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Academy of Art University

TROPICAL SHELTER BOX

MFA - Industrial Design Po-Shin Lin


TROPICAL X TRANSITIONAL X TRANSPORTABLE SHELTER BOX


OVERVIEW

About me Mission Statement Goal Five "W"

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RESEARCH

12

Case Study

Environment

Target User

Experts Interviews

Aftermath

Persona

Living Condition

Humanitarian Organization

Current Solution

Storyboard

Shelter Anaysis

PRD

Comparison

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TROPICAL SHELTER

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

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FINAL DESIGN

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Initial Ideation

Orthographic

Water Collecting System

Developing Process

Open Steps

Pattern

Mock-up Study

Human Factors

Handling

Final Ideation

Materials Call Out

Bill of Materials

1:3 Scale Mock-up

Shelter Legs

Color Study

Task Summary

Transportation

Final Rendering

Full Scale

Housing Ventilation

Full Scale Detail Model Testing

REFERENCES

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Bibliography

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OVERVIEW ABOUT ME I am a member of the International Red Cross Association. I have some experience participating in rescue responding, and postdisaster recovery. I really like to help people. I don’t have lots of money to donate, but I believe there are so many cheaper ways to help victims to get them through difficult period. As Industrial Designer, I have a lot of opportunities to solve problems that can reduce people’s suffering as a result of disasters.

I could find many good references and resources in my country. There are fairly frequent natural disasters in Taiwan. I can obtain the relevant data or even test my project in Taiwan. And I also have some connection with Taiwan's relief organization and humanitarian organizations. I can get feedback from the rescue team for more further developments of my project.

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TROPICAL SHELTER

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OVERVIEW MISSION STATEMENT My project is going to provide a transitional shelter (more than 3 months) for disaster’s victims in Tropical Climate. In my approach, I offer a shelter that is able to resist meteorological hazards such as tropical storms, hurricanes, cyclones and typhoons, and also I will develop a pre-position system to prepare for the future disaster. According to my research, long –term recovery needs more productive and stable equipment such as secure shelter, water or electric power. For those victims, they also require more affordable and durable equipment to continue their lives. If I can provide victims have a cheaper and functional equipment that can give them secure shelter, water and necessities. For the current shelter solutions, the most of them are living in tents or modular houses. The majority is not for the specific regions or climates. Especially, the shelters are not long-term to resist natural disasters in the tropical climates such as monsoon rains, typhoons, tropical cyclones and flooding areas. And my design opportunity is to do the design for this kind of situation.

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TROPICAL SHELTER GOAL

My goal is to minimize the weight of my shelter in order to transfer maximum amount to the affected areas in shortest time. And people could easily learn how to build it no matter men or women. The shelter could provide a safety living space for victims and protect them against future disasters. It is not only an emergency shelter but also a transitional shelter.

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OVERVIEW WHO

does it affect? Primary User •Disaster Victims •Displaced People

Secondary User •Humanitarian Organizations •Local Governments •Developers •Transporter s •Manufactures

WHAT

are the issues? •People who are suffering long-term in extreme climate. •Post-disaster’s rapid recovery •Humanitarian Organizations can’t provide a large amount of shelters immediately. •People need to face future frequent disasters. •Regular emergency shelters can be used for less than 3 months. •Global climate change. •Affordable shelter for victims. •Adaptable for multiple nature disasters.

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TROPICAL SHELTER WHERE

is it used? This project focuses on climatic disaster regions such as South-East Asia. It also can be used in other similar extreme environments. If this shelter is suitable in those very bad situations, it absolutely can be applied to every different other areas.

WHEN

does it occur? Tropical cyclones occur depending upon Northern and Southern hemispheres. For Example, typhoons main season goes from July to November in the northwest pacific. Typhoons can be predicted, but post-disaster situations cannot be predicated. It's being prepared for post-disaster and pre-position.

WHY

is it needed? Post-disaster, people who are displaced and then they need a safety shelter immediately. People need a large amount of shelters. Shelters can be built quickly and transported easily. A good protection shelter to resist future disasters. Affordable shelter. Victims need to stay more than 6 months to one year until the new house is built. Women and children need to be taken care of. Victims need to be more resilient to future disasters . 11


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TROPICAL SHELTER

RESEARCH Case Study Target User Aftermath Living Condition Current Solution Shelter Analysis Comparison Environment Experts Interviews Persona Humanitarian Organization Storyboard PRD 13


CASE STUDY

PHILIPPINES On November 8th 2013, the Philippines were devastated by the most powerful typhoon to have made landfall. With sustained winds of over 200 kph (peaking at 315 kph), typhoon Haiyan, killed over 6,000 people, injuring more than 27,000 others, displacing approximately 4 million people, and affecting a grand total of 16 million people.

