gym occasionally, but I also drink heavily on the weekends and enjoy eating eight slices of pizza at a time”.2 You might be shaking your head in disbelief, but the Dad Bod has a number of Tumblr aesthetic blogs dedicated to said cuddly torso and gentle pouch—no lie.1 You may be asking yourself at this point, “What the fuck? Why this? Why now?” Well, congratulations, because you are asking the same exact questions we are. But we are going to let you in on a little secret, and it’s the answer to your questions: college trends never make any sense, ever. We get drunk on Thursday nights to write a five-page paper the next morning, we will literally eat anything at 3am, and we use an app in which you determine whether you like someone or not by just looking at their face and swiping in a specific direction… so are you really going to try and make sense of this fad? Thanks to a declaration of love written by Clemson University student Mackenzie Pearson that went viral earlier this year, the Dad Bod has risen up the ranks to become the most sought-after male body type among women in their 20s. Take, for example, Seth Rogen, Jason Segel, and Leonardo DiCaprio— all hugely successful men with, you guessed it, Dad Bods. Take that, chiseled and very toned Channing Tatum, Nick Jonas, and Colton Haynes!



fig 01

fig 02

fig 03

fig 04

This dude is severely lacking in a hearty dose of pizza and beer. So much potential in that bare belly.

This is a hunk in the making who has made a partial commitment to the Dad Bod life with skipping the gym.

Almost there! Down a few more boxes of pizza and cases of beer before that belly is ready to roll.

AW YIS, this is THE Dad Bod, the ultimate chick magnet with its lovable handles of cuddling and squeezing.




We Have Some Mansplaining To Do

Okay, so let’s get down to brass tacks, shall we? We aren’t here to just tell you what’s cool, but we want to educate you so you can be a part of this revolutionary trend. Let us begin with explaining the science of this new and “hot” trend. According to a study published in the American Journal of Men’s Health, becoming a dad is linked to a four-pound increase, mostly gained in the stomach area. Having kids around changes the type of foods they are surrounded by, “mainly kid-friendly, high-calorie food and snacks, as well as their leftovers.”3

How Do You Get a Dad Bod?

You may now be wondering how you achieve the Dad Bod. Well, sit down, because we have some advice. Really, though, rule number one is to sit down… and pretty much don’t get up until you literally have to. What comes after sitting down for a ridiculous amount of time before getting up again? Pizza. Next, you must drink a ton of beer. Poor you, right? This must be tough. Finally, you must infrequently go to the gym for a very insignificant amount of time. Watch sports, watch others do sports things, maybe attempt a sports action… who knows… but just make sure you don’t try too hard or else college students will judge you for putting in too much effort. To recap: (1) Sit down a lot (2) Eat pizza (3) Drink lots of beer, and (4) Infrequent short visits to the gym followed by giving it up, throwing in the towel, and calling it quitting time, you dig?

Will You Be Popular?

Yes. Yes, you will. Should you listen to everything we are telling you? Yes. Yes, you should. Want to know why? It’s because we want to help you help yourself become popular. That’s right—popular: the thing you have been dreaming about since the day you were picked last for the dodgeball team. Why would you ever want to focus on the dietary needs and physical activity you know your body needs in order to maintain

a healthy state? What you need is to sit your ass down and re-watch all four seasons of Arrested Development while you sit shirtless on the couch with pizza sauce in your beard and beer in each hand. It’s fact—the Dad Bod is popular. It’s in, it’s hot, it’s trending. It’s safe to say that Dad Bod is the new black.

Why Do Romantic Partners Love This?

People drool over this hot new look because men appear to be less self-conscious. They look as though they can protect their partners and keep them safe, and also, they look more approachable, sensitive, and relatable. Does that sound like a bunch of bullshit? It totally does, doesn’t it? That might be because this is a college trend and it will never make sense, no matter what kind of science or social experiments are used to explain it.

The Dad Bod is Revolutionary!

The Dad Bod is easily characterized by the nicely squishy look. You can frequently spot the wild and untamed Dad Bod in a living room of one of his friend’s girlfriend’s apartments, chillin’ with his homies with a pack of beer and pizza. Normally with Doritos cheese‑fingers and 5 o’clock shadow, the Dad Bod will be most startled if you approach him with vegetables or water. Other places you may be able to spot the Dad Bod are at the gym to pick up some weights and maybe chicks (mostly weights), but with low success at both. After reading all of the above, it’s now safe to say that this new fad can be described in one sentence: It’s so ugly, it’s cute. −

1 “Beer Bellies Are In, Biceps Are Out: Introducing the ‘Dad Bod’,” MSN, August 5, 2015.  2 Mackenzie Pearson, “Why Girls Love The Dad Bod,” March 30, 2015.  3 Bill Phillips, “Stop the Dad Bod Nonsense,” Men's Health, July 23, 2015.



Millennials are out for blood, but it might be their own; they are pushing themselves to such dangerous levels without hesitation.


t’s estimated that around 30% of the entire college student body is taking Adderall non-medically or without a correct prescription for the drug. Of that 30%, about 90% of those students taking Adderall are taking it for academic performance enhancement.1 With such alarming numbers, the question is begging to be asked: why is almost a third of the college population abusing a prescription

drug for the purpose of studying? College is naturally a high-stress environment. With tales of students staying up for days at a time to study, write papers, and generally wreck their body to get through the school workload. It’s no secret that the increasing workload of today’s students has lead to a rampant and urgently concerning abuse of prescription

drugs throughout the collective student bodies. These “study drugs” typically consist of Adderall, Vyvanse, and Ritalin which are usually prescribed to help curb the effects of ADD and ADHD. These drugs have the effect of inducing states of hyper focus when taken by people not afflicted by the aforementioned ADD/ADHD, which make it perfect for long sessions of studying.

The current demands of entering the job force as a recent graduate are more taxing than they’ve ever been. The new norms of working 40–plus hours a week, sometimes unpaid, and in some of the most expensive cities in the country

EAKING POINT are daunting to say the least. Universities are changing and adapting their curriculum in order to adapt students to these demands and accommodate the needs of businesses.2 The extreme workloads and inhuman amounts of stress require drugs like Adderall to manage. Expectations of college students have only gone up over the years going unchecked for the most part. The amount of stress put on students today is almost unthinkable. The signs of it are obvious to see in most students.

Unless something changes soon, stress levels will continue to grow at exponential rates. Unfortunately though, it's an extremely complicated situation. For colleges to be successful, they need to stay competitive in the academic realm. For that to happen, schools need to appeal to the crushing demands of the current work force. Whether that change comes from the pleas of recent graduates, or universities rejecting current business values and standing up for the health of their students. − 1 Arianna Yanes, “Just Say Yes?” The Rise of ‘Study Drugs’ in College,” CNN. Cable News Network, April 18, 2014. 2 Mary Niederberger, “Pressure to Excel Can Cause Too Much Stress for Teens,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, March 2, 2012.

The effects of stress can range anywhere from physical tolls on the body to internalized emotional issues. The effects are divided into four different categories: cognitive, emotional, physical, and behavioral. The most common types of effects from stress tend to be physical and emotional—physical ones being plain to see in the form of fatigue, mood swings, and even something as extreme as a panic attack. Emotional effects run the gamut of moodiness and agitation all the way to extreme depression.


Read your own fortune There are four major lines commonly focused on in palmistry: the heart line, head line, life line, and fate line (not everyone has this).3



Focuses on physical health, well-being and major life-changing events.

Focuses on external forces out of one's control.

line runs close to thumb: often tired

deep line: indicates life is strongly controlled by fate

curvy line: has plenty of energy

line joins the life line: indicates a self-made individual who develops aspirations early on in life

1 THE HEADLINE Focuses on a person’s intellectualism, creativity, and personality traits. short line: prefers physical success over mental success curved or sloping line: indicates creativity separated from the life line: indicates adventurous enthusiasm for life

line is long and deep: indicates vitality line is short and shallow: is easily manipulated by others line is straight and runs close to the edge of the palm: cautious in relationships multiple life lines: extra vitality

Focuses on emotions and romantic affairs.

deep and long line: indicates clear and focused thought

line is located below index finger: content when it comes to love

straight line: thinks realistically

line is located below middle finger: selfish when it comes to love

broken line: indicates inconsistencies in thought donuts or crosses on line: indicates emotional crisis

line begins in the middle: falls in love too easily

broken line: indicates inconsistencies in thought


Donuts Crosses Wavy

line is straight and short: not interested in romance

4 3

line touches life line: heart is easily broken


Smaller crossing lines

line starts at the base of thumb and crosses the life line: indicates the support of family and friends 4 THE HEART LINE

wavy line: indicates a short attention span


line joins with the life line around the middle of finger: signifies a point in which one’s interests must be surrendered by another


line is long and curvy: freely expresses one's emotions line has smaller lines crossing through heart line: indicates emotional trauma line is wavy: has many relationships and lovers and an absence of serious relationships

div·i·na·tion noun the practice of seeking knowledge of the future or the unknown by supernatural means.

e all have ideas about what we consider to be magic. Magic, defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as the power of apparently influencing the course of events by using mysterious or supernatural forces, is a powerful word in and of itself. The word comes with hundreds of years of preconceived notions, dating back to times before the rise of science and the major world religions. For some, it carries along with it a mess of seriously bad juju, and for others, glimmers of wonder. But if you think that magic is just a bunch of hocus pocus, hoodoo-voodoo witchcraft, then we implore you to reconsider.


The art of Tarot is one that has been honored by many, serving as a staple in any divinatory toolbox. The traditional Tarot card deck consists of 78 cards between the major and minor arcana. The terms major and minor reflect the relative weights that each group holds on an interpretation. A major arcana card represents an energy that is deep, strong, decisive or long-term. When a major arcana card appears in a reading, you have tapped into a powerful energy in some area of your life. The minor arcana cards do not carry the same weight, but they are still important. They chart the ups and downs of daily life and register changes in feelings and thoughts. These dramas are gripping while they occur, but they pass with time as new concerns take their place.1 The questioner should be specific with their question. This is an absolute must because the meaning is derived from both the reader’s interpretation as well as that of the questioner. For sake of example, let us look at a common situation. The questioner is in a committed relationship yet they have come to realize that they have feelings for another acquaintance. They consult the Tarot as to whether they should pursue this relationship and a card is drawn. The Two of Cups is drawn and it reveals that there is attraction present.

However, the card being from the minor arcana suggests that this attraction is merely on the surface. This attraction may be stemming from common interests or sexual desires. Now let’s say that the same question is asked and the Lovers card is drawn instead. This card, being of the major arcana, holds more weight, implying that the attraction is deeper and at that time, it may be something the questioner should pursue. What was once highly regarded and represented by the major arcana can fade in importance over time and be represented as a card from the minor arcana, or vice versa. The importance of specific events or happenings can fluctuate in one’s eyes; such is life. “Trusting your intuition is key. The symbols vary in different mediums but they all have one central ideal: intuition,” states divinatory arts practitioner Evan Greyson. “…You feel a literal pull in a certain direction when using automatic writing and Ouija. That same concept is utilized in Tarot and palmistry.”2 Evan started his work with Tarot and continues to expand his practice now including palmistry and mediumship. Crystal gazing, or crystallism, is one method of divination that has been dramatically played up in various types of media. It is all too often that real-life clairvoyants are seen as hoaxes due to the tacky theatrical representations of such visionaries. The truth of the matter is that crystal gazing is a powerful technique used for inducing psychic visions. Gazers can become immersed in the inner landscapes of a natural quartz crystal, taking them to a deep state of trance, and opening their minds to said visions. Often, colors are seen emanating from the crystal ball upon asking a question. Green, blue, and violet are said to be excellent omens. Red, orange, and yellow are seen as negative. Black is unfavorable and care must be taken until it is no longer seen. A white brilliance is favorable for the gazer, meaning that their life is on the right track. There are hundreds of other forms of divination

and fortune telling, each unique to its region of origin. Tasseography is the act of reading tea leaves, remnants in the bottom of a cup. Symbols and their meanings have been handed down for many generations along with the practice. Dowsing is the use of divining rods to aid in the finding of water or minerals. Pallomancy is divination by way of a pendulum, pyromancy by way of fire. The list goes on and on. The practice of magic and divination can be very beneficial to one’s well-being, and upon investigation, may very well become enrooted in one’s life. Do not believe all of the slanderous hoopla that you hear today. As we all know, opinions are like belly buttons. Investigate yourself and see what the road less-traveled really has to offer. +




iscussions about climate control in corporate offices are heating up, but the temperature in the workplace remains cold for some. Unfortunately, it is very common for women to be unreasonably cold at work while men are generally quite comfortable. An antiquated practice, which ignores the differences between men and women in terms of body type and work attire, continues

to determine the air temperature in offices throughout America.1 While equality in the workplace has come a long way in areas such as male‑to‑female ratio and more equal pay, it is time to adjust the temperature in offices to accommodate both sexes. Many office buildings in the United States still set their thermostats based on standards dating back to the 1960s. This formula used the

metabolic rate of a 40-year‑old man who weighed 155 pounds. The average metabolic rate of women, however, is much lower than that of men. Women are generally smaller and have less muscle mass than men, which results in less heat production. Consequently, women generally tend to be less comfortable than men in cool conditions.1

The difference between men’s and women’s fashion in the workplace is also a contributing factor to this problem. Men generally wear long pants, long‑sleeved shirts and possibly a jacket. Women, on the other hand, tend to wear fewer layers and often dress in skirts and dresses, leaving them more exposed.

