THE REPORTER POPULATION OPULATION C CONNECTION ONNECTION
Volume 43, Issue 3 October 2011
CONGRESSIONAL REPORT CARD
hich father and grandfather to American presidents also served as national treasurer for the Planned Parenthood Federation of America? (Hint: It wasn’t Harvard-educated farmer John Adams Sr.) It was Prescott Bush, whose involvement with Planned Parenthood cost him election to the Senate from Connecticut in 1950. He went on to win in 1952, serving two terms. His son, George Herbert Walker Bush, followed in his father’s footsteps, entering politics as an avid supporter of family planning. While serving as U.S. representative to the UN, then-Ambassador Bush even penned an enthusiastic accolade for Zero Population Growth. Things changed when it became clear that the road to the White House for George Bush required him to genuflect at the altar of the Radical Right. It all started with Nixon’s Southern Strategy, designed to use race as a wedge issue in the aftermath of the passage of landmark civil rights legislation during the Johnson presidency. As time passed, race was supplanted by an array of other issues—at the forefront of which stood abortion. Forty years later, the dividing lines have only sharpened with the demise of the moderate wing of the Republican Party. Even so, you’d think that family planning would provide a rallying point for politicians of all stripes. Why would anyone oppose reducing abortions by providing women with the ability to manage their own fertility? It turns out that a majority of the U.S. House can’t or won’t accept this simple notion. Increased federal funds for international family planning during the first two years of the Obama Administration averted 1.5 million abortions annually for the very reason noted above. Actually, that figure has now been shaved due to a 5 percent cut in these funds earlier this year. For those yearning for a reasoned middle ground, that’s what took place some 38 years ago and still stands. Under the ( Jesse) Helms Amendment, absolutely no U.S. international family planning funds may be used to perform or promote abortion. If we had our way, the Helms Amendment would be repealed, but that’s just not in the cards in the foreseeable future. It’s a deal we can live with, however. But it’s nowhere near enough for our The Reporter — October 2011
opponents who now seek legislative reinstatement of the Global Gag Rule first ordered by President Reagan and later by Prescott Bush’s son and grandson. It’s not really a matter of partisan preference since 73 percent of Republicans support family planning as preventive care. Rather, it’s just part and parcel of a cultural crusade by the cruel and the callous. As you review this year’s Congressional Report Card, keep in mind the singular biennial fact of American political life. First, they vote. Then we do. To quote Prescott’s grandson, ultimately we’re the “deciders.”
John Seager firstname.lastname@example.org
John travels the country, talking to audiences about this issue. If you want more information about his fall events listed below or would like to invite him to speak, contact Emily Reid at email@example.com or (202) 974-7739. 10/24 Temple University (PA) 10/26 Ohio Wesleyan University 10/27 The Nature Conservancy in Ohio 10/28 Mount Union College (OH) 11/1
Trinity College (CT)
Unitarian Universalist Church, Park Forest, IL
11/10 University of California, San Diego 11/10 San Diego Audubon Society 11/13 Unitarian Universalist Church, San Francisco 11/16 Reach and Teach, San Mateo, CA 11/18 University of California, Merced 11/20 Universalist Congregation Church, Santa Rosa, CA 12/6
University of Oregon
The Reporter Volume 43, Issue 3 October 2011
Board Chair Marianne Gabel President and CEO John Seager Editor and Designer Marian Starkey Contributors John Bongaarts, Rebecca Harrington, Stacie Murphy, Lee S. Polansky, Shauna Scherer, John Seager, Steven Sinding, Alex Starkey, Marian Starkey, Pamela Wasserman Overpopulation threatens the quality of life for people everywhere. Population Connection is the national grassroots population organization that educates young people and advocates progressive action to stabilize world population at a level that can be sustained by earth’s resources. Annual membership includes a one-year subscription to The Reporter. Annual membership, $25. All contributions, bequests and gifts are fully tax-deductible in accordance with current laws. The Reporter (ISSN 0199-0071) Population Connection 2120 L Street, NW, Suite 500 Washington, DC 20037 firstname.lastname@example.org (202) 332-2200 (800) 767-1956 (202) 332-2302 fax www.PopulationConnection.org www.PopulationEducation.org www.Worldof7Billion.org Follow us on Twitter: http://twitter.com/popconnect “Like” us on Facebook: www.facebook.com/PopulationConnection Post-It Note used throughout issue: © Ekaterina Pokrovsky, Dreamstime.com
House Report Card
Senate Report Card
Population Policy in
Transition in the
By John Bongaarts and Steven Sinding
Letters to the Editor
In the News
A Lasting Legacy
Field & Outreach
32 Cartoon 33
Capitol Building with cherry blossoms. Photo: Jonathan Look Jr., Journeyman Images
Printed on recycled paper
October 2011 — The Reporter
early 27 billion by 2100. That’s how many people will be crammed onto this already-crowded planet if fertility rates don’t decline substantially—and starting now. Even if women in high-fertility countries do begin having fewer children, there could still be almost 16 billion of us by the close of the century. Most of those additional people will live in the poorest countries of the world—those whose governments are already struggling to feed and provide clean water to their citizens, let alone decent educations, jobs, and housing. In May, the United Nations released its revised population projections, updated every two years. Perhaps scarier than the witches, ghosts, and goblins of Halloween is that the UN projects that we will reach the 7 billion population milestone on October 31, 2011. Of course this is just a symbolic date, estimated by demographers at the UN. The “Day of 6 Billion” was October 12, 1999. The “Day of 8 Billion” is already projected for June 15, 2025. It takes a 15 percent increase in contraceptive use to lower a country’s total fertility rate (TFR) by a single birth. For example, women in the famine-ridden country of Somalia have an average of 6.4 births. Only 1 percent of married women use modern contraception. Bringing the TFR down to 2.5 in 2100, the UN medium projection (and the one demographers consider most likely to play out), would require that 60 percent of women use contraception. The question quickly becomes: if we don’t scale up family planning programs now, how on earth will that medium projection become reality? As you know, while the need and demand for family planning is increasing around the world, in the United States, the Right Wing commitment to providing it is nil. The Obama Administration requested $769 million for family planning programs in Fiscal Year 2012. Meanwhile, conservative members of Congress want to slash family planning appropriations by over $200 million. Indeed, this has been quite a year for congressional shenanigans, which you will see beginning on page 10, in our Congressional Report Card. While women in Somalia have more children than they want, and sometimes even die for lack of family planning, the Far Right pines for a patriarchal—and dangerous—past that
The Reporter — October 2011
modern society left in the dust for a reason. From their plot to defund Planned Parenthood to their attempts to reinstate the Global Gag Rule, ultraconservative members of Congress are hell-bent on turning back the clock on women. Two of the leading experts on population and family planning, John Bongaarts and Steven Sinding, wrote a short policy article for a special population issue of Science magazine in July. We have published an excerpt of that article on page 22. They explain the origins of the 20th century population explosion and stress the importance of boosting family planning programs in order to end the mushrooming growth during the present century. In the midst of tens of thousands of deaths—including those of at least 30,000 children—in the Horn of Africa during the ongoing famine, it’s impossible to ignore the potentially fatal consequences of rapid population growth. There is no way that women in Somalia can maintain a fertility rate of 6.4 births in a drought-stricken war zone and in the meantime experience improved health and quality of life. Women there—and everywhere—must have access to family planning education and services. They must be able to plan pregnancies according to their ability to safely carry and deliver a baby and to feed and shelter another child. Otherwise, the consequences will be dire. Somalia has a population of nearly 10 million. Depending on whether fertility declines, the population in 2100 could be 53 million, 73 million, or as high as 208 million. There’s no need for frightful costumes and decorations this Halloween because that’s about as scary as it gets.
Marian Starkey email@example.com P.S. I hope you enjoy the enclosed poster from our Population Education Program. We’re sending it to 50,000 educators across the country to help mark the 7 billion milestone in their classrooms, and we wanted you to see it first!
Letters to the Editor
I enjoyed the recent expanded edition of The Reporter. The thought of 7 billion people in the world by this fall is sobering. Thera Jane Mercer Long Beach, California The new format of the Population Connection news magazine works well. Congratulations to the editor. Thanks for all you do. Bruce Howard Hood River, Oregon I just put down the latest and greatest issue of the The Reporter. Wow, you must be so proud! Joe Bish Population Outreach Manager, Population Media Center Shelburne, Vermont Bravo for the President’s Note in the May issue! At a discouraging time, it’s great to be reminded what a courageous leader can accomplish. We need to keep the goal of a livable world for those who will follow us always in sight—and in sight for our leaders as well. Emilie Drooker Boston, Massachusetts I believe passionately in this—or should I say—“THE” issue. I read every issue of The Reporter cover-to-cover. I must say I was most impressed by the concise and comprehensive article “Our Profound Choice: 7 Billion Reasons to Invest in Family Planning,” by Martha Campbell and Malcolm Potts. Every member of Congress and President Obama should read it. Georgia Webb Syracuse, New York The ‘World of 7 Billion’ issue of The Reporter is superlative. I have shared my extra copies with an acquaintance, a few miscellaneous environmental progressives, and several waiting rooms—and put one on the Amtrak Coast Starlight! Gregory Wright Sherman Oaks, California
ndence to mstarkey@popc onnect.org. Letters are also accepted via postal mail. Le tters may be edited for clar ity and length .