Population

96,706,764 Haiyan Peak Winds

315 KPH Ormoc Population

203,540

Max Storm Surge

5.2 m (Tacloban)

Buidings Affected

80-90% Schools

62% destroyed or roofless Total Haiyan Deaths

6,201

Haiyan Injured

28,626

Affected Population

16,078,181 14


TROPICAL SHELTER PHILIPPINES: Damaged houses (as of 18 Nov 2013 18:00 UTC+8) OCCIDENTAL MINDORO

IV-A ORIENTAL MINDORO

V BICOL REGION

ROMBLON

Allen

houses damaged 52%

48%

San Isidro CAPIZ

(IN THOUSAND)

VIII VI VII IV-B V IV-A CARAGA XI X

Naval

totally damaged

NUMBER OF DAMAGED HOUSES BY REGION

33

San Jose

12 1 1 0 0

CAR I

Manila

Sibalom

II III

IV-B VI

Bais Tanjay

BILIRAN Leyte Tacloban Palo Balangiga Tanauan Giporlos Dagami

Jaro

Ormoc

Guiuan

Typhoo

n Haiya n

DINAGAT SLANDS

SURIGAO DEL NORTE

Tagbilaran

XIII CARAGA

Pamplona Santa Catalina

VII X

Dumaguete

The boundaries and Dauin NEGROS XIII names shown and the IX SIQUIJOR ORIENTAL Siaton designations used on ARMM this map do not imply XI official endorsement XII or acceptance by United Nations. The boundaries and names shown and the designations usedthe on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.

Glide number: TC-2013-000139-PHL

Sources: GSI, UNK, DSWD

Feedback: ochavisual@un.org

Summary:

EASTERN SAMAR Borongan

Cadiz Pototan Saravia Burauen Dulag Janiuay Vito Fabrica Silay Merida Borbon Toboso ILOILO Salamanca Talisay Leon Oton Jaro Tuburan San Bacolod Francisco LEYTE Tigbon Tigara Concepcion Miagao Santo Niño VII Poro La Carlota GUIMARAS CENTRAL SOUTHERN Tabon LEYTE Magallon VISAYAS Cadre Cebu Calamba Bien Unido Himamaylan Carcar Binicuil Kabankalan Dumanjug Argao NEGROS BOHOL OCCIDENTAL CEBU

IV-A CALABARZON V VIII

Creation date: 18 Nov 2013

Dolores

Caibiran

Tunga Bogo

ANTIQUE

505 379 142

> 10,001 5,001 - 10,000 2,001 - 5,000 1,001 - 2,000 < 1,000 No data

Oras WESTERN SAMAR Wright

Roxas

AKLAN

Catubig

VIII EASTERN VISAYAS

Malaga Tinambacan Calbayog

VI WESTERN Kalibo VISAYAS

1.1 million

Palapag

Catarman NORTHERN SAMAR

MASBATE

IV-B MIMAROPA

partially damaged

# houses damaged

SORSOGON

AGUSAN DEL NORTE

CAMIGUIN

50 km www.unocha.org

X

MISAMIS ORIENTAL www.reliefweb.int

SURIGAO DEL SUR AGUSAN DEL SUR

https://philippines.humanitarianresponse.info

Emergency: Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), Philippines Date:

8th November 2013

Impact:

1.12 million houses damaged. Over 4 million people displaced.

Philippines is a lowermiddle income country that is highly prone to volcanic, tectonic and climatic disasters. Typhoon Haiyan was one of the largest typhoons ever to make landfall, and the deadliest in the history of the Philippines. More over four million people were displaced by this typhoon. Tow years after, recovery effort is still continuing.

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TARGET USER PRIMARY USERS

DISPLACED PEOPLE

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WOMEN AND CHILD


TROPICAL SHELTER

SECONDARY USERS

HUMANITARIAN GROUPS

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

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AFTERMATH

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The government was slow to respond

Destroyed houses

Philippines is a lower -middle income country. The government was not able to deal with large numbers of displaced people at once. Those people were in urgent need of relief.

After the typhoon devastated the region many have nothing left, they are without food or power and most lost their homes.


TROPICAL SHELTER

Shortage of Evacuation Centers Shortage of evacuation centers in areas were hit by Typhoon Haiyan has humanitarians and officials concerned that survivors will not have alternative accommodation in case of another one.

Women and Child A woman and her children who have been displaced by Typhoon Haiyan. She needed food and shelter, and some helps.

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EVACUATION CENTER

There are 415 evacuation centers that are UNUSABLE due to Haiyanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s damage and in need of repair, and 166 have been totally DESTROYED and will have to be rebuilt.

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TROPICAL SHELTER

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LIVING CONDITION

The majority of the victims can only get an emergency tent after the typhoon. Or just a piece of canvas, metal panel, or a plastic panel. Some of them even just live in the houses in ruins. The slow reconstruction and rehabilitation forces the victims to live in an unsafe and temporary shelter. If there is another disaster coming, they are not able to handle it and it will cause even more damages.

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TROPICAL SHELTER

Victims made their own shelter by pieces of tarps, metal panels or some simple watertight materials.

The slowness of reconstruction and recovery forces the victims to live in an unsafe and terrible environment.