1 Scott Stump, “Office Air Conditioning is Too Cold, Women Think, and Science Says They’re Right,” August 4, 2015.  2 Joseph Stromberg, “Why Your Office is So Cold: It’s AC System is Designed Entirely for Men,” Vox, August 3, 2015.

MANY OFFICE BUILDINGS IN THE UNITED STATES STILL SET THEIR THERMOSTATS BASED ON STANDARDS DATING BACK TO THE 1960s In addition to being uncomfortable, there is evidence that being too cold negatively affects productivity. Studies show that employees who feel cold in the office make more mistakes and work slower. In one study, people who copied type in a room set at a temperature of 74 degrees typed twice as fast as those in a room set at 68 degrees.2 It is difficult to dispute that being too hot or too cold negatively affects productivity in the workplace. Why has this problem continued to exist for so many years? It likely has to do with the fact that men still dominate the higher levels of corporate America. However, women may also be faulted for not speaking out sooner and with more urgency. Nevertheless, the problem is real and must be addressed. It is time to alter the way temperature in the workplace is determined in order to ensure a reasonably comfortable work environment for both sexes. −



f all currently existing contemporary art philosophies, none confuses and frustrates its audiences quite like appropriated art. Through challenging ideas of ownership and the transient nature of art itself, appropriated art essentially takes “old” art and makes it “new” again. This generates a great deal of controversy, and Richard Prince, acclaimed appropriation artist, is no stranger to this response.

The recent controversy surrounding Prince was in regard to a body of work he produced titled “New Portraits.” He took images he found on his Instagram feed, slightly manipulated them, re-photographed them, and then displayed and sold them in a gallery for $90,000 a piece.¹ At face value, it can seem that Prince is robbing people blind while pulling the wool over the eyes of the art world. Before we pass judgment, let’s look at the overlooked nuances of this issue. What is admirable about Prince’s work is how it exists as an unmistakable middle finger to the fine art world. Gallery owners laugh at contemporary movements within art and especially within photography. It will take years before you see shows in museums like the Museum of Modern Art or Guggenheim that are on the forefront of contemporary art. Despite this, Prince has found a way to infiltrate their exclusivity. By adopting images that mean absolutely nothing to gallery owners and museum curators and attaching his name to it, he forces the heavyweights of the art world to pay attention to them. Prince is giving these images and their creators an agency that they would never have otherwise, jettisoning them into the stratosphere of the fine art world. Prince is giving these images a voice and a place in the annals of art history that would be nigh impossible to achieve otherwise. All of this is not to say that Prince is without fault. While he is fighting for progress in fine art and actively trying to disrupt the gallery-owner oligarchy that guides so much of the fine art world, he also is inherently exploitative in his actions. None of the money from his “New Portraits” show will go to any of the people whose Instagram accounts he sourced his images from. There is a conversation to be had about the way he treats the people whose work he takes, but that’s a different discussion in and of itself. While Prince isn’t the only notable artist to work with appropriated art, he is the most famous and draws the most criticism. To write off appropriated art wholesale, however, is a short-sighted, knee-jerk reaction. There is a lot of thought going into this art akin to the modern conceptual artists of Rene Magritte’s time, which also drew similar criticisms as Prince. With fine art, the temptation to dismiss it (what is it?) at face value is great, but it is important to pause for a moment and think about what the work means before we draw judgment. +






ave you ever taken something out of the freezer and it doesn’t look quite right? The once-pristine food item is now riddled with gross, discolored spots. Freezer burn is something that most people experience, but many don’t understand how it occurs. It is caused by water vapor escaping from the frozen item’s surface and becoming absorbed through the packaging. Freezer burn makes the frozen item dried out, tough, and odd-tasting. Raw food items are less likely to experience this effect than fully cooked foods.1 Thankfully, most of the time, it is not dangerous to consume freezer-burnt foods. As long as you can get through bad taste and poor quality, or cut off the bad parts, all is well. Steps can be made to ensure proper freezing: keeping temperature at or below zero degrees, packaging items tightly, letting items cool first, and using the items in a timely

manner.2 Expensive products such as vacuum-sealing devices can lessen the likelihood of this occurring. Unfortunately, these devices can cost to up to $200. A cheaper way to go about it is to seal your items in doubled-up freezer bags. Freezer myths have been around for many years. Many people find themselves asking, “Can I freeze this?” and “Will it be the same after?” Some foods are the same after you freeze them, like baked goods. Many bakeries freeze your pre-ordered cake until the day you pick it up. Lettuce will be broken down as it freezes. Fruit on the other hand, gets squishy as it thaws. The fruit is still perfect for smoothies and jams, though. Leafy greens like spinach and kale need to be blanched before freezing. This means that it needs to be quickly boiled, then transferred to ice water and drained to remove excess fluid. Make sure

your frozen goods are labeled with the date if you are especially worried about quality. Freezing food does not give it an infinite lifespan.2 Thankfully, if the temperature is maintained at zero degrees, it is indefinitely safe to eat.1 With raw meat, the quality can be maintained for up to a year of storage. For cooked meats the quality can be maintained for up to three months of storage. Most fruits and vegetables keep their quality for about nine months to a year.1 It takes a lot to remember every rule and regulation for storing food properly, but with a few simple tips and tricks, the world of frozen food can be an accessible tool in your daily routine. +





the threat of a woman’s favorite shoe


1 Admin, “Top 3 Harmful Effects of Wearing High Heels,” Joint Essential, November 29, 2013  2 Admin “The Real Harm in High Heels,” American Osteopathic Association, September 18, 2014. 37



ost of the time when we hear the word “disconnection,” we think of our computers losing WiFi connection or a phone call with a friend being dropped. We get frustrated when the conduit that is supposed to segue from point A to B and vice versa is compromised and, as a result, our activities are jeopardized, even if only for a few moments. But when was the last time we thought about a potential rift being much closer to home—the disconnect of the self?

We have all experienced it at some point: the feeling that we are acting as a slightly altered version of our real selves for the sake of appearing “better” than how we actually feel at the time. It can happen anywhere: whilst meeting new people, having a one-on‑one conversation, or even talking amongst a familiar group, be it peers or professionals. Of course, everyone is different when they are by themselves, and we possess the right to have that personal time with our own thoughts. There is no call to react to what someone else has said or the need to contribute our opinion to a conversation. It is a refreshing break. Many times, however, who we are on the outside, or what we portray to the world, isn’t always who we are on the inside. Because of this obvious contradiction, it begs the question: Is this a bad thing? Like most answers dealing with questions of the self, we might say “it depends.” But on what? Instead of allowing that vague phrase to pass as a satisfying response, we should explore our options of what, how, and why. Growing up, we are always taught to “stay true to ourselves.” However, even the calmest, most positive person in the world has their off-days, those woke-up-on-the-wrong-side‑of‑the‑bed days, those days where everything is just annoying. We are also taught that “that’s life; bad things have to happen; it’s all a part of being human.” With that being said—with the recognition of the duality and unpredictability

of our lives—we accept the inevitable truth that we just aren’t going to feel “A-OK” (like the badass we know we are) every day. These concepts serve to illuminate what we know about ourselves and potential inner conflicts, therefore providing a good platform to explore possible solutions. What are our choices when deciding what is the most appropriate way to present ourselves when we aren’t feeling our best? There is a thin line between being fake (an undesirable option with a highly negative connotation that is unhealthy to our self-image) and being adaptable (an intelligent option and highly valuable skill that encourages strength and peace of mind). Being fake completely throws our identity out the window in order to act in a way that is untrue to who we really are. If we feel insecure, energy is better spent working on those issues than to project a warped character to our environment.1 For example, one can do this through self-reflection by writing or having an evaluative conversation with a close friend. Not only is being fake dishonest and selfish, but it is also stifling our inner voice—a voice that was made to expand and breathe in fresh life every day. Choosing to be adaptable in whatever situation life throws at you is truly one of the most mature decisions you can make as an adult—a choice to welcome gladly with open arms. Making the best of the situation in front of us while still staying genuine to who we are is a sign of humility and elevated self-awareness. It takes courage to identify and accept our authentic selves. There is a beautiful release in letting go of the desire for things to always go our way. Maintaining the balance between the wonderful iconic phrases “keeping it real” and “going with the flow” is key to a wonderfully honest, fulfilling life. Let’s celebrate who we are in this moment—we deserve it. +







en think about sex a lot. There’s really no way around it, but it becomes a problem when these thoughts are projected in a hurtful or demeaning way. Street harassment of women, or catcalling, is a common form of this. Some men think they can get away with this because it happens in a public space or because all men think that way. That is not true, and there is no justification for it. In the year 2015, catcalling is seen as vulgar, unwanted attention by the vast majority of women. Shouting suggestive phrases to females in public spaces has been a part of society for a long time. It comes in the forms of prolonged looks, verbal phrases, whistling, or even following, sexual touching, masturbation, and assault. It is a sexually driven act that objectifies women and nothing else. No matter what a woman is wearing, it will happen, and it is a myth that women bring it upon themselves. Multiple online surveys conducted in the U.S. by Stop Street Harassment revealed that 95–100% of female participants reported being sexually harassed on the streets. Another study showed that 85% of women experienced being harassed before age 17, which shows the potential for it to cause psychological harm to young girls.1

There is a difference between the primitive practice of catcalling and genuine compliments or flirting. One is about power, the other is about attraction. Men catcall because they want to feel dominant over females, much like a domestic abuser does. Consider the fact that if a man calls out to a total stranger, there cannot be any reason behind it other than a physical attraction. Men do it in the hopes that, somehow, it will lead to sex with

the woman on the receiving end.2 They are degrading women by reducing them to objects. It is also dangerous because an especially deranged man will use force or threats to get his way. Catcalling can be disguised as a flattering compliment or a simple greeting, which may seem harmless, but there can easily be another motive. When women are placed in a position that makes them feel objectified or targeted, feelings of anger, anxiety, fear, and shame flood in.3 These are not comfortable emotions to have running through you in public. The persistence of harassment can take a toll on someone’s life. Continuous victims feel forced to avoid public transportation, walk different routes to work, or change their choice of clothing. Harassment can also disrupt attention at work or cause a woman to not attend a social event. Some women may even be forced to move because of a threatening neighbor. When women are touched or groped by a stranger, it has extreme effects on self-esteem; they feel cheapened or dirty, almost like a victim of rape would.4




A man is either the type of person who will participate in catcalling or not; there is no middle ground. Men who do it do not realize the strain and discomfort they are placing on women that receive it. Every time it happens, a girl will build her self-image around it. There are well-established groups that actively try to end street harassment, like Stop Street Harassment and Hollaback! Both women and men who are fed up with harassment need to know that they’re not alone and help is always out there. − 1 “National Street Harassment Report,” Stop Street Harassment. 2 Michael Hollan, “A Man Reveals the Harsh Truth: What Catcalling Really Means,” Your Tango.  3 Tara Culp-Ressler, “This is What Women are Forced to Do to Avoid Street Harassment,” Think Progress, last modified April 16, 2015.  4 Laura Bates, “Women Should Not Accept Street Harassment as ‘Just a Compliment,’” The Guardian, last modified February 28, 2014.


