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Darja Popolitova

ANDROGYNY JEWELLERY BEYOND GENDER


Estonian Academy of Arts Department of Jewellery and Blacksmithing

Darja Popolitova

ANDROGYNY JEWELLERY BEYOND GENDER

MA, II

Tutor: prof Tanel Veenre Editor: Renetta K천rre Book design and layout: Anastassia Shar천mova Olga Makaronskaja Sofia Isupova

Tallinn 2015


CONTENT INTRODUCTION

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1. GENDER IN MATERIALS

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1.2 Gender Blender

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1.3 Body versus Spirit

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2. THE COMPONENTS OF ANDROGYNOUS JEWELLERY

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2.1 Duality

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2.2 The Modification of Femininity

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2.3 The Shifting Hierarchy of Materials

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2.4 The Androgynous Spirit or Overcoming Gender

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2.5 Metanoia

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2.6 The Androgynous Body or the Quality of Perfection

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2.7

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The Quality of Wholeness

SUMMARY

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RESĂœMEE

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TERMINOLOGY

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REFERENCES

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I hereby certify that I am the sole author of this thesis and that no part of this thesis has been published or submitted for publication. I certify that, to the best of my knowledge, my thesis does not infringe upon anyone’s copyright nor violate any proprietary rights and that any ideas, techniques, quotations, or any other material from the work of other people included in my thesis, published or otherwise, are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard referencing practices. I declare that this is a true copy of my thesis it has not been submitted for a higher degree to any other University or Institution. Darja Popolitova

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The interpretation of the concept of androgyny and its application to the materiality of jewellery inspired my Master’s thesis. During the process, I attempted to focus on the future and to harness ethereal ideals, because as an artist, I tend to react intuitively. The unpredictability of the process intimidated me, yet also thrilled me. I found that futurologyinfluenced research views androgyny as the ideal state of being, where the communication and contact between individuals is not marred by the contrast between genders or by sexual frustration. The concept of gender is an extremely important component of androgyny and as such, must be explored in depth. I began to consider the idea of androgyny through the transformation and overcoming of sexual desire and the merging of the female and male dualities present in the human body. Although the main topic is androgyny, I did not analyse it as a sexual term, but rather as an abstract subject and an illusion. From a practical point of view, the idea is to grab 12

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this illusion and to visualise it in jewellery form. In theory, I wish to define the qualities of androgynous jewellery on the basis of my research on the concept of androgyny. The original term androgyny derives from the Greek language, where andr-, means man and gyné-, means woman. However, the “man” and the “woman” here need to be taken with a grain of salt, because the androgynous merge cannot cancel the natural distinctions between the man and the woman as individuals. Assuming that androgyny is the original, primordial bisexuality of a person, how can humanity discover it again to allow for a new perception of the world? What will be the “trend” of the future – a bodily hermaphroditism or an androgynous spirit? It is possible to comprehend this idea if the bodily and spiritual qualities become merged into one component. In order to prove this, I utilised the analysis of literature, interpretation, comparison and generalisation methods. I did not research the concepts of I N

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male and female because it was researched extensively in new theories in separate sexual and mental categories. On the contrary, I aim to unlock the concept of androgyny, whereby I exclude the male and the female as separate components. This thesis consists of two parts – the jewellery collection and the theoretical framework. The theoretical foundation provided me with profound choices in the fields of materials and aesthetics. What qualities of androgyny are applicable to jewellery? General belief holds that androgynous jewellery can find its individual value by “fusing� the genders. Do materials have distinct genders? It is only possible to answer these questions if individuals become liberated from existing gender stereotypes and discover the distinct and unique meaning without bias. I used both natural and synthetic materials in my collection to represent the focus on androgyny and its unique connection to jewellery. 14

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The theoretical portion contains the theme of androgyny within a split duality. Duality within polar opposites exists side by side – cultural and animalistic, ascetical and desirable, spiritual and bodily, ethereal and materialistic, fragmental and whole. These opposing attitudes are held together by a multi-component structure that charts a general course out of disgust towards ultimate nobility with a journey that is by no means smooth. My jewellery collection symbolizes the rhythm of duality in two separate series. The creation of my collection began with lust and the domestication of primal instincts. I had to shape the abundance of free energy into the desired form and by doing so, I materialised my ideas. The mental aspect created the transition of primal desires in the jewellery pieces, which created both questions and interpretations. How could I connect the components of the jewellery to represent a whole without I N

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simply combining them? This is only possible by using innovative technologies and half biomaterials, which I used in my attempt to contextualise androgyny through form and materials. However, materiality was not a goal, but instead a means which helped to create a new perspective on androgyny. The goal became to try to merge together two dualities of material – natural and synthetic. The series “Fazis” represents the development of androgyny and the feelings of two parts yearning to be whole. In the initial phase, the full fusion is still apparent, and the only thing revealed is the will of the forms through the establishment of neutral relations and the avoidance of rough texture in favor of flowing transitions. While I left the components of the “Fazis” series in further isolation, the full merging occurred in the next series “Metanoia” where the result of androgyny is to find the lost halves of a whole. Through the gradually unfolding rhythms, I found the materials I wished to use: homogeneous hybrid materials 16

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(synthetically processed natural materials) (Hybrid materials, 2015). Another important facet is technology. Before the components of jewellery became a finished piece, they had to undergo several phases of modification – from material to digital. Similar to a principle of androgyny is technology’s bodiless character, which demands the physical opportunity to cross the limits. One hundred thousand pixels become lighter than one feather through the application of 3D techniques such as printing layers in the process of other layers (“Fazis” series) and milling (“Metanoia” series). I relied heavily on the opinions of Berdyaev, who studied the area of gender with a philosophical and a metaphysical point of view. I believe that his opinion is directly relevant to my topic, because it does not relate to androgyny as a current fashion or a style of the times, but rather as a different attitude in a new level of human civilization. I N

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In addition to the research on the theoretical work of philosophical character, I also relied on fiction. One of the initial inspirations was the mystical novel by Honoré de Balzac, “Seraphita.” The novel tells the story of two separate personalities in one androgynous person, who is like an angel on the verge of a final transformation which will rid him of his body and carry him to heaven. I used excerpts from the book as descriptions for each of the chapters, which represents the motto I set for myself in regard to the theoretical part: androgyny can only be achieved by overcoming earthly passions. The names of the chapters in the first half originate from the concept of a “perfume’s components.” I drew a comparison of my own method to that of the creative method used by a perfumer because the creation of perfume begins from the meeting of aromas, or in my case, the meeting of information. It is only when the perfumer completes the recipe that the perfume takes “physical” form. I tried 18

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to proceed from this principle and to define androgynous jewellery as an essence which contains different “smells” and components. Each jewellery piece in my collection is an independent piece as well as a component in the final composition of the “aroma.” Androgyny in the field of contemporary jewellery is a relatively unexplored subject. This is illustrated by an absence of theoretical research on the theme. The practical importance of my thesis lies in the analysis of the interpretation of androgyny which in turn can be used in the field of contemporary jewellery art as an inspiration for creating a new vision or for simply exploring the actual meaning of androgyny. By no means is the text of this thesis a method for achieving androgyny or the androgynous state. The situation what I describe is about overcoming individual sexual desires or the modification of a body, so that people do not catapult into an androgynous future. For me personally, androgyny stays illusive, because it allows I N

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relativity; in materials, shapes and technology. Materiality is not, however, a goal, but a tool for creating a new illusion out of an existing one. Is it not thrilling to attempt to capture it and embody it in material?

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1. GENDER IN MATERIALS Have the pebbles of the fiord any cognisance of their relative shapes, are they conscious of the colors seen in them by the eye of man, do they hear the music of the ripples that dance over them? Balzac, 1897 [2010], p.111

Is it possible to discover any gender in material at all? For example, what gender is clay? In Russian grammar, clay is perceived as female, but other languages do not assign genders to inanimate objects. Whereas a knife in Russian has a male gender, in German it is neutral, and in Armenian, such criteria is absent altogether. Another idea to consider is that precious and semiprecious stones are symbolically considered male or female. Jewellery decorates the body in historically-determined areas and materials. Today, these symbolical associations still exist. For example, iron correlates with medieval times as masculine and war-like, while pearls are associated with the female body. The Professor of History of Art, Marcia Pointon, writes in her book, “Brilliant Effects/A Cultural History of Gemstones and Jewellery,” that the cause of association in people’s minds of female nudity with pearls is a consequence of a plethora of depictions of Venus’ nude body decorated with pearl strings in visual imagery in eighteenth-century Catholic Europe. “…the eroticised spectacle of the female body is marked in particular by a combination of nudity and pearls. The motif of strings of pearls alluding to unseen female sexual organs that is part of the iconography of Venus, as exemplified magnificently in Francois Boucher’s many depictions of the goddess (for example, the 1751 pendants The Toilet of Venus in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and Venus consoling Love in the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC), was repeated frequently throughout the following century” (Pointon, 2009, p.127). What about associations that occurred more recently? Science fiction always reminds people that they are intellectual creatures trapped in their own imperfect male or female human bodies. One solution to this issue is to free the brain of its gender stereotypes in a way which theorist Judith Butler would find 22


appealing. What gender is an apple that hangs on the tree, in comparison to the word “apple?” According to Butler, the apple does not have a gender, and is any not different from a pear or a pomegranate. In the nature of things, grammatical genders obviously do not correspond to anything natural. There is no better physical example of the origin of genders than androgyny. Thanks to this derivation, the concept of androgyny has a chance to be whole and to free itself from defined gender roles. When it comes to androgynous jewellery, it must be one whole and fused together in a homogeneous manner. Through the usage of milling technique, wholeness is illustrated, because just as a whole block of wood must be processed, androgyny can only be achieved by sharpening a new image for itself (ref. “Metanoia” series). If two opposite materials such as iron and pearl were to simply be combined together, the components of jewellery would be like the victims of an unsuccessful courtship.