Attn: Marian St Population Co
nnection 2120 L St., NW , Ste. 500 Washington, D C 20037
As usual, I enjoyed reading The Reporter. However, I took issue with the title of the article on page 26: “Boehner and Allies FLOOD the House with Anti-Women Bills.” I am a big proponent of easy access to birth control, since overpopulation is a cause of many problems—as your fine magazine frequently elucidates. However, to characterize people who do not agree with this as “anti-woman,” I think is at best a hyperbole, and at worst, an unfair demonization. I think we owe it to discuss the position of those who we disagree with more objectively. I think a more balanced headline would have been “Boehner tries to curb access to birth control.” Michael Mackaplow Chicago, Illinois Your piece “Cry Me a River” is especially powerful and relevant. And I’m glad to see the excerpt from Lester Brown’s latest book (which I own!). Mary Helen Shortridge Viroqua, Wisconsin Thanks for all the time you put into making the world a better place! Maria Richards Dallas, Texas Congratulations on your new format––it’s something I notice, having been the editor of a major technical public health journal back in the ‘50s. The content remains superb and I loved Joel Pett’s cartoon on page 32. Howard Ennes Fort Bragg, California I got my copy of The Reporter today and think it may just be the best one ever. On all fronts, job so well done! Dianne Dillon-Ridgley Former Chair, Population Connection Board of Directors Iowa City, Iowa October 2011 — The Reporter
On May 3, 2011, the United Nations released The 2010 Revision of World Population Prospects. The facts on these two pages are from the UN Press Release. http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/index.htm
The graph above uses PRB data from 2010. The UN projects that population will reach 8 billion in 2025. The 2011 PRB data projects that population will reach 8 billion in 2023. Reprinted with permission from RightsLink.
Glossary Medium variant: The population projection most often cited, which assumes the global fertility rate will reach 2.17 in 2045-2050 (down from 2.45 today). In this variant, the fertility rate of each country moves toward 2.1 by 2100 (so that countries with low fertility see an increase and those with high fertility continue to see a decline). High variant: Fertility is projected to remain 0.5 children above the fertility in the medium variant over most of the projection period. Low variant: Fertility is projected to remain 0.5 children below the fertility in the medium variant over most of the projection period. Constant fertility variant: For each country, fertility remains constant at the level estimated for 2005-2010. Medium-fertility countries: Countries where fertility has been declining but whose estimated level was still above 2.1 children per woman in 2005-2010. High-fertility countries: Countries that until 2010 had no fertility reduction or only an initial decline. Low-fertility countries: Countries with total fertility at or below 2.1 children per woman in 2005-2010.
Border Guards Bangladesh distribute rice from the government in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Photo: Zahidul Salim, Courtesy of Photoshare
The Reporter â€” October 2011
According to the medium variant, it will take 13 years to add the eighth billion, 18 years to add the ninth billion, and 40 years to reach the tenth billion. According to the high variant, an additional billion would be added every 10 or 11 years for the rest of this century.
In 2010, 62 percent of the population of high-fertility countries was under the age of 25.
High-fertility countries are mostly concentrated in Africa (39 out of the 55 countries in the continent have high fertility), but there are also nine in Asia, six in Oceania, and four in Latin America.
Even with the reductions of fertility projected in the medium variant, the population of 34 of the 58 high-fertility countries would triple by 2100.
Pakistan, Nigeria, the Philippines, Ethiopia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the United Republic of Tanzania, Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, Iraq, Afghanistan, Ghana, Yemen, Mozambique, and Madagascar, in order of population size, account for 75 percent of the population of high-fertility countries.
Between 2011 and 2100, the medium variant projects that the population of the highfertility countries would more than triple, passing from 1.2 billion to 4.2 billion.
October 2011 â€” The Reporter
Attempts to Defund Planned Parenthood States across the country (11 at publication time) are banning funding to Planned Parenthood clinics through Medicaid and Title X. This is illegal according to federal law, and Planned Parenthood is fighting back through the court system. In the meantime, clinics are forced to deny lowincome patients services that federal law dictates should be covered by any qualified provider they choose. This attack on access to reproductive health care is a move by anti-choice policymakers to deny funding to any organization that provides or counsels on abortion, even though Medicaid dollars can only be used for abortion services in the case of rape, incest, and threat to the woman’s life. Abortion consumes a mere 3 percent of Planned Parenthood’s expenditures each year. The bulk of the organization’s expenses go toward providing birth control, cancer screenings, and antenatal care. Federal judges in Kansas and Indiana have granted temporary injunctions to Planned Parenthood affiliates in those states, blocking enforcement of the law to deny federal funding to the group.
Evangelicals Practice Safe Sex—Using Birth Control A study by the Guttmacher Institute found that 99 percent of all American women who have ever had sex have used some form of modern contraception. One surprising result of the study was the high prevalence of contraceptive use 6
The Reporter — October 2011
among people who identify as Evangelical. In fact, 74 percent of Evangelicals currently use modern contraception—higher than any other religious group (68 percent for Catholics and 73 percent for mainstream Protestants). More than 40 percent of Evangelicals use male or female sterilization as a method of birth control. Only 2 percent of Catholic women use natural family planning (periodic abstinence, temperature rhythm, and cervical mucus tests), the method recommended by the Church.
Births Down Again in 2010 According to preliminary figures for 2010, births in the U.S. fell by 3 percent, to about 4 million. The poor economy and lower levels of immigration are offered as explanations for this trend that has continued into its third year, after an all-time high of 4.3 million births in 2007. Births declined in 2010 for every age group, except women 40 and older. Demographers believe the drop in the birth rate could be a tempo effect—women having children later and thus artificially lowering the fertility rate.
IUDs/Implants Most Effective Methods Used by only 5.5 percent of American women who use contraception, the intrauterine device (IUD) is slowly making a comeback. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists released a report touting the benefits of IUDs, which have among the highest effectiveness rates of all available methods. Only 0.8 percent of women using the copper IUD become
pregnant within one year; the rate is even lower for the hormonal IUD, at 0.2 percent. Hormonal implants (Implanon) have a failure rate of 0.05 percent. The 1.5 inch long rod is inserted in the upper, inner arm and releases progestin for up to three years. Of every 100 women using the birth control pill, nine will become pregnant, mostly due to incorrect or inconsistent use. User error is very low with long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) because they are meant to be forgotten once put in place by a trained provider. “LARC methods are the best tool we have to fight against unintended pregnancies, which currently account for 49 percent of U.S. pregnancies each year,” said Dr. Eve Espey, coauthor of the report, in a press release.“The major advantage is that after insertion, LARCs work without having to do anything else. There’s no maintenance required.” Common barriers to the use of LARC are high initial cost; difficulty finding a provider who carries and knows how to insert the method; lack of knowledge about the method; and a distrust in the method due to injuries and infections caused by the first IUD, the Dalkon Shield, in the early 1970s.
$11 Billion Price Tag Unintended pregnancies cost American taxpayers $11 billion a year in health care expenditures for women and their infants, according to two separate studies by the Guttmacher Institute and the Brookings Institution. Women who experience unintended pregnancies are more likely to
qualify for Medicaid than women whose pregnancies are planned, and their babies are more likely to qualify for Medicaid and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (S-CHIP). In 2006, 64 percent of the 1.6 million births resulting from unintended pregnancies were publicly funded, compared with 35 percent of births resulting from planned pregnancies. A publicly funded birth on average costs $11,647. This includes prenatal care, delivery, and infant care for one year after birth. Welfare benefits for children older than one year were not calculated in either study.
Contraception Without Copays Beginning in August 2012, health insurance plans will be required to provide prescribed contraceptives to patients, without copayment. The new provision allows for all FDA-approved methods, including sterilization and emergency contraception (the morning after pill). The Institute of Medicine, a nonpartisan, nongovernmental arm of the National Academy of Sciences, made the recommendation to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in July. Kathleen Sebelius, Secretary of HHS, approved the change. The Affordable Care Act, a product of the 2010 health care reform agenda, gives insured patients access to preventive health care free of charge. The recommendation from IOM states that contraception is an essential component of preventive care for women, along with services such as www.popconnect.org
HIV and cancer screening, counseling about domestic violence, and screening for diabetes during pregnancy. Under an amendment to the rule, religious employers will receive an exemption, leaving women to decide whether they want to work for an organization that does not consider contraception preventive health care for women of reproductive age. A Kaiser Health Tracking Poll found that 66 percent of Americans agree with the decision to categorize birth control as preventive medicine.