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CURRENT SOLUTION • According to reports the anticipated lifespan of a temporary shelter is around three months. • They didn't have any other supplies such as drinking water, food, and non-food items. • Monsoon rains make their residence hot and humid. • People need to face future frequent disasters. • They always worry about the next natural disaster coming . •Victims cannot afford to pay for a wnew house. • Recovery continues to be slow.

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TROPICAL SHELTER

Summary

Most of the existing shelters only consider the general problems. They are not thinking about the specific climate and environment. For example, there are frequent typhoons, tropical cyclones with a lot of rain and strong wind, or even flooding in the are of tropical climates. It is not possible for the existing shelters to resist these factors.

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SHELTER ANALYSIS Philippines â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; "Transitional-Shelter"

Information Disaster: Typhoon, December 2011 Materials: Reinforced concrete columns, masonry and timber walls, timber roof framing with metal siding. Material source: Locally and internationally procured Time to build: 15 days Anticipated lifespan: 3 year Construction team: 10 people plus fabrication team. Number built: 250

Summary

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The concrete and masonry components of the shelter are very durable materials, and provided the timber components are treated, the shelter should be durable with a decent design life. The use of precast concrete columns allows for quick construction of the roof to provide covered shelter while the exterior walls are constructed, and allow for possible re-use in more permanent construction. Provided the timber framed portion of the walls are properly anchored to the lower masonry walls and to the roof framing, the performance of the shelter for lateral wind and seismic loads should be adequate. However, there is not enough shelter weight to resist uplift loads for full wind speeds. Provided the roof trusses are adequately braced at each panel point the wood framing is adequate with the exception of the truss overhangs. The large overhangs of the top chords are not sufficiently strong to resist the anticipated uplift loads from a full storm.


TROPICAL SHELTER Philippines â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; "Transitional-Shelter"

Information Disaster: Typhoon, December 2011 Materials: Concrete footings, coconut wood frame, plywood floor, amaken walls and corrugated iron roof. Material source: Locally procured Time to build: 10 days Anticipated lifespan: 3 years Construction team: 5 people Number built: 1,823

Summary The timber framing should be relatively durable, provided it is properly treated prior to construction. The timber framing and wall panels can be built with locally sourced materials, and the simple construction reduces the need for skilled labor. Provided the wood posts and roof rafters are adequately anchored to their supports the shelter should perform satisfactorily, but damage should be expected during strong storms. The adequacy of the floor and roof framing is dependent on the use of high quality wood. To ensure good performance of the floor and roof framing, all the beams supporting floor joist and roof rafters should be doubled up. 2013-10-28-Post-disaster-shelter-IFRC

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ENVIRONMENT

Evacuation Center Lack of privacy Lack of security No extra room Hygiene problems Victims donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have alternative accommodation.

Rainy Season June to October is Rainy season September and October are often the typhoon season. Hot and Humid

Living in the Ruins

Lots of debris Dirt and Mud High risk area

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TROPICAL SHELTER

Three Months After Typhoon Haiyan

26 000 people were still in evacuation centers after the devastation of Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. Now, the key humanitarian issue trying to be solved is providing emergency shelters.

• In Tacloban nearly 5,000 people are still displaced, living in eight evacuation centers established in school buildings. • Impacted areas are unable to keep up with demand and care for newborns and their mothers. • After three months, the recovery efforts were still slow. • Most people were rebuilding their houses. • Obviously, the first shelter allocation is not enough. 29


SUMMARY

According to the reports, it shows the rescue work was slow in the first three months after Typhoon Haiyan. There were a large number of victims. But there were a lack of local supplies. Victims were living in a very rough and unsafe environment during this period. Moreover, there were a lot of newborns. Local reports showed that there was a serious lack of medical supplies and maternal care facilities. The problems of crowded evacuation centers, children and women's security issues also continued rising. They didn't have enough supplies and a safe environment to protect them and their families. Since the Philippines is a low-income country, most of the rehabilitation funds were provided by the outside world in the six months after Typhoon Haiyan. The government efficiency was low mading the total restoration very slow. Many victims started to build their houses on their own, but they were still insufficient to protect them from the wind and storms. Victims had to wait for a long time until restoration began. There was nobody to take care of women and children. The safety risks remained high, and they needed a long-term solution.

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TROPICAL SHELTER

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SHELTER COMPARISON PERMANANT HOUSING EMERGENCY SHELTER

? TRANSITIONAL SHELTER

MY DESIGN POSITION Shelter Duration

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TROPICAL SHELTER

EMERGENCY SHELTER

V.S

TRANSITIONAL SHELTER

Light Weight Portable Water Resistant Withstand Heavy Wind Duration Low-cost Quick Assembly Foldable Reusable Can be Shipped Raised From The Ground 33


SHELTER COMPARISON

Compared advantage and weakness of these two type of shelters. I developed my own shelter design criteria. This design criteria will help me to understand what are the current situations and problems which I need to solve.

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TROPICAL SHELTER

Design Position

DESIGN CRITERIA

?