1.2 GENDER BLENDER Who has not dreamed of the majestic spectacle of these beachless shores, these endless creeks, and inlets, and little Wbays, no two of which are alike, and each a pathless gulf? Balzac, 1897 [2010], p.8

The idea of androgyny is not new; in fact, it is an age-old concept. For example, Plato, in his piece “Symposium” (385–380 B.C.[2008]), considered androgyny as a perfect and holistic embodiment. In 1897, on a wave of French romanticism, Honoré de Balzac, in his novel “Seraphita” (1897[2009]), perfected the androgynous creature by giving it wings and setting it free from human desires. Today, androgyny has left myths and evolved to tangible, realistic ideas. Yet, myths come back in modified ways; its “disappearance” just signifies a period of mutation. This is be expressed by modern time, where the terms of gender are blurred. Besides 23


male and female, there is a wide range of gender identities nowadays, such as transgender, shemale, intersex, androgyne, transsexual, and asexual. In real life, the fashion and porn industry play with this concept often. According to Judith Butler, numerous sexual identifications inevitably lead to a denial of gender. Such a state of things is similar to the process of a burnout of a light bulb – the biggest emission of light happens during culmination. When blinded by this moment, the modern world will try to rid itself of gender entirely to see clearly again. There are two major opinions about where the concept of gender originated from – cultural and anthropological. From the former point of view, gender is shaped by traditions and actions into an assembly of mental sets that are being performed in society. It is self-constructed substance, that deals not with the physiological but rather with the mental state and consequently can be “customised.” Butler provides her own opinion on this issue: “Gender is in no way a stable identity or locus of agency from which various acts proceed; rather, it is an identity tenuously constituted in time- an identity instituted through a stylised repetition of acts. Further, gender is instituted through the stylisation of the body and, hence, must be understood as the mundane way in which bodily gestures, movements, and enactments of various kinds constitute the illusion of an abiding gendered self” (Butler, 1988, p.519). Proceeding from the opinion of Butler, it is possible to make a conclusion that style in the context of gender is treated not only as an external attribute, but also as a set of behavioural features. Butler believes that it is style that makes us a man or a woman. How a person looks (physical aspect), behaves, and speaks (psychological aspect) – these attributes are in us “by default”. Similar to the diversity of genders, an androgynous jewellery piece has a relative structure. By understanding that gender is not a set of personality traits, but qualities attributed to the sexes, the jewellery must be adequately assessed to determine its potential, its “rights,” and the artist’s obligations to it. This requires an individual who does not accept traditions and stereotypes. At the end of the day, it is but a mere piece of jewellery... It is easier to see signs of “blurred” gender in style via modern pop culture. Psychologist of New York University, Scott Barry Kaufman (2013), considered that the psychological aspect of androgyny is not understood by the majority of actors today. Actors believe that by altering their physical appearance, they “blur” the lines of gender. However, it is not sufficient to simply change one’s clothing, as the person still behaves within the confines of gender stereotypes. 24


It is interesting how it is possible to break these stereotypes via different mediums, as it was recently shown in Wes Anderson’s movie (Moonrise Kingdom, 2012)(Fig. 1), where a notable dialogue occurs: “- Suzy: “What’s that one for?” Sam looks at the brooch. He shakes his head. - Sam: “It’s not an accomplishment. I inherited it from my mother. It’s actually not meant for a male to wear, but I don’t give a damn.” Is jewellery here just an external, temporary addition or an attribute that crosses the “border” of gender stereotypes? It is possible to understand it if we view gender as a tool for stylistic shift. Such stylistic shifts were observed earlier already. The Presbyterian preacher Jefferis Kent Peterson (1996) noticed that a ceremony of delivery for the music awards, “Grammy” in 1984 “underscored a dramatic shift in cultural consciousness that has place in the past twenty years,” (Peterson cited in Kaufman, 2013). Boy George and Annie Lennox competed in the ceremony, and Michael Jackson received seven awards. According to Mr. Peterson the event “became a celebration of androgyny and sexual ambiguity” (Peterson cited in Kaufman, 2013). In those days, pop icons David Bowie, Prince, Elton John, Madonna and Cyndi Lauper all operated to some extent with an androgynous image which had a huge impact on the youth of the day. Last but not least, Andy Warhol (1928–1987) headed a cohort of well-known transvestites (Fig. 2). There is also the belief that gender in a stylistic category is a unique manifestation of the personality in which its creative aspect is expressed. For example, in the seventies, psychologist Sandra Bem (1944-2014) wrote that psychological androgyny (the extent to which a person diverts from a standard of behaviour caused by gender) has important consequences. She considered that traditional society does not encourage the existence of both male and female qualities within one personality; therefore, psychological androgyny is the result of striving to expand a range of available types of behaviour. In 1963, American psychologist Ellis Paul Torrance wrote that boys with developed creative abilities are more feminine, and their female counterparts were more masculine. Torrance continued by saying, “Creativity, by its very nature, requires both sensitivity and independence” (1995, p.209). Abraham Maslow (1979) noted that creative people often show a healthy balance between egotism and selflessness, thinking and feeling, work and play, and between maturity and childishness. Actually, he emphasized that it seems as if the contrast of the stereotypical male and female features can be considered 26


as two points on one line in which personality stays at different stages of the creative process. Research which was published in 2000 (JoÈnsson) shows that the participants of an experiment who scored the highest on femininity or masculinity tests (meaning the most androgynous and undifferentiated) have coped better with creative tasks than those who leaned strongly towards only masculine or feminine traits. Style in the gender externalization context can be a physical, fluid phenomenon as well as both stable and progressive. In the latter case, progress occurs when the physical aspect is used in conjunction with the psychological aspect which is expressed through creativity. Thus, one must wonder where did the negative associations with men dressed in female garments or women shown with masculine traits come from? Why do people view a man in a dress or a woman with a weapon as negative or unnatural? Those that do not view gender as stylistic, often view it as primitive and animalistic. American anthropologist, writer, and photographer Ted Polhemus places the idea of self-constructed gender under question, and replaces it with the idea of an overly-passive animalistic desire that is so deep within people that it cannot be removed: “So the history, culture, personal experience rather than genetics which – through the power of symbolic, learned associations – shapes our desires. Yes…but perhaps there is one important exception to the rule; one single geometry of desire which universally, primordially exerts its power over the heterosexual human male in whatever culture or historical era. (…) The male gorilla is drawn irresistibly to the female gorilla’s ass? The fleshly, bulbous cheeks bisected from top to bottom by a narrow cleft? The original primate trigger of desire?” (Polhemus, 2007, page not numbered). Proceeding from a futurological point of view, I do not agree with the notion that the only motor that makes us women or men is the desire between primates. The tendency to deny one’s gender followed the technical era and is the consequence of primitive desires developing. For example, this is illustrated by the conscious decision to hand-pick a partner based on non-physical characteristics.

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1.3 BODY VERSUS SPIRIT Let us then leap the gulf we cannot fathom, the unthinkable union of a material with a spiritual universe, the concept of a visible, ponderable, tangible creation, conterminous with an invisible, imponderable, intangible creation; absolutely dissimilar, separated by a void, united by indisputable points of contact, and meeting in a being who belongs to both! Balzac, 1897 [2010], p.111

The majority of people continue to be guided by primitive, patrimonial instincts; therefore, my work concerns a very small segment of the population. There is a belief that this segment increases the gap between intellectuality and instinct, thereby preventing culture from oversaturation. Currently, the changes which experts warned us about long ago are happening with frightening speed. The world is accelerating – there are autonomous cars, experiments with scanning the human brain (“mind uploading”), expeditions to Mars and a lack of natural resources as a consequence. How can we reach a new world perception in such dynamic surroundings? It is possible if progress is a driving force in the direction to the androgynous perception of the individual. The tendency of applying innovative techniques to a human became popular on a wave of postgenderism (a social, political and cultural movement which supports gender removal by means of biotechnologies and additive reproductive technologies), which considers that social divisions of gender slow down the intellectual and spiritual progress of mankind. And the most importantly – it becomes irrelevant. There are two opinions about the comprehension of androgyny through the rejection of conventional gender: the spiritual aspect (or the change of the intellectual point of view) and the bodily aspect (biological hermaphroditism). The point at which genders disintegrate is also the “enlightenment” of matter, which is developed by original intelligent life. This idea is observed by a great number of theorists such as Helena Blavatsky (1831-1891), George Petros (1955), Shulamith Firestone (1945-2012), Nikolai Berdyaev (1874-1948,) and many others. However,

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they consider questions of an androgynous future, as it was mentioned above, from different angles – both bodily and spiritual. From the bodily point of view, there is a prognosis that mankind, due to a trend of plastic surgery and genetic experiments, will be able to create a person who is not only able to participate in sexual activity with both genders, but is also capable of fertilisation and pregnancy, and/or self-fertilisation. Futorological novelist Georg Petros believes that the chromosomal material that is responsible for bisexuality will be isolated and repeatedly integrated so that naturally “born” ideal hermaphrodites will come into being. Scientists also hypothesize that a full merge of a computer and a human brain will be possible within only a couple of decades. The human mind of the “scanned” brain will be completely digitised; which in turn creates the possibility of immortality. In regard to this issue, futurologist Ian Pearson predicts an interesting historical change: “When you get run down by a bus, you have got a back up, so your kids can pick up the android at the DIY store and they upload you into it and you carry on. Death need not be a major career problem in the late 21st century. People will cheat death by getting electronic immortality” (Pearson, n.d.). Proceeding from such a scenario, it is possible to assume that genders will die off because of the uselessness in the condition of actual immortality. On a spiritual level, the ideal human will be androgynous – free from the slavery of femininity and masculinity that will be achieved by sublimating sexual energy into a creative act. In this world, there will be neither men nor women or carriers of any other estimated gender roles. Consequently, the individual is simply a representative of the human race who will be identified only by their actions. When developing the spiritual point of view, some authors go even further and rather exempt androgyny from a bodily core. In other words, they assume the existence of humans of the future era on the level of spirits. Gender, in their opinion, is necessary only for reproduction and when time for reproduction disappears, gender will vanish from life and people will be similar to angelic beings. The biological man or woman is a “consequence” of differentiation of the wholeness. The perfect person with a fusion of the body and spirit can only have a background in futurology and must originate from hybrid materials While natural materials contain cavities (wood, coral) but the solvent-filled vacuum is homogenous. Inspired by this fusion, I used materials such as stabilized wood in my practical work (ref. “Metanoia” series) The creation of such materials were made possible by new technologies for the improvement of its initial physical properties. 31