Special Issue of Science A special July issue of Science magazine focuses on population. Most of the articles are for purchase only, but a couple of them are free. The website for the special issue also includes a short video and a podcast. http://www.sciencemag.org/site/special/ population. A free-to-download review article by David Bloom, a Harvard professor, received the bulk of the media attention. In it, he states that 49 percent of the population growth between now and 2050 will occur in Africa.
Sex Selective Abortion Concern over the gender imbalance in some Asian and Eastern European countries reached a fever pitch in July with the publication of the book Unnatural Selection: Choosing Boys Over Girls and the Consequences of a World Full of Men by Mara Hvistendahl. She spent a fair amount of the book discussing the role of Western agencies and charities in inadvertently encouraging sex selective abortion, both
through promoting “population control” and providing ultrasound technology to clinics in countries that now have acute gender imbalances. Hvistendahl writes that more than 160 million females in Asia have “gone missing” due to sex selective abortion. Young men are now resorting to arranged marriages and purchasing brides from countries not suffering from imbalanced sex ratios.
NYC Sex Ed Mandate A new mandate will require all middle and high schools in New York City to provide medically accurate, comprehensive sex education to students, including instruction on condom use. Parents will be able to have their kids opt out of the sections about birth control methods.
Crisis in Judgement The City Council of New York City enacted a law in March that would have required so-called “crisis pregnancy centers” to disclose whether they have a licensed medical provider on-site and whether they provide abortion services or emergency contraception. The law aimed to protect consumers through truth in advertising. Just days before the law was to go into effect, Federal Judge William H. Pauley III ruled that it violated the right to free speech of the centers and barred the city from enforcing it. City officials plan to appeal the ruling.
To read the original articles from which these summaries were taken, see http://tinyurl.com/PopConnectNews October 2011 — The Reporter
a lasting legaCY
sPotlight: BarBara Bird By Shauna Scherer
arbara Bird of Virginia first realized the hazards of rapid population growth during college. A petition circulated the Fresno State campus in 1969, asking students to take the ZPG pledge. Barbara signed it and agreed that she would “stop at two” children so that she could help achieve zero population growth. In fact, Barbara chose not to have any children—now she jokingly says that friends with more than two children had her share. Barbara grew up in Fresno, California. “Actually, I did a lot of growing up in London, Ontario in graduate school at the University of Western Ontario, and think I am still growing up. When people ask where I am from, I have to ask what ‘from’ means. I often joke and say planet earth.” Barbara travels extensively. She has visited all but three of the 50 states and she wants to see more of the U.S. in the future. Her favorite American destinations include New York City for the theater, New Orleans for music and food, and California. She’s visited Turkey, Syria, China, and the island of Vanuatu in the South Pacific, as well as several countries in South America and Europe. As for her environmental views, she says “I think my brother and I brought environmental concerns to our parents in the open-discussion format of our family dinners. My mother participated in the first Earth Day and was a good environmentalist at home. My dad, who sold sanitation chemicals to the food processing industry, was proud that his company’s products were environmentally friendly in their time. He also was a conservationist (habitat development for wildlife) with his sportsman club.”
The Reporter — October 2011
“Our climate problem is actually a population problem,” Barbara argues. So, too, are fresh water scarcity, inadequate standards of living, and so many other challenges people face globally. “We must reach a steady state to become sustainable,” she says. “I hope this happens through wise interventions at the policy level rather than through Malthusian events.”
As a professor of business at American University in Washington, DC, Barbara is interested in “right-sizing” human population. “How do you right-size without losing culture, quality of life, and your competitiveness?” she asks. Americans have long enjoyed a high standard of living—one to which people in emerging economies aspire. Americans will have to share more resources with the rest of the planet—an unsustainable proposition considering the rate of consumption in the United States.
To help us advocate for wise policies that will stabilize population, Barbara has declared Population Connection a beneficiary of her IRA. We are pleased to welcome her into The ZPG Society as recognition for her lifelong dedication to zero population growth and her commitment to a better future.
Barbara looks at the population problem through the lens of economics. “Children are an annuity parents pay into for the rest of their lives,” Barbara said. With each child, parents make an economic decision with personal, environmental, and societal costs. There are also economic solutions to some social problems: can we look to businesses that have right-sized for inspiration?
Barbara Bird, ZPG Society Member
First, she believes, we must increase the value of women and girls. When women have the knowledge and ability to choose the “right size” family, everyone benefits. She says investments must also be made in family planning so that the 215 million women worldwide who lack modern contraception can gain control over their own reproduction.
If you are interested in making a legacy gift to Population Connection, please contact Shauna Scherer at (202) 974-7730 or firstname.lastname@example.org. Supporters over the age of 70 ½ may make charitable distributions to Population Connection through the end of 2011 directly from your IRA, tax-free. Please contact your financial advisor to find out whether you are eligible.
Part oF soMething Big By Lee S. Polansky We like to hear from our community of more than 140,000 members, volunteers, and activists, who make up the core of this organization. We recently surveyed a select group of our members for their views about Population Connection’s mission, programs, and unique role as America’s grassroots population organization. When asked why you support Population Connection’s eﬀorts, the top two responses were “to raise public awareness about the population crisis” and “to protect the planet.” Our supporters tell us that population stabilization is the central challenge in the world. As one member from Montgomery City, Missouri said, “I’m part of something big.” Here are some of your thoughts about why Population Connection is so important to making the connections between women’s empowerment, the environment, and social justice for all. We’d like to extend a heartfelt thank you to all of our members who answered our survey. If you receive a survey in the mail, we hope you will return your responses: we are paying attention!
I’ve been deeply concerned about population growth since 1980! I am childfree by choice.
There needs to be a well-known advocacy group that addresses the population problem and the virtues of family planning and birth control. I was very happy when I ﬁrst learned about ZPG some 15 years ago.
Population Connection serves a valuable purpose in an already overpopulated world. Continuously we hear about global warming, being ‘green,’ how we should ‘all do our part,’ recycling, subscribing to every latest fad. But never do we talk about population—overpopulation—being the root of all the other problems. It is truly the elephant in the room.
We are here to tend the garden. A well thoughtout plan is essential to a good garden (or family).
We’d like to say a special thank you to our anonymous donors as well!
I support Population Connection’s exceptionally effective educational activities to raise awareness about the exponentially growing threat of world population growth.
We visited Nags Head, North Carolina with our children in the summers during the 1960s. We could have gone skinny dipping on the beach in front of our cottage. Now one can’t stir the people with a stick there. And of course this is just a trivial example of population increase. When one sees pictures of hundreds of starving African children, it’s another matter but even more urgent. Family planning for all!
October 2011 — The Reporter
112th U.S. Congress
Roman: Republican Italic: Democrat Bold: Independent
House of Representatives Pence Amendment
House FY 2011 Spending Bill February 19, 2011 House Roll call 147 Our position: oppose Passed: 235-189 Not voting: 9
April 14, 2011 House Roll call 271 Our position: oppose Passed: 241-185 Not voting: 5
Rep. Mike Pence (R-IN) offered this amendment to the House FY 2011 Continuing Resolution. The amendment would bar Planned Parenthood from receiving any federal funding for any purpose.
In addition to the amendment barring funding for Planned Parenthood passed the day before, this Continuing Resolution contained provisions to reinstate the Global Gag Rule, block funding to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), cut more than $200 million from international family planning, defund Title X, and eliminate the President’s Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative.
The House voted again to bar funding to Planned Parenthood, this time on a motion from Rep. Diane Black (R-TN) to the final compromise FY 2011 Funding Bill.
