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polina morova


ABOUT This portfolio is not only aimed to display my ability to solve problems and my skills in different fields, but to enable one to understand my perception of architectural design. It is about the way an object or idea speaks to its audience. But good design not only gets the message across - it also engages us in conversation.


CONTENTS 01

AT HOME IN THE CITY

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STUDY TYPE

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LEITH 2026: A NEIGHBORHOOD PLAN

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Leith District, Edinburgh, Schotland

Lt josai, Nagoya-shi, Japan

Leith District, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

DWELLING +

Leith District, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

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INHABIT

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ENGINEERING EXPERIENCE

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Leith District, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

EXPLORING EXPERIENCE Berwick-upon-Tweed, UK

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PROCESS + REFLECT

Leith District, Edinburgh, Schotland

ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN COURSEWORK1

Leith District, Edinburgh, Schotland

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ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY COURSEWORK 1

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ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY COURSEWORK 2

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Leith District, Edinburgh, Schotland

Berwick-upon-Tweed, UK

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ABOUT ARCHITECTURE ESSAY

Mass Housing Manifesto. Conversation about the New Way of Accountability

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DISSERTATION PROPOSAL

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M A S S

Architecture as a living substance.

Perception, analysis and modelling of sound in architecture through the new notation

H O U S I N G

M A N I F E S T O

Conversation about The New Way of Accountability Student Number: 150008424 Morova Polina

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system.

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AT HOME IN THE CITY

D

uring this project you will interrogate and explore different approaches to the design of the home, of housing as a collective endeavour, and the complexities of working within an urban context. - how to read and interpret the conditions of an urban neighbourhood and how to apply these in developing large-scale spatial proposals - how to develop briefs for complex projects and gain experience of deriving a programme from detailed understanding of a context - develop skills in resolving complex spatial programmes - explore technical approaches that draw on the effect of light, sound and materiality to inform the lived experience of spaces. - develop increasingly sophisticated approaches to exploring and communicating your design intentions and the lived qualities of spaces through a range of media and formats - develop a critical and informed response, demonstrating an understanding of the forces that contribute to the production of the built environment with particular focus on the role of the architect in economic systems. The four parts of the project brief are as follows: 1 Study Type 2 Leith 2026 3 Dwelling Plus 4 Inhabit


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STUDY TYPE: MINIMUM FLAT

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n this studio we were exploring the idea of shared living as a solution to the

housing crisis. Shared living minimises the private elements of a home and provides communal spaces such as kitchens, bathrooms and living rooms or services such as cooking, cleaning and laundry. Eliminating the duplication of these spaces and services is much more efficient allowing prices to be reduced.

Case study: Share House LT Josai (Nagoya, Japan), by Naruse Inokuma Architects Selected case study offers an interesting example of designing for a particular community, working within a particular context, or responding creatively to constraints of available space, material or nance.

Main aspects to focus on: 1 spatial configuration 2 economies 3 case study as a microcosm of the city


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NEWCASTLE UNIVERSITY. ARCHITECTURE, PLANNING & LANDSCAPE STAGE 2. 16/17. SEMESTER. 1. ARC2001

SHARE HOUSE LT JOSAI NAGOYA JAPAN STUDIO GROUP: B

Study Type Booklet SEM. 1: P2.3 AT HOME IN THE CITY

2 P2.3.1


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EVALUATION

We explored and understand the variety of ways in which spaces for dwelling can be con conjured in order to facilitate not only the lifestyle of a particular household, but also the relationships between neighbours, their overlapping routines and encounters that begin to make up the social life of the city or neighbourhood in which they live.


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LEITH 2026: NEIGHBOURHOOD PLAN

creating communities through green spaces

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ased around collective dwelling project, develop skills in resolving complex spatial programmes. Consider and apply increasingly sophisticated techniques of vertical and horizontal movement, and begin to integrate constructional understanding of structural systems in your design proposals. The brief of the project- to read and present a proposal for a neighbourhood in Leith.


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RHYTHMS

During the study trip to Edinburgh as a group we had an opportunity to explore, observe, record and begin to understand these areas as a starting point for setting out proposals for their future development.


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SITE VISIT

While sketching I start paying attention to those details that we usually miss. Subconsciously through drawing. I indicate the particular system of geometries that potentially could be used for the future proposal.


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THE BLOCKS

Learning from precedence, we experimented with various shapes and paths to create a floating road that will link three main parts of the site together, each of 3 blocks would be used for its own function:

Based on building use analysis we considered whether to demolish or conserve those in the future proposal. diagrams illustrating working process

- residential - commercial - educational

precedence1: High Line precedence2: Diller Scofidio + Renfro selected to transform the centre of Aberdeen


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BIKE ROUTES

in our proposal we suggested a couple of radical changes as for example removing the ground floor in one of the building to enable to provide view onto the water.

CYCLE PATH AND MAIN PARK Cycle path runs through the site as a means of connecting each of individual areas of the park.


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KIDS SPACE

In my personal analysis I identified the growing needs of children in the area. As in Leith there is a lack of safe open space. Therefore we decided to suggest a playground that offers spaces for more physical interaction, additionally parents would be able to keep their children busy according to their schedule.

Typically kids prefer informal neighbourhood places such as vacant lot-sand back alleys to organise playgrounds. Indeed, trees, green-ways and fields offer an endless range of activities, whereas most playgrounds force children into a strict set of repeated actions. Based on this assumption, playground design in Leith is open plan with a couple of abstract extensions that will enable one to fantasy and create his one interpretation. Within the kids space there is suggested extension where parents can socialise over coffee while watching their children in a variety of play environment.


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EVALUATION

Further consideration is needed to evaluate whether some buildings may be able to be kept alongside the proposal.


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DWELLING +

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he final output of the project is a critical response to all the knowledge we got from previous stages. - interpretation of an urban neighbourhood conditions - dwelling design based on particular user group - development of various interpretations of my design ideas and qualities of created spaces - indication of thorough analysis of the main systems that contribute to the production of the built environment


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USER GROUP + DESIGN INSPIRATION

Unfortunately, monumental architecture today is not working for society, but for privilege people. Whereas a significant amount of people suffers mentally and physically. Therefore, I chose homeless people as my user group. Modern society equates leaving in a permanent structure even to having value as a person and this negative perception of other people can impact our reality if we let it. I believe that homelessness is more an attitude than a lifestyle, as a vast majority of homeless people simply lost their way in life. Real homeless don’t have hope. And residential architecture is one of the powerful ways to get this hope back. With this design I intended to provide a place that would become a starting point for those who once chose the wrong road. The building system will support education and entertainment facilities within the workshop and reading room built in. People are not where they live, where they sleep or what current situation they are at the moment. People are what they want to become.

Y-Cube / this factory-building housing scheme by Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners will provide accommodation for 36 homeless young people in Mitcham, south London #modular system, blocks

Pencho Slaveykov / New regional library in Varna, Bulgaria by Architects for Urbanity. It's design features a transparent "open space of knowledge" that divides the building's mass into two volumes and encourages the public to enter. #cantilever


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CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT + STUDY MODEL

I have experimented with several layouts and design proposals. Although at the beginning I could not manage to create a working system and changed the direction of thinking. I created an approximate grid of prefered bedrooms and communal spaces location and tried to follow one grid and edit the layout depending on rooms location.