2. THE COMPONENTS OF ANDROGYNOUS JEWELLERY Based on Judith Butler’s idea, one can assume that, firstly, the existence of such a wide number of sexual identities testifies to the transitional moment in the process of overcoming genders. It is interesting to see what will emerge instead of such diversity in genders. How will the new androgynous world perception be accomplished and what qualities of androgyny are applicable to jewellery? As was mentioned above, there are two opposite opinions about how to comprehend the concept of androgyny – body and spiritual. However, during my observation of the different authors’ theoretical works, one common point appeared among them. Both futurologists and philosophers developed the concept of androgyny while perceiving it in the future. The gradual process they envisioned shows a gradual embodiment of the idea of androgyny. Will the ever-growing trend of plastic surgery lead to the creation of a separate human type with both female and male genitalia? Will mankind give rise to a new, superhuman who is able to fertilise himself and think on an elevated level? Searching for the truth in this question is similar to trying to distinguish the components of a perfume – through the perception of its smell. Let me talk about each of the components both in a sensual and associative context.

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2.1 DUALITY The collision of the two powers: body and spirit, one of which has something of the invisible element of lightning; while the other, like all tangible forms, has a certain soft resistance which for the moment defies destruction – this collision, or, to be accurate, this terrible reunion, gives rise to unspeakable suffering. Balzac, 1897 [2010], p.44

The dualistic model of androgyny has a simple geometry. Contrasts of mutual contradictions are established between masculinity and femininity, spirit and matter, and sky and earth. The opposite element which is beyond one’s reach creates both vast pleasure and sorrow. If one were to consider that man and woman are two halves of a single whole, then their opposition is similar to the war between the left and the right hand. Jealously, offense, and the desire for revenge are all human feelings that a person experiences on the unique quest for unconditional love. All schools of thought about the superiority of genders move towards the analysis of this issue with a certain soberness. From the point of view of the theosophical theory of Jakob BÜhme, the primal man, Adam, was a neither a man nor a woman, but an androgyne. After Adam sinned in lust, he lost his eternal virginity and found the woman. The philosopher and exponent of existentialism, Nikolai Berdyaev, developed this idea, by seeing in this a loss of the primal androgynous state; this gave birth to the reason for the cult of eternal femininity which is connected in Christianity to Eve and the Virgin Mary (archetypes of a wife and a mother). He sees the disposal of this cult as a solution for overcoming gender. Christianity views childbearing as redemption for sexual sin, but the recognition of birth from a spirit and the connection to a spirit makes it nontraditional. Such a state of things, according to Berdyaev, is an important barrier in overcoming the enmity of genders. Christianity has not transformed the idea of gender into a new revelation, because except for the ascetic denial of gender in Christianity, there are also patrimonial relations 35


between husband and wife: “Christianity allowed only asceticism or a decrepit family as the adaptation to the consequences of sin” (Berdyaev, 1916). Based on Berdyaev’s idea, the shattered gender becomes a source of discord in the world and creates the painful, hopeless thirst of union. The more a person wishes for something, the further it “runs away” from him. He cannot imagine that with this desire, he generates a polarity of desires in himself, or in other words – a duality. Consequently, the androgynous state cannot be bent in favour of female or male. Androgyny is drawn to us in a world-picture where male and female aspects are either overcome, or merged together, but not in a sexual act. It is interesting what option will most likely occur. Proceeding from a belief that dualities are generated by desire, we assume that forms, colours and materials in androgynous jewellery are attracted to find wholeness again in their fusion. By veering away from the technical connections and geometrical forms in favour of the more sensual and streamlined, I created the basis for the aesthetic language which establishes the neutral male-female relationship. By the exertion of flexibility and the smoothing of edges, I want to establish this neutral relationship between opposite forms. Parts of the jewellery are reunited where the obsidian’s pattern (stiffened lava which underwent chemical process with fire, air and water) has found relation in layers with a 3D structure of bioplastic (biocrude plastic that came from renewable resources) (Polylactic acid, 2015).

2.2 THE MODIFICATION OF FEMININITY Seraphitus inclined his head with a gesture that held neither coldness nor indifference, and yet, despite the grace which made the movement almost tender, it nonetheless bespoke a certain negation, which in a woman would have seemed an exquisite coquetry. Balzac, 1897 [2010], p.32

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Reflecting on the issue of femininity through the prism of contemporary jewellery, the curator of the Museum of Contemporary Craft’s, Namita Gupta Wiggers, provides an opinion: “Extricating jewelry from its feminine associations is nearly impossible. Despite the numbers of men involved in contemporary jewelry – from artists to gallerists to critics – jewelry forms remain largely conceptually and aesthetically connected to a woman’s body. With the exception of hip-hop culture’s masculine embrace of the dookie chain, most jewelry today references an idealized or actual female body” (Skinner, 2013, p.70). Wiggers points out that through certain paradigms in history, the beauty ideal became inherently feminine in nature. Acting on this autonomy, jewellery is brought to the level of capricious vagary or a self-willed act for men. This is illustrated perfectly with the 16th century text of English clergyman, William Harrison, titled “Description Of Elizabethan England” (1577), where Harrison expresses his personal approach to the apparel of that time in his country, by saying: “For my part, I can tell better how to inveigh against this enormity than describe any certainty of our attire; sith pearl, in their ears, whereby they imagine the workmanship of God not to be a little amended. But herein they rather disgrace than adorn their persons, as by their niceness in apparel, for which I say most nations do not unjustly deride us…herein we be like to the polypus or chameleon; and thereunto bestow most cost upon our arses, and much more than upon all the rest of our bodies, as women do likewise upon their heads and shoulders, In women also, it is most to be lamented, that they do now far exceed the lightness of our men (who nevertheless are transformed from the cap even to the very shoe.” This condemnatory letter indicates the inaptitude of the ideas of the “normal” man or woman of that time period. However, today these prejudices have left the “ethical crime” category and have found the lines of a role-playing game. The feminisation of a male body nowadays is directly connected with androgyny. It is considered more beautiful to be male with feminine characteristics, rather than a woman with masculine traits who is crudely characterised as a “predatory butch dyke” (Halberstam, 1998, p.193). The idea of androgynous beauty is so impregnated with sexist and racist stereotypes, that it is one of the best proofs of how mass culture idolises thin, white male bodies which in turn, influences the mass subconsciousness. This phenomenon is most obvious in the sphere of art, fashion and pornography. For example, Australian transgender model 38


Andreja Pejic (Fig. 3) or American transgender adult film producer Buck Angel (Fig. 4) both epitomise this stereotype in the modern art world. Based on the reasonings of Namita Gupta and the examples from pop-culture, we consider that the concept of the thin, white, feminised male body exists in people’s minds “by default.” The androgyny of the future should be associated, for example, with black people or with obese people as well. Thus, we will be able to find a new perception – which is more resistant in the relationships between people, without enmity notes in communication, and instead – on a foundation of deep worthiness, self-esteem and self-confidence. By applying this position to androgynous jewellery (while placing it into the frame of contemporary jewellery practice), it is possible to assume that it will lose its conventional hierarchy when precious metals and stones are placed above all other substances and given a new breath with the diversity of other materials.

2.3 THE SHIFTING HIERARCHY OF MATERIALS There are such marbles to which the hand of man has given the power of representing a wholly sublime or a wholly evil aspect of humanity; most beholders see in these a human figure and nothing more; others, a little higher on the scale of human beings, discern some part of the thoughts rendered by the sculptor, and admire the form; but those who are initiated into the secrets of Art are in sympathy. Balzac, 1897 [2010], p.93

The history of mankind is full of examples where the value of jewellery was established not by its objective cost in understanding of rational economic system, but by its authentic language for self-expression.

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After my conversation about the terms of the hierarchy of materials with the Professor of Jewellery Art Department at the Estonian Academy of Arts, Kadri Mälk, I began to understand the interesting information which floated to the surface of my mind. “Plenteously used gold in Ancient Egypt, this was their symbol of sun. Silver was used less, as it cost more than gold. (…) also managed to cast glass that was on a status of precious stones. (…) Iron was valued more in history than other precious metals as well” (Mälk, 2015). Surprisingly, aluminium was valued more than gold at the end of the 19th century in France. This perfectly illustrates how the hierarchy of materials oscillates according to the “face” of the century or according to the locality in question. When new discoveries are made, this does not fixate a material into popularity; on the contrary, it actually mixes up the materials’ position in their value chain. “For example, a new locality is discovered for precious stones, such as in both Kimberley, South Africa, with the discovery of diamonds, as well as in Minas Gerais, Brazil, where emeralds were found. When there is ample supply of a particular precious stone, then the value decreases. When a stone is new, or low in supply (such as alexandrite in Russia, along with coral and some varieties of bone), or extremely rare, then the value greatly increases. Such is life” (Mälk, 2015). Anthropologist Ted Polhemus writes on this same subject: “Jewellery need not, of course, be made of metal. Long before our ancestors learned to hammer or cast malleable metals like gold or silver into desired shapes, they were fashioning pebbles, shells, feathers, flowers and leather thongs into beautiful objects which they attached to their bodies.” (Polhemus, 1996). Generally, such jewellery decayed and was lost, but, undoubtedly, it was a valuable part of the life of all developing societies. Unfortunately, the materials used for this jewellery deteriorated quite quickly, which left no chance for future generations to enjoy the ornaments. The quality of sustainability makes some precious metals and stones much more valuable. The parallels between “precious metal” and “value measure” was drawn by Karl Marx when he considered consumerism in society. To look at this from the perspective of jewellery itself, we must ask the question; what would occur if diamonds, emeralds, sapphires, and rubies were not the most valued precious stones? What if expressions such as “golden days” or “silver tone” did not exist? Once such associations become fixed, do they define who and what we are? It is possible to clarify this if we consider precious metals in the context of a shift in values. There is a belief that the transition from using traditional materials to 40