February 18, 2011 House Roll call 93 Our position: oppose Passed: 240-185 Not voting: 7
District 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 01 02 03 04 01
Representative Bonner, Jo Roby, Martha Rogers, Mike Aderholt, Robert B. Brooks, Mo Bachus, Spencer Sewell, Terri A. Young, Don Gosar, Paul A. Franks, Trent Quayle, Benjamin Pastor, Ed Schweikert, David Flake, Jeff Grijalva, Raúl M. Giffords, Gabrielle Crawford, Eric A. “Rick” Griffin, Tim Womack, Steve Ross, Mike Thompson, Mike
10 The Reporter — October 2011
Pence Amendment x x x x x x √ x x x √ x x √ x x x x √
Defund Planned Parenthood
Spending Bill x x x x x x √ x x x √ x √ √ x x x √ √
Defund PPFA x x x x x x √ x x x x √ x x √ x x x x √
U.S. Capitol Dome. Illustration: Eric Pohl, Dreamstime.com
√ supported Population Connection position x opposed Population Connection position - no vote recorded
District 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47
Representative Herger, Wally Lungren, Daniel E. McClintock, Tom Matsui, Doris O. Woolsey, Lynn C. Miller, George Pelosi, Nancy Lee, Barbara Garamendi, John McNerney, Jerry Speier, Jackie Stark, Fortney Pete Eshoo, Anna G. Honda, Michael M. Lofgren, Zoe Farr, Sam Cardoza, Dennis A. Denham, Jeff Costa, Jim Nunes, Devin McCarthy, Kevin Capps, Lois Gallegly, Elton McKeon, Howard P. “Buck” Dreier, David Sherman, Brad Berman, Howard L. Schiff, Adam B. Waxman, Henry A. Becerra, Xavier Chu, Judy Bass, Karen Roybal-Allard, Lucille Waters, Maxine [Harman, Jane] resigned Richardson, Laura Napolitano, Grace F. Sánchez, Linda T. Royce, Edward R. Lewis, Jerry Miller, Gary G. Baca, Joe Calvert, Ken Bono Mack, Mary Rohrabacher, Dana Sanchez, Loretta
Pence Amendment x x x √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ x √ x x √ x x x √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ x x x √ x √ x √
Spending Bill x x x √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ x √ x x √ x x x √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ x x x √ x x x √
Defund PPFA x x x √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ x √ x x √ x x x √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ - (post-resignation) √ √ √ x x x √ x √ x √
October 2011 — The Reporter 11
112th U.S. Congress
Roman: Republican Italic: Democrat Bold: Independent
House of Representatives State
District 48 49 50 51 52 53 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 01 02 03 04 05 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 01 02
Representative Campbell, John Issa, Darrell E. Bilbray, Brian P. Filner, Bob Hunter, Duncan Davis, Susan A. DeGette, Diana Polis, Jared Tipton, Scott R. Gardner, Cory Lamborn, Doug Coffman, Mike Perlmutter, Ed Larson, John B. Courtney, Joe DeLauro, Rosa L. Himes, James A. Murphy, Christopher S. Carney, John C. Jr. Miller, Jeff Southerland, Steve II Brown, Corrine Crenshaw, Ander Nugent, Richard B. Stearns, Cliff Mica, John L. Webster, Daniel Bilirakis, Gus M. Young, C. W. Bill Castor, Kathy Ross, Dennis A. Buchanan, Vern Mack, Connie Posey, Bill Rooney, Thomas J. Wilson, Frederica S. Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana Deutch, Theodore E. Wasserman Schultz, Debbie Diaz-Balart, Mario West, Allen B. Hastings, Alcee L. Adams, Sandy Rivera, David Kingston, Jack Bishop, Sanford D. Jr.
12 The Reporter — October 2011
Pence Amendment x x x √ x √ √ √ x x x x √ √ √ √ √ √ √ x x √ x x x x x x x √ x x x x x √ x √ √ x x √ x x x √
Spending Bill √ x x √ x √ √ √ x x x x √ √ √ √ √ √ √ x x √ x x x x x x x √ x x x x x x √ √ x x √ x x x √
Defund PPFA x x x √ x √ √ √ x x x x √ √ √ √ √ √ √ x x √ x x x x x x x √ x x x x x √ x √ √ x x √ x x x √
√ supported Population Connection position x opposed Population Connection position - no vote recorded
Hawaii Idaho Illinois
District 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 01 02 01 02 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 01 02 03
Representative Westmoreland, Lynn A. Johnson, Henry C. “Hank” Jr. Lewis, John Price, Tom Woodall, Rob Scott, Austin Graves, Tom Broun, Paul C. Gingrey, Phil Barrow, John Scott, David Hanabusa, Colleen W. Hirono, Mazie K. Labrador, Raúl R. Simpson, Michael K. Rush, Bobby L. Jackson, Jesse L. Jr. Lipinski, Daniel Gutierrez, Luis V. Quigley, Mike Roskam, Peter J. Davis, Danny K. Walsh, Joe Schakowsky, Janice D. Dold, Robert J. Kinzinger, Adam Costello, Jerry F. Biggert, Judy Hultgren, Randy Johnson, Timothy V. Manzullo, Donald A. Schilling, Robert T. Schock, Aaron Shimkus, John Visclosky, Peter J. Donnelly, Joe Stutzman, Marlin A. Rokita, Todd Burton, Dan Pence, Mike Carson, André Bucshon, Larry Young, Todd C. Braley, Bruce L. Loebsack, David Boswell, Leonard L.
Pence Amendment x √ √ x x x x x x √ √ √ √ x x √ √ x √ x √ x √ √ x x √ x x x x x x √ x x x x x √ x x √ √ √
Spending Bill x √ √ x x x x x x √ √ √ √ x x √ √ √ √ √ x √ x √ x x √ x x x x x x x √ √ x x x x √ x x √ √ √
Defund PPFA x √ √ x x x x x x √ √ √ √ x x √ √ x √ √ x √ x √ √ x x √ x x x x x x √ x x x x x √ x x √ √ √
October 2011 — The Reporter 13
112th U.S. Congress
Roman: Republican Italic: Democrat Bold: Independent
House of Representatives State Kansas
District 04 05 01 02 03 04 01 02 03 04 05 06 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 01 02 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 01 02 03 04 05 06 07
Representative Latham, Tom King, Steve Huelskamp, Tim Jenkins, Lynn Yoder, Kevin Pompeo, Mike Whitfield, Ed Guthrie, Brett Yarmuth, John A. Davis, Geoff Rogers, Harold Chandler, Ben Scalise, Steve Richmond, Cedric L. Landry, Jeffrey M. Fleming, John Alexander, Rodney Cassidy, Bill Boustany, Charles W. Jr. Pingree, Chellie Michaud, Michael H. Harris, Andy Ruppersberger, C. A. Dutch Sarbanes, John P. Edwards, Donna F. Hoyer, Steny H. Bartlett, Roscoe G. Cummings, Elijah E. Van Hollen, Chris Olver, John W. Neal, Richard E. McGovern, James P. Frank, Barney Tsongas, Niki Tierney, John F. Markey, Edward J. Capuano, Michael E. Lynch, Stephen F. Keating, William R. Benishek, Dan Huizenga, Bill Amash, Justin Camp, Dave Kildee, Dale E. Upton, Fred Walberg, Tim
14 The Reporter — October 2011
Pence Amendment x x x x x x x x √ x x √ x √ x x x x x √ √ x √ √ √ √ x √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ x x x √ x x
Spending Bill x x x x x x x x √ x x √ x √ x x x x x √ √ x √ √ √ √ x √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ x x x x √ x x
Defund PPFA x x x x x x x x √ x x √ x √ x x x x x √ √ x √ √ √ √ x √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ x x x √ x x
√ supported Population Connection position x opposed Population Connection position - no vote recorded
District 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 01 02 03 04 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09
01 02 03 Nevada 01 02 03 New Hampshire 01 02 New Jersey 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08
Representative Rogers, Mike Peters, Gary C. Miller, Candice S. McCotter, Thaddeus G. Levin, Sander M. Clarke, Hansen Conyers, John Jr. Dingell, John D. Walz, Timothy J. Kline, John Paulsen, Erik McCollum, Betty Ellison, Keith Bachmann, Michele Peterson, Collin C. Cravaack, Chip Nunnelee, Alan Thompson, Bennie G. Harper, Gregg Palazzo, Steven M. Clay, Wm. Lacy Akin, W. Todd Carnahan, Russ Hartzler, Vicky Cleaver, Emanuel Graves, Sam Long, Billy Emerson, Jo Ann Luetkemeyer, Blaine Rehberg, Denny Fortenberry, Jeff Terry, Lee Smith, Adrian Berkley, Shelley Heller, Dean Heck, Joseph J. Guinta, Frank C. Bass, Charles F. Andrews, Robert E. LoBiondo, Frank A. Runyan, Jon Smith, Christopher H. Garrett, Scott Pallone, Frank Jr. Lance, Leonard Pascrell, Bill Jr.