Light Weight Portable

Light Weight

Water Resistant

Portable

Withstand Heavy Wind

Water Resistant

Duration

Withstand Heavy Wind Duration

Low-cost

Low-cost

Quick Assembly

Quick Assembly

Foldable

Foldable

Reusable

Reusable Can be Shipped Raised From The Ground

Can be Shipped Raised From The Ground 35


EXPERTS INTERVIEWS

IsraAid Philippines Country Director

Yael Or

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Typhoon Haiyan was the most serious rescue mission for us in the Philippines. We sent a lot of manpower there to rescue people. Victims needed a very large number of supplies and shelters within the first week. However, there were so many victims that we were not able to provide tents or emergency shelters. We could only give them tarps or some rough materials to build a simple rain cover. In the follow-up report, we made some improvements on the direction of pre-position about how to build a safe shelter for every victim quickly. We also needed to keep testing the efficiency of set up, durability and the number of deliveries to ensure it's delivered to every victim.


TROPICAL SHELTER

Special Search and Rescue Team (SAR) Squadron Leader

Simon Wu

I have 15 years experience of rescue responding. My job is about search and rescue, which means going to on-scene as soon as we can rescue survivors and search for bodies. In my experience, the priority of survivors after disaster is to have a safe shelter. But the existing rescue groups don't have very high efficiency, especially when they have a large number of victims. They don't have enough material supplies for the victims. And transportation is also a big problem during rescue response.

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EXPERTS INTERVIEWS

International Rescue Committee (IRC) Regional Director, Asia

Sanna Johnson

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The recovery of victims after a disaster is primary. We have to ensure that we take care of victims. The Philippines is not a stranger to natural disasters because of the geographical environment. They have floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or typhoons very often. But this time, typhoon Haiyan caused very serious damage to their houses, roads, water conservancy and electrical power systems. Some airports and ports were badly damaged and couldn't be used anytime soon. This was the most difficult part of the rescue mission - we could not deliver the resources from the outside world. Also, the major relief was mostly concentrated in the big cities. Victims who were in rural areas waited for the supplies from one to two weeks. The progress of restoration work was very slow. A lot of victims were still living in a rough environment or temporary shelters a year after typhoon Haiyan.


TROPICAL SHELTER

International Committee of The Red Cross (ICRC) North Regional Director

Hank Kuo

I have been in the Republic of China Red Cross Organization for twenty years. In my experience, typhoons usually cause other disasters such as flooding or landslides. However, flooding and landslides often cause more serious problems. In Southeast Asia, some people are still living in a traditional building with rough structures. They are mostly made of wood, bamboo or straw. These buildings are easily damaged or collapse by natural disaster.

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PERSONA

Evelina Age: 30~40 Leyte, Philippines 2013 Haiyan Typhoon

I lost my husband and family in this disaster. Now I am raising my two children alone. My house is damaged badly after the typhoon, and I can’t live there anymore. We moved to the victims’ camp and live with other survivors. However, I have mixed feelings about living in the victims’ camp with my children. It’s because of the hygiene problem, hydration problem, or safety issues. In fact, violence and sexual abuse often occur to women in the victims’ camp. We can only take care of each other in the camp with other single mothers. And the camp is an open space, we need to pay attention to any risks such as our tent being invaded, the tropical mosquitoes and snakes, or even preparation for the upcoming disasters. Unfortunately, the government doesn’t have enough resources to help us. 40


TROPICAL SHELTER

Bayanai Age: 50~70 Ormoc City, Philippines 2013 Haiyan Typhoon

When we saw the typhoon prediction we didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t pay attention. Because typhoons are a common thing for us ,we thought it was just a regular typhoon. But what we didn't know was the typhoon was much stronger than the prediction. The weather forecast amended it as a super typhoon. Most of the houses were destroyed by the strong wind and slashing rain. It caused serious casualties. Then we were notified to stay in the emergency evacuation center. But the space is very limited. There is only a small space for us to lie down. We feel hopeless, and we want to get back to our home soon.

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PERSONA

Emily Ortega Age: 20~30 Tacloban, Philippines 2013 Haiyan Typhoon

The typhoon came 10 days before I gave birth. This typhoon caused tidal waves and I lost my home. My family was swept away by the storm surge and they were still missing. I survived because I swam and clung to a post. After that I was sent to a makeshift center at the airport. The doctor told me there would be a high risk of infection if I gave birth now, and there were no antibiotics available. Fortunately, I gave birth to my daughter with no infection. But I felt helpless because nobody was taking care of us and we didn't want to be assigned to an evacuation center because there is no privacy there. It would be inconvenient for me and my baby. I wish there was a place that was safe for women and children. 42


TROPICAL SHELTER

Jenny Age: 20~30 Tacloban, Philippines 2013 Haiyan Typhoon

I used to live with my grandmother. But after the typhoon, we lost our home. The evacuation center was full. Most of the victims have returned to the area near their house and started to build a tent after receiving supplies from the resource center. However, we could only stay nearby our damaged house because we were in a rural area and my grandmother is disabled. The late reconstruction and lack of supplies made us feel insecured. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve heard about some robbery and violence occurring in this area. I am so scared but we donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know what to do. We need a safe shelter immediately.