Based on design inspiration I decided to approach a cantilever system in the building. The dwelling is oriented in such way that during the day time light would fall through the whole structure diagonally .


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FACADE DEVELOPMENT

After experimenting with abstract forms and shapes the final appearance of the front facade was estimated. Angles of doublepitched roof reflect architecture of building surroundings, while delicately symbolising typical association we have with the word "home".


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DIGITAL MODEL

Important feature to mention is the path from Constitution street and semi-private courtyard that would potentially be used as a playground for children and a place of social activity. Such suggestion is based on design proposal Leith 2026 (p. 3031).

West elevation illustrates the work of cantilever in the building. Glazing is placed in such way in order to create a visual link between two courtyards on different sides of the building.


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PHYSICAL MODEL

One of those connections appeared to be “yellow rooms� that as little accents spread throughout the dwelling. Quite abstract, such design solution has strong logic behind. As it has already been mentioned, such technique is used as one of the significant visual connections between two sides of the floor. It reaches ones attention straight away as soon as getting into the corridor. However, I decided to use particularly yellow colour not only because it attracts attention, but also because it is considered to be one of the most positive colours.

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Model was created in a delicate way not to distract ones attention from the main idea behind the design- unity. Throughout the whole structure there are connections whether physical or visual.

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01 - the connection. top view 02 - view from the back 03 - front facade 04 - view from Constitution street 05 - view from the top onto corridor and study space 06 - view in perspective indicates almost 32 meters long from one side of the building to another. 07 - view from semi-private courtyard 08 - view showing roof structure

connection

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Model indicates use of different materials for the exterior: brick cladding on the bottom floor in order to indicate the link between the dwelling and its surroundings, floors above are made with timber ventilated cladding adding contrasting character to the design. Main construction material - CLT panels.

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GROUND FLOOR

1:100 01 - reading room 02 - communal area//workshop 03 - circulation space 04 -living/ /dining 05 - lift 06 -single bedroom 1 // 2 07 - courtyard 2 single bedrooms 2 people

solid // void

Ground floor circulation orientated as gradual movement from public to private sectors. Public frontage space - reading room with main entrance from Constitution street.

Although from the first glance the layout could seem random, there is a strong system behind it. It was designed with the grid based on several types of individual and shared bedrooms and living spaces.

privacy // accessibility

Reading room as a frontage space would become a great space for social interaction for all residents of Leith. Additionally in workshop various events would take place as art, music, cooking, health and well-being activities.

02 path way

primary circulation


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1ST FLOOR

01 - circulation space 02- communal area 03 - living 04 - study space 05 - study space2 4 single bedrooms + 1 shared bedroom 5 people Most of living spaces are south oriented in order to get maximum daylight and moreover allow light into the corridor too.

privacy // accessibility

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path way

inhabited drawing of double ceiling living and study

primar circulation


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2ND FLOOR

01 - living // dining1 02 - circulation space 03 - living 04 - terrace1 05 - terrace2 06 - study

5 single bedrooms, 3 shared bedrooms 11 people

privacy // accessibility

path way

primary circulation


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ROOF DIAGRAM + LAYOUT

Roof is designed with a set of skylights in order to enable light in certain spaces. The place of skylihts was thoroughly considered according to need for light and day-time use. More radical angle of double-pitched roof is orientated to south to let sun through but not overheat the space at the same time.

Developing process: - roof outline - indication of spaces with lack of light - experimenting with the slope direction and angles.


1 - living 2 - circulation and living 3 - study 4 - coridor space 5 - bedroom1 6 - bedroom2 1

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INDIVIDUAL ROOM LAYOUT

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Bedroom1: 2 people First bedroom type is designed for two people to share in order to provide social interaction for people who moved in and had not adapt yet. Architecture has to suggest and even direct human activity. I force one to communicate with his/her room mate at the beginning of their stay. Although the main brief is to design a shared dwelling, I found significant to have bedrooms en-suit to make it for residents as comfortable as possible. Particularly in shared bedroom, shower and WC are separates so one does not have to wait for another.

3150 2900

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Bedroom2: Single en-suite bedroom is approximately twice smaller that shared one but is still quite spacious. Rooms provide enough space to rest and

do some work, although they are design as minimum space in order to mix up people in communal spaces throughout the building


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LIGHT DIAGRAM + CROSS SECTION

I tried to approach a design solution for getting light in the corridor by reducing the height of south-facing bedrooms ceilings as show on the diagram. Although after test being made with 1:50 model, it was evaluated that such way does not enable much light in. However instead some of the rooms are raised upwards in order to get some storage space .


KEY SECTION

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51 ground floor: 01 - main entrance to the reading room from Constitution street 02 - reading room 03 - reception desk 04 - entrance to workshop and residential part of the building + workshop space/ coffee bar 05 - circulation space 06 - bedroom1,2 07 - living/ dining 1st floor: 01 - l living/ dining 02- study space 03 - circulation 04 - bedroom1,2 2nd floor: 01 - bedroom1,2,3 02 - circulation space 03 - living/dining 04 - study space 05 - outside terrace 1,2

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TECHNICAL DETAIL

01- external wall to ground floor+an indicative foundation 02 - external wall openings 03 - external wall to separating floor 04 - external wall to upper floor 05 - external wall to roof

After doing some research about building structures and materials, I adopted Cross-Laminated timber (CLT) the key material of my design. Several advantages of CLT I found quite significant: - easy to assemble, because major building parts can be manufactured off-site - sound proofed - it has low energy heating and insulation - 50% more energy efficient than traditional timber structures - can be assembled in all weather types - strong - cost-effective

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CONSTRUCTIONAL PRECEDENT

Bridgeport House Floor area: 4220 m2 Design / Build: 2011 Location: London, Construction: Karakusevic Carson Type: CLT Construction

UK

Cross-laminated timber is built up from layers, each one oriented in the opposite direction to the layer below it. Therefore the panel is strong in both directions, which makes it more stable than timber. The accuracy of CLT construction adds airtightness to elements like windows and doors. Edge gluing also increases the acoustic and fire performance of CLT board. In my design I wanted interior to be flexible so residents could adapt the space not only within their rooms but the whole building. Similarly, Karakusevic Carson Architects left internal walls as partitions only to respond to the changing demands of living over time.

Warrander Studio by Makers of Architecture Floor area: 65 m2 Design / Build: 2013-2014 Location: New Zeeland Construction: Makers Fabrication Type: Prefabrication / CLT Construction

Construction: Makers of Architecture developed a special system that could be used in conjunction with CLT providing a weather tight and highly insulated solution which can be applied to almost any design concept.

The studio structure was constructed in 3 days due to the precision of CLT panels manufactured off-site. The CLT structure was clad with plywood. Another significant quality of the design is minimum waste of material as it was planned through digital optimisation.


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INHABIT

The image illustrates the main communal area in the building and its inhabitation. Double ceiling space conncets dining // living space on the goundfloor with study facilities on the 1st floor. Such link between the two would enable residents to constantly feel that they are not alone in the room // building.