Pence Amendment x √ x x √ √ √ √ √ x x √ x x x x √ x √ x √ x √ x x x x x x x x √ x x x √ √ x x x x √ x √
Spending Bill x x x √ √ √ √ √ x x √ x √ x x √ x x √ x √ x √ x x x x x x x x √ x x x x √ x x x x √ x √
Defund PPFA x √ x x √ √ √ √ √ x x √ √ x x x x √ x x √ x √ x √ x x x x x x x x √ x x x √ x x x x √ x √
October 2011 — The Reporter 15
112th U.S. Congress
Roman: Republican Italic: Democrat Bold: Independent
House of Representatives State
District 09 10 11 12 13 New Mexico 01 02 03 New York 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 North Carolina 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09
Representative Rothman, Steven R. Payne, Donald M. Frelinghuysen, Rodney P. Holt, Rush D. Sires, Albio Heinrich, Martin Pearce, Stevan Luján, Ben Ray Bishop, Timothy H. Israel, Steve King, Peter T. McCarthy, Carolyn Ackerman, Gary L. Meeks, Gregory W. Crowley, Joseph Nadler, Jerrold [Weiner, Anthony D.] Resigned Towns, Edolphus Clarke, Yvette D. Velázquez, Nydia M. Grimm, Michael G. Maloney, Carolyn B. Rangel, Charles B. Serrano, José E. Engel, Eliot L. Lowey, Nita M. Hayworth, Nan A. S. Gibson, Christopher P. Tonko, Paul Hinchey, Maurice D. Owens, William L. Hanna, Richard L. Buerkle, Ann Marie Hochul, Kathy* Higgins, Brian Slaughter, Louise McIntosh Reed, Tom Butterfield, G. K. Ellmers, Renee L. Jones, Walter B. Price, David E. Foxx, Virginia Coble, Howard McIntyre, Mike Kissell, Larry Myrick, Sue Wilkins
16 The Reporter — October 2011
Pence Amendment √ √ √ √ √ √ x √ √ √ x √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ x √ √ √ √ √ x x √ √ √ √ x √ √ x √ x x √ x x x √ x
Spending Bill √ √ x √ √ √ x √ √ √ x √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ x √ √ √ √ √ x x √ √ √ x x √ √ x √ x √ √ x x √ √ x
Defund PPFA √ √ √ √ √ √ x √ √ √ x √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ x √ √ √ √ √ x x √ √ √ √ x √ √ x √ x x √ x x x √ x
* Won a special election to replace Chris Lee on May 24
North Dakota Ohio
District 10 11 12 13 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 01 02 03 04 05 01 02 03 04 05 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13
** Speaker of the House generally does not vote
Representative McHenry, Patrick T. Shuler, Heath Watt, Melvin L. Miller, Brad Berg, Rick Chabot, Steve Schmidt, Jean Turner, Michael R. Jordan, Jim Latta, Robert E. Johnson, Bill Austria, Steve Boehner, John A. ** Kaptur, Marcy Kucinich, Dennis J. Fudge, Marcia L. Tiberi, Patrick J. Sutton, Betty LaTourette, Steven C. Stivers, Steve Renacci, James B. Ryan, Tim Gibbs, Bob Sullivan, John Boren, Dan Lucas, Frank D. Cole, Tom Lankford, James Wu, David Walden, Greg Blumenauer, Earl DeFazio, Peter A. Schrader, Kurt Brady, Robert A. Fattah, Chaka Kelly, Mike Altmire, Jason Thompson, Glenn Gerlach, Jim Meehan, Patrick Fitzpatrick, Michael G. Shuster, Bill Marino, Tom Barletta, Lou Critz, Mark S. Schwartz, Allyson Y.
Pence Amendment x x √ √ x x x x x x x x √ √ √ x √ x x x √ x x x x x x √ x √ √ √ √ √ x √ x x x x x x x √ √
Spending Bill x √ √ √ x x x x x x x x √ √ √ x √ x x x √ x x √ x x x √ x √ √ √ √ √ x √ x x x x x x x √ √
Defund PPFA x x √ √ x x x x x x x x √ √ √ x √ x x x √ x x x x x x √ x √ √ √ √ √ x √ x x x x x x x x √
October 2011 — The Reporter 17
112th U.S. Congress
Roman: Republican Italic: Democrat Bold: Independent
House of Representatives State
Rhode Island South Carolina
South Dakota Tennessee
District 14 15 16 17 18 19 01 02 01 02 03 04 05 06 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
Representative Doyle, Michael F. Dent, Charles W. Pitts, Joseph R. Holden, Tim Murphy, Tim Platts, Todd Russell Cicilline, David N. Langevin, James R. Scott, Tim Wilson, Joe Duncan, Jeff Gowdy, Trey Mulvaney, Mick Clyburn, James E. Noem, Kristi L. Roe, David P. Duncan, John J. Jr. Fleischmann, Charles J. “Chuck” DesJarlais, Scott Cooper, Jim Black, Diane Blackburn, Marsha Fincher, Stephen Lee Cohen, Steve Gohmert, Louie Poe, Ted Johnson, Sam Hall, Ralph M. Hensarling, Jeb Barton, Joe Culberson, John Abney Brady, Kevin Green, Al McCaul, Michael T. Conaway, K. Michael Granger, Kay Thornberry, Mac Paul, Ron Hinojosa, Rubén Reyes, Silvestre Flores, Bill Jackson Lee, Sheila Neugebauer, Randy Gonzalez, Charles A. Smith, Lamar Olson, Pete
18 The Reporter — October 2011
Pence Amendment √ √ x √ x x √ √ x x x x x √ x x x x x √ x x x √ x x x x x x x x √ x x x x x x x √ x √ x x
Spending Bill √ x x √ x x √ √ x x x x x √ x x x x x √ x x x √ x x x x x x x x √ x x x x √ x √ x √ x x
Defund PPFA √ √ x √ x x √ √ x x x x x √ x x x x x √ x x x √ x x x x x x x x √ x x x x x √ √ x √ x √ x x
Utah Vermont Virginia
West Virginia Wisconsin
District 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 01 02 03 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 01 02 03 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08
Representative Canseco, Francisco “Quico” Marchant, Kenny Doggett, Lloyd Burgess, Michael C. Farenthold, Blake Cuellar, Henry Green, Gene Johnson, Eddie Bernice Carter, John R. Sessions, Pete Bishop, Rob Matheson, Jim Chaffetz, Jason Welch, Peter Wittman, Robert J. Rigell, E. Scott Scott, Robert C. “Bobby” Forbes, J. Randy Hurt, Robert Goodlatte, Bob Cantor, Eric Moran, James P. Griffith, H. Morgan Wolf, Frank R. Connolly, Gerald E. Inslee, Jay Larsen, Rick Herrera Beutler, Jaime Hastings, Doc McMorris Rodgers, Cathy Dicks, Norman D. McDermott, Jim Reichert, David G. Smith, Adam McKinley, David B. Capito, Shelley Moore Rahall, Nick J. II Ryan, Paul Baldwin, Tammy Kind, Ron Moore, Gwen Sensenbrenner, F. James Jr. Petri, Thomas E. Duffy, Sean P. Ribble, Reid J. Lummis, Cynthia M.
Pence Amendment x x √ x x √ √ √ x x x √ x √ x x √ x x x x √ x x √ √ √ x x x √ √ x √ x x x x √ √ √ x x x x x
Spending Bill x x √ x x √ √ √ x x x √ x √ x x √ x x x x √ x x √ √ √ x x x √ √ x √ x x √ x √ √ √ x x x x x
Defund PPFA x x √ x x √ √ √ x x x √ x √ x x √ x x x x √ x x √ √ √ x x x √ √ √ x x x x √ √ √ x x x x x
October 2011 — The Reporter 19
112th U.S. Congress
Roman: Republican Italic: Democrat Bold: Independent
Senate vote on House measure to bar Planned Parenthood from receiving government funding April 14, 2011 Senate Roll call 60 Our position: oppose Failed: 42-58
“We know the real priority of these Republicans in Congress. It is an ideological agenda that, frankly, puts women’s health and women’s lives at risk. Here we had this huge debate over the budget...and the two things the Republicans insisted on voting on—on a budget bill—have nothing to do with the budget...The bottom line is, if you turn and look at the two votes we are going to have today, they both hurt women disproportionately. This isn’t about the budget. If it were about a budget, they would give more money to the Title X program because for every dollar we invest, we save $4 on the other side.” —Sen. Barbara Boxer (D-CA), April 14, 2011
Shelby, Richard C.
Pryor, Mark L.
Bennet, Michael F.
Lieberman, Joseph I.
Carper, Thomas R.
Coons, Christopher A.
Akaka, Daniel K.
Inouye, Daniel K.
Risch, James E.
Durbin, Richard J.
Lugar, Richard G.
Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky
Gavel. © Timurd | Dreamstime.com
20 The Reporter — October 2011
Landrieu, Mary L.
Collins, Susan M.
Snowe, Olympia J.
Inhofe, James M.
Cardin, Benjamin L.
Mikulski, Barbara A.
Brown, Scott P.
Casey, Robert P. Jr.
Kerry, John F.
Toomey, Patrick J.
Wicker, Roger F.
Lautenberg, Frank R.
Gillibrand, Kirsten E.
Schumer, Charles E.
Hagan, Kay R.
Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota
Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas
Hutchison, Kay Bailey x Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming
Hatch, Orrin G.
Leahy, Patrick J.
Warner, Mark R.
Manchin, Joe III
Rockefeller, John D. IV
Enzi, Michael B.
October 2011 — The Reporter 21
Population Policy in Transition in the Developing World By John Bongaarts and Steven Sinding
fter more than a decade of relative neglect, population growth and its adverse environmental, social, economic, and political effects in the developing world are returning to the global policy agenda. Expressions of concern have resurfaced in recently increased United States—and United Kingdom—government budgets for international reproductive health and family planning assistance, in major publications, in a report from the U.S.-based Council on Foreign Relations, and in conclusions of international conferences and meetings of heads of state of the African Union. Recent media attention has focused on the day—later this year—when the world’s population is expected to reach 7 billion and on the unexpected upward revision of United Nations (UN) projections for the world population, from 9 billion up to 10 billion in 2100. This revision is largely due to changed assumptions about future fertility that have been subject to debate. Countries have different types of population-relevant policies (e.g., to address migration, aging, or family welfare). We focus on family planning in the developing world because it has been the main approach used to address rapid population growth, high fertility, and unintended childbearing. The relative neglect of family planning policy in the 1990s and early 2000s had several causes, including premature claims of an end to the population “explosion,” shifting attention from population growth to the AIDS epidemic and a consequent reallocation of resources, and growing conservative religious and political opposition. International funding support for family planning programs declined by 30 percent between 1995 and 2008.