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HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS American Red Cross The American Red Cross is supporting the global Red Cross response to Typhoon Haiyan. In addition to supporting evacuations before the storm struck, the Philippine Red Cross has deployed disaster response teams to the affected areas and is coordinating with disaster authorities to conduct assessments.

Buddhist Tzu Chi Foundation Buddhist Tzu Chi is delivering water purification pills, tarts, monetary donations, and food and medical supplies. In addition to food and supplies, Tzu Chi has and will continue to send medical and disaster relief teams to the Philippines..

CARE CARE has deployed shelter and disaster experts to join local CARE partners in typhoon-affected areas of the Philippines. Depending on its assessment of the most urgent needs, CARE plans to help 150,000 typhoon survivors with shelter, water, and other emergency relief.

International Rescue Committee The International Rescue Committee (IRC) has dispatched an emergency team to the Philippines to launch an urgent response to the humanitarian crisis wreaked by Typhoon Haiyan. The IRC's response will lead with efforts on food, water and sanitation, health, shelter, and non-food items and closely follow with women's protection and empowerment, child protection, and livelihoods support.

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TROPICAL SHELTER ShelterBox ShelterBox is focusing on providing emergency tented shelter, water filters, blankets, toolkits, solar lights and other non-food items to families impacted by the Typhoon Haiyan.

World Vision World Vision (WV) has launched a multi-million dollar global appeal for financial support to provide emergency relief to 400,000 people in the Philippines. Our emergency response will consist of food, non-food items, hygiene kits, emergency shelter, child protection and education, health and nutrition, and psychosocial support over an initial six month period.

The UN Refugee Agency Emergency humanitarian needs in response to the impact of Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. Initial response activities include material resource provision, emergency shelter items, drinking water and cash for work programs.

USAID The United States Agency for International Development is the United States Government agency which is primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid. It anticipates that among the immediate needs in the affected areas will be water and sanitation, shelter, and camp management.

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STORYBOARD

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TROPICAL SHELTER

These humanitarian organizations are all over the world. They have provided shelter programs for victims even though they are not in the same place. They will be my references and I will contact them in order to get more information for my project. I am going to design a brand new shelter, which can provide a secure shelter system for victims. It should be easy to install, repair and modify, in order to increase the efficiency of rescue. 47


PRODUCT REQUIREMENT DOCUMENT

The product requirements document for shelter requirements and development of shelter system. Certain constructions and safety requirements should be addressed and take into the product's manufacturing and transportation operations system. 48


TROPICAL SHELTER

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS • Structural Performance, Water-Resist Barrier, Air Barrier evalucation. • Allowing people to quickly assemble with directions. • Assembled component versions should have minimal set up and prep time for usage. The shelter set up times should range around 20 mins. • Ensure access shelter solutions (such as tents or shelter kits), construction materials,technical assistance, as required. • This shelter has a strong structure. • It’s very easy to assemble and disassemble. • A covered area of less than 3.5m2 per person may be appropriate to save a life and to provide adequate short-term shelter. • The construction of the shelter should be lightweight • This shelter can be built by 2-3 persons. • Affordable maintenance. • The shelter should offer applicable size for a family (Approximately 4-6 persons) • The components must be replacable. • The entire units should be able to be loaded into shipping containers. • Accept any mode of transport. 49


PRODUCT REQUIREMENT DOCUMENT FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS • The specific climatic conditions for all seasons to provide optimal thermal comfort, ventilation and protection. • Temporary or transitional shelter may be required to provide adequate shelter for an extended period of time, through different seasonal climates and potentially for several years. • The floor-to-ceiling height is a key factor, with greater height being preferable in hot and humid climates to aid air circulation, while a lower height is preferable in cold climates to minimize the internal volume that requires heating. • Shelters should be oriented and designed to maximize ventilation and minimize entry of direct sunlight. • The roof should have a reasonable slope for rainwater drainage with large overhangs except in locations vulnerable to high winds. • Adequate surface water drainage should be ensured around the shelter together with the use of raised floors to minimize the risk of water entering the covered area. • Lighting system is required to increase security. • Shelter is able to be connected with others to become a simple community.

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TROPICAL SHELTER

USABILITY REQUIREMENTS • All temporary shelter and settlement solutions are safe and adequate and will remain so until more durable solutions are achieved • Temporary communal settlements all require safe, secure and equitable access to essential services. These include, as appropriate, water, sanitary facilities, fuel for cooking or communal cooking facilities, healthcare, solid waste disposal, schools, social facilities, places of worship, meeting points, recreational areas, including child-friendly spaces and space for livestock accommodation. • Ensure that essential household and livelihood activities can be carried out within the covered living space or adjacent area. • Enable the maintenance and upgrading of individual household shelters using locally available tools and resources • The shelter can be used to protect people in extreme weather. • Shelter mus t allow user to maintain, repair or replace their own shelter.