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non-traditional ones has been made in order to create a community within the field. This shift is perfectly illustrated by the approach used by the School of Padua, which, figuratively speaking, tabooed the use of gold in jewellery; instead, the school urged the students to search for alternative materials. In the last century, Renee Lalique “…was the first in the beginning of the XX century who destroyed the hierarchy of precious and non-precious materials. The material which he used had to tell a story, create mood, but could not give a jewellery piece its objective value” (Obadia, 2012). On contemporary jewellery, curator and writer Kevin Murray writes that: “Gold and silver can be valued purely by their aesthetic qualities, and this opens up the possibility of using other materials less common in conventional jewelry, such as aluminium and acrylic” (Skinner, 2013, p.31). The use of acrylic at the beginning of the seventies was a new experience that was used by a number of artists. “I wanted to develop something new, something that wasn’t primarily connected to the notion of being precious; so no diamonds, no rubies…”, writes Austrian jewellery artist Fritz Maierhofer on the usage acrylic in his works (Hart, 2015). Proceeding from this, contemporary jewellers used innovative and alternative materials in contrast to traditional ones. However, an opposition of opinions appeared; both ethical and cultural in nature. Jewellery designers started to use different synthetic mixtures. This phenomenon is connected to the arrival of new technologies and openings in areas of medicine and nanotechnologies. From an ethical point of view, “Few materials used by jewelers can be traced to their source. Gold, diamonds and gemstones are mined in remote areas of the world and supply chains are obscure. There are few standards or monitors to assure jewelers that the materials essential to their craft were responsibly mined and processed” (Ethical Metalsmiths, 2004). In contrast, jewellery artist Ezra Satok-Wolman states that the usage of nonsustainable materials in contemporary jewellery leads to a reduction of its quality: “Yet I can’t help but question what these “new” materials will look like in 10, 20, 50 years, after plastics and resins have faded and discolored, wood has split and splintered, and glues have eroded away?” (Wolman, 2014). Satok-Wolman questions how the usage of such innovative material in jewellery will affect culture. Will future generations be able to value it if the enchantment is artificial? Or will we continue to devastate nature resources in the name of leaving a mark in culture? Although the hierarchy of materials in general is relative, it is often quite rigid 42


within certain cultures. In terms of materials, there has been a clear understanding between the good and the bad, and between valuable and invaluable jewellery. For the first time in history, we are able to exceed this accessibility. Furthermore, we claim that imperfect packaging should be customized in order to prolong the materials’ physical qualities. In my own jewellery, I try to shift the hierarchy of materials by moving the “lowest” materials to the “highest” position. Since natural materials have imperfect physical attributes, they decay eventually; but homogeneous stabilized wood fiber is made to last (ref. “Metanoia” series). With improving the qualities of organic and synthetic materials, I hope a new perception of sustainability and mindfulness will be established.

2.4 ANDROGYNOUS SPIRIT OR OVERCOMING THE GENDER “…Listen; I have no taste for the fruits of the earth; I have understood your joys too well; like the debauched Emperors of Pagan Rome, I am disgusted with all things, for I have the gift of vision. – Leave me forever,” added Seraphitus sorrowfully. Balzac, 1897 [2010], p.28

It became more clear that sexuality is not a separate aspect of the human being from a scientific, philosophical, and a religious standpoint. We can understand this more clearly if we look at the concept of androgyny from a spiritual point of view. Nikolai Berdyaev assumed that from the spiritual point of view, a human can be defined as a man or a woman; that gender is an all-consuming element of a person, and that it is not his separate identity, such as blood circulation or digestion. Gender is a point of intersection of two worlds in a human body in which the secret of life is hidden: “It is quite possible to say that the person is a sexual being, but it would be impossible to say that the person is a digestive being” (Berdyaev, 1916).

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One should not confuse gender and sex. Reaching androgynous perfection does not mean getting rid of gender, but instead, overcoming its sexual function. The androgynous connection of genders cannot only be limited by sexual connection. Otherwise, the sexual act would have to be eternal and the connection should last forever. In sexual desire, there is a surplus of energy that demands a way out in object form. The communication between creativity and childbearing consists of it: “…creativity is substituted for the birth, immortal creation for mortal creation. (...) Individual perfection and childbearing are inversely proportional” (Berdyaev, 1916). The current enmity, envy and the competition of genders is a symptom of the crisis of a genus. To escape it, mankind must reconsider the relation between motherhood and the cult of femininity. “The female emancipation, of course, is a symptom of a crisis of a genus, a break in gender, and it is better than the hypocritical coercion in an old family; but there isn’t any new person and new life, its basis is decrepit” (Berdyaev, 1916). It will occur by a means of establishment of an interval between sexual desire which can be redirected to the field of creativity. The triumph of physical desires can be likened to the instincts of an animal which did not evolve into a higher life form. Thus, from the point of view of Berdyaev, at the end of a genus, motherhood will disappear. Then, mankind will exist on a more translucent level, in the form of spirits where matter becomes irrelevant. Berdyaev’s position is shared by Helena Blavatsky. In the article “Hints on the Future,” she writes about an apple-tree in the State of Virginia (USA) which does not blossom, but bears apples without seeds (Blavatsky, 1888). Well-known theosophists made sweeping conclusions based on this fact. Blavatsky writes that with an increase of aether in air, there (that is the hypothetical material intermediary between physical and astral worlds), “…will be born children without fathers” (Blavatsky, 1888). At first it will be the fructifying trees, but gradually the tendency will begin to extend to animals and then to people. Blavatsky paid tribute to the Darwinian Theory, but considered that evolution cannot be explained from a materialistic position: “At the end of the following Circle, mankind will become hermaphroditic again, and the human body will have two spinal cords. In the seventh race, both of them will merge together. The sexual creative ability of a person isn’t congenital or rather it wasn’t like this from the beginning. It was an abnormal deviation from a course of human or divine nature, and all must seek to get rid of it. Humans at the end of the sixth and seventh races won’t have genitals” (Blavatsky, 1890-1891[2014]). The sense of this process is that, originally, the spirit plunges deeper and deeper into matter and then leaves the flesh by using the 45


help of “supreme minds.” According to Blavatsky, women will give birth to children without fertilisation and at the end of human evolution on Earth, there will be beings who are able to reproduce themselves. People will become more mentally developed, and then – spiritually. The idea is that mankind will outgrow its attachment to gender and jewellery will no longer be worn on the body to attract sexual attention. Based on Berdyaev and Blavatskaya’s ideas, we consider that the aspiration to change the spirit becomes the prerequisite for achieving androgyny in art. The transformation of the spirit cannot occur suddenly; rather, it will occur gradually and orderly, with continuous work on the spiritual qualities. In my opinion, the technology of layer-by-layer printing in my practical work is similar to this idea. By using techniques such as 3D printing in my practical work, where components of jewellery “self-reproduce” in material without external manual influence (by means of 3D model sample) (Fig. 5), (Fig. 6), I created a way to express the quality of transformation of a gender in androgyny. The fused layers of plastic represent such a gradual approach.

2.5 METANOIA Like one preparing for a journey, a man must leave his home, renounce his projects, bid farewell to his friends, to his father, mother, sister, and even to the helpless brother who cries after him, — yes, farewell to them eternally; you will no more return than did the martyrs on their way to the stake. You must strip yourself of every sentiment, of everything to which man clings. Unless you do this, you are but halfhearted in your enterprise. Balzac, 1897 [2010], p.28

How is it possible to free one’s self from the concept of gender if its denial leads to the extinction of mankind? In the concept of androgyny, the rejection of natural sexual life does not mean the “elimination” or the “destruction” of gender, but

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rather its transformation in spiritual life by means of ascetics. This is possible if one allows his consciousness to apprehend the common state of things differently and in a new way. The purpose of metanoia lies exactly in this. The Bible interprets this word as “repentance;” while many modern sources treat it as a “change of mindset.” Metanoia means a radical change of the intellectual attitude towards itself, to all former interests, desires, plans for the future, etc. The fact that metanoia is even possible is hugely important, as it means that humans may evolve further. When we speak about the stereotypes of the man and woman, a “change of mindset” means an exit from the mechanistic “natural” sexual life – from the infinite cycle of birth and death. The exit from this circle of life can be an alternation of sexual energy because this energy can have many exertions and directions. Nikolay Berdyaev writes: “When it is said that the person triumphed over his gender by the will of spiritual creativity, the phenomenon on a surface remains in this formulation. In this case gender isn’t won over, but other direction has been given to the sexual energy – it is directed into creativity.” Thus, the life of gender is possible without the sexual act and it can be even more intense. The example of it in modern society is connected with the phenomenon of asexuality. Self-proclaimed asexuals are people who claim to have romantic feelings towards the opposite gender without feeling sexual desire. “Around 1 percent of the world’s population is reckoned to feel no sexual attraction at all” reports “The Independent” (Roberts, 2012). In total, there are two types of asexuals: the first have affection towards the act of sex, but do not direct this emotion towards other people; while the second type of asexuals do not feel the need for sex whatsoever. In regard to the latter group, “Wikipedia” claims that Karl Lagerfeld and even the genius Nikola Tesla are asexual in this manner. The first group of asexuals are against increasing the Earth’s human population. They argue that by having less people, we will move forward on a more intellectual level and will eliminate ignorance. The concern of the older generation about this matter is clear: it will lead to a demographic hole and the subsequent generations will steadily decrease in numbers. The popular belief is that the phenomenon of asexuality is caused by the prevalence of hyper sexuality. For example, in pop-culture, singer Iggy Azalea became famous for grotesquely wide hips and Nicki Minaj became known for her voluminous, exaggerated hips and breasts. The free access to pornography websites 48