22 The Reporter — October 2011
Family Planning Programs: Rationale and Impact Population growth in Asia, Latin America, and Africa accelerated sharply after 1950 as the spread of medical technology (e.g., immunization and antibiotics) rapidly reduced death rates while birth rates remained high. This was the main reason the world population expanded from 2.5 to 7 billion between 1950 and 2011. As this population explosion got under way during the 1950s and 1960s, national and international policymakers became concerned about the threat to the well-being of mostly poor societies. Many governments in the developing world—with substantial international assistance—implemented voluntary family planning programs to provide information about, and access to, contraceptives. This permitted women and men to control their reproductive lives and to avoid unwanted childbearing. Only in rare cases has coercion been used, most notably in the one-child policy in China and during the brief emergency period in India in 1976–77. Throughout the past half-century, the choice of voluntary family planning programs as the main population policy instrument rested on a substantial level of unwanted childbearing caused by an unsatisfied demand for contraception. Each year about 184 million pregnancies occur in the developing world, and 40 percent of these (74 million) are unintended because they occur when women want to avoid or delay pregnancy. These unintended pregnancies end in abortions (48 percent), unintended births (40 percent), or miscarriages (12 percent), with detrimental health and economic effects for many women and their families.
Among the reasons for the unmet need for contraception are a lack of knowledge about the existence and availability of contraception, insufficient contraceptive supplies and services, the cost of contraception, an exaggerated fear of side effects, and opposition from spouses and other family members. To be successful in reducing unintended pregnancies and birth rates, family planning programs must go beyond simply providing narrowly defined physical access to supplies and services and reduce or eliminate these other obstacles as well. Any program-induced fertility decline changes the future trajectory of population growth. This impact can be large, as demonstrated by a comparison of alternative UN population projections for sub-Saharan Africa. According to the standard (medium variant) projection the population of subSaharan Africa will more than double from 0.86 billion in 2010 to 1.96 billion in 2050. A low-variant projection was based on reducing fertility by a half birth (from 2020 onward), leading to a quarter-billion fewer people by 2050. Given that good programs can reduce fertility by 1.0 to 1.5 births, such a program implemented now could reduce population by considerably more than a quarter-billion by 2050. This could only be achieved if family planning programs are scaled up rapidly to have their full impact within a decade. Family planning programs are most effective where socioeconomic conditions are improving. In particular, education of girls is a powerful driver of fertility decline because educated women have lower than average desired family size (in part because the opportunity costs of childbearing are higher for these women) and are more
John Bongaarts is a vice president and distinguished scholar at the Population Council. Steven Sinding was Director-General of the International Planned Parenthood Federation from 2002-2006 and Director of the Population and Reproductive Health Program at USAID from 1983-1986. Reprinted with permission from Science, Vol 333, July 29, 2011, p. 574. This is only an excerpt. The full text with references can be purchased online at www.sciencemag.org/site/special/population.
A billboard shows family planning methods in rural Haiti: Margaret McCann. A group of Ethiopian women practice implant insertion on an arm model: Mengistu Asnake. Health workers at a rural government clinic provide contraceptives, maternal healthcare, and family planning advice to underserved women in the community outside of Pune, India. The care in this particular village is so atypically high that 95 percent of women use contraceptives: Robyn Iqbal. All courtesy of Photoshare.
capable of overcoming obstacles to use of family planning. However, educated women must have access to contraception to implement their reproductive preferences efficiently. Family planning and socioeconomic development operate synergistically. Reducing fertility and population growth brings a range of benefits that provide a powerful rationale for investing in family planning programs. Fewer pregnancies (both intended and unintended) mean fewer maternal deaths (more than a third of these deaths are due to unintended pregnancies, in part because some end in unsafe induced abortion). Slower growth in the number of infants and children permits more investment in the quality rather than quantity of health care and education. Smaller family sizes free women to join the labor market. A slower growth in the number of young people seeking employment reduces job competition and www.popconnect.org
its wage-depressing effect. Slower growth may make it easier for societies to address several adverse environmental trends. The Way Forward Between the late 1960s and the 1990s, international cooperation between developing countries and industrialized donor countries produced one of the great success stories of development assistance. The system included financial support and technical assistance and training. Much of the steam has gone out of that system in recent years. Industrialized and developing countries must rebuild effective international cooperation. High-income countries should follow the example of the U.S. and U.K. administrations and substantially increase funding for international family planning, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where leadership and funding have been most lacking. Government leaders in developing countries, especially those in
sub-Saharan Africa who have neglected these issues, should follow the example of the Rwandan government, which has made a successful new effort to strengthen health and family planning services. Family planning is highly cost-effective. The UN estimates that â€œfor every dollar spent in family planning, between two and six dollars can be saved in interventions aimed at achieving other development goals.â€? With sufficient political will and resources, well-run voluntary programs have brought about sustained declines in fertility and population growth across much of Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America, simply by permitting people to realize their individual reproductive goals. Such programs represent a cost-effective approach to relieving population pressures, stimulating economic development, improving health, and enhancing human freedom. October 2011 â€” The Reporter 23
of the dark ages or contemporary diseases, which we do not understand, the modern
37. Activist who said, “Unlike the plagues
means we have discovered and with 45
but universal consciousness of the gravity
of the problem and the education of
billions of people who are its victims.”
resources we possess. What is lacking is
not sufficient knowledge of the solution,
plague of overpopulation is soluble by
35. Largest suburb of Tulsa, Broken ___
44. Biblical cataclysm figure
46. Barnum, and others
50. TV brand
49. Clinton title, before Pres. 53. Before
Famous Figures That Are Also Advocates of Population Stabilization
54. One who needs to pay
By Alex Starkey
63. TV funny man who penned, “One
20. Mother’s sisters 1. Droops down 22. Tach reading 5. 6th sense 25. Eastern African nation that has nearly 8. Inheritors doubled in population since 1990 13. Property map 27. Subject of Gregor Mendel’s 14. The ___ degree experiments that led to the principles of 15. Region with one of the lowest fertility modern genetics rates in the world, at 0.92 28. Country with high population 16. Famed thinker who wrote “...I growth rate that spends an estimated mention here only the fight against birth $18 million/day on desalination of water control at a time when overpopulation in (abbr.) various countries has become a serious 29. Govt. environmental watchdog threat to the health of people and a grave 30. Insect that numbers roughly 150 obstacle to any attempt to organize peace thousand per human on this planet.” 32. Genetic material 19. Spirit 33. Besides 24 The Reporter — October 2011
56. “It’s got your ___ it!”
58. Malaria prevention aid
59. Malthus phrase, “The ___ of population”
61. Presidential middle name
of the biggest green discussions we
have in our home is about how we will never be able to really get control of
the destruction of our planet’s valuable
resources until we realize that we have an
enormous responsibility and obligation to control the size of the human population that is expanding at a rate never seen before in our history.”
68. The Right ___ Marry 69. Compass direction 70. Singer Lovett
71. Victorious exclamation 72. UFO pilots 73. Bark
Puzzle Answers E A S E L
I C O N
T A M E
S N A G
A S N O
F L I P
R A G E
S C U M
T A H P E P O C R D O I O D Y S A P E T S U R H A B E A V A S T O P O T E M E R I R A C
G A G A
O S R S A W C Y L O I S E U S E E V I V E E N I N C R O L A P P U L A A D Q R E U A D E
O C E A N
L E A R
A N N A
R E S T
N R O O V M A P D T I U A N L A S
E D E N
W E R E
R O S I E
S N I T S
Answers to October 2011 Crossword
R U E S P A
R E S E W
A G S L A T L B E M P M A E L S E M A R R
E S P N T H R T E I O R A L M A L A E P A A T I N L A C E S G O V N A M R D E O N A L T O E O N E
C O A X E S
R E L E N T
I N R I
N E W A R K
H M S
E I R S A C A U T E I N A U N T S P E A S T D N A O W N G J R N O A H A A G O N N E T N O A N D E R L Y L E Y E L P
H O N D A
S E W A G E
1. Resort 2. Every one 3. Talk 4. ___ Cell 5. Capture 6. How to ___ Million 7. Short for The City of Brotherly Love 8. ___ Pinafore 9. “I could ___ horse!” 10. Become frosty 11. Precipitated 12. Beach goer’s desire? 17. First city to reach a population of one million 18. Largest city in New Jersey 21. Retirement org 22. Regret 23. West ___ Beach 24. Ancient abandoned settlement, ___ Verde 26. Cross acronym 31. Could be mega or metric 34. Make a mistake 35. Gore and Pacino 36. Chicago based cable network 38. Mark 39. Symbol 40. Fastest growing state from 1987 to 2006 41. Hundred Years War heroine 42. Intense anger 45. High in temperature 46. Burst 47. Pulling tool 48. Population by-product 50. Give up 51. Persuades 52. ___ and the King 55. Stitch again 57. Brawl 60. ___-Rooter 62. Abstinence ___ Education 64. ___ Sequitur 65. Coloring agent 66. Building wing 67. Congressman, for one (abbr.)