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Each year 2.5 million people will die in America. Roughly 1.7 million of these deaths are by way of disease— mostly cancer, respiratory disease, and heart disease.2 Although these problems are highly preventable with the right lifestyle, most people seemingly do not take action until it is too late. There is no real cure for these diseases, and the medicines to treat them are not perfect. Our mortality is the only thing guaranteed in short lives. We cannot generally choose how we go, and that is a fact we have held to be true since the dawn of man. This tribulation, however, might soon be a problem of the past.

Cryogenics isn’t a new idea. It has been the lure of science fiction for decades, and hasn’t been much more than the plot of the cartoon Futurama; that is until recently. Cryogenics have been a new focus of scientists across the globe in recent times, and may be humanity’s new saving grace. Using techniques that cause vitrification (the process of water being super-cooled with no ice formation) with the help of chemicals called cryoprotectants, it is theoretically possible for life to be frozen for an indefinite amount of time and restored to fully functional at a later date. Though not in existence yet, the emergence of nanobots that could help repair cell structure after freezing are possibly not too far down the road. Someday you and I might be able to hop into a freezer, and wake up one hundred years later. Through this technology, humanity might have millions of people that choose to freeze themselves, but this all seems so far off, right? Perhaps not; scientists have been doing this for years to various subjects. For decades, fertility specialists have been freezing embryos for implantation at a later date, the longest having been successfully brought full term after a 17-year stint in a freezer. We have even found viable DNA in frozen carcasses of animals that have long been extinct. How does this transition to full human trials, you ask? Most of us have all heard the rumor that Walt Disney has his head preserved in a vault, but most call this nonsense. There are actually multiple locations in the USA that offer whole body or brain cryogenic freezing. One company, ALCOR, offers neuro freezing for $70,000, and whole body for $200,000.3 These fees include everything from the user’s spot to the standby time required. One young woman made headlines recently after having a successful fundraising campaign. Kim Suozzi was battling brain cancer and lost her life recently at age 23. Her last few months were spent campaigning for funds to grant herself her dying wish: to be cryogenically frozen. After passing, her body was taken in by a cryogenics company for long-term storage. Perhaps in a few decades she will be reanimated and cured of her cancer.

At the moment, these companies do not offer services to freeze those who are still alive, but this could soon change as the technology surrounding them evolves. It is more than possible that those in the millennial generation will not die from disease, as they will have the option to freeze themselves and wait it out until a cure has developed. Only time will tell how this will play out, and if legislature surrounding the act will be developed further. Humanity might have only our personal deaths to think ahead to, but every species on earth, to ever exist, have a much more grim outlook. Extinction is the death of every member of a single species. It is the ultimate death of anything and anyone. Until recently, the idea of reviving an extinct species were be the dreams of a sci-fi primetime special.

Yet here we are today, with scientists, engineers, and biologists all teaming up to preserve every species that might soon cease to exist. With the help of cryogenics, science might soon be able to freeze individual members of species until a time we have the technology to be able to properly repopulate the species. The last few decades we have already been cryogenically storing and cataloging the sperm, eggs, and DNA of thousands of animals.

We also have to look at arguably the most important lives on Earth. Plants are the main life source for all higher forms of beings on earth. They alone are given credit for everything from our most basic food source to the makeup of the atmosphere, and the way Earth's weather is affected. Without plant life, Earth would be as barren as its solar brethren. To combat any possible future problems with plant life, scientists at Norway's Svalbard Global Seed Vault have been cataloging as well. In a well-guarded facility botanists and geneticists have been collecting the DNA of all known plant species on Earth. The DNA is cryogenically frozen and kept in a self-sufficient vault that, in case of an apocalypse, could help to bring life back to our planet and save life on Earth. Cryogenics might not be fully functional as of yet, but evidence suggests that our future, as a species and as a planetary ecosystem, might have a brighter future than we once thought. From treating human conditions to helping preserve near extinct species, cryogenics surely will change the way we look at mortality. +





Burlesque troupes seek to challenge the stigma of sexual objectification



urlesque shows began as extravagant parodies of serious works interjected with mockery and absurdity. Shows were highbrow satire which required an understanding of contemporary literature, opera, and politics, mixed with risqué allure. Whereas pre-Victorian plays and operas typically used all-male casts, the gender reversal, empowerment of women’s sexuality, and mockery of masculinity thrust a bold image of artistic female performance in society.¹ Viewers were allowed an opportunity to experience shows without any moral reprehension at a time when participation of women in theatre had been viewed as questionable and even compared to prostitution.

focus of the art form, along with Prohibition's shuttering of many cabarets, led to the culture’s decline and eventual disappearance.

Was this recent? RS: I started Sirens and Stilettos 3 1/2 years ago. I researched for other groups and found none so I started my own.

Recently, newer generations have sought to revive burlesque to its original intention. Across the United States and Europe, there exist a plethora of individuals who seek to bring their own contemporary interpretations to the classic art form. As opposed to professional strippers, neo-burlesque troupes seek to challenge the stigma of sexual objectification, focusing on the original ideas of extravagance and parody rather than sexual gratification. Performances are empowering displays of personal triumph over outdated social standards.

How is the public reacting to what you do? RS: I think we are getting a pretty good reception from the public! We get a lot of couples and big groups of ladies coming to shows, too!

Not only has burlesque given the upper hand to women performers to publicly “shame” the elitist class, it has also developed an appreciation for women feeling comfortable in their own skin. With a growth in today’s feminist and gender-equality movements, body identity and representation are constantly growing more progressive.²

Neo-burlesque troupes are free to explore the medium how they want. Some troupes perform vaudeville‑inspired acts while others parody contemporary characters. There are no standards for what performers do, so they tend to experiment.

American burlesque originally grew alongside vaudeville and minstrel shows, developing a lower-brow approach to performances. The erotic appeal grew substantially, supplanting the initial focus of caricaturing high society. Gradually, stripping became the main focus of performances, eliminating much of the sophistication and parody altogether. The ribald

In Rochester, there are roughly fifteen women who perform, and without a preceding generation or local traditions to borrow from, they’ve established their own unique scene.³ We talked to Ruby Sparkles, Founder and Headmistress of “Sirens and Stilettos Cabaret.”

What is Rochester’s burlesque scene like? RS: Rochester's burlesque scene is making a wonderful comeback! Do you try to be more traditional or cutting-edge? RS: Personally [I’m] a classic‑style performer. But some of my ladies are very neo aka cutting-edge performers. We also [love] to have guest performances by all kinds of talented people. The revival of burlesque in America is an homage to extravagant satire of years past. It’s an empowering art form and social commentary, letting performers express themselves through their body and character. +


What sparked your interest in burlesque performance? RS: My best friend convinced me to try burlesque. She started when she was 18.




t a time when criminals were identified primarily from eyewitness reports, one man stood out by using scientific methods to crack a case. Known for his magnifying glass and tobacco pipe, Sherlock Holmes used investigation strategies that influenced forensics that are still in use 200 years later. Though Holmes was a fictional character created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, he was based on Dr. Joseph Bell, a forensic scientist at Edinburgh University that Conan Doyle worked under.1 It was Holmes’s fame—not only as a storybook character, but also as a scientist—that inspired the development of criminal investigation techniques.2 Manically thorough, Holmes investigated samples of soil, fiber, and hair found on the scene for evidence. He even found ways to detect a presence of poison, which was used specifically as an undetectable means for murder in the late 1800s.2 Known today as biometrics, criminals were identified solely based on physical features—for example, hair color, facial hair, face shape, et cetera.3 For obvious reasons, this isn’t an effective way to judge whether or not a person committed a crime. In 1886’s A Study in Scarlet, Holmes created a better process when solving mysteries.1 He was using bloodstains and fingerprints to catch offenders,2 something that wasn’t used in criminal investigations until nearly ten years later.3

started using ballistics and applying bullet trajectories to discern where a gun was shot and where the bullet went, the police force was no match for that. Holmes was also fixated on gait analysis, otherwise known as the study of how a person walks. In short, this means he observed footprints on crime scenes to see how quickly a person was moving on foot, such as if they were in a hurry or not and what direction they were headed. His observation skills and applications of physics weren’t applied to real forensics until the 1930s.2 Holmes’s fame put Conan Doyle in the spotlight. In fact, according to the PBS documentary How Sherlock Changed the World, Conan Doyle received many letters requesting help with crimes after people read the Sherlock Holmes mysteries. Conan Doyle’s readers became captivated by the brilliancy he brought to life in his stories, and wanted nothing more than to learn from the mind of such a critically acclaimed author who seemed to have all of the answers to mysteries. The steps Holmes took to crack cases in the late 1800s are now a common practice, and are used hand in hand with modern technology. Though we’ve caught up with his methods and practice, we still enjoy his character and influence today. +


The police force at the time was heavily involved in politics, therefore there were little to no requirements for becoming an officer and many were inept as leaders.4 Instead, officers were shockingly picked based on bribes or negotiations, which showed a huge flaw in their system. When Holmes




hat’s one of the main reasons traffic slows down around a car accident? Of course, “slower is safer” in those trauma areas, but we all know what everyone in their cars is doing: craning their neck (famously known as “rubbernecking”), scanning the scene fervently to soak up as much of the crash as possible, and hoping (secretly) that they might catch a glimpse of something worse, like more damage to a car, or even a body. When we do this (don’t be in denial; we all

have), we also experience a feeling of fixation, like we can’t look away. Then once we drive off, the trance is broken, and we snap back into our normal day without much of a second thought about the state we were just in. Yet, the human fascination with disturbing phenomena, or “the dark side,” can be extremely powerful and enlightening, and is certainly worth exploring. To disturb is to “unsettle or interrupt 1 the quiet, peace, and order of.”

This definition can certainly re encompass the overblown gore gen , guts and d bloo e ssiv (picture exce morbid creatures, etc.), But even re more terrifying than gimmick y sca s nes dark ted twis the ng tactics is faci we as h muc As s. elve within ours e would like to believe that we all striv ially “soc d: (rea py hap for bright and re acceptable”) lives, our human natu . nge stra the and os cha is drawn to A wonderful example of the success of this mindset is director Tim Burton. He is responsible for The Nightmare Before Christmas, Edward Scissorhands, Sleepy Hollow, and countless other films that never fail to push the envelope of the extraordinary and bizarre. Every one of his main characters is in some way, shape, or form an outsider—sometimes referred to as a monster—that does not fit into their societal norms. Feeling out of place is something we have all experienced at some point, and because it was usually uncomfortable with negative consequences (such as getting made fun of or feeling alone), we tend to avoid standing out and discovering the more peculiar things that exist within us.

This evasion of these tendencies is actually a denial of the full self, due to fear of being rejected by society. In the work of Carl Jung, we all have a darker, more mischievous, rule-breaking side that we suffocate, referred to as the Shadow.2

This part of us should be dug out of our unconscious and accepted in order to be truly whole. Since this rarely happens (though the shadow is still present) people deal with their “demons” in other ways.

Common methods include projecting onto their environment with distractions (seeing bad in others but never taking an honest look in the mirror), or indulging 3 in unsettling books and movies. Surrounding ourselves with these representations of the madness within allows us to experience something “crazy” that is inside us—which we may or may not accept—without the repercussions of actually doing those things. This creates the allure of perverseness. One doesn’t necessarily need to love horror movies or adopt the Gothic aesthetic to be considered “disturbed” because the fact of the matter is, we all are, whether we want to “believe it or not” (a nod to Ripley’s famous museum of worldwide oddities).