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PRODUCT REQUIREMENT DOCUMENT ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS • Ensure that debris resulting from the disaster is removed from key locations including the sites of damaged or destroyed homes, temporary communal settlements, essential public buildings and access routes. • Ensure sufficient surface area and adequate fire separation in temporary planned and self-settled camps. • Use existing settlement patterns and topographical features to minimize adverse impact on the natural environment • Ensure safe access to all shelters and settlement locations and to essential services. • In cold climates, household activities typically take place within the covered area and affected populations may spend substantial time inside to ensure adequate thermal comfort. • Assess and analyze the adverse impact of the disaster on the local natural environment and environmental risks and vulnerabilities. • Manage local natural environmental resources to meet the ongoing and future needs of disaster-affected populations. • Minimize the adverse impact on local natural environmental resources which can result from the production and supply of construction materials and the building process. 52


TROPICAL SHELTER

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DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Initial Ideation Developing Process Mock-up Study Final Ideation 1:3 Scale Mock-up Task Summary Full Scale Full Scale Detail Model Testing


INITIAL IDEATION Design Direction 1 DESIGN CRITERIA

Light Weight Portable Water Resistant Withstand Heavy Wind Duration LowCost Quick Assembly Foldable Reusable Can be Shipped Raised From The Ground

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INFATABLE SHELTER


TROPICAL SHELTER

Design Direction 2

STRUCTURE

57


INITIAL IDEATION Design Direction 3 FOLDING SHELTER

58


TROPICAL SHELTER

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DEVELOPING PROCESS

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TROPICAL SHELTER PAPER MOCK-UPS

Paper folding process

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MOCK-UP STUDY STRUCTURE MOCK-UPS

STRENGTHS:

62

WEAKNESSES:

Stronger

Heavy

Protective

Too many components

Can be expanded

Difficult to assemble

Easy to replace

Slow transport


TROPICAL SHELTER FOLDING SHELTER MOCK-UPS

STRENGTHS:

WEAKNESSES:

Light weight

No stronger structural support

Easy to assemble

Less protection

No tools required

Big wall panel is hard to

Stronger wall panel

replace and repair

Can be folded into a small volume 63


FINAL IDEATION FOLDING SHELTER

Quick Assembly

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Light Weight

Raised From The Ground


TROPICAL SHELTER

Foldable

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1:3 SCALE MOCK-UP Final Direction Mock-ups

Main Box

Every piece can be folded in t

Folding surfaces create structure, Light Weight, Fast Assembly, Quick Transport

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the box

TROPICAL SHELTER Extend the folding piece

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TASK SUMMARY

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TROPICAL SHELTER

DESIGN CRITERIA

Light Weight Portable Water Resistant Withstand Heavy Wind Duration Low-cost Quick Assembly

SUMMARY I developed different type of mock-ups from three directions. Every direction was following this design criteria. Through a variety of mock-up tests, I developed my final direction. This shelter can be used origami method to fold every part into a box. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s light weight, easy to transport, stackable, and no tools needed to assemble. This shelter is completely different than other existing shelter. It is going to improve the efficiency of recovery efforts, and it provides a more resilient life for the victims.

Foldable Reusable Can be Shipped Raised From The Ground

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FULL SCALE

MATERIALS

MOCK-UP FINDINGS

Wood frame

Measure actual size

Coroplast panel 4mm

Pattern measurement

Metal joint support

Folding process

0.5â&#x20AC;? Front panel (Actual Size)

Door and window size Fasteners

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TROPICAL SHELTER

USER TESTING

SPECS TESTING

Folding process

Full size panel cutting in one piece

Ventilation System

Panel folding testing

Door and windows

Open and close testing

Capacity

Count total materials

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FULL SCALE DETAIL

MATERIALS

72

HUMAN FACTORS

2â&#x20AC;? Heavy Duty Velcro

Assembly test

Webbing and Buckles

Ventilation test

Rubber Sealing

Comfort level

Vents Metal Plate

Capacity


TROPICAL SHELTER

DETAIL REFINE Measure materials

Structural strength test

Door and windows size cutting

Fastener test

Vents plate placed

Waterproof test

Velcro length

Window sealing

Waterproof sealing Webbing test 73


MODEL TESTING OUTDOOR TESTING

TESTING Strong wind test Water resistant test Material Test 74

WEEK 1

WEEK 2

The outdoor test was to evaluate this shelter during a storm, and it was placed outside for a month to test durability, waterproof, and strength of structure.