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workshop // events space ground floor

Balcony leads to the courtyard. it is connected to kitchen // living space son the 2nd floor. All windows are located on southwest, thus it would be a pleasant experience for residents to gather in the evening. Inhabited images ont the right reflect majot ciculation and leaving spaces.

circulation space // dining 1st gloor


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APOLOGIA

Today the line between art, architecture and design is a lot less distinct. In my building proposal, I sought to find a balance between the three and create a space that would become comfortable to both look at and be inside. In this project, I focused particularly on fundamental gathering of people, community within a certain space. Architecture is the key whether community crumbles or comes together. As well as working within the small scale, it integrates the urban space on a larger citywide context. I explored the concept of minimal private spaces within the building to maximize the integration in communal areas. Most living spaces are oriented to south that allows light into building interior throughout the day. Initially modular structure was transformed into a simplified grid, which is not noticeable from the first glance. Such disorder creates a rational system that helps to toe the line between complementary aesthetics and maintaining individuality. While studying I am still trying to figure out what I am dealing with, how architecture works, what lies in its foundation and how its elements are connected. I believe that the concept I chose is in harmony with its surroundings, and there is a beauty in its balance. Building structure enables easy and fast construction and at the same time provides all spatial and structural qualities I needed. There are more secrets behind the building skin, but everyone would experience it differently. I situate design as a type of communication. It is about the way ideas speaks to their audience. But good design not only gets its message across, it also engages us in conversation.


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ENGINEERING EXPERIENCE i n t r o d u c t i o n

The scene reminds rather endless surrealistic labyrinth. It contains unexpected visual and sound images that represent dream within the reality and as well dream within the dream.

After introduction to the scene, we met to brainstorm our ideas and to suggest various interpretations. The first aspect that came to mind was the contrast between two parallel universes and the interactions between them. Reality is smooth, almost viscous, it flows from one action to another; while the dream world is quite confusing and absurd with its dynamics and fullness of bright colours. Therefore, the After introduction to the scene,introduction we met to brainstorm After to theour we concept met to decision has been made to scene, follow the ideas and to suggestbrainstorm various interpretations. The firstto suggest various our ideas and of two lines in the film, abstract and real, that aspect that came to mind was the contrastThe between interpretations. first two aspect that came to one with another and merge in the parallel universes andinterplay the interactions between them. mind was the contrast between two parallel end. The itmain ideaone was to confuse and make Reality is smooth, almost viscous, flows from action universes and the interactions between them. wonder perception of dream and to another; while the one dream world about is quitethe confusing Reality is smooth, almost viscous, it flows from order to find inspiration, we watched and absurd with its reality. dynamicsInand fullness of bright one action to another; is music and experimental videos,world played colours. Therefore, the several decision has been made to while follow the dream quite confusing and absurd with its dynamics the concept of two lines the film, abstract and and real, evaluated which within various materials and fullness of want bright the that interplay one withexperiences another and merge in thetocolours. end. we transferTherefore, to the film. has make beenone made to follow the concept The main idea was todecision confuse and wonder two and lines in the film,to abstract and real, that about the perception ofofdream reality. In order find inspiration, we watched several music interplay one and withexperimental another and merge in e the videos, played with end. variousThe materials and evaluated main idea was to confuse and make e one wonder about the perception of dream and reality. In order to find inspiration, we watched several music and experimental videos, played with various materials and evaluated which experiences we want to transfer to the film.

It was necessary to find an abstract, th lines together which could be used as th film. Therefore, we came up with an idea specific space, that would transform ove its atmosphere and character. The spa We decided to start shooting and simultaneously. The process was divide reality/scenes in the room and dream/s We aimed to reflect not only the key It was find an abstract, but to necessary create an to interpretation of theth lines together which could be used as th film. Therefore, we came up with an idea specific space, that would transform ove its atmosphere and character. The spa We decided to start shooting and simultaneously. The process was divide reality/scenes in the room and dream/s We aimed to reflect not only the key but to create an interpretation of the

INTRODUCTION

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Film link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ OOZOGgmsfs&feature=youtu.be

The scene reminds rather endless surrealistic labyrinth. It contains unexpected visual and sound images that represent dream within the reality and as well dream within the dream.

which experiences we want to transfer to the film.

The scene is effectively an endless surrealistic labyrinth. It contains unexpected visual and sound images that represent dream within the reality and as well dream within the dream.

studio D IV 15000842

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i m e n t e x p e r i m e n te x p e r EXPERIMENT

It was necessary find an abstract, that would link two story It was findtoan abstract, that would link twotostory ntroduction to the necessary scene, we tomet lines together which could be used as the main structure of the lines together which could be used as the main structure of the orm our ideas and to suggest various film. Therefore, we came film. Therefore, we came up with an idea to base the story on a up with an idea to base the story on a tations. The first aspect that came to specific space, that would transform over time and thus change specific space, that would transform over time and thus change was the contrast between two parallel its atmosphere and character. The space was to be a room. its atmosphere and character. The space was to be a room. es and the interactions between them. We decided to start shooting and developing the theme We decided to start shooting and developing the theme is smooth, almost viscous, it flows from simultaneously. The process was divided into two main parts: simultaneously. The process was divided into two main parts: ion to another; while the dream world is reality/scenes in the room and dream/scenes reality/scenes in the room and dream/scenes in the maquette. It was necessary to find an abstract, that would link two story lines together which could be used as thein the maquette. onfusing and absurd with its dynamics We aimed to reflect not only the key elements main structure of the film. Therefore, we came up with an idea to base the story on a specific space, that of the scene, We aimed to reflect not only the key elements of the scene, lness of bright colours. Therefore, the would transform over time and thus change its but atmosphere andit character. The space was to beatmosphere a room. to create an interpretation of the it provides. but to create an interpretation of the atmosphere provides. n has been made to follow the concept We decided to start shooting and developing the theme simultaneously. The process was lines in the film, abstract and real, that divided into two main parts: reality/scenes in the room and dream/scenes in the maquette. y one with another merge in the thekey elements of the scene, but to create an interpretation of the atmosphere it We aimedand to reflect not only e main idea provides. was to confuse and make nder about the perception of dream and n order to find inspiration, we watched music and experimental videos, played rious materials and evaluated which nces we want to transfer to the film.

experiment 1: gigantic dominoes

Experiment 1: Gigantic dominoes

While working on the first story board, we realised that we needed to distance ourselves from the concept of the movie and its sceneary and start the development proccess, even if it was irrelevant to our final concept. We felt it would be most reasourseful to use the insulation boards in the studio as huge dominoes. We rearranged it several times and interplayed with its position and angles. Such experience was useful in mutliple ways, although we did not include it in the final film. It helped us to Experiment 1: Gigantic better understand how such dominoes aspects as light in the room, speed with which camera was moving, various perspectives influence atmosphere of the film and which emotions it provokes. Moreover, the process was super interactive and encouraged us to better know each other and feel more comfortable within the small group.