Those who say bizarre things make them “uncomfortable” are in even more denial about their own potential to be that strange, or perhaps, that malevolent (ever question the major success of murder shows?). Fear of fear is merely fear of the unknown inside of us. The sooner we accept that we possess this facet of our spirit, the sooner we can feel more in tune with ourselves. This revelation can lead to learning incredible life lessons and sometimes, like Mr. Burton, exposing creative genius. It’s definitely more terrifying being “normal.” Don’t be afraid to get twisted. +



n recent years, everybody has been pushing for electric vehicles: legislators, celebrities, and, most importantly, consumers that spend their hard-earned money. Purely electric cars are simply better friends to the environment than those nasty, carbon-spewing gas combustion engines, right? Of course they are. However, depending on where people are driving these voltage‑munching buggies, the case will most likely change. No road-going vehicle can pull itself along on air (at least not yet). Some fuel source is needed to have the everyday luxury of personal travel. The variable in question is the cleanliness of that fuel. Here, the comparison is between gasoline and electricity. So where does our electricity come from?

THE UNSEEN EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CARS by TYLER MOWBRAY art piece by KALLIE MICHELLE FERRIS According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, in 2014, the top producer of power was burning coal, which generated 39% of the United States’ electricity. Both the mining and the burning of this fossil fuel are terrible for the environment and more harmful than the exhaust of a car. Similarly, 27% was generated by burning natural gas. Obtaining natural gas isn’t so great for the environment, either (ever heard of hydraulic fracturing?). The next largest source is nuclear power, which generated 19% of all electricity. Hydroelectric sources contributed less than 10%, and other renewable sources, such as wind and solar, gave less than 5%.1 The top two sources of America’s electricity are hazardous to the air, soil, and water.

the area in which they’re driven. That’s great if the area happens to be a highly populated city like Los Angeles. But if you live in an area other than the West Coast, it is likely that your electricity comes from a coal-fired power plant. Driving an electric car and

Gasoline isn’t a saint by any means. Vehicles that run on gas still produce plenty of pollutants that build up in the air, and the refinement of oil to make gasoline isn’t a pretty process. Electric cars eliminate this carbon emission in

Many studies have been conducted to calculate the amount of carbon produced by a coal plant in order to power an electric car for one mile of travel compared to the amount of carbon produced by a combustion engine as it travels one mile. The


OF THE UNITED STATES’ ELECTRICITY COMES FROM BURNING FOSSIL FUELS charging it nightly means that a power plant is burning away, even if you can’t see it.

problem is that there are too many variables in each region to draw a valid conclusion. The efficiencies of the gas car, the electric car, and the coal plant could always be different. The results of these tests are always similar, though. The coal power plant’s impact is always worse or barely better than the gas engine. If everyone in the country switched to an all-electric car right now, the environmental threat would be greater. This is because of one thing: the majority of the generation of electricity in the United States is not clean. By themselves, electric cars are a marvel of engineering. Until electricity comes from cleaner sources, running a vast amount of electric vehicles will produce dangerous amounts of pollution. − 1 “What is U.S. Electricity Generation by Energy Source?” U.S. Energy Information Administration, March 31, 2015.



The majority of Americans today would be hard pressed to accurately locate a major country on the world map or comment on today’s world news, let alone identify a culture. Abroad, brutally comical stereotypes paint Americans as ignorant, obnoxious, and culturally insensitive. The United States is a diverse country, filled with people from nations that span the globe. So why do we have this reputation? The United States prides itself on being a melting pot, a nation built on immigrants who hail from all corners of the globe. Nowadays, it would appear to be more accurate to use the term “salad bowl” to describe like-minded ethnic groups who tend to cluster around their own instead of assimilating into “American” culture. The 2011 Census states that 381 languages were spoken in the U.S. Yet, the nation remains a largely English‑speaking country, with 15-20 percent of Americans considering themselves bilingual, and just 5-8 percent speaking a language other than American English. Another reason why many Americans are monolingual can be attributed to the geolocation of the U.S. It is a giant country separated from most of the world by two large oceans, serving as effective geographic buffers from influences of foreign nations. This issue is demonstrated by a weak foreign language education system and the fact that English is the global language for commerce and science. Hindered by barriers such as the need to maintain language proficiency and the low priority of bilingualism, enrollment in language classes has been consistently low.2 Each year, cuts have been made to language education funding, citing low enrollment and interest, which, in turn, churns out low proficiency levels and few non-western language offerings.2 However, due to the U.S.’s position in the global playing field, learning another language other than English doesn’t seem necessary. It is no secret that the U.S. is the leading world power with its robust economy and technological prowess. Throughout history, it has branded itself as a force

of global good, reinforcing the idea that the U.S.’s “political system, values, and history are unique and worthy of universal admiration,” a phenomenon otherwise known as American Exceptionalism.3 The new trend of “voluntourism,” an international volunteer program allowing people to help developing countries, benefits from the “American hero” narrative. However, according to former voluntourist Lauren Kascak,“Voluntourism is ultimately the fulfillment of the volunteers themselves, [it’s] more about retrospectively appearing to have had a positive impact overseas.” Some volunteers tend to showcase their experiences on social media in order to confirm their “selflessness” with the world. Unfortunately this has created somewhat of a fake value system based on the amount of likes and views some of these volunteers get, rather than creating meaningful cultural connections, engaging with the local community, and valuing their experience. Due to the perpetual cycle of cultural unawareness that breeds cultural insensitivity, the U.S. has been isolated from other countries. Now it is more important that we, as the new generation of Americans, are interested in different cultures. Identifying and abandoning the ideas of American Exceptionalism will allow us to be humble, open, and respectful, and actively engage with cultural communities. It enriches our lives and ultimately our relationship with the rest of the world. Disclaimer: What we’ve discussed and the solutions we’ve provided within this article are only a small snippet of a much larger conversation of the state of cultural isolation in the United States. − 1 Sayantani Dasgupta and Lauren Kascak, “#InstagrammingAfrica: The Narcissism of Global Voluntourism,” Pacific Standard, June 19, 2014.  2 Amelia Friedman, “America’s Lacking Language Skills,” The Atlantic, May 10, 2015.  3 Stephan M. Walt, “The Myth of American Exceptionalism,” Foreign Policy, October 11, 2011.  4 “Language Use in the United States: 2011,” U.S. Census Bureau, September 16, 2015.

An insight on the higher prices women pay by EMILY BAKER and ANNIE WONG photographed by EMILY BAKER

If you’re a person who enjoys a moderate amount of grooming and personal hygiene, look carefully at your receipts. You might be paying more, especially if you’re a woman. There is a premium that women pay for products or services that are nearly identical to those offered to men called the Pink Tax. According to a 1995 California study, women pay about $1,400 more per year. That amount could add up to roughly $100,000 over a lifetime. Let’s take a look at which products and services are taxed in pink.

manufacturing, ingredients, and prices raised by stores in exchange for eye-level spots on the shelf. Crosschecking price-tag differences is difficult in stores, as aisles are typically separated based on gender. According to international trade lawyer Michael Cone, the root of the Pink Tax lies in a 19th century tariff placed on products entering the United States. Women’s products were historically taxed more than men’s products and that cost has been then passed on to the consumer ever since.

Self-care and personal hygiene products like razors, shampoos, deodorant, and shaving cream are the categories in which gender pricing is the most visible. They can be up to 50% more expensive for women than for men. If they’re from the same brand, they’ll most likely contain the same active ingredients. The only difference is the fragrance. Take, for example, a twin pack of deodorant offered by Degree: the men’s version is offered at $3.99 whereas the women’s version is $7.39.1

Today, there are steps being taken to level the gender consumer playing field with health being the major improvement. Under the Affordable Care Act, health insurance companies can no longer charge women more for the same exact coverage that men got—and that didn’t include maternity coverage! However, women

Clothing is another area in which women find themselves paying more. In 2014, Old Navy was found charging extra for plus‑sized versions of women’s clothes (as much as double the price as the exact shirt in smaller sizes) while their Big Men’s sized versions were the same price as regular men’s sizes. A trip to the dry cleaner can also run up high costs if you’re a woman; men’s shirts cost an average of $2.86 to be cleaned and women’s cost $4.95.3 Gender pricing is wrong, so why does it still exist? Companies and stores generally charge more because they can. As of 2015, gender pricing is outlawed in California, New York City, and Florida’s Miami-Dade County. However it’s perfectly legal everywhere else. Retailers insist that price gaps in products reflect the costs in packaging,

can expect to pay 13% more for long-term healthcare insurance.3 To relieve some of the Pink Tax burden, look for product or service alternatives such as shopping in the men’s (or boy’s) section or buying men’s products. Just because they’re intended for a male audience doesn’t mean they’re off limits for women. It’s 2015, after all. − 1 “Pink Tax: Why are Women’s Products More Expensive?”, KGW, May 5, 2015.  2 “The Pink Tax,” Listen Money Matters, October 24, 2015. 3 “The Secret Tax Screwing Women Out of Thousands of Dollars Over a Lifetime,” Mic, April 22, 2015.


by LEAH HALL photographed by ALYSSA BRDLIK

A look inside a trend that has started to overload our newsfeeds.

You are at a restaurant with your friends getting some dinner. You start to wonder what you’re in the mood for as you page through the menu. Usually, you would get some type of chicken salad, but you start seeing entrées like “Coquilles Saint-Jacques” and “Blanquette de Veau.” Sounds fancy. You have no idea what it entails, but assuming they are pretty French dishes you decide to order one. The meal comes out, and the waiter places it down. You can’t tell which parts are edible, but hell— it’ll make a great photo.

on their chairs to shoot their plates from above.”1 With stories like these, it’s hard to fault the businesses for banning the trend.

When you go out to a restaurant you are going for the food, ambience, and great company. Now when you walk into a restaurant, you see iPhones laid out as part of the table setting: fork, knife, spoon, camera phone. The phone becomes the fifth member to a party of four and the practice goes unquestioned. People take pictures of things that are most important to them, and the societal norm has gone from Instagram feeds of family and friends to plates of lavish food to share with the masses. Instagramming food has become such a craze that some restaurants are going so far as to ban patrons from taking pictures of their food. In “Restaurants Turn Camera Shy,” Chef David Bouley explained, “There are those who use a flash and annoy everyone around them. There are those who come equipped with small tripods to use on their tables. There are even those who stand

Not only are these people a spectacle that can take away from the dining experience, but also they take away from their own experience when their meal is cold one hundred pictures later. They are left with a meal they may have never wanted to begin with as they detract from the beauty of the food in front of them with bad photography. “Restaurants Turn Camera Shy,” mentions Valery Rizzo, a teacher of a class in iPhone food photography, who admits she thinks the Insta‑trend has crossed a line.2 She started teaching a course in response to seeing lack‑luster food images. The fact that a course had to be invented to meet the demand and alleviate some of the controversy says a lot about the societal norms that most of us have allowed to enter into our dining experience. One must ask why has this trend become so popular? Is it really only for that self‑gratifying feeling you get when someone ‘likes’ a photo of yours? At the end of the day, if you are one of the many who Instagrams their food, it’s normal. We are now living in a society in which people feel the need to share every aspect of their day. The trend refuses to be stopped and will continue to enter our restaurants and our newsfeeds. #truth. − 1 Helene Stapinski, “Restaurants Turn Camera Shy,” The New York Times, January 22, 2013. 2 Mister Jalopy, “Effulgence of the North: Storefront Arctic Panorama in Los Angeles,” Dinosaurs and Robots, January 30, 2009.




Everybody thinks they know all about Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). It’s an interesting trope to portray in movies and TV shows, and supposedly a rock-solid basis for an insanity defense. Like anything else, Hollywood gets it only partially correct, and it almost never succeeds in court.