C R E A M
P T O W P O J A W
Answers to May 2011 Crossword
October 2011 — The Reporter 25
Family Planning Under Attack… By Stacie Murphy
ith a hostile House of Representatives and a host of Republican would-be presidential nominees competing for the attention of constituents planning to vote in the primaries, it’s no surprise that family planning and reproductive health issues are making news. …on the Hill In the days leading up to the August recess, international family planning received special attention from some corners of the House. The House Foreign Affairs Committee went first, voting in favor of language that would not only reinstate the notorious Global Gag Rule, but dramatically expand its reach to include all foreign aid programs. In response, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton sent a letter to the Chair of the Committee, Rep. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (R-FL), protesting the inclusion of the Gag Rule (as well as other provisions) and stating that if the bill reaches the President, she will urge a veto. The State Department/Foreign Operations Appropriations Sub-Committee also weighed in as it began its work on the Fiscal Year 2012 budget. That sub-committee, under the leadership of Rep. Kay Granger (R-TX), also included the Gag Rule language in its bill, as well as a total 26 The Reporter — October 2011
ban on any funding to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). The funding levels recommended by the sub-committee are equally disheartening: it approved only $461 million for international family planning—a 25 percent cut from the Fiscal Year 2011 level of $615 million, and a whopping 40 percent cut below the President’s request of $769 million. It also appears that family planning programs were specifically targeted for disproportionate cuts; only a handful of other programs were cut to such a dramatic degree. The Guttmacher Institute estimates that the proposed $154 million funding cut would have marked impacts in the developing world, leading to 9.4 million fewer women and couples receiving contraceptive services, an additional 3 million unintended pregnancies, and 1.3 million more abortions—many of which would be unsafe. In response to this barrage, Rep. Nita Lowey (D-NY)—a longtime champion of family planning—reintroduced the Global Democracy Promotion Act (GDPA). If enacted, the GDPA would prevent a future president from reinstating the Global Gag Rule. Given the make-up of this House, we do not expect to see any momentum on the bill. Nevertheless, Mrs. Lowey’s
bill, with 104 original co-sponsors, is an important reminder that there are still members of Congress who acknowledge the importance of international family planning. The budget process will continue, now that Congress has returned to session after the summer recess, and we fully expect to see additional attacks on family planning programs. …in the Media On August 1, the Department of Health and Human Services announced that as a part of the push for expanded preventive care under the health care reform law, insurance companies will be required to cover contraception with no copays. The nonpartisan Institute of Medicine recommended the adoption of the new rule, stating that the high up-front cost of some methods of family planning creates a barrier to access, and that “[t]he elimination of cost sharing for contraception therefore could greatly increase its use, including use of the more effective and longer-acting methods, especially among poor and low-income women most at risk for unintended pregnancy.” The new rule, which goes into effect in August 2012, is being hailed by family planning advocates as an historic victory for women’s health in the U.S.
Of course, not everyone agrees. Despite the fact that the law contains an exemption for some religious employers, the Family Research Council and the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops oppose the new rule, calling it a violation of conscience rights. One ultraconservative columnist at The Washington Times went further, writing in advance of the decision, “Free birth control has nothing to do with ‘protecting women’s health.’ Rather, it is about consolidating the sexual revolution. The post-1960s left has been at war with Christianity. Its aim is to erect a utopian socialist state—one built upon the rubble of Judeo-Christian civilization. In short, liberals want to create a world without God and sexual permissiveness is their battering ram. Promoting widespread contraception is essential to forging a pagan society based on consequence-free sex.” He then went on to call the decision “profoundly immoral.” Various Fox News commentators also offered opinions that ranged from bizarre to, well, more bizarre. The Five co-host Greg Gutfield sneeringly declared that “the left has figured out a way to eradicate the poor. And it’s by eradicating the poor,” while Fox News contributor Sandy Rios said she opposed the new rule and suggested that what women really need to do is “stop having irresponsible sex.” Not to be outdone, Bill O’Reilly argued on his show www.popconnect.org
that universal coverage of contraception is pointless since “many women who get pregnant are blasted out of their minds when they have sex” and “are not going to use birth control anyway.” The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists says that providing comprehensive contraceptive coverage to women will represent a negligible cost to employers and could save up to $19 billion annually in expenses directly related to unintended pregnancy.
“Promoting widespread contraception is essential to forging a pagan society based on consequencefree sex.” …and on the Campaign Trail In a crowded Republican field, many of the potential nominees have begun touting their opposition to reproductive rights as a way of proving their conservative bona fides to the Right Wing of their party. The Susan B. Anthony List, an extreme anti-choice group, has called on all the candidates to sign a pledge promising
So far this year, our members have sent over 75,000 emails to Congress!
that, if they become President, they will enact a laundry list of new restrictions on abortion rights, including the complete defunding of all Planned Parenthood services. Signers of the pledge also promise to employ a strict anti-choice litmus test when making judicial nominations and appointing Cabinet members. Rick Perry, Michele Bachmann, Ron Paul, Rick Santorum, Newt Gingrich, and Thad McCotter have all signed the pledge. Mitt Romney, while reiterating his opposition to reproductive rights, has declined to do so—likely in an effort to preserve his ability to “move toward the middle” in a general election. Jon Huntsman, Herman Cain, and Gary Johnson have also not signed. Peripheral candidate Johnson—currently receiving less than 1 percent support in the polls—is the only Republican in the race who can be described as moderate on abortion rights. Washington, DC promises to be a busy place this fall. As the spending fight gets going again and the campaign season heats up, we expect to see even more attacks on family planning and reproductive rights. October 2011 — The Reporter 27
Field & Outreach
Member Spotlight: Susan Halpern By Rebecca Harrington
n the fall of 2009, during the initial stages of our Double the Money campaign, a shared contact introduced us to Susan Halpern. She is the Executive Director of the Columbus International Film and Video Festival (CIFVF), the longest-running film festival in the United States. This meeting spurred what has become a long-lasting and highly effective partnership that has broadened each of our activist networks. With a long history of work in both the arts and political activism, Susan offers a wealth of experience using film to convey messages about women’s health, the environment, and other pressing social issues. Susan’s career in the arts began while working toward a graduate art degree. Originally focused on sculpture, photography, and printmaking, she became involved with film when, “on a dare” she explored performance art. The short performance that she wrote and directed dealt with the female body, sexuality, cancer, and death. Her mother died from breast cancer at a young age, an experience that has very much shaped Susan’s work. Her work in film developed because she needed a way to document her performance art, and video was the best way to “distribute my work far beyond my immediate audience” because it could “take your work to places you couldn’t go.”
28 The Reporter — October 2011
Susan believes that film is a highly effective advocacy and educational tool because “People watch it! And film goes everywhere.” She cites as an example the film Gasland, which the Festival screened three times to sold-out theaters. The film is about hydraulic fracturing or “fracking” (a process used to extract oil and gas from subterranean rock). She describes the stunning visual of people in a recently-drilled Pennsylvania town lighting their water on fire (the water supply had been contaminated by the oil) as incredibly powerful. Susan reflects, “From a young age, I recognized the power of an image.” The Buddhist monks setting themselves on fire to protest the Vietnam War and the lone man facing the tank in Tiananmen Square are images that resonated with her, and that she’ll never forget. She says, “I hope that the power of film can change the world, and I try really hard to believe that’s true.” While her art isn’t explicitly political, Susan has been politically active for as long as she can remember. Susan’s mother, a dedicated feminist, exposed her to a variety of social causes throughout her formative years. She remembers protesting nuclear power plants on Long Island as a teenager, at a rally where Pete Seeger performed. She recalls watching the Vietnam War protests on TV as a child, and stuffing envelopes for Eugene McCarthy during his 1968 presidential campaign. She also inherited
Susan Halpern, Executive Director of the Columbus International Film and Video Festival, www.chrisawards.org.