While working on the first While working on the first story board, we realised that we needed to story board, we realised that we needed to distance from distance ourselves from the concept of the movie andourselves its sceneary andthe concept of the movie and its sceneary and startirrelevant the development proccess, even if it was irrelevant to our final start the development proccess, even if it was to our final concept. felt it would be most reasourseful to use the insulation concept. We felt it would be most reasourseful to useWe the insulation boards in the studio as huge dominoes. We rearranged it several boards in the studio as huge dominoes. We rearranged it several and interplayed with its position and angles. Such experience times and interplayed with its position and times angles. Such experience initmutliple ways, although we did not include it in the final was useful in mutliple ways, although we didwas notuseful include in the final film.aspects It helped to better film. It helped us to better understand how such asus light in the understand how such aspects as light in the room, speedperspectives with which camera was moving, various perspectives room, speed with which camera was moving, various influence atmosphere of the film and which emotions it provokes. influence atmosphere of the film and which emotions it provokes. Moreover, the and process was super interactive and Moreover, the process was super interactive us and to better know each other and encouraged us to better know encouraged each other more comfortable within the small group. feel more comfortable within feel the small group.


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Within thevarious chosen space, we recorded scenes from various Within the chosen space, we recorded scenes from DREAM perspectives. perspectives. The story line starts with one entering the room The and story line starts with one entering the room and

wondering around wondering around while the space starts to weirdly transform. By while the space starts to weirdly transform. By collaborative collaborative work, we produced quite a flew short videos bywork, the we produced quite a flew short videos by the end of first end of first week., that represent contrasting experiences andweek., buildthat represent contrasting experiences and build up the story. our approach, we took all the common sense out up the story. In our approach, we took all the common senseInout reality and transformed it with use of fantasy and imagination. of reality and transformed it with use of fantasy of and imagination.

Within the chosen space, we recorded scenes from various perspectives. The story line starts with one entering the room and wondering around while the space starts to weirdly transform. By collaborative work, we produced quite a flew short videos by the end of first week., that represent contrasting experiences and build up the story. In our approach, we took all the common sense out of reality and transformed it with use of fantasy and imagination.

photographs of process

We introduced a CCTV view and the process of one contemplating room deconstruction to symbolise the concept of ‘observer’ of the dream and reality. We used fishing line to move objects. Although the process was quite more difficult than it seemed at the first place, therefore took several attempts to shoot.

We introduced a CCTV view and the process of one contemplating room deconstruction to symbolise the concept of ‘observer’ of the dream and reality. We used fishing line to move objects. Although the process was quite more difficult than it seemed at the first place, therefore took several attempts to shoot.

photographs of process

We built the maquette that m environment- the room. With a small the real aspect it would be easier to e introduce abstract elements. The figur the interplay of the model and var Particularly we used water, colour an of the latter experiments has an ide symbolises dream world. Mainly the being puzzled, being out of control


Everything is different in the dream world, characters rather contemplate reality rather than dictation the way it goes. We used brighter colours, that even are unpleasant for the eye sometime, emphasise contracting dream form and reality. Camera never stops moving, it creates an illusion of movement of as one perceives monumental elements such as walls, floor, ceiling. Every effort has been made to create a confusing, delightful and rather striking interpretation. Everything is different in the dream world, characters rather contemplate reality rather than dictation the way it goes. We used brighter colours, that even are unpleasant for the eye sometime, emphasise contracting dream form and reality. Camera never stops moving, it creates an illusion of movement of as one perceives monumental elements such as walls, floor, ceiling. Every effort has been made to create a confusing, delightful and rather striking interpretation.

photographs of process photographs of process

We built the maquette that mirrors the real environment- the room. With a small representation of the real aspect it would be easier to experiment and to introduce abstract elements. The figures above illustrate the interplay of the model and various approaches. Particularly we used water, colour and confetti. Each of the latter experiments has an idea behind, which symbolises dream world. Mainly they the concept of being puzzled, being out of control of the situation.

We built the Everything maquetteis different that mirrors theworld, realcharacters in the dream

We built the maquette the real the way it environmentthecontemplate room. that Withreality a mirrors small representation rather than dictate of We built the maquette that mirrors environmentthe real room. With a used small representation of oftowhich are the realthe aspect it goes. would be easier to experiment and We brighter colours, some environment- the room. With a small representation the realof aspect itabstract wouldaesthetically be easier to experiment and to introduce elements. The figures above illustrate overwhelming and unpleasant, this the real aspect it would be easier to experiment and to the transition from dream form to reality. introduce elements. The figures above illustrate theabstract interplay of emphasises the model and various approaches. introduce abstract elements. The figures abovethe illustrate Camera nevercolour stops moving, it createsEach an illusion of Particularly we model used water, and confetti. interplay of the and various approaches. the interplay of the model and various approaches. movement of as and one idea perceives monumental of the has an behind, which elements Particularly welatter usedexperiments water, colour confetti. Each such as walls, floor, ceiling. Everyconcept effort hasof been made Particularly we used water, colour and confetti. Each symbolises dream world. Mainly the of the latter experiments has aan ideathey behind, which to create confusing, delightful and rather of the latter experiments has an idea behind, which beingdream puzzled, beingMainly out of control of the situation. striking symbolises world. interpretation. they the concept of symbolises dream world. Mainly they the concept of being puzzled, being out of control of the situation. being puzzled, being out of control of the situation.

We built the maquette that mirrors the real environment- the room. With a small representation of the real aspect it would be easier to experiment and to introduce abstract elements. The figures above illustrate the interplay of the model and various approaches. Particularly we used water, colour and confetti. Each of the latter experiments has an idea behind, which symbolises dream world. Mainly they the concept of

61 Everything is different in the dream world, characters rather contemplate reality rather than dictation the way it Everything is brighter different colours, in the that dream goes. We used even world, characters contemplate are unpleasant for rather the eye sometime, reality rather than dictation theform way and it emphasise contracting dream goes. We used brighter colours, that even reality. Camera never stops moving, it are unpleasant for the eye sometime, creates an illusion of movement of as one emphasise contracting dream form and perceives monumental elements suchitas reality. Camera never stops moving, walls, floor, ceiling. Every effort has been creates an illusion of movement of as one made to create a confusing, perceives monumental elements delightful such as and ratherceiling. striking interpretation. walls, floor, Every effort has been

REALITY

made to create a confusing, delightful and rather striking interpretation.


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EVALUATION

The main theme behind our film is that even reality is conditional. Furthermore, it helps one better understand what dreams mean by suggesting several images and associations. Dream is reality. The line between two universes is so fragile, that by the end of the film its logic starts to mix up and one finds it hard to orientate between realistic and abstract. The whole film represents one protracted dream and it is futile to evaluate its borders.

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D4 Tom Scholes Scott Tolga Sedat Shihao Quan Polina Morova Phyo Pyae Sone Phoebe Shepherd Matthew Leung Kraus Xu Sonny

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The main theme behind our film is that even reality is conditional. Furthermore, it helps one better understand what dreams mean by suggesting several images and associations. Dream is reality. The line between two universes is so fragile, that by the end of the film its logic starts to mix up and one finds it hard to orientate between realistic and abstract. The whole film represents one protracted dream and it is futile to evaluate its borders.

reflective statement


63

reflective statement

l

u

a

t

i

o

n

me behind our film is that even reality is urthermore, it helps one better understand mean by suggesting several images and Dream is reality. The line between two o fragile, that by the end of the film its logic p and one finds it hard to orientate between abstract. The whole film represents one eam and it is futile to evaluate its borders.