created a surplus of pictures of erotic content which in turn generated a boomerang effect – the demystification of sexuality. The question of the comprehension of androgyny through the prism of metanoia is achieved through receiving impressions in a new way. In other words, instead of allowing sexual desire to arrive through our senses to be perceived as usual, we can supposedly stop an automatic reaction from the arriving signals and redirect it. Christian ascetics defeated the physical life of gender, as they felt the centrality of gender in a person more powerfully; more than many modern people who live the “natural” sexual life. Thus, we consider that in the concept of androgyny, metanoia stands for a change in the common sexual relationship by means of ascetics and humility. I used milling in my work to convey the quality of metanoia as a transition from one state to another. Some jewellery pieces passed the stages of “regenerations” from organic to digitised. Before the wooden whetstone transformed into jewellery, it was modelled into clay shapes that were photographed in a stepwise regime which produced approximately seventy pictures. Then, a special program sends the pictures into a powerful server, where a computer processes the information by comparing all of the pictures and finding similar pixels and determining which spacial relations they share. It then creates a “cloud” made out of spacial dots that form a photographed shape. Every pixel is one dot. Hundreds of them create a wire that in programming geometry is called “mesh”. This process is called scanning or in other words, a translation of the physical form of real object into digital data (Fig. 7), (Fig. 8), (Fig. 9), (Fig. 10), (Fig. 11), (Fig. 12), (Fig. 13). Secondly, obsidian as a material expresses the quality of metanoia, and the origin is interesting; after all, obsidian is a stone that resulted from lava cooling – which is a transition from a liquid into a solid state. The linear structure conveys this with stiffened bubbles of air located exactly in the directions of the lava’s flow. Thirdly, the usage of elastic material such as rubber also expresses the qualities of metanoia. Rubber possesses several unique abilities, such as to become deformed, to change its shape while maintaining a constant volume and also to restore its initial form. All of this represents Metanoia – the gradual change of mind in favour of new opportunities and other responsive actions.

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2.6 THE ANDROGYNOUS BODY OR THE QUALITY OF PERFECTION We have not now to inquire to what degree of rarity matter may be reduced. Balzac, 1897 [2010], p.122

Proceeding from the belief that sexual function will be transformed into creative potential, we may consider that childbearing will exist in other forms – by fertilisation outside of the body (in contemporary practice, this occurs in the form of receiving posterity from test tubes) or by self-fertilisation. In opposition to Berdyaev and Blavatsky’s spiritual position, there is an opinion that androgynous perfection will be achieved by the customisation of the body. While speaking of overcoming natural attachments such as death or childbearing, we see one of the ways to evolve into a more perfect human. As we know, a person strives for absolution and perfection; and in this endeavor, it is necessary to see melancholy as perfection. American essayist and theorist Georg Petros reflects on this issue in his essay “The New Hermafrodite” (2011), in which he talks about how it is possible for any healthy person to become a hermaphrodite in the way of surgical, chemical, or psychological processes; but the only barrier is childbearing. “…Ultimately, if scientific trends continue, genetic engineers will produce Hermaphrodites. Chromosomal materials that dictate the natural occurrence of Intersexuality will be isolated and the appropriate genes recombined so that carefully planned “natural-born” ideal Hermaphrodites will come into existence.” Georg Petros refers to the creation of the perfect hermaphrodite by scientists who are capable of self-fertilisation and birth. He places spirituality above basic human desires, which leads us to new sexual experiences as a prior stimuli for hermaphroditic revolution: “At first there might be responses to the demands of fetishistic billionaires with plenty of patience. If genetic Hermaphroditism works out, some adventurous parents might desire children of the newly created gender. “Hermaphrodite” will become just another option on the menu of possible traits available from the libraries of “natural” DNA samples and their synthesized, patented analogs” (Petros, 2011). While developing the idea of biological curiosities, it would be appropriate to note some examples from nature. As it is known, flora can express hermaphroditism in 51


a multitude of ways. Most commonly, plants can cross-fertilize with the assistance of insects or the wind; however, there is one example of an orchid called “Holcoglossum amnesianum” which does not require any assistance to procreate. This orchid actually fertilizes itself. The orchid was discovered by Chinese scientists in 2001 and they appropriately named it the “Sexual gymnast of the plant world”. The flower defies gravity to twist its own male genitalia into the necessary shape to fertilize the female genitalia. “We never witnessed an insect visiting the flowers, or the wind assisting another movement,” scientists say in the “New Scientist” magazine (Huang, 2006). Based on the ideas of Georg Petros and Nikolai Berdyaev, it may be determined that the androgyny that is attained biologically or chemically is half-way perfect, and contrarily, only spiritual androgyny leads to the extinction of mankind. Which scenario is more “likely:” giving freedom to human passions through previously unimaginable physical qualities of a hermaphrodite or taming them into an androgynous spirit? In my practical work, I convey this fusion of the physical and the mental by means of half-biomaterials such as PLA plastic and stabilized wood. Polylactic Acid is a sort of Bioplastic that is produced from renewable resources, either through the fermentation of sugar syrup or the bacterial fermentation of starch or other sugars (ref. “Fazis” series). Bioplastics are an alternative to the traditionally used non-renewable fossil fuels and they are mainly used to replace conventional plastics such as low density Polyethylene as well as Polystyrene and Polypropylene. Bioplastic is used for packaging as well as in medicine for production of surgical threads and pins. The technology of 3D printing was applied to the bioplastic for creating the components of jewellery. I enjoy the fact that 3D printing has spread into medicine. It is used for the production of implant fragments for skeletons, skulls, bones, and cartilaginous tissues. For example: “The American surgeons performed a unique operation. They replaced a skull bone with 75% of an implant which was printed on a 3D printer” (Rodriguez, 2013). Because PLA plastic is light while being rigid, and because it can replace crude oil, it provides me with a way to compare its properties with the androgynous condition. Androgyny is facilitated and spiritualised when one rids himself of the weight of his genus; therefore, sexual energy is not destroyed but replaced. (ref. “Fazis” series).

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2.7 THE QUALITY OF WHOLENESS Let us, I say, mingle in one world with these two worlds, which, in your philosophy, can never coalesce, and which, in fact, do coalesce. Balzac, 1897 [2010], p.111

The idea that we define gender through the biological signs between man and woman does not mean that gender is separated and fragmented. Berdyaev considered gender as an element that does not belong to a part of a person, but to the wholeness of the person. There are two major opinions about wholeness in terms of androgyny. One school of thought states that androgynous wholeness can exist only in a primary state and therefore cannot be “glued” back together again. The second idea holds that the androgynous state is achieved through spiritual-physical striving. The concept of wholeness can be considered through the example of Plato’s “Symposium,” (385–380 B.C. [2008]) where the gods punished androgynes (beings with four feet and hands, female and male features at the same time) for their pride by cutting them in half; after which men and women were spread throughout the world. Plato understood the image of an androgyne of Ancient Greek times from the point of wholeness and unity as it is mentioned by a number of researchers. The Russian philosopher and philologist Aleksei Losev mused that, “This blessing for Plato is simply an absolute wholeness of all existence from where ensued its separate parties in the form of abstraction, in an ideal and sensual manner.” (Losev, 1969, p. 637). Losev points to the fact that such wholeness is unachievable if it is separated. Initial wholeness, being shattered, is not capable of being reunited. The sense of the ancient myth lies on the surface: the new androgyne would not emerge from the former splinters. However, in opinion of thinker Vladimir Solovyov: “…fine and immortal doesn’t grow by itself from the ground and doesn’t fall already complete from the sky, but it is achieved by spiritual-physical and god-human deed.” (1874[1988], p.619). In reference to spiritual-physical, Solovyov believes that complete wholeness occurs when an idea and matter are identical. In Solovyov’s opinion, the so-called Eros, which belongs to a wholeness or completeness related to Plato, 54


is not yet complete, unconditional wholeness. Because if it was unconditional, it would led up to a culmination point: “Everything actually remained the same and we don’t see that Plato came nearer to godlike or at least to an angelic rank,” (1874[1988], p.620). Vladimir Solovyov believed that materiality and spirituality become negative aspects when they are the separated sides of one whole. Solovyov found Plato’s ideas lethargic because if the gods received no honor, they would separate the androgynes into two people who could never be whole again. Based on Solovyov’s opinion, in order to reach a new androgyne, one must join the spiritual and bodily efforts. Reasoning from an artistic point of view, perfection is a successful result of an artist’s aspiration in experiencing and controlling the possibilities of the material in a direction of the perfect unity – the state being as if it resulted from the merging of material and the spiritual sides of androgyny. I chose rubber to illustrate wholeness – the formation of the substance was so “interfused” that the smallest particles become indiscernible in the mixture. By using the consecutive method of mixing caoutchoucs and other ingredients, the homogeneous structure is applied to rubber. For me, such a uniform state is similar to androgynous wholeness. Secondly, a holistic quality is reflected through the usage of stabilized wood. In comparison with regular wood which usually has unique characteristics, such as emptiness, cavities, bark, decay, etc., stabilized wood is infused with special chemicals through which it acquires additional homogeny and density; there is a stiffening of the impregnated substance in fibers and in the capillaries of the wood. In conclusion, I want to say that materials and technologies become the key to understanding the conception of androgyny in jewellery. This creates two questions: what is real - nature or synthesis? And what is real – desire or the mind? In my opinion, it should be both, but with the exclusion of sexual desire. Because if the mystical idea of androgyny which took the form of a hermaphroditism is turned inside out, it becomes a caricature of itself. The vision of androgyny, therefore, must retain spiritual qualities in order to avoid the possibility of vulgarisation. In jewellery, I attempted to transition from organic to incorporeal, and from material to digital. Natural and organic was the end result, or the beginning, in both digital and artificial.