TROPICAL SHELTER WEEK 3

WEEK 4

After 4 week testing, the shelter was still in very good condition. Side walls were a little bit flabby due to the material was (4mm coroplast : the actual thickness is 1/2 inch)

75


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TROPICAL SHELTER

FINAL DESIGN Othographic

Pattern

Open Steps

Handling

Human Factors

Bill of Materials

Materials Call Out

Color Study

Shelter Legs

Final Rendering

Transportation Housing Ventilation Water Collecting System

77


ORTHOGRAPHIC WHOLE SHELTER

78


TROPICAL SHELTER BOX UNIT : FOOT

79


OPEN STEPS

Put the legs out

Fold the front wall out

Open the floors 80


TROPICAL SHELTER

Assemble the roof Fold the roof out

Attach to lower parts

Fold the side wall out Attach velcro to the front wall 81


HUMAN FACTORS

82


TROPICAL SHELTER

DETAILS Suitable for a family

Water collection system

Ventilation for tropical area

Privacy

Raised from the ground

Waterproof

Avoid hot and humid air

No tools needed

Keep dry in the room

Be assembled by 1-2 people

Good protection

83


MATERIALS CALL OUT Connecting material 2â&#x20AC;? Heavy Duty Velcro

Water Resistant Rubber window Seal All Edges

Modular Door

Walls Material

0.5 Inch Coroplast

84


TROPICAL SHELTER

Fastener Pop-up Rivets

Reinforcement 1Inch Nylon Webbing Heavy Duty Buckle

Lock Ski Boot Buckle

Box Material Same rotomolding process as HDPE toilet

Vents 16 in. x 8 in. Aluminum Louvered Soffit Vent

85


SHELTER LEGS RETRACTABLE LEGS

1 : 1 Mock-up

86


TROPICAL SHELTER Dimension

Retractable legs Able to extend Use crank to adjust level Aluminum

UNIT : INCH

4 Legs under each floor

87


TRANSPORTATION 40â&#x20AC;&#x2122; SHIPPING CONTAINER

88

Can be stacked Easy to Storage

16 MODULES

Box size base on the shipping container

Accommodated 130 people

960 cu ft/per

Easy to fit in different transportation


TROPICAL SHELTER

CARGO SHIP

CARGO PLANE

30,000 MODULES

30 MODULES

Accommodated

Accommodated

240,000 people

240 people

TRUCK

20 MODULES Accommodated 160 people

89


HOUSING VENTILATION

Function

Suitable for tropical area Avoid hot and humid air Increase air convection

90


TROPICAL SHELTER

Hot Air

Cool Air Hot Air

14 Lower metal panels 5 upper windows Raised 8â&#x20AC;? from the ground Cool Air

91


WATER COLLECTING SYSTEM Water Collecting

Function : Collect Rain directly Large capacity water storage tank Water filter included in the box Solved the drinking water problem Solve the daily using water problem

WATER FLOW

92


TROPICAL SHELTER

Water Tank Capacity Capacity : 12 cubic foot 340 liters Full tank can be used for a week

Water filter : Filter is included Standard connector Filter can be replaced

93


PATTERN

ROOF 1 PIECE

94

LEFT WALL 2 PIECE

DIE CUTTING

MADE IN ONE PIECE

COROPLAST

EAST TO MANUFACTURE


TROPICAL SHELTER

FRONT WALL 1 PIECE

RIGHT WALL 2 PIECE

95


HANDLING BY HAND

How to carry: Two people Use lower handdle bar Stackable Easy to storage

HANDLE BAR

96

STACKABLE


TROPICAL SHELTER

BY MACHINE

How to tansport: Pallet style bottom Can be lifted Weight: 200 lbs

PALLET

LIFTER 97


BILL OF MATERIALS Exploded View :

1 5

7 8 9

11 13 14

19

15 16 12

3 4 18 10

2

6 20

98

17


TROPICAL SHELTER Parts List : PART'S NAME PART'S NAME Box Base Box Base Floor  Floor  Wall Wall Front Wall Front Wall Roof  Roof  Door  Door  Rubber Window Seal Rubber Window Seal Velcro (Hook) Velcro (Hook) Velcro (Loop) Velcro (Loop) Pop Rivet Pop Rivet Push‐in Rivet Push‐in Rivet Door Hinges Door Hinges Buckle  Buckle  Nylon Webbing  Nylon Webbing  G‐Hook  G‐Hook  O‐Ring O‐Ring Lock Buckle  Lock Buckle   Louvered Soffit Vent  Louvered Soffit Vent Silicone Jamb Silicone Jamb Crank Jack Crank Jack

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

MATERIAL MATERIAL  HDPE HDPE HDPE HDPE 0.5"Coroplast 0.5"Coroplast 0.5"Coroplast 0.5"Coroplast 0.5"Coroplast 0.5"Coroplast HDPE HDPE Rubber Rubber

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Metal Metal Plastic Plastic Nylon Nylon Metal Metal Metal Metal Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Aluminum Silicone Silicone Metal Metal

PARTS LIST PARTS LIST SPECS SPECS 7.5'*7.5'*1.9'' 7.5'*7.5'*1.9'' 7.5'*7.5'*0.3' 7.5'*7.5'*0.3' 6'*6' 6'*6' 8'*6' 8'*6' 8'*8' 8'*8' 6.5'*2.5' 6.5'*2.5' 7.9mm*9.1mm 7.9mm*9.1mm 2" 2" 2" 2" 4MM 4MM 1" 1" 1" 1" 1" 1" 1.5" 1.5" 16 in. x 8 in. 16 in. x 8 in. 0.5MM 0.5MM