REFLECTIVE STATEMENT

r s

It was a wonderful experience to get to work with new people and especially, people who study different degree. After a short adaptation period, we started to communicate clearly and effectively at all levels. Most of group members produced innovative and interesting ideas and contributed to the film production. We successfully shared responsibilities and organised group meetings. Although easfone l e ofc limitations, t i v e punctuality appeared to be one of our tweaknesses, a t e m ewhich n t may have affected our result. Meetings could have been organised more effectively and productively. It was wonderfuleffective, experience towe get to work with new people and Although time management could bea more especially, people who study different degree. After a short adaptation worked productively over long period of we time, usually up to 7clearly and effectively at all levels. period, started to communicate of group members effective. produced innovative ideas new and hours a day. Thus, we constantly produced ItMost was asomething wonderful experience to getandtointeresting work with contributed to the film production. We successfully shared responsibilities people and especially, people who study different Each group member was supportive and contributed to working and organised groupa meetings. Although as one period, of limitations, degree. After shortbased adaptation we punctuality started discussions. We successfully planned our working appeared to be one ofhours our weaknesses, which may have affected our result. to communicate clearly and effectively at all levels. Meetings could beenbe organised on individual plans and deadlines. Most However, it have would more more effectively and productively. of group members produced innovative and interesting Although time management could be more effective, we worked productively resultant if everyone finished theirideas partand of contributed the work on time, to the We successfully over long period of time, usually upfilm to 7 production. hours a day. Thus, we constantly including myself. Additionally, it wasshared essential quality within our responsibilities and organised group meetings. Although produced something effective. Each group member was supportive and as one of limitations, punctuality appeared to be one of our team that we respected any opinion contributed but ours.toIt working was occasionally discussions. We successfully planned our working weaknesses, may have affectedHowever, our result. Meetings hours based on which individual plans and deadlines. it would be more nessicary to abandon personal ideas in favour of general resultant if everyone their part of the work on time, myself. could have been finished organised more effectively andincluding productively. progress, this means that we worked as a unique mechanism. Additionally, it was essential quality within our team that we respected Although time management could be more effective, any we We had a common goal for the result, each of opinion even but ours.though It was occasionally personalup ideas worked productively over longnecessary period to ofabandon time, usually to in7 favour of progress, this means that we workedsomething as a unique mechanism. us had their own perspective. We hours complemented each other. a general day. Thus, we constantly produced effective. We had a common goal for the result, even though each of us had their own Each weaknesses. group member was supportive and contributed to working Each of us has his own strengths and Therefore, perspective. We complemented each other. Each of us has his own strengths discussions. We successfully planned our working hours based we successfully shared responsibilities based on our skills, and weaknesses. Therefore, we successfully shared responsibilities based on on individual plans and deadlines. However, wouldPersonally, be moreI our skills, while everyone was contributing to the finalitpeace. while everyone was contributing to the final peace. Personally, I resultant if soundtrack everyoneand finished part ofinthe work on Pro time, - edited final adjustedtheir it to the video Adobe Premier - edited final soundtrack and adjusted it to group the video in Adobe including Additionally, it was essential quality within our - organized myself. meetings Premier Pro team that we respected opinionofbut ours. It was representation occasionally came up with anyideas abstract Professionalism vital when personal working in aideas team. in Thefavour most effective way of nessicary to is abandon of general - organized group meetings achieving a this professional approach is to constantly questionmechanism. and evaluate progress, means that we worked as a unique - came up with ideas of abstract representation the work which the group has produced. Occasionally we did struggled We had a common goal for the result, even though each of withhad innovative ideas perspective. and creativity, but experimenting weeach foundother. smart us their own Webycomplemented solutions. Being a group of strangers at the beginning we became a team. Each of us has his own strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, we successfully shared responsibilities based on our skills, while everyone was contributing to the final peace. Personally, I - edited final soundtrack and adjusted it to the video in Adobe Premier Pro Professionalism is vital when working in a team. The most - organized group meetings effective way of achieving a professional approach is torepresentation - came up with ideas of abstract

constantly question and evaluate the work which the group has produced. Occasionally we did struggled with innovative ideas and creativity, but by experimenting we found smart solutions. Being a group of strangers at the beginning we became a team.

Professionalism is vital when working in a team. The most effective way of achieving a professional approach is to constantly question and evaluate the work which the group has produced. Occasionally we did struggled with innovative ideas


‘ A tree is not special, but it is beautiful’

- - Peter Zumthor


65

EXPLORING EXPERIENCE

Site: Berweek-up-on-Tweed Project overviiew: A multi-purpose building for an art practice connceted to the material protagonist of the studio (glass). Project includes a mix of spaces of various sizes, which includes - medium-scale public spaces - spaces for display // exhibition - smaller spaces for production - accommodation of ephemeral uses during the Berwick Film & Media Art Festival

Idea came from listening itself, change of perception based on how sound acts. It creates visual reality for listeners. Could sound be architecture itself? It triggers emotion. The glass structure created the contrast between inside and outside environment. There is no sound without space. in this proposal I endeavoured to achieve strong connection between sonic and visual qualities of architecture.

Perception, analysis, modelling, designing sound. Findimg something that is against logic. Representation of the side sounds into a soundscape. - Concept behind the form - Antithesis of dramatic form making.

sound + smells + + light + darkness light // dark // warm // still After introducing a soundscape into the space, you change it, it is not naked anymore.


site plan 1 : 500

66

SITE ANALYSIS


67

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT AND STUDY MODEL

I have started from evaluating my perception of glass as material, analysing its key qualities and turning those into a personal interpretation.

Making a study model played a crutial role in my design process. I payed attention to the experience I create. Main inspiration for me at that point was natural energies of glass: gravity, heat, movement. My concept is very emotional. Everything should be in natural balance, equilibrium.

concept development

During site analysis I indicated areas that has potential for my proposal and its issues as well. WHen developing the project, I turned negatives into positives

Drawing is the main instrument of my interpretation. My mind is not able to create the geometry, but my hand can. I reflected the energy I wanted to create, tried to let go og the control of what I was making, stay on the moment. For me drawing is not about how it looks, but how it feels when I move my hand.


68

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT AND STUDY MODEL

circulation design Spatial layout enables interractive experience. Circulation is the key feature of my design. Centrifugue of movement creates the feeling of dinamics and life. However, journey through the gallery is built on moments of pause hidden within the building, that would offer one to stop and discover something new every time.

events space // reception. ground floror I experimented with tactile, visual, emotional translation of the material. Condensation, cold temperature, projections, paints, sand were key aspects of the experiential testing. While designing my building, I felt really connected with glass. experiencial diagram


69

concept development

BACKGROUND INFORMATION west section 1:100

CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT AND STUDY MODEL

west section 1:100

Creating a constant connection and visual link withing the building was significant. Initial idea of conctere and glass to become a framework for the experiential journey. I believe such structure would maximise the potential of Berwiclupon-Tweed as a cultural and artistic place.

First section enabled to indicate the main issue of my design. Floor hights made it quite hard to understand building structure from the first glance and therefore made my proposal less 14 out of 21 rarional. Therefore I created a strong system of levelin within future development.

7700

2

4200

2700

1

1500

G

0

-1

-2500


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MAIN CONCEPT

Use of glass gives one a certain control of the form and atmosphere. It inspired me to go beyond form and design sonic experience that would complement visual qualities of the building. Experience varies according to the space. Sound gets higher and lower, longer and shorter, becomes sonorous or calm and dreamy. . Listening becomes more than listening. Another vital experience that some spaces provide - experience of silence.