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For my thesis, I analysed jewellery through the prism of androgyny. Through my experiences in both research and in creating jewellery, the concept of androgyny and jewellery became closely connected. I most profoundly found the spirit of androgyny in hybrid materials. I attempted to draw a parallel between the materials and the concept in theory as well as in practice. Before I arrived on the subject of androgyny, my ideas passed through several phases of thought. In the early stages, I focused on the body and sexuality. Gradually, I lost interest in the physical aspect of the concept of androgyny and discovered its core foundation. In the last phase, the anatomical and mental androgynous aspects merged into one. The development of my thought process affected my choice of natural and synthetic materials for the creation of this collection. By using futurology as a guide, I attempted to define the future of androgyny. I strove to liberate myself from gender stereotypes, to define the 58

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quality of my work which represented the future and to utilise aesthetic language that corresponded with the concept of time. There are two major opinions about the comprehension of androgyny – bodily and spiritual. The first opinion states that in the future, the biological characteristics of man and woman will be merged into one being that is able to self-fertilise. The other opinion states that the people of the future will rid themselves of their physical bodies only to re-emerge as spirits. My analysis of literature revealed that antiquity paints the perfect primal-man as an androgyne; in turn, modern man views the androgyne as a character in the future in two separate cases. The first vision establishes the androgyne as a mystical being, as is found in the theosophical essays of Nikolay Berdyaev and Helena Blavatsky. The second viewpoint sees the androgyne as a realistic, post-gender figure, as is illustrated by the philosophical-fiction works S U M M A R Y

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and the utopias of Georg Petros. This futuristic androgyne represents the gradual embodiment of androgyny that forms the perfect, holistic human. On the basis of my research, I concluded that the mind and the material world will become fused together in androgyny. In this way, we will draw nearer to a brand-new perception of a person; one who is more self-sufficient, who feels secure in the social sphere and who lacks dominant and aggressive tendencies in communication. This does not mean the person is less self-confident; on the contrary, the person demonstrates high self-esteem, self-confidence and self acceptance. According to Judith Butler, gender is a learned behavior and may be modified. In the course of my research, I found that Butler’s cultural, progressive point of view is in direct contrast to the anthropological perspective of Ted Polhemus, who considers gender the core of identity which is ruled by sexual desire. 60

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The conflict between uncontrollable sexual desire and spiritual opportunities was applied to the material aspect of jewellery in that the materials used did not carry clearly masculine or feminine traits or associations. Of course, wood as a material originates from a biologically female or male seed, but this does not have anything in common with the true meaning of gender. The appearance of new materials symbolise new discoveries in society and in culture. Jewellery reflects current culture and also reacts to it. For me, this created an extraordinary challenge; but by being conscious and attentive, a jewellery artist can accept them and appropriately embody them in materials. When dealing with the abstract and spiritual side of selecting materials, an artist is able to come to a new understanding of material and is able to assign individual value to the pieces through the nonverbal language of materials, shapes and aesthetics. Another contradiction laid in the mystical and realistic points of view. As Berdyaev and S U M M A R Y

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Helena Blavatsky considered, sexual desire in a person is caused by a loss of the initial androgynous state. Disintegration of the whole has generated the dualities of male and female, who strive for the insatiable thirst of connection in the sexual act. Androgyny in the new understanding becomes a way of finding of the lost initial bisexual condition of the person. It is possible if we redirect sexual energy into the creative act. Thus, in the future, there will be no requirement for a genus and mankind will exist on a mental level, in the form of spirits. According to Georg Petros, the trigger for transformation into an androgynous state lies in sexual desire. Therefore, genital-reassignment surgeries or the mechanical-electronical replacement of the parts of the fragile human body will induce mankind to produce the perfect human. The perfect androgyne will then provide others with a new, profound sexual experience in a completely new, unbelievably profound manner. However, based on 62

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Solovyov’s thoughts about androgynous unity, I conclude that transformed gender is developed outside of a sexual connection. In conclusion, I believe that when sexual energy is changed to creativity or asceticism, it will provoke other forms of childbearing which will in turn make it necessary to improve physical qualities. However, hermaphroditism cannot yet be perceived as the pure version of androgyny. Truly, the most important aspect is to connect the spiritual and the material qualities. During my practical work, I applied this challenge to the materiality of jewellery. I found it difficult to recreate the quality of wholeness without simply combining materials; therefore, I decided upon the full dissolution of one material inside the other. Through innovative technologies and half-biomaterials, I endeavored to focus on androgyny and its connection to jewellery. In other words, I attempted to merge natural and synthetic materials. S U M M A R Y

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My interest in this thesis gradually grew as I processed and obtained more information. This project provided me with the opportunities to discover a new subculture in Tallinn, to attend lectures on transsexuality, and overall, to appreciate the spiritual and romantic aspects of the scene. Most certainly, my jewellery collection grew as a result of the theoretical aspect. I can say that the accumulation and processing of information taught me to distinguish the aroma of words in the literature of jewellery. In my understanding, jewellery is the essence created by the “recipe.� As I described in the introduction, the analogy of the perfumer inspired me to structure the chapters in this thesis in this particular manner. This thesis did not pose asexuality as the new form of intellectuality. How would a decreased population rid the world of ignorance? In this work, the concept of androgyny did not raise questions about the subculture, the connection to the public, to culture or to 64

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trade relations. Instead, the question is, how can individuals who consider themselves androgynous inspire a new generation of jewellery designers and artists? The further development of my thesis could be based on such questions.

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Lähtusin enda töös androgüünsusest kui konseptsioonst, eesmärgiga kanda androgüünsusega seostuvad ilmingud ka üle ehtekunstile. Puutudes ehtekunstiga kokku nii uurimuslikul kui ka loomingulisel tasandil, sai järk-järgult selgeks, et ehtekunst ning androgüünsus on omavahel tugevasti seotud. Aja möödudes sai üha selgemaks, et kahe eelmainitu vaheline seos on omapäraselt hübriidne. Käesolev töö uurib ilmenud seost nii teoreetilisel kui ka praktilisel tasandil. Töö esimene faas eeldas androgüünsuse kui mõiste defineerimist, pöörates ennekõike tähelepanu kehalisele ning sellest lähtuvale seksuaalsele paradigmale. Eemaldumine füüsilisest paradigmast oli järk-järguline, püüdes jõuda lähemale tuumale, mis defineerib androgüünsust. Töö viimases faasis sulanduvad kehalised ning mentaalsed ilmingud üheks, andes viimase loomingulise tõuke materjalikasutusele: kasutan enda kollektsioonis hübriid materjale (näiteks stabiliseeritud puit), peegeldades seeläbi androgüünsuses peituvaid kahetiolekuid. Minu eesmärgiks oli ületada soolistesed stereotüüpid asetades ennast ajastu esteetika ning teadmatuse ehk tuleviku vahelisele sillale. 68

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Teoreetiline pool keskendub androgüünsusele kui paradoksaalsele kakspoolsusele. Polaarsuse piltlikustamiseks sobib duaalsuste kõrvutamine – kultuuriline ning loomalik; vaimne ning kehalik; taevalik ja materjalne; katkendlik ning terviklik. Neid vastuolulisi hoiakud seob mitme-komponendiline struktuur, kantuna teineteist välistavatest diskursustest, mis on enda olemuselt kõike muud kui katkematu. Käesolev duaalsus sai kantud üle ehtekollektsiooni, mis omakorda jaguneb kaheks seeriaks. Kollektsioon lähtub ihast – ürgsete instinktide ületamisest. Üle ääre voolav energia saab õiguse materialiseeruda. Vaimsus kui maiste tungide sublimatsioon ehtes jääb avatuks küsimustele ning tõlgendustele. Kuidas välistada kombineeriv meetod ehtes? Kuidas liita erinevaid komponente kaotamata seejuures tervikut? Minu jaoks peitub lahendus uuenduslike tehnoloogiate ning naturaal-sünteetiliste hübriid-materjalide kasutamises. Kuid materiaalsus ei ole eesmärk omaette, vaid vahend, peegeldamaks seda, mida peidab endas androgüünsus. Eesmärgiks on kahe pooluse – naturaalse ning sünteetilise – sulandumine tervikuks, uueks loomulikkuseks.

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Seeria “Fazis” tegeleb androgüünsuse kujunemise faasidega, kahtluse ja kaotatud terviku otsingutega. Terviklikkuse kui sulandumine – eesmärgiks on vältida konarusi jättes vormi puhtalt voolavaks. Kui “Fazis” seerias on komponendid teineteisest siiski eraldatud, siis “Metanoias” on sulandumine täielik, androgüünsus kui kaotatud terviklikkuse taasleidmine. Teiseks oluliseks teguriks on tehnoloogia. Sarnaselt androgüünsuse olemuse ühele aspektile võimaldab ka kaasaegsete tehnoloogiate kasutamine kehalikkuse ületamist. 3D joonisele rakendasin kaht võtet – 3D printimise tehnika kihtide lisamise näol (“Fazis” seeria) ning 3D freesimine (“Metanoia” seeria). Androgüünsust uurides leidsin end kahe arvamusleeri vahelisest tupikust. Esimesed taandavad androgüünsuse kehalikkusele ja teised käsitlevad androgüünsust kui spirutuaalset kogemust. Esimene postuleerib, et tuleviku bioloogilised mehe ning naise tunnusjooned sulanduvad üheks; teine osapool seevastu usub, et tuleviku inimesed eemalduvad enda füüsilisest kehast taassündides spirituaalses (või virtuaalses) maailmas. R E