The influence of the media certainly plays a role in affecting people’s perceptions of things—guns don’t sound like that, glass doesn’t break like that, and mentioning that you’re a fan of CSI can get you thrown out of jury duty— but the media’s insensitivity in portraying DID is only a symptom of a larger issue: nobody truly “gets” it, because it’s still nascent, controversial, misunderstood, and under‑researched. Throughout history, people have witnessed the phenomenon of split personalities, initially associating such occurrences with paranormal activity or the occult. As psychiatric research progressed in the 19th and 20th centuries, “multiple personality” diagnoses ebbed and flowed with the constantly changing critical and scientific interpretations of the disorder. Diagnoses of DID, then known as hysterical neurosis, dwindled with new insight into schizophrenia, but conversely exploded in popularity following rising scientific interest in the late 1980s.1 DID remained a controversial subject throughout due to reports of research subjects faking their symptoms and


therapists accidentally encouraging symptom expression in their patients. Skepticism of DID persists to this day, with some researchers even doubting the legitimacy of the disorder’s existence.2 A lack of a clear, empirical definition of “dissociation” certainly doesn’t help. Despite the wealth of critical dissent, people loved toying with the idea of multiple personalities living in the same mind. Stories such as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde inspired countless authors to re‑imagine the disorder and build complex characters ranging from narrative-drivers to comic relief. Fight Club’s narrator suffered from dissociative personalities, wildly projecting the idea of another character who lived a whole life separate from his own, while the Good Cop/Bad Cop from The Lego Movie provided humor. Neither portrayed the disorder particularly well, but they followed how the public had perceived it. DID is generally accepted to be the result of a traumatizing incident. An individual might experience abuse, loss, or witness something that forces them to temporarily undergo a lapse of awareness and control. This lapse would eventually re-emerge as a new, discrete personality that behaves and functions in a unique manner. In order to receive an official diagnosis, you would have to satisfy any of the following criteria: You have two or more personalities marked by a discontinuity in your sense of agency and perception of reality. This could feel like an out-of-body experience; you’re

watching yourself think and act without asserting any control. You might even hear voices or feel emotions that don’t belong to you or would antagonize you. You might feel as if you’ve shifted into another body, and you’ll probably have a seizure when that happens. You’ll find gaps in your memory. You might forget important events in your past. You might forget skills you thought you had permanently learned, or you might experience a gap in your current awareness. It wouldn’t be surprising to all of a sudden find yourself in an unfamiliar neighborhood; people in a dissociative fugue tend to wander. You might feel “possessed” by a ghost, a deity, or demon. While this is common in some cultures and religions, you’ll feel distressed and you won’t associate your feelings of possession with established religious practices. This feeling is entirely unique to you, and not influenced by any other social cues, disorders, or drug experiences.3 With these in mind, it’s not surprising to find that people and the media blur the reality of what DID is. The entire criterion of temporary lapses in your remote and permanent memories was only officially included in 2013, along with feelings of “possession” and the ability to observe transitions in others. Being such general criteria, there’s a huge potential for differential diagnosis—disorders which share certain traits.


Maybe you have DID, but you're more likely to have or be diagnosed with:3 Major Depressive Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder shares similar criteria to DID when an individual is having a depressive episode. However, Major Depressive Disorder has consistent depressive states, whereas DID can manifest depression in wildly different ways, depending on the current identity.

Bipolar Disorder Bipolar II Disorder typically takes a longer span of time to fluctuate between

happiness and sadness. There is a sense of time that causes the shift in one’s emotional well-being. With DID, this fluctuation may occur within minutes or days in a shift. Once in this shift of identity or mood, it may last minutes or days based on how long the individual’s identity is active.

PTSD Individuals who suffer from DID may also suffer from a form of PTSD. Individuals with PTSD only have amnesia, flashbacks, and disruptive intrusions commonly based on a traumatic occurrence in their past. When coupled with DID,

the individual’s amnesia may affect common, everyday occurrences as well as traumatic events.

Psychotic Disorders Both individuals with DID and those with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia suffer from delusional explanations and hallucinations. A strong difference between the two is that a patient suffering from DID describes those occurrences in a personified way. They might “feel as though someone else wants to cry with their eyes.” Rather than seeing the hallucinations for their own mind

and visuals, they feel as though someone else is seeing for them; another identity experiencing the hallucination.

Personality Disorders

have occurred, whereas an individual suffering seizures does not. While they both suffer amnesia, confusion, out-of-body experiences, and disruption of conscientiousness, the dissociation is a key distinguisher between the two. Electroencephalographic findings including telemetry can differentiate it from DID.

Seizure Disorder Dissociation

Malingering People sometimes simply make the whole thing up. They do it for attention, disability payments, or just wanting to avoid certain situations. −

Individuals with DID have an inconsistent and unchartable display of identity shifts. With other personality disorders there is a consistency and trend to their varying personality styles. scores of an individual suffering DID are remarkably high when seizure-like symptoms

1 Harrison G. Pope Jr., Steven Barry, Alexander Bodkin, and James I. Hudson, “Tracking Scientific Interest in the Dissociative Disorders: A Study of Scientific Publication Output 1984–2003,” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics Psychother Psychosom, 2006, 19-24. 2 H.M. Farrell, 2011, Dissociative Identity Disorder: Medicolegal Challenges, Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 39(3), 402-405.  3 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.





n a consumer-driven nation, the customer is king. That means, within reason, the customer is always right and it is their prerogative to ask for anything their heart desires. Like Burger King’s slogan, “Have It Your Way,” customers are always looking for the next big, special, customizable thing to set one restaurant apart from the rest as their favorite.

The secret menu is a trend popping up in many restaurants. With high levels of competition, and fewer things setting fast-food giants apart, any edge over the competitors is one worth exploring. A secret menu is something that restaurants, specifically fast-food and fast-casual dining restaurants, develop over time based on popularly requested alterations of their preexisting menu. Websites like Hack The Menu keep track of these creations for patrons who want to feel inside this loop. Kiley Libuit, creator of HackTheMenu.com, grew up mixing soda flavors at these fast-food restaurants, and quickly “realized you can order pretty much anything you want and as long as it’s reasonable, they’ll make it for you.” The Libuit family began asking employees at these restaurant chains what the most popular combinations and requests were and started their site.1

pickles, mustard-fried patty, extra spread and grilled onions. Other secret menu items include a “3x3”: three patties with three slices of cheese; and a burger “Protein Style”: wrapped in lettuce instead of a bun. Other popular restaurants with secret menu items are Starbucks, Chipotle Mexican Grill, Panera Bread, McDonald's, Burger King, Taco Bell, Wendy’s, and Arby’s, and the trend keeps growing. But with creative names like “McGangbang” (a McChicken placed in between a McDouble) and “Suicide Burger” (four beef patties, four slices of cheese, bacon and special sauce), it’s easy to see why many of these items stay off the actual menu.

Ultimately, dishes on the secret menu allow customers to feel like they’re in the know. They like flaunting their knowledge and showing off these dishes to their friends. It makes them feel like they are part of an exclusive club. When the customer is allowed to get whatever they want, they put their creativity to work. “Gen X has been told all their life that they’re unique. This is one way of enforcing that.”3 The secret menu could also prove useful for companies that would normally spend millions in research and development before presenting a new item on the menu.3

While some restaurants stick to the secret aspect that creates a sort of exclusivity and cult following, others want to pop up right on top of the trend and put their not-so-secret menu right on their website. In-N-Out Burger is one of the most famous restaurants to have a secret menu; in fact, they started the trend 20 years ago.2 Ordering your burger “Animal Style” means a standard In-N-Out burger with added

Bonnie Riggs, a restaurant industry analyst, notes that restaurants will do any thing to set themselves apart from the competition. “Fast food is trying every way it can to compete. If they have the things available, if it’s not during a busy time, they’re going to accommodate that [request] because they want the customer to come back.”1 Since the customer is always right, why not get creative and have it your way? +




very morning we are faced with the same question: what to wear? Regardless of whether or not you’d consider yourself to be someone who is interested in fashion, it plays a large role in all of our lives. We can all relate to the feeling of shopping at the mall or browsing online in an attempt to find items that speak to our inner style. Some of us look for the latest trends, some are on the search for particular items, and some are just looking for items that are practical and comfortable. But what are the deeper motives behind these precise purchases? With fashion being such a staple in today’s society, and the basis of almost every first impression, we have to ask ourselves one thing: are we dressing for ourselves, or are we dressing for the acceptance of those around us? Fashion can be such a creative and extraordinary outlet to express one’s personality and unique style, but unfortunately, many people simplify what they would ideally like to wear, in fear that others will judge them for their outfit choice, and instead, they choose items that are more common, and considered “safe” from negative judgement.1 Debbie Roes, an online fashion blogger, has admitted to dressing according to what she knew her online fans would like and not necessarily what she liked herself. She described a shameful moment where she purposely went out and bought skinny jeans because people told her that she would look good in them. When she posted a photo, sure enough, the comments rolled in with positive feedback telling her how wonderful the pants looked. The only problem was that although everyone else seemed to enjoy the way they looked, she lacked all confidence, and wanted nothing more than to change back to the less “popular” clothing, the clothing that was unique to her style and what she felt confident in. Roes realized that the pressure society put on her to be accepted by others had overshadowed her true inner desires and the parts of her style that made her her.

At the end of the experience, she learned that dressing to convey your own voice is much more self-fulfilling than simply trying to be accepted. You have to realize, that even if you wear what you think other people will like, there will always be a handful of people who still won’t like your choices, and that’s how life in general works. Not everyone is going to agree with you, but our differences are what makes us who we are. She realizes that breaking away from the opinions of others can be hard, and it’s not something that comes right away. “I’m still learning to dress for myself and I feel a bit like a baby bird who is learning to fly for the first time.”

I’m still learning to dress for myself and I feel a bit like a baby bird who is learning to fly for the first time. Although many parts of society makes it intimidating to break away from a particular fashion zone in which you feel safe from the judgment of others, you have to remember that if you do break away, it’ll bring glorifying confidence. Fashion isn’t just about trends and what’s acceptable, it’s about expressing who you are as a person. Being confident in your own skin is more important than impressing others. People will always have something negative to say, but there will be even more people who admire you for being you. − 1 Debbie Roes, “Who Are You Dressing For?” Recovering Shopaholic, November 7, 2014.




CENSORSHIP IN THE MEDIA In America, the public is exposed to explicit content on a daily basis. Whether it is from someone making a suggestive gesture on a late-night show or hosts of an award show using vulgar language, the explicit content is highly censored. When events such as that occur, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is usually flooded with complaints from angered parents that have kids watching the show. Kids are a main factor when it comes to censorship, but maybe we should shift

the focus back onto the parents. In October 2015, the FCC printed out a book that had three years’ worth of complaints regarding Adult Swim’s programming block.1 The book was meant to show some funny comments that they have received over the years, but it also raised the issue that the audience was never really given an answer. Most cases of the complaints were for personal reasons. In the moment, a viewer was offended by something

that they were currently watching. The viewer is making a snap judgment of a show without looking at the bigger picture. It begs the question: why are they still watching the show? The viewer has the power to change the station instead of continuing to watch and complain about it. Ryan Turk from the Collegiate Times wrote “That is as far as it needs to go: [you] reach for your remote.”1 Reaching for the remote can solve a few issues. If you personally do not enjoy the show, you

are able to change the channel. If the viewer is a parent they are also able to use the remote to enable parental controls and block the show from their kids. That is their right as a parent and they have full justification to do so.

At the 2015 MTV Video Music Awards there was an excess amount of censorship. “Never in award show history was there as much profanity,” and MTV was covering their ass to make sure there were no complaints, but of course there were.2


FUCK Now that’s bullshit.

example, actress Amy Schumer was giving an interview and made a sexual reference. Jimmy Fallon made a comment to ensure she did not do it again. The show is on at 11:30PM on weeknights and Jimmy Fallon is still running into censorship issues. He is simply following the “code” of TV.

The content of shows should remain true to the moment. Words are bleeped, nudity is blurred, and people get in trouble for using suggestive humor. Jimmy Fallon has even been known to give quick glares or comments to guests that suggest sexual humor on his show, The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon. For

On the other side of the spectrum, you have shows that are continuing to test the borders of what they can and cannot produce. Since there is that line of right and wrong, it is almost egging the networks on to try and cross over it. One of the more controversial stations on today is Adult

Who were the most complaints from? Parents. The same parents that were allowing their kids to watch the show in the first place are the ones complaining if a “fuck,” “shit,” or “bullshit” were said.