Building allows for the openess whether you discover something. Listening broadcast aspect are the key elements in the system I created. Sound becomes one of the instruments that help one to make a decision, which route to take. Sound is constantly travelling, it is very dynamic. It translates the emotion. I used drawing as a record tool for various sounds and music to discover new geometries and experiences.


71

MAIN CONCEPT

Sound is often overlooked in architectural design. Thus the main experience in my design is based on the link betwen sonic and visual. Some sounds are inside and some are outside, there is no particular hierarchy of the space The route through the gallery is not preserved, one gets different experience every time. Sequence of space goes along with the sound. Various filters give the direction to architectural features we dont usually notice. For instance, material sharpness or temperature. Listening enables one to make meaning from sound.


72

FLOOR -1

17500

5700

1 4

3

6

9

1900

8

7

2500

7820

5

3250

16100

2800

2

11750

0 level -2500 1 2 3 4 5 6

cafe // bar // events space bar kitchen lift WC1 WC2

7 disabled rest room 8 temporary gallery 9 plant room

1

2

3

4

5


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GROUND FLOOR

3300

2800

4

5000

A

1600

3000 level 0

5

6

2270

1 2

A 3250

3

1810

2200

16200

B

B

17500

2800

0 Ground floor was designed as a fluid space, with minimum baundaries between indoor and outdoor spaces. Visitor could get the exposition message witout visiting the gallery. Barrier- free approach also aimed to make exhibition spaces as flexible as possible.

level 0 1 main entrance 2 reception 3 staff room 4 shop 5 events space 6 outside gallery

1

2

3

4

5


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FLOOR 1

4 1500

3000

1500

1010

1

5800

2850

3 2660

3770

2

All key paths are clear and unobstructed. The sequence of spaces, threshholds, atmospheres are encounted through movement. Galleries represent nooks within the open space, they provide intimassy, a moment of pause within the journey. Staris located on both sides enable one to take another rout and travel around the building.

level 2000 1 contemplation space 1 // gallery 2 gallery 2 3 reading room 4 terrace 1

0

1

2

3

4

5


75

2950

2950

5

6

2500

910

1

6550

1700

3

2410

1450

2

3400

2450

17500

5000

1600

3032

6100

4

3000

2200

1150

6500

2750

2350

4400

6500

18100

All key paths are clear and unobstructed. The sequence of spaces, threshholds, atmospheres are encounted through movement. Galleries represent nooks within the open space, they provide intimassy, a moment of pause within the journey. Staris located on both sides enable one to take another rout and travel around the building.

level 5000 1 2 3 4 5 6

contemplation space 2 // gallery contemplation space 3 contemplation space 4 bridge flat 1 flat 2

0

1

2

3

4

5


76

KEY SECTION

Section illustrates how circulation works through the building and shows most of the gallery spaces. Each gallery has its own character and identity. They differ in terms of materiality, lighting and sonic experience they provide. Each room represents separate principles that would be adaptable for artists renting the space.

10

8

2

3

3

4


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PHYSICAL MODEL

section A - A 9

4

7

5

1 1

4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

main entrance shop gallery 1 outside gallery reading room gallery 2 gallery 3 contemplation space connecting bridge conference room


78

ATMOSPHERE

Take a sound and change its nature. Record it at different speeds, play it backward, add it it itself over and over again, adjust filters, echoes, acoustic qualities, combine segments Create sounds that no-one has never heard before.


79

ATMOSPHERE


80

CIRCULATION DIAGRAM + SPATIAL DIAGRAM

Design is based on the journey through the building. Therefore, circulation is the key aspect. Although more important might be the moments of pause, that are not only dictated by architectural qualities, but also by incorporation of particular soundscape.Connection between visual and sonic is aimed to draw ones attention to the role of sound in our perception of the environment.

contemplation space 2 confusing layout symbolises our fundamental decisions. would one go straight or pause for a bit and contemplate the view to the sea and atrium of the building. adaptable to portable visual and sound installations.

gallery 2 dark space is adaptable for video and sound installations.

reading room it felt necessary to design a meeting point for the community to gather.

gallery 1 blind experience. the room contains minimum amount of light, while walls are covered with acoustic foam-boards. absorbed sound creates an atmosphere of anticipation. silence helps to awake other senses. after taking a route in the space one is encouraged to listen.


81

terrace 2 in the end of the journey visitor appears in a large open terrace. several view opportunities enable one to enjoy once again the sea view and the image of the whole building.

flat 1 // flat 2 accommodation is provided for artists, whose installations are featured in the gallery. location of the studios is chosen specifically to enable entrance through the reading room.

wind room contemplation space inspired by Holokost Tower, Jewish Museum. The concept behind is about natural sound of wind through narrow openings in the wall.

dream room // gallery 3 small confined space. the only light sourse is the skylight. way to the room is through narrowed corridors to enable people to go one by one and stop talking. space is created for reflecting, thinking, relaxing. ambient sounds create dreamy atmosphere in the room.

terrace 1 terrace is located close to historical wall. the space itself is designed in order to mix the sense of an open space and enclosure at the same time. in warm seasons tables and seats would be provided.

outside gallery quite a large space is adaptable for sound and video installations. particularly interesting the contrast between dark and mysterious atmosphere of the gallery contrasting with bright and fresh image of gardens next to it.


82

PHYSICAL MODEL

1 // 3 // 4 - 3rd floor circulation. Path created along the historic wall in order to enhance its meaning and allow one to experience it differently. 2 - view from outside into events space and reception 5 - wind r oom. one looking outside through the thin opening. Wall element creates dinamics and at the same time directs the viewer to follow the journey 6 - glass and steel structural element as an abstract wave engolves the building with its visitore. The structure is incorporated into the roof and the large part of northern facade 7 - 3rd floor gallery layout creates a confusing experience with its broken geometry


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8 - main entrance to the building draws visitors insideinside


84

precast concrete polystyrene insulation waterproof membrane leveling screed screed

CONCTRUCTION DIAGRAM

concrete wall thermal bridge break air gap polystyrene insulation shear wall steel reveal window frame water resistant MDF board

timber battening leveling screed concrete slab precast concrete precast concrete precast concrete

thermal bridge break

Glass and steel structural element as an abstract wave engolves the building with its visitore. The structure is incorporated into the roof and the large part of northern facade. Construction of it was informed and inspired by Victoria Station in Manchester by Peter Jenkins.

concrete wall air gap polystyrene insulation shear wall plasterboard steel reveal window frame waterproof MDF board plasterboard

gallery spaces

waterproof MDF board steel reveal/ sil

food facilities concrete floor finish screed

administrative use polystyrene insulation leveling screed

gravel layer ground level

section B - B 1 2 3 4 5 6

event space gallery 1 cafe // bar gallery 2 contemplation space conference room


85

CROSS-SECTION

Choise of materials was informed mainly by atmosphere I wanted to create in a certain space. I worked through different details to find the right light and tactile qualities. There is a certain poetics in building materiality. Strong , rough and static concrete is complemented by elegant, light and smooth glass.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Cross section illustratesmain circulation aspects zoning works in the buliding.