Kirjanduse põhjalikum uurimine aitas jõuda jälile huvitavale fenomenile; kui antiikaeg loob androgüünsusest pildi kui ideaalsest primaar-inimesest (Platoni filosoofiline mütoloogia), siis kaasaeg käsitleb antud teemat kui tulevikulist fiktsiooni pidades silmas peamiselt kaht stsenaariumi: tulevik kui müstika (androgüünsus kui spirituaalsus Nikolay Berdyaevi ning Helena Blavatsky teosoofilistes esseedes) ning tulevik kui reaalsus (androgüünsus kui post-soolisus Georg Petrose filosoofilistes ilukirjanduslikes utoopiates). Käesolevat käsitlust võib tõlgendada kui pidevalt muutuses olevat androgüünsuse kehastustust; nägemust perfektsest holistilisest indiviidist. Töö keskse tuumiku tulemusena võib järeldada, et mentaalsus ning materiaalsus põrkuvad ning sulavad üheks androgüünsuses. Sellest tingituna jõuame lähemale ettekujutusele tuleviku inimesest – iseseisvam, kindlam sotsiaalses sfääris ning eemaldunud teravast dominant-agressiivsest positsioonist kommunikatiivsel tasandil. Ta on enesekindel ega karda end kehtestada. Toetudes Judith Butlerile, on sugu sümboolselt omastatud konstruktsioon ja seetõttu ka ajas ja

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ruumis modifitseeritav. Uurimustöö käigus sai ilmsiks, et see kultuuriliselt progressiivne nägemus vastandub Ted Polhemuse antropoloogilisele perspektiivile, mis näeb soolise identiteedi alustala seksuaalses ihas. Kaks vastandit – kontollimatu seksuaalne iha ning vaimne valikuvabadus – kandusid üle ehtekunsti: valdkonda, mis jätab materjali soolise definitsiooni pigem fooniks olles avatud küsimustele ning tõlgendustele. Loomulikult võib puit kui materjal bioloogiliselt pärineda nii emasest kui ka isasest seemnest, kuid sel ei ole androgüünsust silmas pidades olulist seost soolise määratlemisega. Uute materjalide kasutuselevõtt on suurestigi seotud uute avastustega kultuuris ja ühiskonnas ning ehtekunstil on siinkohal kaks valikut: kas reflekteerida või reageerida. Minu jaoks on see erakordne väljakutse. Olles tundlik ning tähelepanelik ümbritseva suhtes pena oluliseks võtta väljakutsed vastu ning neile iseendas vastused leida. Teine vastuolu ilmnes müstilises kuid tegelikult küllaltki praktilisena tunduvas perspektiivis. Berdyaevi ja Blavatsky väitel on inimese seksuaalne iha androgüünse seisundi allasurumise 70

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tagajärg. Terviku lagunemine tõi kaasa mehe ja naise duaalsuse ning lõputu seksuaaliha. Androgüünsuse uus mõistmine tähendab kaotatu taasleidmist, pöördumist algeliste juurte ehk kaasasündinud biseksuaalsuse poole. See näib võimalikuna kui suunata seksuaalenergia loovprotsessi ning inimkonna kandvaks talaks saab hingeline tasand. Georg Petros leiab seevastu aga, et androgüünset transformatsiooni soosiv mootor kehtestab end läbi seksuaalse iha. Inimkonna soov luua täiuslikku inimest realiseerub läbi soo-operatsioonide ning tehnoloogiaga keha täistavate eksperimentide. Täiuslik androgüün on seega võimeline anda senitundmatut seksuaalkogemust. Vladimir Solovyov on aga vastupidisel arvamusel, leides et terviklik androgüünsus leiab enda vormi väljaspool seksuaalset suhet ning konteksti. Kokkuvõtvalt võib öelda, et seksuaalenergia ülekandmisega loovprotsessi (lähtudes askeetlikkusest) kaasnevad tegurid nõuavad täiendavat tähelepanu, pöörates meie pilgud taaskord kehalistele väärtustele. Sellegipoolest tuleb pidada silmas, et hermafrodiiti võib tõlgendada kui veel mitte puhast versiooni

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androgüünsusest. Olulisim eesmärk on ühendada mentaalsed ning materiaalsed väärtused, et saavutada harmoonia. Proovisin võtta vastu väljakutse sublimeerida tekkinud nägemused ja ideed ehtekunsti keelde. Suurimaks raskuseks kujunes terviku loomine välistades teadlikult kombineeriva meetodi. Kaasates uuenduslikke tehnoloogiaid ning poolenisti bioloogilisi hübriidmaterjale püüdsin mõtestada androgüünsust nii vormis kui materjalis. Teisisõnu oli mu eesmärgiks sulandada omavahel kaks poolust – naturaalne ning sünteetiline. Minu huvi käesoleva teema vastu kasvas teemasse süvenedes. Väliste mõjuritena mängis olulist rolli ka võimalus tutvuda erinevate Tallinna subkultuuridega, külastades transseksuaalsust käsitlevaid loenguid ning hinnates ümber inimeste vahelisi romantilisi ja vaimseid suhteid. Töö raamistikus valminud kollektsioon on suuresti mõjutatud töö teoreetilisest taustast. Informatsiooni akumuleerumine õpetas mind väärtustama ehtekunsti kui poeesia üht võimalikku vormi, meediumit ilma infomürata.

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TERMINOLOGY OF USED MATERIALS & SEXUAL IDENTITIES Androgyne An individual who feels they do not properly fit into the gender roles ascribed by society to males and females. They often feels as though their gender is beyond the understanding of these limiting societal factors and they seek to free themselves from that which limits them by dressing in androgynous clothing and attempting to appear on the outside as they feel on the inside (Androgyne 2006).

Androgyny A combination of masculine and feminine characteristics. Sexual ambiguity may be found in fashion, gender identity, sexual identity, or sexual lifestyle. It can also refer to biological intersex physicality, especially with regard to plant and human sexuality (Androgyny 2015).

Asexual A person who is not interested in or does not desire sexual activity, either within or outside of a relationship. Asexuality is not the same as celibacy, which is the willful decision to not act on sexual feelings. Asexuals are nonetheless quite capable of loving, affectionate, romantic ties to others (Asexual 2003). 72

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Bisexuality Romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior toward both males and females, and may also encompass romantic or sexual attraction to people of any gender identity or to a person irrespective of that person’s biological sex or gender, which is sometimes termed pansexuality (Bisexuality, 2015).

Hermaphrodite In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has reproductive organs normally associated with both male and female sexes (Hermaphrodite 2015).

Hybrid materials Composites consisting of two constituents at the nanometer or molecular level. Commonly one of these compounds is inorganic and the other one organic in nature. Thus, they differ from traditional composites where the constituents are at the macroscopic (micrometer to millimeter) level. Mixing at the microscopic scale leads to a more homogeneous material that either show characteristics in between the two original phases or even new properties. (Hybrid materials, 2015).

Intersex A variation in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, or genitals that do not allow an individual to be distinctly identified as male or O L O

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female, both in humans and animals. Such variation may involve genital ambiguity, and combinations of chromosomal genotype and sexual phenotype other than XY-male and XX-female (Intersex 2015).

Asia), or sugarcane (in the rest of the world). In 2010, PLA had the second highest consumption volume of any bioplastic of the world. PLA is used in 3D printing as as well as in medicine. (Polylactic acid, 2015)

Obsidian

Postgender

Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimum crystal growth. Obsidian is commonly found within the margins of rhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows. Obsidian may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow, aligned along layers created as the molten rock was flowing before being cooled. These bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen (sheen obsidian). (Obsidian, 2015)

Concept which divides household labor equally or in a manner other than according to traditional gender roles (Postgender 2015).

Postgenderism A sociopolitical and cultural movement for the voluntary elimination of gender in the human species through the application of biotechnology (Postgenderism 2015).

Rubber

Concept which divides household labor equally or in a manner other than according to traditional gender roles (Postgender 2015).

Elastic material which is formed by a mixture of rubbers with different synthetic components. Such a process is called “vulcanization� because sulfur is the main component. The result is a homogenous mixture in which particles of a substance become indiscernible.

Polylactic acid

Shemale

Polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA, Poly) is a biodegradable thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the United States), tapioca roots, chips or starch (mostly in

A woman with a penis (Shemale 2003).

Pla plastic

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Stabilized wood Wood that is fully dried and stable. Dry wood to be stabilized is placed in a chamber under a vacuum. The staO L O

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bilizing agent (chemicals) are released into the chamber with the wood. The wood and chemicals undergo a period of time under vacuum followed by a time under high pressure. After the wood has been completely penetrated or infused with the chemicals the wood is then heat cured in ovens. This changes the liquid stabilizing agent into a solid. When properly done the chemicals penetrate the wood grain and fibers and turn into a solid giving the wood additional weight and hardness for increased durability. This helps to limit or eliminate warping, cracking and other problems that can occur with wood when used under extreme conditions. Stabilized wood is usually easier to work with and finish than natural wood because some open pores and voids become filled and the wood now has a more evenly distributed hardness. (Burls Source, n.d.) Stabilized wood is perfect for the milling technique. The shape is carved out of a whole block of wood according to the 3D design.

consider conventional sexual orientation labels inadequate or inapplicable to them (Transgender 2015).

Transgender State of one’s gender identity or gender expression not matching one’s assigned sex. Transgender is independent of sexual orientation; transgender people may identify as heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, etc; some may

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BOOKS, JOURNALS & NEWSPAPERS Butler, J., 1988, Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. Theatre Journal, 40(4), pp. 519-531, 519 Halberstam, J., 1998, Female masculinity, London: Duke University Press Howes., P, Laughlin, Z., 2012, Material Matters/ New materials in design, London: Black dog publishing Losev, A., = Лосев.А., eds. Михайлов, А., Кашкаров, Ю., 1969. Translation according to the История античной эстетики. Софисты Сократ Платон. 1969. Москва: Искусство Maslow, A., 1979, The journals of A. H. Maslow. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole. p. 33 Polhemus., T. 2007. Les Fleur du Mal – Florian, ed. 2007. The Shape of Desire, Vienna: MAK – Museum of Applied Arts Pointon, M., 2009. Brilliant Effects/A Cultural History of Gemstones and Jewellery, New Heaven and London: Yale University Press

Solovyov, V., = Соловьев, В., ed. Лосева, А., 1874[1990],. Translation according to the Кризис западной философии. Москва: Мысль Skinner, D., 2013. Contemporary Jewelry in Perspective, Toronto: Lark Jewelry & Beading JoÈnsson, P., Carlsson, I., 2000. Androgyny and creativity: A study of the relationships between a balanced sex-role and creative functioning. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 41, pp.262-274.