Swim. The station is flooded with complaints from parents about the content that they are focusing on. It could be said that the complaints fuel the fire and make Adult Swim writers want to push their audiences even more. Our world is changing and so should the rules. The right of true expression should include those of profane words and meaningful gestures. It should not be the job of the show producers to make sure

that all of their content pleases their audience, because it never will. There will always be complaints about the content of shows; therefore, it should be in the hands of the parents. If parents would prefer their children not to watch a certain show because of swear words and profanity, that is their choice. Networks should have the right to set their own regulations, no need to report to a higher level to get their content

approved. It should be their right to express themselves how they feel fit for their programs. It is their show and it is their audience that they are trying to reach. If the network feels that their target audience would like to have a less censored show, then they should be able to go for it. If parts of the audience are younger than expected, it is then the right and need for the parents to regulate what shows their kids are watching. It then falls in the hands of the parents

and becomes their choice as to how they would like their kids to be raised. Miley Cyrus, for example, has changed her image to be more promiscuous and unconstrained—that is her image. Parents are allowing their children to listen to her music, but when she is shown on television, that is when they have the issue. Even though she is still being herself in her music, the parents view it differently on a screen. The message is the same and yet the reactions

are different. Parents should understand the relationship between the two before they start complaining to networks that are trying to keep true to their content.

should have more control and fewer regulations on their content. Let us free our language and mannerism to create truer content. −

At the end of the day, there will always be complaints from viewers because of something that was put on their television screens. The audience's perspective needs to change so that networks have more range on the content that they are able to produce. The networks

1 Ryan Turk, “Lack of Parenting Shouldn’t Warrant TV Censorship,” Collegiate Times, September 2, 2015.  2 Gerrick G. Kennedy, “MTV VMAS 2015: Five Reasons It Was A Mess,” Los Angeles Times, August 31, 2015.



“When you think about it, food is the cornerstone of our existence, right?” questioned Tierney Nash, a Rochester, NY freelance writer and local coffee barista. Nash, a frequent traveler and food enthusiast, discusses the importance of traveling to new places and trying new foods. “It’s always going to be relevant because it’s something that’s necessary in living, and something that impacts our health in ways that we’re just now beginning to understand more.” Sipping her freshly brewed coffee and sifting through the Sunday paper, she looks up, smiles, and states a recent realization of her own. “The most life-changing part of experiencing new cultures, again and again, is the realization that I don't know as much as I thought.” Nash revisits her love of packing her bags and heading to a new area with little money. She spends her nights at family-owned bed‑and‑breakfasts and heading out to different restaurants for exclusive local dishes. Nash believes that a huge part of traveling and being open to trying new foods in different areas requires the practice of mindfulness. “[It] is always important when traveling. If you’re only someplace for a limited amount of time, it’s best to absorb as much as you possibly can while you’re there.” Looking out the

window of the local coffee shop she works at, Nash continues to express the idea that if you are practicing mindfulness when traveling, you can also be a mindful eater. She compares her friends’ experiences to her own. “[Mindful eating] becomes a meditative experience that they observe silently. For me, I’m not sure about that, because a big part of experiencing new foods has always been a very social experience.”

“It’s best to absorb as much as you possibly can while you’re there” Nash knows how to make the most of her traveling and food experience. “I’m someone who likes to scan rooms and take notes. I look at any menus they have up, searching for ingredients that are common across the board, for dishes I’ve never heard of. I look at the decor of the place, how the workers or customers interact with one another, and how I’m being reacted to, if at all.” Nash’s experiences are enlightening, and she makes sure to make a detailed note of each experience for further individual reflection. She believes that expanding your horizons by taking trips to a new locations and trying completely foreign meals will enrich

your life and allow more room for happiness. “…The best part has always been getting away from this mentality, finding new and better ways of doing things, remembering to be more receptive.” Allowing yourself to challenge your palate and explore new paths opens you up to such a unique fulfillment. The new recipes and experience of spontaneous travel, in addition to meeting the people of the area and collecting local maps and menus, will settle in your heart and in your mind. As Nash looks up from her coffee, she smiles, folds her hands together, and leaves us with a final thought. “You remember things like that. You remember how amused or interested people from that culture were…in watching the reaction of an outsider becoming more acquainted.” +

written and photographed by RACHEL WALLER Across the globe, the presence of technology in everyday life has increased tremendously. With this, our modern culture has become more efficient, productive, and connected. However, one cannot deny that these benefits have come at great costs. Every day, technology changes how modern society prioritizes, communicates, and thinks, both socially and psychologically. There are many negative effects to these changes, including addiction and depression, as well as one of the most notable consequences: anonymity. There are no other social forums besides the internet where one can completely hide their own identity. Though there are some advantages to this, more often than not, once someone’s name is stripped from their communication, a person who is normally polite and proper can become quite slanderous.1 From comment sections on news articles, videos, and blogs, it is easy to see how human morals can degrade when an identity is hidden from scrutiny. Threats and bullying have become common, if not expected,

on the internet, and few sites have chosen to control anonymous communication and the slander that often occur. Being on the receiving end of these negative comments has led to depression and suicide for many. A culture that overlooks bullying simply because it is not punishable does not show the progress of our modern age; combatting these effects of technology is a multifaceted issue.

This particular brand of loneliness has been labeled Fear of Missing Out, or FOMO. The combination of social media and FOMO takes advantage of the human need to be included. For an individual that already suffers from depression, FOMO can only make them feel worse.2 Depression is a serious side effect for some Internet users, but not all users can simply remove themselves from these situations.

You might think that being constantly connected to other humans through technology can reduce loneliness. It’s logical to assume that with cell phones it’s easy to reach someone, thereby increasing our interactions and decreasing loneliness— but it is not so.

Addiction to the internet has recently become a documented psychiatric disorder in China, Korea, and Taiwan, with “as many as 30 percent of teens being considered internet-addicted.”3 The American Psychiatric Association flagged internet addiction as a problem, which is the first step to it becoming a disorder.

Technology has added to an extraordinary decline in the quality of human interaction; many individuals are left spending the majority of their time with only their devices. It has been proven that people turn to social media when they are lonely, only to sink deeper once they see themselves excluded from others through pictures and posts.

These claims may seem ostentatious, but there is evidence that concludes how heavy Internet users can feel withdrawals in their brain that are chemically similar to drug users.4 Even if someone is not diagnosed with an actual disorder, many can relate to their habits being altered from the need to constantly check their messages,

social media sites, and blogs. Almost 90 percent of college undergraduate students claim to have felt phantom vibrations from their cell phones. Though technology has improved modern‑day life in many ways, we must find a balance between reality and our digital lives. Short breaks of just an hour a day away from our personal devices can bring the correct perspective back to everyday life for those who struggle severely. As a whole, technology and its great presence can do more harm than good. − 1 David Davenport, “Anonymity on the Internet: Why the Price May Be Too High,” Communications of the ACM Commune, ACM, 2002, 33.  2 Kristi Hedges, “Do You Have FOMO: Fear Of Missing Out?” Forbes, March 27, 2014.  3 Maia Szalavitz, “Does the Internet Really Make Everyone Crazy?” Time. July 13, 2012.  4 Ollie John, “Study: Internet Addicts Suffer Withdrawal Symptoms Like Drug Users,” Time, February 19, 2013.



s social animals, we look for validation and a sense of belonging. Our cultures, beliefs, and practices are a means to help us find and maintain that connection, as well as give us identities that create distinctions between groups. The biggest influence in this arrangement is religion. Religion gives people hope, faith, and for many, a reason to live. Those steadfast believers need guidance from a leader and often look to Saints and religious authority. The word Saint is derived from a Greek word implying holiness, sanctity, or to be set apart. Those people considered to be holy with exceptional understanding of a religion qualify as Saints. They act as a gateway to God for the ordinary man.1 Their importance is perceived in our everyday lives, whether we believe in their significance or not. People seek solace in them through prayers, religious celebrations, and in spirit. Many honor their importance even further by naming their children after them. In the 1960s and 1970s, newborns were often named after a celebrated Saint. Names were even tweaked so that they could be applicable to both sexes. For example, an “o” in a masculine name was changed to an “a” for a girl.2 In addition to people, towns and cities are also named after Saints. For instance, the well-known city of San Francisco is named after St. Francis of Assisi, Italy. A lot of these towns share faith in a patron Saint and look to them in times of war, poverty, and natural disaster. Over time, people begin to associate themselves as followers of particular Saints for their own reasons. They strongly believe in their Saint’s power to create miracles and change their lives. However, these Saints were not necessarily born entitled. Many have been doctors, teachers, or even tax collectors before becoming religious figures. There is a structured process involved in recognizing who can be considered a Saint. Using the four-step method practiced in Christianity, we get an insight into how one becomes a Saint.

eligible to apply. The person would have to have created miracles and have documented testimonies from scores of people about them. It is then left to the Bishop to decide whether the given evidence is strong enough to be passed on to Vatican for permission to open a special tribunal. Witnesses are then called to attest the candidate’s goodness, holiness, and devotion to God, amongst other virtues. If a person passes this step, he or she is named a “Servant of God.” The second step is determination. The bishop sends the request and nine theologians read the material and determine whether there is enough cause to pass it to the entire Congregation. If so, the candidate’s entire past is thoroughly inspected to ensure that none of their actions contradict or threaten the validity and beliefs of the Church. Once a candidate has been determined to be virtuous and heroic in his or her faith, he or she is declared “Venerable.” Third is a beatification. If the candidate was a martyr, he or she may be beatified and named “Blessed.” Otherwise, a miracle must be shown by the saint to be verified by the Congregation. Lastly, the demonstration of another miracle is required for the person to be officially declared a Saint. The miracle must have occurred as a result of the person’s intercession. The Prefect of the Congregation then sends the cause for canonization to the pope who makes the final decision. Once a person is canonized, he or she is officially declared a “Saint.” The Pope declares this in an official way at a special mass in honor of the new Saint.3 These four steps are important because people look to Saints for moral and spiritual guidance and support. These steps give people a basis to devote themselves to them. Saints become more than just a figure to seek solace in. They become the manifestation of people’s beliefs, values, and ultimately, their lives. +


First, the person must make a request for canonization, which involves submitting a request. There are certain prerequisites that make them


century, During the 19th came many people be the h it w fascinated sm, the li ua it idea of spir acting practice of cont ad de e spirits of th of e us e through th ces. an sĂŠ or mediums mon m co un It was not act nt co to for people

ess a lot made this proc is th ja board, the dead during easier; the Oui it as w r had a time period, no or spirit board, as d ve ei abet and feared or perc complete alph it d, ea ed on it, witchcraft. Inst number set etch in ve lie a little made people be accompanied by of e id chette, something outs pointer, or plan be to e over what they knew that would glid ed lp he sm ell out true. Spirituali the type and sp e th h it hen two people cope w the messages w d an es would loss of loved on or more people ey th at th s on it. gave them hope place their hand h it w e truly a could find peac This device was g in h ac vention their loss by re miraculous in lly ia it ved by out to them. In of its time, belie r fo t ai w gists to people would some psycholo at k ct people spirits to knoc actually conne s er tt le n de of the different woo with the world s ge sa es ly the to spell out m dead. Eventual w ne 1 a 86 as sold to to them. In 18 spirit board w at th e ny Hasbro invention aros the toy compa

to create the ic onic board most people ar e familiar with today.

the history of the Ouija board and its sp irituality has been long forgotten, except, perhap s, by modern day m ediums who still use th e board as a way to com municate with spirits.

As can be seen through popular cultur e, this harmless prac tice turned into somethin g more ominous than originally intended. This mostly Ideally, the trad began when ho itional rror films use of the Ouija used it as a sour board ce of would come ba evil. In 1973, th ck into e iconic popularity, bu movie The Exor t it would cist struck have to overco fear in many, gi me the ving bad stigma that the Ouija boar d a bad surrounds it an name. The Exor d surpass cist ’s main its status as a si character, a lit mple tle girl, children’s boar used a Ouija bo d game. ard to talk It currently ho to a “friend,” bu lds a cult t then was status among possessed by a certain demon. groups, which After that, peop is what le’s views keeps its popu on the Ouija bo larity ard had in the public ey changed from e. This a spiritual popularity has connection de brought vice to an the design of th extension of th e board e devil to common ob himself. People jects such began as shoes, shot to claim that ev glasses, il spirits an d necklaces, am would plague th ong eir homes other things. Fo after using the r Ouija to board; in reclaim some some cases thos of its past e evil gl ory, it would ne spirits resulted ed to in death. have more resp Ouija became ect the perfect shown to it. Th tool for some ho ough rror films th ere are places such as the rece where nt films the traditiona Ouija and Para l uses normal of the Ouija bo Activity. Unfort ard are unately,

still held in es teem, the general public still views it as game used for cheap scares. It’s ques tionable whether the O uija board will ever be vi ewed as a real spiritualist object again, but if it is, it could reclaim its plac e as something that would help people co pe with the struggle of losing someone they love. − 1 Linda Rodrigue z McRobbie, “The Strange an d Mysterious History of the O uija Board,” Smithsonian, O ctober 27, 2013 .