5

4

1 3

2


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87

APOLOGIA

In the very beginning of the project, I endeavoured to change my design approach: instead of abstracting the form, I chose an abstract and transformed that into a visual substance. I started from analysing the concept of architectural perception itself. The main aspect of such experience is the fact that one’s perception of the space and design goes far beyond visual. However, this time I concentrated on sound in architecture, as the aspect that affects me on a deep, subjective level. Even if there is no visual component, I imagine, sound would provide much more imagination. The key feature of the building anatomy is circulation and the journey through the gallery that it enables. All gallery spaces are designed and oriented in order to create a hierarchy of sonic experience within a visual form. Starting from almost blind experience, one discovers new aspects of sound while walking through the building. It is important to remark that the atmospheres of the gallery spaces are radically different from one another in terms of sounds, smells, shadows, light and texture. One of the ambitions of my design is to get one closer to analysing space beyond its form. It is about empathy, the ability to think and feel. Therefore, I did not aim for dramatic form making, but built up a framework that would complement the concept, not the other way around. I believe that my design would provoke emotion, because of the balance between the interior and the exterior environment. In contrast introducing a soundscape would enhance its visual qualities. For me sound is one of the most magnificent powers that has ever existed. It is impossible to explain its magic, how it affects one’s emotions, triggers tears or calms one down. Interestingly, sound could remind us of who we love but never of those who we hate. It reminds us how strong our feelings could be. Why would not one make the most of it in architecture?


88

PROCESS + REFLECT SKETCHBOOK SNAPSHOTS


89

DRAWING

My hand is my main instrument throughout any project, starting from initial idea up to the final presentation. Although the meaning of the drawing is beyond visual, it is more about the feeling it provokes that somehow influences my design gestures.


90

EXPRESSING

Leraning such software as Illustrator, Photoshop and Premier Pro enabled me to better explain and represent my ideas. Particularly, integration of hand drawn image into a digital file of a photograph allows to speak to the viewer in a simpler language. Although it creates an interesting image , because of the contrast between two techniques.

handrawn over the photograph. dwelling +

engineering experience

key section. exploting experience

Modelling skills are also vital, precise physical model would bring the project to life. It is easy to manipulate with in terms of light and take nice photographs. Digital model, on the other side, enables to capture the right perspective, that is hard to get in the physical one.


91

MODELING

physical model. exploring experience

outside render. digital model . exploring experience


92

ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN COURSEWORK

original design u value calculations florr, roof type2: area 68.9 m2

wall type1: area 68.9 m2

Element description Element description

Outside surface resistance Timber Outsidecladding surface resistance 25mm 38mm Timber battens Timberxcladding Cavity 25mm x 38mm Timber battens Cementitious board Cavity KINGSPAN Insulation Cementitious board CLT panel Insulation KINGSPAN Plasterboard CLT panel Wall finish Plasterboard Inside surface resistance Wall finish Overall Thickness Inside surface resistance Total resistance Overall Thickness U value Total resistance

Thickness (mm) Thickness (mm)

Conductivity (W/mK) Conductivity (W/mK)

Resistance (m2K/W) Resistance (m2K/W) 0.04

15

0.37

15 50

0.37 -

9 50 75 9

0.15

0.04 0.04 0.15 0.04 0.65 0.15 0.6 0.65 3.75 0.6

0.020 0.15

120 75 12.5 120 3.0 12.5

0.13 0.020 0.17 0.13 0.180 0.17

3.0 309.5

0.180

1/6.37= 0.16 Conductivity (W/mK) Conductivity (W/mK)

Resistance (m2K/W) Resistance 2 0.04 K/W) (m

Cement dry) Outside slates surface(when resistance 50mm x 50mm Timber battens Cement slates (when dry) Cavity 50mm x 50mm Timber battens

20

2

20 50

2 -

0.01 0.04 0.15 0.01 0.65 0.15

Cementitious board Cavity KINGSPAN Insulation Cementitious board CLT panel Insulation KINGSPAN

9 50 100 9 100 100

0.15

25mm x 38mm Timber Battens CLT panel Plasterboard 25mm x 38mm Timber Battens Inside surface resistance Plasterboard

100 12.5

0.13 0.17

12.5 316.5

0.17

Overallsurface Thickness Inside resistance Total Resistance Overall Thickness

316.5

0.020 0.15 0.13 0.020

Chipboard

22

0.2

0.11

Plasterboard

12.5

0.17

0.073

KINGSPAN Insulation

100

0.020

5

CLT panel

100

0.13

0.77 0.15

Plasterboard

12.5

Overall thickness

297

0.17

0.073 12.279 1/12.279= 0.08

U Value

window: Double glazing 12mm 0.1 air filled 2.1 W/m2 * Element description

Thickness (mm)

chipboard 22mm Resistance Conductivity plasterboard 12,5mm (W/mK) insulation 50mm (m2K/W)

CLT panel screwed

Outside surface resistance Timber cladding

0.06 0.65 5 0.06 50.77

0.04

15

0.37

25mm x 38mm Timber battens

0.15 0.77 0.073 0.15 0.13 0.073 0.13

Resistance (m2K/W)

6.37

Thickness (mm) Thickness (mm)

Element description Outside surface resistance

Conductivity (W/mK)

Total Resistance

1/6.37= 6.37 0.16

U value

roof type1: area 68.9 m2 Element description

Thickness (mm)

50mm x 50mm Timber battens

0.92 3.75 0.073 0.92 0.017 0.073 0.13 0.017 0.13

309.5

Element description

7.033

50

-

Cementitious board

9

0.15

KINGSPAN Insulation

100

0.020

CLT panel

120

0.13

Plasterboard

35

0.17

3.0

0.180

7.033 1/7.033= 0.14

Wall finish

U Value

1/7.033= 0.14

Overall thickness

Inside surface resistance Total resistance

0.04 0.15

Cavity

Total Resistance U Value

to the wall structure timber battens 50mm chipboard deck 20mm

0.65

1 - timber ventilated cladding 15mm 0.6 2 - timber battens 50mm clear cavity 50mm 3 - breather5membrane 4 - cimentituous board 0.92 9 mm 5 - insulation 100mm 6 - CLT panel 100mm 0.205 7 - vapour control layer 8 - plasterboard 12,5mm

0.017 0.13

357 7.75

https://www.pilkington.com/~/media/Pilkington/Site%20Content/UK/Reference/TableofDefaultUValues.ashx

U value

1/7.75= 0.13


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Outside surface resistance Cement slates (when dry)

0.04 20

2

50mm x 50mm Timber battens Cavity

0.01 0.15

50

-

0.65

Cementitious board

9

0.15

0.06

KINGSPAN Insulation

150

0.020

7.5

CLT panel

100

0.13

0.77

94

25mm x 38mm Timber Battens Plasterboard

0.15 12.5

0.17

Inside surface resistance Overall thickness

0.073 0.13

366.5 9.533

Total Resistance

improved design u value calculations

1/9.533= 0.10

U Value

wall type1: area 68.9 m2 Element description

Thickness (mm)

Conductivity (W/mK)

Resistance (m2K/W)

Chipboard

22

0.2

0.11

Plasterboard

12.5

0.17

0.073

KINGSPAN Insulation

100

0.020

5

CLT panel

100

0.13

0.77

50mm x 50mm Timber battens

0.15

Plasterboard

12.5

Overall thickness

297

0.17

12.279

Total Resistance U Value

0.073

1/12.279= 0.08

window: Double glazing 0.1 argon filled 12 mm 1.9 W/m2 *

U value original calculations: External wall: 0.13 Roof: 0.14 Floor: 0.08

Original SAP Rating: 83.77 In order to improve building performance and slow down the rate of heat loss, I decreased U values by editing the layouts of the key construction elements such as external walls, floor and ceiling. In external walls layout, I have changed the thickness of KINGSPAN insulation from 75 mm to 100 mm. Additionally, I have added another layer of plasterboard. The same approach was applied to the Roof Type 1, where insulation thickness was increased from 100 mm to 150 mm.