ELECTRONIC SOURCES Berdyaev, N., = Бердяев,. Н. 1916. Translation according to the Смысл творчества, Москва: Изд-во Г.А. Лемана и С.И. Сахарова, [online] Available at: <http://psylib.org.ua/ books/berdn01/txt08.htm> [Accessed 20 April 2015]. Balzac, H.de., 1897[2009], Seraphita. Wildside Press LLC [Ebook] Available at: <https://books.google.ee/ books?id=RZS2yCSU42kC&printsec=frontcover&dq=seraphita&hl =en&>

Torrance, E. P., 1995, Why Fly? A philosophy of creativity. Norwood, NJ: Ablex

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Blavatsky., H, 1888. The Secret Doctrine, Volume 3, [PDF] Available at: <http://www.theosophical.ca/books/ SecretDoctrine,The_HPBlavatsky.pdf > [Accessed 30 April 2015]. Blavatsky, H., = Блавацкая,. Е. 18901891[2014]. Translation according to the Инструкции для учеников. Инструкция 5. [online] Available at: <ru.teopedia.org/lib/ Блаватская_Е.П._-_Инструкции_ для_учеников._Инструкция_5#cite_ note-86> [Accessed 30 April 2015]. Burls Source, n.d. Information about stabilized woods. [online] Available at: <http://burlsales.com/stabilized.html> [Accessed 2 May 2015]. Ethical Metalsmiths, 2004. We stand for social and environmental responsibility. [online] Available at: <http://www.ethicalmetalsmiths.org/> [Accessed 2 May 2015]. Harrison, W., 1577. Description Of Elizabethan England. [PDF] Available at: <http://www.encyclopaedia.com/ ebooks/43/52.pdf> [Accessed 30 April 2015]. Hart, M., 2015. Jewellery 1970-2015: Interview with Fritz Maierhofer. [online] Available at: <http://www. artjewelryforum.org/artists/jewellery1970-2015-interview-with-fritz-maierhofer> [Accessed 20 April 2015].

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Huang, Q.L., 2006. Sexual gymnast of the plant world. New Scientist [e-journal] Vol. 190 Issue 2557, 1/9p. Abstract only. Available through: <http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/ detail/detail?sid=718829d6-aeb7-44 5e-9f72-c6e2a4433f4b%40sessionmgr4005&vid=0&hid=4101&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=21421717> [Accessed 12 June 2015]. Kaufman, S.B., 2013. Blurred Lines, Androgyny and Creativity. [online] Available at: <http://blogs.scientificamerican. com/beautiful-minds/2013/09/01/ blurred-lines-androgyny-and-creativity/> [Accessed 30 April 2015]. Obadia, Q., 2012. Translation according to the Бросаю вызов Вандому [online] Available at: <http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/1881993> [Accessed 20 April 2015]. Pearson, I., n.d. Interview on Back to the future. Interviewed by BBC news. [online] Available through: http:// news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/special_report/1999/12/99/back_to_the_ future/ian_pearson.stm [Accessed 3 April 2015]. Peterson, K.J., 1996. Androgyny in Pop Culture [online] Available at: <http:// scholarscorner.com/didache/AndrogynnPOPC> [Accessed 20 April 2015].

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Petros, G., 2011. The New Hermafrodite. [online] Available at: <http:// georgepetros.com/writings/gen/ newherm.htm>[Accessed 17 March 2015]. Polhemus, T., 1996. The customized body. [online] Available at: <http:// www.american-buddha.com/illus.people.custom.jewellery.htm> [Accessed 30 April 2015]. Plato, Symposium, 385–380 B.C. [2008], Translated by B. Jowett, Produced by Sue Asscher, and David Widger. [Ebook] Available at: <http:// www.gutenberg.org/files/1600/1600h/1600-h.htm> [Accessed 26 November 2014]. Roberts, G., 2012. Asexuals – the fourth sexual orientation. [online] Available at: <http://www.independent. co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/ health-news/asexuals--the-fourth-sexual-orientation-8060092.html> [Accessed 3 May 2015]. Rodriguez, S., 2013. Man has 75% of skull replaced by 3D-printing. [online] Available at: <http://www.smh.com.au/ technology/sci-tech/man-has-75-ofskull-replaced-by-3dprinting-201303132fzki.html> [Accessed 3 May 2015]. Wolman, S.E., 2014. Identity crisis: An essay about the current state of art jewellery and the future of it. [online] Available at: <http://klimt02.net/forum/ R E F

articles/identity-crisis-an-essay-aboutthe-current-state-of-art-jewellery-andthe-future-of-it/> [Accessed 2 May 2015].

UNPUBLISHED WORKS Mälk, K., 2015. Providing information about hierarchy of materials. [e-mail] (Personal communication, 3 May 2015.

VIDEO OR FILM Moonrise Kingdom, 2012, [Film] Directed by Wes Anderson. USA: American Empirical Pictures, Indian Paintbrush.

ONLINE DICTIONARIES Androgyny, 2015. - Wikipedia [online] Avaialble through:<http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Androgyny > [Accessed 2 May 2015]. Androgyne, 2006. - Urban Dictionary, LLC. [online] Avaialble through: <http://www.urbandictionary.com/ define.php?term=Androgyne> [Accessed 2 May 2015].

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Bisexuality, 2015 - Wikipedia [online] Avaialble through: <http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Bisexuality [Accessed 2 May 2015]. Hermaphrodite, 2015. - Wikipedia [online] Avaialble through: <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermaphrodite> [Accessed 2 May 2015].

Transgender, 2015. - Wikipedia [online] Avaialble through: <http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Transgender> [Accessed 2 May 2015].

Hybrid materials, 2015. - Wikipedia [online] Avaialble through: <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_material> [Accessed 2 May 2015]. Intersex, 2015. - Wikipedia [online] Avaialble through: <http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Intersex> [Accessed 2 May 2015]. Obsidian, 2015. - Wikipedia [online] Avaialble through: <http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Obsidian > [Accessed 2 May 2015]. Postgender, 2015. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Wiktionary. [online] Avaialble through: <http:// en.wiktionary.org/wiki/postgender> [Accessed 2 May 2015]. Postgenderism, 2015. - Wiktionary. [online] Avaialble through: <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postgenderism> [Accessed 2 May 2015]. Shemale, 2003. - Urban Dictionary, LLC. [online] Avaialble through: <http://www. urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Shemale> [Accessed 2 May 2015]. 78

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IMAGES

Fig. 3 [Andrej Pejic] n.d.[image online] Available through: <https://www.pinterest.com/pin/449867450254826409/> [Accessed 4 May 2015] Fig. 1 Andersen, W., 2012. Moonrise kingdom [image onlie] Available at: <http://www.pinterest.com/ pin/449867450252441692/> [Accessed 18 October 2014]

Fig. 2 Warhol, A., Self-portrait in Drag, 1981. [photograph] (Andy Warhol Museum in Pittsburgh)

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Fig. 4 [Buck Angel] n.d. [image online] Available through: <http:// jumivuwo31.blog.com/2015/02/08/ buck-angel/> [Accessed 4 May 2015]

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Fig. 5窶ケaju, S., 2014. Fazis [3D sketch screenshot image] [programmes used: Zbrush, Cinema 4D studio]

Fig 7.窶ケopolitova., D., Zgun, J., 2014. Metanoia [clay shape image]

Fig. 8窶ケopolitova., D., Zgun, J., 2014. Metanoia [clay shape image]

Fig 6.窶ケaju, S., 2014. Fazis [3D sketch screenshot image] [programmes used: Zbrush, Cinema 4D studio]

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[programmes used: Autodesk 123D Design, Meshmixer]

Fig 11. Georgijeva, L., 2014. Metanoia [3D sketch screenshot image] [programmes used: Autodesk 123D Design, Meshmixer]

Fig. 9 Georgijeva, L., 2014. Metanoia [3D sketch screenshot image] [programmes used: Autodesk 123D Design, Meshmixer]

Fig. 10 Georgijeva, L., 2014. Metanoia [3D sketch screenshot image]

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Fig. 12 Georgijeva, L., 2014. Metanoia [3D sketch screenshot image] [programmes used: Rhinoceros + T-splines]

Fig. 13 Georgijeva, L., 2014. Metanoia [3D sketch screenshot image] [programmes used: Rhinoceros + T-splines].

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I would like to thank those who assisted me with my thesis: Alexandr Popolitov Aleksei Soltan Anastassia Sharõmova Daniil Popov Diana Pashkovich Denis Larchenko Eve-Margus Villems Elina Shah Ilya Bogatyryov Jana Zgun Jens Klausen Joosep Jürgenson Jelena Vilt Kadri Mälk Kristo Pachel Ljudmilla Georgijeva Marek Mäemets Maria Dihtjar Nadezda Popolitova Paula Maria Vahtra Peeter Kaarma Piret Hirv Pirge Markus Renetta Kõrre Stig Paju Sofja Isupova Sofja Litvinenko Tanel Veenre Tatyana Kosmõnina Olga Makaronskaja Vladimir Ljadov Yuki Rai Kultuurikatel Makerlab EDM OÜ

Androgyny: Jewellery Beyond Gender  

Master's thesis of Darja Popolitova Darja Popolitova's view of androgyny is one of the most exceptional thematic representations, met in th...

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