America’s constant hunger for bigger, faster, more has been fueled by fast-food chains and supermarkets for as long as we can remember. The fashion industry has followed suit over the past decade. Fast-fashion stores such as Forever 21, H&M, and Zara are rapidly producing clothes and accessories at extremely low costs and undercutting other retail stores. In some cases, an entire outfit can be bought for the price of a meal at a fast-food chain.1 After all, a burger grabbed on the go is not much different than shirt bought at the mall for five dollars. We live in a fast world where people are in a hurry and efficiency is crucial. It may be economical to buy five outfits for the price of one, but there are hidden costs to society and the environment that many consumers are unaware of. In the food industry, America has started to make the connection between what we buy, where it came from, and who made it. However, this is not always the case when it comes to the clothes we buy. The clothing we are buying in these fast-fashion stores is manufactured in other countries where labor is cheap. American consumers are not directly impacted by or exposed to working conditions in such places. Employees are overworked and underpaid in unacceptable conditions. Recently in Bangladesh, workers protested in an 11-day hunger strike to which the police responded with water canons, rubber bullets, and riot gear. Similarly, protesters in Cambodia have been killed due to poor working conditions in the textile industry.

In addition to immediate costs, the manufacturing process is also affecting the environment. Food and fashion industries are some of the biggest greenhouse gas emitters in the world. Apparel and textile production account for approximately 10 percent of the total carbon impact. As the demand for these products rises, the negative impact on the environment increases.


MORE It is not a mystery why shoppers are eating up these great deals. You can buy a dress, two scarves, a shirt, and pants for the price of one sweater from a traditional retailer. While this may be good for consumers, it is taking a toll on humanity as well as the environment. Similar to a Big Mac, a five-dollar tank top may be cheap, but is low quality and has less value. Americans are so focused on consuming; they seem to have forgotten the importance of quality. Instead of continuing to promote a disposable society where more is always better, it would be beneficial to keep in mind not only the cost of the items in your bag, but the underlying costs to society and the environment.2 − 1 Nayelli Gonzalez, “Putting the Breaks on Fast Fashion,” Triple Pundit, December 2, 2014.  2 Anna Brones, “Fast Food, Fast Fashion, Let’s All Slow Down,” Pratt, September 10, 2014.


HELPING OR HOVERING? Why Helicopter Parents Need to Turn the Engine Off by JAMES WANG photographed by JUSTIN PALMER

95% OF COLLEGE COUNSELORS REPORTED THAT THE NUMBER OF STUDENTS WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS WAS A GROWING CONCERN. Curfews. No boys over. No playing in the dirt. Extracurricular activities including tutoring on the weekends. Restricted free time, and constant check-ins. Does this scenario sound familiar? These are just a few examples of the things children of helicopter parents have to deal with. What is helicopter parenting you may ask? Helicopter parenting is a parenting style that’s described as any parent who physically ‘hovers’ over their children constantly. It tends to follow these patterns: consistently doing things for your children, which they are capable of doing themselves, excessively praising your children for the sheer reason that they are yours, and behavior that is motivated by the parents’ ego. By limiting a child’s opportunities for development, helicopter parenting becomes a problem in that it inhibits children from developing important life skills that are later needed in adulthood.1,6 The term ‘helicopter’ was first described by a teenager in the book Between Parent & Teenager by Dr. Haim Ginott, published in 1969. Helicopter parenting is a phrase coined during the era when baby boomers and generation X parents started sending their children to college in the early 2000s. At the time, these parents were complaining to college administrators about their children’s grades.3 Studies show that helicopter parenting has become a rising problem in the United States since

the late 90s. It can start at a young age, where kids that walked or biked to school dropped from 48% to 13% between 1969 and 2009. Note that this was taking into consideration the fact that the dangers of going to school on your own have not increased. Moving on to young adult life, 33% of millennials say their parents have been involved in their job hunt process. This includes helping them submit resumes, contacting job recruiters, scheduling their interviews, showing up to an interview with their child… the list goes on.5 In 2013, 95% of college counselors reported that the number of students with psychological problems was a growing concern. Out of 100,000 students who went to see a counselor, more than half had reported feeling sad, lonely, overwhelmed by responsibilities, or extremely anxious; 4% of which had even admitted to considering suicide. This result often stems from not allowing them to handle failures and social interactions on their own.2 The lasting effects of helicopter parenting can be severe. A 2014 study found that those with a highly structured childhood often lacked management abilities.

Emerging into adulthood, many struggle to be goal-oriented. College students reported higher levels of depression and less satisfaction in life. Helicopter parenting is also associated with low self-worth and an increased tendency to engage in risky behavior such as drugs and alcohol.2 While these are potentially detrimental effects, they can be altered by coming to a common understanding in terms of developing effective boundaries between the parent(s) and child. These boundaries allow room for emotional and maternal support while honoring the need for separation and privacy. − 1 Ellen Bottner, “Confessions of a Helicopter Parent.”  2 Anna Hodgekiss, “Children with Controlling ‘Helicopter Parents’ Are More Likely to Be Depressed,” Daily Mail, February 14, 2013.  3 “Kids Whose Time Is Less Structured Are Better Able to Meet Their Own Goals, Says CU-Boulder Study,” Colorado University-Boulder, June 18, 2014. 4 Brink Lindsey, “The Real Problem With Helicopter Parents: There Aren’t Enough of Them,” The Atlantic, October 11, 2012. 5 Ashley Stahl, “Five Reasons Why Helicopter Parents Are Sabotaging Their Child's Career,” Forbes, May 27, 2015. 6 “The Child Trap,” The New Yorker, November 17, 2008.








3 5

What is an Enneagram?

An Enneagram is a systematic personality test to place a person within one of nine main personality types. Stemming from the Greek words “ennea,” meaning nine, and “gramma,” meaning drawn or written, the term “enneagram” is largely in reference to the universal diagram that maps out the perceived personalities.

4 Directions

The direction of the lines to and from each number tells the person their particular Disintegration or Integration. These directions are indicative of how a person will react and behave in times of stress and growth.1 The numbers they lead to and from are very telling of your personality traits.

The Diagram

The enneagram diagram is laid out much like a clock, with the number nine at the top, and the remaining numbers arranged around a circle, equidistant from each other.2 The line work of the diagram consists of three main shapes:

The perfect circle, which is said to represent the whole self, as a certain “oneness of life.” An equilateral triangle, which connects the numbers three, six, and nine. The triangle represents the Law of Threes, which consists of the active, passive, and neutral parts of one's self. Lastly, there is a six-pointed figure that connects the numbers together, in a shape called a hexad. Many times, these lines are shown as arrows (see Directions).

The Personalities and Their Traits

The most widely used test to determine your personality is the Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator test (RHETI).3 You can usually find this test online in various formats. It is important to note that people do not change their dominant personalities, so taking the test multiple times will not yield different results. Also note that listed here are only some basic traits; there are many unique levels of a person’s psyche beyond the surface.

1 The Reformer: principled, self-controlled, and purposeful. 2 The Helper: generous, demonstrative, and agreeable. 3 The Achiever: adaptable, excelling, and driven. 4 The Individualist: expressive, creative, and romantic. 5 The Investigator: perceptive, innovative, and secretive. 6 The Loyalist: engaging, responsible, and suspicious. 7 The Enthusiast: spontaneous, versatile, and scattered. 8 The Challenger: self-confident, decisive, and willful. 9 The Peacemaker: receptive, reassuring, and complacent.

The Continuum

If you picture the enneagram as a pizza pie, it can figuratively be sliced into thirds. Each third will then tell you the most basic level of mental being in which you identify. These levels work together in harmony to create the many nuances and states of being. It is important to note that no one number is any better or worse than the others.

The three categories of these levels focus on which part is activated the most. They also illustrate your biggest vice. These categories are The Heart, The Head, and The Gut. Respectively, the vices are Shame, Anxiety, and Anger.


Once you find your type, you can look to each number on either side; these are your “wing” numbers, and therefore you will most likely have several of these traits as well, to a lesser extent. It is widely accepted that most humans have one dominant personality trait. The wings are usually the most telling, however, because they describe your level of being in the overall continuum.

Numbers have been significant sources of spiritual direction for centuries. The enneagram is no exception to esoteric practices. Numbers have long been highly regarded on a spiritual level. As you work your way through the meanings attached to your personality type, you can begin to open your mind to new pathways of thought and action. The enneagram’s main goal is to give you the gift of self-awareness, affecting your personality and ultimately the vices and virtues in the way you live. Moving forward, you can apply these discoveries to future endeavors. The enneagram is complex, much like people, and so you must allow it to guide you into your own mind to set you on a path to positivity. +





Your Life is a

You Can’t




by A FRIEND photographed by STEVEN GROOBERT

They lie to you—every one of them.

ds, they are all just Your family, your frien for you to slip up. watch ing you, waiti ng y ask you “How’s Don’t you see? When the nt to know, they are it going?” they don’t wa get your schedule so working with Obama to e and rearrange your they can bug your hous ing. furniture. They’re listen

to Beck y ye sterday That th ing you said be ght America would about how you thou at. th ac y, they heard better as a tech nocr ay aw line, they take you Once you go out of s en e knows what happ to Montana. No on out there.

Suits Suits in the sha


us with ev e watching


ery step we


ey think il me ever y night. Th ta to d rte sta ’ve ey Th about horse handing me flyers by e m ol fo n ca ey th on to them. carriage rides. I’m

They think they can get inside my brain and influence me but little do they know, I’m not a part of the system. They can’t control me.

I’m an adult! , get out of bed, and But you—you wake up every day you to. You probably t eat breakfast, just like they wan y lace all the the h: eat Pop-Tar ts, too. News flas to keep you mellow rs lize Pop‑Tar ts with horse tranqui you are doing now g thin ct throughout the day. The exa see? you ’t Don is what they were expecting.

all have to, Break the pattern . Go rogue. We . ient serv sub or else we become

You are a fellow truth seeker, aren’t you? I know you are. You must fight against the ever-watchful eye of the govern ment. Join me and the Secret Society of Truth Knowers if you want to know the truth. Please RSVP, though.

es ever ywhere. Ey Su rvei llance is we k, . We go to wor ar e watching us e W r dwel li ngs. come back to ou die—all part of repeat unti l we all ht now, we are their plan. Rig ke indless wor r just a mass of m nch vernment. A bu slaves to the go e th king to fuel of numbers wor . at oppresses us hungry beast th even work. We don’t We don’t need way a e thought of need money. I’v les ck pi ive by using we can all surv od fo e d liv ing off th as batteries an e. tl po r behi nd Chi in the du mpste

Our water supply isn’t safe either. We have to drink our urine. It’s for our own good. The government tells us it’s not safe because it “contains ammonia” and “gives you diarrhea,” but we don’t want to listen to them, now do we?

Obama Obama, the Freemasons, the Aliens, they are all in it together. It’s true. They perpetuate the lie of terrorism to keep us in line, not questioning the fight, all while profiting.

Every step along the way, we are manipulated. The media keeps us in a state of fear so we are afraid of the outside world. They say the outside world is riddled with war and famine. I say Somalia is probably a great place to live and they don’t want us to know how fun it is there. −

Wake up, America! I know the truth!



silhouette is “the image of a person, animal, object or scene represented as a solid shape of a single color, usually black, its edges matching the outline of the subject. The interior of a silhouette is featureless, and the whole is typically presented on a light background, usually white, or none at all.” 1 In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, silhouettes became popular as a form of capturing likenesses inexpensively. The mention of silhouette art can be dated back to the 1st century AD. A Roman scholar named Pliny the Elder told the story of a Corinthian girl named Dibutade, who traced the shadow of her lover as it was cast by candlelight in an attempt to keep him close to her as he left her behind to embark on a long journey.

Étienne, a French finance minister, imposed severe economic demands upon the French people, particularly the rich. Because of de Silhouette’s strict taxations, his name became synonymous with anything done or made cheaply.2 This included waistcoats that were made in France that lacked pockets to reduce the cost of the suit by reducing the amount of material used to create it. Despite the implied connotations, Silhouette embraced his new title and was said to have silhouettes hanging in his home.