a penchant for political activism from her grandfather and her great-grandfather, both labor organizers. Her activism has also been strongly informed by Jewish custom. She says that Judaism fosters a commitment to justice and what she describes as a cultural obligation “to care about the world you live in, and to effect change when it’s needed.” With this religious grounding, Susan says that doing this type of work comes naturally to her. Susan has always been concerned about population growth—which, like many other global challenges, she learned about from her mother. In fact, her whole family had “a sense that the world is a crowded place with limited resources.” Susan first
heard about Population Connection in the 1980s, from a friend who was a ZPG member (and now, incidentally, sits on the Board of the Film Festival). She supports Population Connection because “we’re doing the work that no one else is doing” and because she “doesn’t know of any other organization that connects the issues of women’s health and the environment with population growth.” Population issues, per se, are not of foremost importance in Columbus, except when viewed through an environmental lens. Susan notes a lesser sense of crowding in the Midwest than in other U.S. regions, as well as an isolationist attitude. She observes that, in general, Midwesterners are much less concerned about international issues than people living on the two coasts. Environmental issues are the most pressing local concern, particularly in regards to food. There is much interest in the “locavore” and food-to-table movements, as well as urban gardening and farming; this seems natural since “the Midwest is America’s breadbasket.” Still, Population Connection has found a receptive audience in Columbus constituents. With Susan’s help, we have held several successful events in the city proper and on the Ohio State University campus, and have grown our base of support to include older activists and students www.popconnect.org
and faculty at Ohio State. Last fall, Susan facilitated an invitation for Population Connection to speak at the home of a local activist couple, who host a monthly “salon.” We have co-hosted screenings of the documentary films Not Yet Rain and The Edge of Joy with the Festival, at Studio 35 in Columbus. These events have helped to stimulate discussion about population and international family planning in the Columbus community. Last summer, Susan attended an in-district advocacy meeting with former Rep. Mary Jo Kilroy (D-OH), along with six other constituents. She is currently in the process of coordinating a similar meeting with the office of Rep. Steve Stivers (R-OH), the new member in our Columbus-area target district. Susan has attended our annual advocacy weekend, Capitol Hill Days, for the past two years. At the 2010 event, she attended lobby meetings with two other Columbus constituents. At this year’s program, thanks in large part to the awareness she has helped create, Susan was joined at her lobby meetings by 12 members of the Global Health Initiative, a student group at Ohio State. Susan is a valuable supporter of Population Connection, and she has enhanced our advocacy work in Columbus. It is invaluable to have such a talented grassroots organizer
We have the largest Facebook following of any population group, by far!
supporting our efforts and incorporating Population Connection into the Columbus community. As we continue our work there, we look forward to our ongoing collaboration with Susan and the Festival. Upcoming Events As we approach a World of 7 Billion, a milestone we will reach on October 31, we will be staging events around the country to spur discussion about the challenges we will face in a world with 7 billion inhabitants. The first of these events will be a screening of the documentary film Mother: Caring for 7 Billion, which we will host in partnership with the CIFVF on Wednesday, September 21, from 7-9 p.m. at the Gateway Film Center in Columbus. We plan to hold similar screenings and discussions in our target districts in Seattle and Minneapolis. Additionally, we will coordinate in-district advocacy meetings in each target district, using the 7 billion milestone to highlight the need for increased funding for domestic and international family planning programs. Details for these events will be posted on our website, our Facebook page, and our Twitter feed, as they become available. October 2011 — The Reporter 29
Back to School with 7 Billion Lessons Pop. Ed.
By Pamela Wasserman
,999,999,997…6,999,999,998… 6,999,999,999…For the past year, the Population Education Program has been “counting up” to 7 billion, using this fall’s population milestone as a way to generate interest in the issue and to get young people to consider how population trends may affect their future.
A year ago, we launched our World of 7 Billion education campaign with a new website, www.Worldof7Billion.org, featuring new classroom activities and a video public service announcement (PSA) contest for high school students. This past May, awards were given to the best of the 617 entries we received. The student filmmakers impressed us with their creativity, thoughtfulness, and grasp of the population connections. Their winning videos, along with their bios and thoughts on the contest, can be viewed at the website mentioned above. With just a month to go until the United Nations announces the “Day of 7 Billion” (slated for October 31), we are sending the enclosed poster to high school social studies and environmental studies teachers nationwide. One side traces our “Quick Trip to 7 Billion” with a historical timeline of events, inventions, and social movements that have affected birth and death rates over the past 200 years. The flip side examines population projections 30 The Reporter — October 2011
Help us to distribute the enclosed poster to teachers nationwide this fall with a special gift. Each dollar enables us to get a poster up in another classroom. Use the enclosed envelope or call us at 800-767-1956. through 2100 and the challenges that we face as a global family to meet everyone’s basic needs and repair our vital ecosystems that have suffered from the strain of human activities. The poster’s usefulness
in the classroom will last far beyond 2011, as students consider their role in working toward a sustainable society. As an accompaniment to the poster, we have released new lesson plans for teachers to use in the classroom or as school-wide activities. The following activity offers a way for students to engage everyone in the school community over the next few weeks.
Lauren Carlson, Education Program Associate, sets up our own “Count Up to 7 Billion” in the Population Connection conference room.
We received 617 entries to our student video PSA contest!
Activity: Count Up to 7 Billion Introduction Many people have taken part in a countdown leading up to a specific event—the beginning of the school year, their birthday, or a special trip. But to showcase world population reaching 7 billion, create a “count up” so students can see the population numbers change as we approach the addition of earth’s 7 billionth member. According to the United Nations, we’ll reach 7 billion people on October 31, 2011. We currently add approximately 227,000 people to the planet each day. Through a “count up” to 7 billion, students can experience the fast pace of population growth that has brought us to the 7 billion milestone. Procedure Find a bulletin board in a central location at your school, maybe in the entrance lobby or the hallway outside your classroom. Look up today’s world population by checking www.Worldof7Billion.org—there is a dynamic population clock on the upper left side of the homepage. Using ten pieces of construction paper to start, write each digit on one piece of the paper. Display the world population, using these numbers, on the bulletin board. www.popconnect.org
Dallas area principal, Tim Greenwell, displays a concept map of possible effects of a world at “7 Billion and Growing” at the 2011 Leadership Institute for new teacher trainers.
Be sure to include a title above the population, such as “Today’s World Population.” Ongoing—on a daily basis, update the digits to represent that day’s world population. You will need to replace six to seven digits every day. To save paper, save the digits that you take down as they will most likely be needed again on a future day. Discussion Questions Why is it important to know the number of people living on the earth? People need resources to survive. Some of these resources are environmental in nature—air to breathe, water to drink, and space to grow food. Other resources we create—roads to travel on, sewers to collect waste, and schools to educate. And then
there are those that aren’t physical objects but rather social resources—our relationship with each other, our government, and so on. With population increasing, it is vital to know how many people we have so we can plan our resource use, and resource creation, accordingly. And because these resources do not simply appear overnight, it is also helpful to have estimates of our future numbers so we can plan for the next generations to have what they need as well. Do you think every person in the world has been counted? Probably not—consider the following factors: United Nations demographers depend on individual countries to submit their population numbers. Because different countries take their censuses in different years, the UN must use the most current numbers as a guide to know when 7 billion is to be reached. Additionally, world population is fluid. With 4.4 babies born and 1.8 people passing away every second, for a net increase of 2.6 persons per second, the number of people on the planet is constantly changing. As soon as you state a number, it will be outdated. October 2011 — The Reporter 31
Used with the permission of Signe Wilkinson, the Washington Post Writers Group, and the Cartoonist Group. All rights reserved.
32 The Reporter â€” October 2011
Charleston, West Virginia
Most European countries have much lower rates of abortion and single motherhood than America does. That’s largely because those nations teach sensible sex education and make birth control freely available. America is more Puritanical, less willing to address sex in a practical manner.
The human population will top 7 billion later this year, on its way to 9 billion in 2050.
But U.S. conditions might improve soon, thanks to the far-reaching national health reform passed last year by Congress. It focuses extensively on preventive care. The Obama Administration just defined birth control as a medical prevention, which means that all American insurance plans will be required to make birth control less expensive, with no deductibles or copays. It will improve life for millions of American females.
How will we feed all those people? Population growth will come almost entirely from the developing world, where rising incomes already have prompted a shift to meat-heavy, Western-style diets. It takes a lot of grain to produce beef, pork, and chicken, so consumption of feedstuffs has skyrocketed, most notably in China.
Birth control should be as inexpensive in America as in Europe. Thank heaven, the Obama Administration is moving to help America achieve the social rewards that Europe enjoys.
Given the trends in population and diet, it is obvious that demand for food will soar, and maybe even double. America’s farmers and agricultural landowners can afford to shoulder significant budget cuts. The same can’t be said for the other 7 billion people in the world who will depend on the U.S. to deliver much of their food in years to come.
—August 18, 2011
—August 8, 2011
October 2011 — The Reporter 33
NON PROFIT US POSTAGE PAID POPULATION CONNECTION
Your legacy...people and the planet in balance
Have you considered leaving a legacy gift, ensuring that your commitment to zero population growth continues well into the future? By remembering Population Connection in your will or estate plan, you can make a meaningful contribution to stabilizing population and improving the quality of life for everyone, everywhere. We also offer charitable gift annuities, which provide guaranteed life income and significant tax advantages. For more information, please contact Shauna Scherer, Director of Development, at email@example.com or (800) 767-1956.
Population Connection members Katharine and Julian Donahue, visiting Iguazu Falls in Brazil.
If youâ€™ve already included Zero Population Growth (ZPG) in your estate plans, there is no need to change any language. We proudly maintain the name and the mission.
34 The Reporter â€” October 2011
Congressional Report Card