QTY. QTY. 1 1 2 42 24 22 12 1

$140 $140 $80 $80 $80 $80 $50 $50

45' 45' " "

$60 $60 " "

12 12 2 82 8 120' 120' 12 12 8 88 68 6 25.5' 25.5' 8 8

$3 $3 $6 $6 $8 $8 $40 $40 $8 $8 $10 $10 $50 $50

Total: $1,070

COST COST $300 $300

$10 $10 $150 $150 99


COLOR STUDY

PANTONE 7529U

PANTONE 425C

PANTONE 420C

100


TROPICAL SHELTER

Identification number of allocated area

PANTONE 54350

PANTONE 425C

PANTONE 420C

101


FINAL RENDERING

102


TROPICAL SHELTER

103


FINAL RENDERING

104


TROPICAL SHELTER

105


BIBLIOGRAPHY

106


TROPICAL SHELTER

BLOG :

The Sphere Handbook http://www.sphereproject.org

Safer Handling and Breaking the Cycle. Shelter Center www.sheltercentre.org www.proactnetwork.org

ShelterCluster.org http://www.whatdesigncando.com/blog/2015/04/30/gimme-shelter/

Biomimicry for Disasters and Energy Crisis http://www.lgcnsblog.com/inside-it/biomimicry-for-disasters-and-energy-crisis/s

Published on Jun 21, 2014 Bio mimicry principles http://www.slideshare.net/pudhiaideas/biomimicry-lifeprinciplenambirajan-36138147

One year after Typhoon Haiyan https://www.mercycorps.org/articles/philippines/one-year-after-typhoon-haiyan progress-report

107


BIBLIOGRAPHY

WEBSITES :

http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?cat=4 http://www.drash.com/aboutus/technology/Shelters.aspx http://www.rescue.org/our-work/emergency-response http://mashable.com/2014/11/07/before-and-after-typhoon-haiyan/#SFCbCu5t1ZqM http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/31/tacloban-a-year-after-typhoon-haiyan http://www.blurb.com/books/1951992-morphogenetic-design http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4438 https://issuu.com/millerlaura/docs/cfi_541938_lauramiller_pages2 https://issuu.com/ani.arzumanyan/docs/versatility_and_vicissitude https://issuu.com/karentsui8/docs/studio_air_journal_1 http://www.strongwell.com/about/the-pultrusion-process/ http://www.engineershandbook.com/MfgMethods/sheetmetalforming.htm http://www.efunda.com/processes/metal_processing/extrusion.cfm http://www.twi-global.com/technical-knowledge/job-knowledge/tungsten-inert-gas-tigor-gtawelding-006/

108


TROPICAL SHELTER

ARTICLES :

Philippines: One year after typhoon Haiyan 18 December 2014 http://www.msf.org/

Interview: In Typhoon Disaster Zone, Report January 13th, 2014 by Jeff Tompkins

After Super Typhoon Haiyan, the leader of the Red Cross shows why amateurs study strategy while professionals study logistics.By DAVID FEITH Nov. 25, 2013 12:30 p.m. ET

Recovery Shelter Guidelines 28th Nov 2014 https://www.sheltercluster.org/sites/default/files/docs/Recovery%20Shelter%20Guidelines.pdf

Emergency & Early Recovery Technical Guidance 16/Feb/2014 https://www.sheltercluster.org/sites/default/files/docs/ShelterCluster_TechnicalGuidelines_140216.pdf

Tarpaulins 04 Dec 2013 https://www.sheltercluster.org/sites/default/files/docs/131116%20IEC%20-%20Tarpaulines.pdf http://www.ifrc.org/PageFiles/95530/D.03.c.01.%20Timber%20Guidelines-EN.pdf Humanitarian Timber Guidelines

109


BIBLIOGRAPHY

ARTICLES :

Transitory Tent Sites 23 Sept 2014 https://www.sheltercluster.org/sites/default/files/docs/Generic%20Guidelines%20for%20 Training%20V2.pdf

Shelter and Environment 12 January 2014 https://www.sheltercluster.org/sites/default/files/docs/Haiyan_Shelter%20and%20 Environment%20Overview%20%28final%29.pdf

Philippines – “Transitional Shelter” 2013 http://sheltercasestudies.org/files/tshelter-8designs/10designs2013/2013-Postdisaster-shelter10designs-Philippines-1.pdf

Shelter Safety Handbook http://www.ifrc.org/PageFiles/95526/publications/305400-Shelter%20safety%20handbook-ENLR.pdf

Gender and shelter in emergencies http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/12.pdf

110


TROPICAL SHELTER

111


TSB Shelter design  

TSB Shelter Box is designed for humanitarian disaster relief. It's fast to transport, quick assembly, light weight, and durable for long-ter...

TSB Shelter design  

TSB Shelter Box is designed for humanitarian disaster relief. It's fast to transport, quick assembly, light weight, and durable for long-ter...

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