Although appearances of silhouetted art can be traced back to first century AD, this method of image capture was truly made popular in the 17th century. Because these portraits had been generally made of paper cutouts or drawn shadow tracings, they were quick and did not cost a lot of material or time to make. They reigned in vast popularity especially with middle and lower-class citizens who were able to sit for short periods of time and have their likenesses captured. Before the 18th century these silhouettes were known as “shades” or “profiles” in Great Britain and as “l’art de l’ombre” meaning shadow art, in France.”2 The word “silhouette” only arose in the mid-17th century deriving from a man named Étienne de Silhouette.

Almost more interesting than its nomenclature is the ability for silhouettes to be recognized easily by humans, despite a severe lack of clear identifiers in value and structure. In a study published by the Journal of Vision, individuals are able to gain enough information from silhouettes to determine traits about the subject including their age and gender. The study concludes that male silhouettes were recognized as such 83.3% of the time and female silhouettes were classified as female 55.7% of the time.3 Along with gender recognition, over 68% of the respondents selected the correct age range for the silhouettes by using identifiers such as bone definition and posture. +






round the 1970s a lifestyle came up and is now making a comeback within today’s society.1 The current generation has a natural want to always be moving more than ever, feel healthy, and live a clean lifestyle. How is it, though, that people are able to achieve this? Minimalism. The life of a minimalist cannot be summed up with a few words—ironic, yes. What does it truly mean to be a minimalist, though? Do you have to only have the clothes on your back? Of course not. The fact of the matter is that a minimalist is a person that is shedding the excess of unneeded possessions. A minimalist is trying to pare down their possessions until they are only burdened by necessities so they can pursue their wants. According to the LA Times, there are “300,000 things in the average American home.”2

Three hundred thousand—all of it just stuff. Why is it that we get so attached to things? There are a bunch of little knick-knacks that are just lying around the house taking up space. Can you live without it? That is the question that changes how we think about the objects in our home more critically. Once you truly start to think about what is important, the line between need and want becomes clearer. One is able to have what they need and those few wants that satisfy our lifestyle. Letting go of old objects allows you to free up both your space and mind. Minimalism has been shown to improve the lives of those who practice it. They feel lighter, less attached to the objects around them, and think of minimalism as “a way to escape the excesses of the world around [them],” according

to Zen Habits, a minimalism blog in which the author writes about different minimalistic values.1 The minimalistic trend has been growing over the past 10 years and is showing signs of continuing its growth. It has helped people with financial problems to accept a more minimal lifestyle, but to feel good about it during the process.1 Technology has also played a role in this trend. Since things are more compact now and one object serves the purpose of six, we do not need as many objects lying around. Minimalism as a trend has created a society of people that realize that there is more to life than possession. +


PERKS OF MINIMALISM 1 There is no place that a minimalist cannot

3 Quality over quantity. Since you


Be happier. Studies have shown

go at the blink of an eye, which allows

are usually spending less, you can

that owning fewer possessions can

for people to gain new perspectives.

afford to splurge now and again.

make a person feel happier in life.

2 With fewer things it is easier to stay clean and orderly.

4 The sense of clarity that allows for


It does not cost a thing.

you to see what is truly important.




ove over Millennials, here comes Generation Z. With the oldest members of Generation Z just reaching 18, they have already been receiving a bad rap from previous generations. But as marketers and researchers begin to tap into what makes this next generation tick, are their findings really all that bad? With Generation Z coming along in the aftermath of cataclysms in the era of the war on terror and the Great Recession, it is said they have had their eyes wide open from the beginning, making them conscientious, hard-working, somewhat anxious, and mindful of the future.

born in the era of smartphones, and have been surrounded by an ever‑changing world of technology from the day they were born. Many believe that this generation's obsession with technology is their biggest downfall and the reason for which they receive their bad rap. There are some negative aspects to this generation’s obsession with technology; however, research shows that it’s the backbone to shaping this generation into the greatness they are capable of.

This group makes up a quarter of U.S. population with about 60 million native-born American members.2 These teens and tweens of today are primed to become the dominant youth influencers of tomorrow. With billions of dollars in spending power, marketers realize that understanding this generation will be key for the survival of the economy in the future.

This technology-centered generation is considered screen addicts by many and is criticized for this affecting their attention span. Although these allegations do have truth to them, there are adequate reasons as to why this generation’s screen obsession and shrinking attention span are acceptable. Research suggests that this generation's attention span has shrunk to eight seconds and that they are unable to focus for extended amounts of time.3 They’ve grown up in a world where their options are limitless but their time is not.

So who are Generation Z? To answer this question you have to look at the world in which they are coming of age. They are the first generation to be

Gen Z has adapted to quickly sorting through and assessing enormous amounts of information. They rely on trending pages within apps to collect

the most popular recent content. Once something has demonstrated attention-worthiness, Gen Z can become intensely committed and focused. They’ve come of age with technology that’s allowed them to go deep into any topic of their choosing, but if their attention isn’t secured within the first eight seconds, Generation Z will pay little attention to the topic because they don't feel connected or compelled by it. The media has painted Gen Z as socially inept and older generations struggle to understand why they spend so much time online. In reality, Gen Z are under immense pressure to simultaneously manage their personal and professional brands to help them fit in while also standing out. On a personal level, Gen Z seeks immediate validation and acceptance through social media, since that’s where all their peers are and where many of the important social conversations happen. On a professional level, Gen Z are hyper aware of the negative stereotypes. Compared to Millennials, they have a new sense of privacy and are drawn to platforms such as Snapchat and Whisper, where content can be hidden from others, as opposed to Facebook, where content is out


there for all to see, including employers. They want to be known for their ability to work hard and persevere offline. Between these two forces, Gen Z feels torn; they need social media to build their personal brands but resist being defined by it. They seek social validation but are looking to differentiate themselves. Up until now, most people have thought that Gen Y has done the most with entrepreneurship, but Gen Z has shown to be even more determined than them. A 15-year‑old named Maya Van Wagenen wrote a memoir called Popular that has now become a movie deal with DreamWorks.2 These kids are driven and willing to make just about anything possible. A big part of the drive behind Generation Z is their determination to plan ahead. Those who don’t favor entrepreneurship favor careers with

financial stability, aiming for jobs in growing, less-automatable fields like education, medicine, and sales. Whether it’s through entrepreneurship or other careers, Gen Z is obsessed with developing contingency plans to help them navigate the dynamic job market and become successful adults. Not only in their professional lives, but in their personal lives as well, Gen Z are determined to make a difference and impact. They worry about the economy and man’s impact on the world. With technology informing the members of Gen Z about the issues throughout the world, many have taken action and have started local or worldwide initiatives to improve problems such as crime, disease, world hunger, and other economic, social, and environmental issues. Gen Z is also becoming one of the most culturally, ethnically, and sexually accepting generations.

Research shows that Gen Z is the most multiracial generation yet, and they are okay with that. Generation Z promotes diversity and acceptance in all forms whether it’s multiracial couples or gender identification. Within Gen Z, all are accepted and loved; there are no more biases when it comes to the way a given person wants to live their life. With Gen Z wanting to make an impact and being one of the most accepting and diverse generations, they come with a whole new sense of style. They prefer not to stick with the typical peer-accepted dress code that past generations would follow religiously. Instead, they are more about genderneutral fashion. The question isn’t, “Why bend the gender rules?” Rather, it’s “Why not?”1 Technology plays a role in this by showing Gen Z that style changes are acceptable, that

“Today’s blur of the sexes is an organic outgrowth of changing attitude in our culture as a whole.” Steve Gabariona today, it’s okay for people to dress how they want and bend the rules, and you can be who you want to be without getting judged for it. Ten years ago it would’ve been considered weird for a guy to go browsing through the women’s section in a clothing store, and then coming into the dressing room with a bunch of women’s jeans. But nowadays, people don’t even think twice about it. On the streets, in department stores, and on the runway, clothes are no longer as easily definable. Steve Garbarinoa from details.com says it’s “a shift in gender boundaries that’s less revolutionary than evolutionary. Today’s blur of the sexes is an organic outgrowth of changing attitude in the culture as a whole. Like our clothing, we’re becoming more relaxed about it.”1

There are plenty of people supporting this trend who influence today’s youth of Gen Z. Bruce Jenner has felt comfortable enough to become a woman named Caitlyn. And now, big-time males like David Beckham and Kanye West are sporting skirts with their sweatpants. This shows that the term “masculinity” no longer has its same power. More and more, people are now saying, “Does anyone really care?”1 A great Gen Z example of this style shift is Jaden Smith. He showed up to prom in a woman’s dress and is proud to say that he shops in the ladies’ section of Topshop. Today, items are really just considered to be clothes, not women’s or men’s clothes. With Gen Z it’s all about losing the label and being who you want to be.

of the challenges that everyone faces during the stages of life. But they’re doing so in an ultra-connected, fast moving technological age. We think they’re doing a great job so far. Plus they are only kids with the weight of saving the world and fixing our past mistakes on their small shoulders. Maybe it’s time for the world to let Gen Z form their own identities; they seem to have it under control so far. +


Society tends to either romanticize youth or criticize the things they’re doing differently. Gen Z faces many




Denis Defibaugh

Casey Franklin

Emily Baker

Lorrie Frear

Kallie Michelle Ferris

Lena Laque-Almond




Miranda Joly

Jenna Hebeler

Nathan Gamson

Alyssa Brdlik

Annie Wong

Kyra Krenitsky

Sam Watson

Tyler Mowbray Rachel Waller

PRODUCTION EDITORS Chelsea Clarke Gabe Conte

WEB / SOCIAL MEDIA Tyler Furstoss Farhat S. Lokhandwala


Elvia Galdamez


Steven Groobert

Leah Hall

Justin Barrett

Justin Palmer

Joe Hodapp

Nue Chanthavongsay

Liz McGrail

Jihye Ma

James Wang

Sarah Meacham

Paige Rayo


Erica Wellman

Natalli Bogart Sierra DeVine Brandon Edquist

Brittany Wegman

A special thanks goes to RIT’s president, Dr. Bill Destler, for his generous donation and support to this magazine. We would like to extend thanks to our friends Barbara Giordano and John Dettmer at RIT’s Printing Applications Lab for their continued guidance in production processes and for transforming this year’s Positive Negative into a printed, tangible piece. We appreciate Marc Bardeen at Book1One for binding and finishing this magazine. We thank the staff of O.L.P. Print Finishing for providing services such as the foil stamping and matte laminating on our cover. We would like to thank Beth Povie at Finch Paper and Ross Van Burkleo at Neenah Paper for their support and generous paper donations. Their quality products allowed us to transform our ideas into reality.

Gratitude to Matt and Paul Racz at USEED, your assistance was crucial in developing and launching our crowdfunding campaign. Thank you to Sarah Haas at Squarespace for our beautiful and polished website. Thank you to Nate Pacelli and Erich Lehman for their technical knowledge and guidance, throughout the production process. A special thanks to Brad Tuckman and Alfred Shepherd at Kreate Technology for providing RealTime DAM. And to Dayna Papaleo for her support to our copy editing team, and to Patti Russotti for her assistance to our photo editors. Finally, our class would like to extend an immense amount of gratitude to our esteemed professors Lorrie Frear and Denis Defibaugh. Their years of experience, constant support, and unending patience were imperative to our class as a whole. They are truly the backbone of this publication. To Lorrie and Denis, thank you from all of us.




Dr. Bill Destler

Barb Giordano

Printed at PAL

Kwang-Hyun Ma

John Dettmer

Bound at Book1One

Terry Barrett

Finch Paper

Finished by O.L.P.

Dave Gallagher Michael Donahue

Finch Fine Paper #100

Neenah Paper

Clearfold #30

Andreas Wezel-Peterson

Cover artwork by

Sam Watson + Nathan Gamson

Photographed by Casey Franklin

Lettering by

Sam Watson

Letter from the art directors Photographed and illustrated by Kallie Michelle Ferris

Staff page Photographed and illustrated by Casey Franklin

Š 2015 Positive Negative Magazine All Rights Reserved.

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