According to building regulations, windows must have maximum U-values of 1.2 W/m2K, while windows in my dwelling at the moment have a U-value of 2.1 W/m2K. Therefore, I have changed window properties to double glazing 0.1 argon filled 12 mm window (U-value of 1.9) and edited their proportions by increasing the size of south-facing windows and decreasing the size of roof light. To increase the overall U value of the structure and the SAP Rating, I added thickness to the hot water insulation jacket which made it 100 mm. Additionally I have changed the primary circuit loss rating by introducing the boiler with insulated primary pipework and with cylinder slat, which also helped to increase the SAP Rating.

energy strategy renewable sources of energy:

solar photovoltaic panels

In my design, I adopted Cross- Laminated timber (CLT) as the key construction method, that itself demonstrated high sustainability and increased environmental performance. Advantages: - Easy to assemble, because major building parts can be manufactured off-site - Sound proofed - has low energy heating and insulation - 50% more energy efficient than traditional timber structures - Can be assembled in all-weather types - Strong - Cost-effective

As more radical slope of the roof is south-oriented, it could be possible to apply a solar PV system. It is potentially one of the most popular renewable green energy technologies. The panels use solar energy to generate electricity and supply electricity for the whole house. Panels don’t necessarily need direct sunlight to produce energy as they can generate power even on cloudy days. Such factor as high cost indicate that continuous financial support would play a critical role for accelerating the application of solar PV system. Although PV modules could be integrated into the building fabric (ex. Roof tiles), which would reduce the cost. For my design lighting, I need approximate amount of electricity of 267.57 KWh per annum per flat (pumps:130 KWh/year; lighting 137.57 KWh/year), which brings it to 2140.56 KWh per 8 flats, while 1m2 of panels may provide a useful output of approximately 100 kWh per year as it would be installed on south facing roof slope. Thus, I would potentially need about 6-7 m2 of PV installed to supply the whole building with electricity. Although gained solar energy would not be enough to cover all energy value needed for lighting up the building, it would significantly decrease the amount of carbon dioxide emissions and electricity costs. As for CO2 emissions, solar PV system could save nearly two tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. Although, this is a rough estimate, as it assumes that energy consumption is identical every year.

After a thorough analysis of how individual components of construction interact within the building system, I identified possible options that would have improved energy efficiency in the building and reduce environmental effects. 1.Solar photovoltaic panels to reduce both energy use and CO2 emissions from the building. 2.Rainwater harvesting system 3.Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR)

reducing solar gain Initially my design is supplied with automatic external shutters that may be controlled by the residents to reduce heat in summer. They operate by blocking out approximately 80% of direct sunlight.

All the alterations have allowed to achieve the SAP Rating of 85.42. https://www.pilkington.com/~/media/Pilkington/Site%20Content/UK/Reference/TableofDefaultUValues.ashx


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energy strategy rainwater harvesting system

Based on the site location, I decided to introduce some system to have an exploitation of rain water. Therefore, I applied a rainwater harvesting system to my design. It works with the use of roof drainage systems. Rainwater runs down the roof into the gutter and then down the pipes. Later it passes through the filter that removes the debris and leaves from water. The rainwater is stored in an underground tank that contains a pump and filter. The rainwater then could be kept underground in the courtyard of the dwelling and used for various purposes such as flushing toilets, gardening and washing clothes. However, this system would not be able to function on its own as rainfall is hard to predict and therefore it is questionable whether high cost of its insulation is going to be recovered. Advantages: -Reduced carbon emissions -Sustainability -Minimum maintenance Disadvantages: -Prevalence of sunshine is needed -Large roof area is recommended to maximise payback -High installation costs

Advantages: -Easy maintenance -Reduced water bills -Sustainable for irrigation -Reduced demand on ground water -Can be used for several non-drinking purposes Disadvantages: -Unpredictable rainfall -Initial high cost -Regular maintenance -Storage limits

Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) Air exchange rate: 0.45 ACH The recommended rate of air exchange is between 0.5 and 1.0 air changes per hour. This would provide adequate fresh air for human health. To improve air quality in my building the appropriate ventilation strategy is required. Thus, I introduced mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. MVHR system operates by extracting warm and damp air from home while at the same time drawing in fresh air from the outside. The heat is recovered before the warm air is expelled. The advantage of the system is that two airflows never come in direct contact with one another, which allows avoiding pollutants getting in the building. Additionally, some systems have an automatic boost setting that could be used when excessive moisture is generated. Such feature would be applicable to my design as most communal areas are open plan and while cooking extra damp would be eliminated before getting in the corridors and living spaces. Normally MVHR retains about 2/3 of the heat that would be normally lost through ventilation.

Advantages: -Save up on heating bills in winter -Reduce the need for air conditioning in summer -Keep excess moisture out of the building Disadvantages: -High installation costs -In middle climates the benefits are much reduced than in extreme climates -Regular maintenance is needed


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ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY COURSEWORK1


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dwelling | +

PRECEDENT150008424 STUDY

A. PRECEDENCE STUDY.

minimum flat Cross-laminated timber is built up from layers, each one oriented in the opposite direction to the layer below it. Therefore the panel is strong in both directions, which makes it more stable than timber. The accuracy of CLT construction adds airtightness to elements like windows and doors. Edge gluing also increases the acoustic and fire performance of CLT board. In my design I wanted interior to be flexible so residents could adapt the space not only within their rooms but the whole building. Similarly, Karakusevic Carson Architects left internal walls as partitions only to respond to the changing demands of living over time.

Bridport House Floor area: 4220 m2 Design / Build: 2011 Location: London, UK Construction: Karakusevic Carson Type: CLT Construction

Karakusevic Carson Architects decided to use CLT as the main material for the residential building structure after discovering a vast sewer beneath the site. In the project description the evaluate that CLT is not only lighter, than reinforced concrete or structural steel, but also structural loads could be spread through out the whole building. Another essential feature of the material was speed of construction (it took about 10 weeks to finish compared to 21 weeks for concrete structure). Karakusevic Carson Architects used CLT for the floors, walls and ceilings. It is cladded with semi-enjineered brick, which creates a robust and solid looking building. Construction: Three different wall thicknesses were used: : 100mm, 140mm and 160mm. Floors are 160mm thick, while roof is 220mm. I partially adopted wall structure of Bridport House in my design: breather membrane and 100mm-thick foamboard insulation fixed to the crosslaminated timber panel, followed by manually layed brick.

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A. PRECEDENCE STUDY

minimum flat

Warrander Studio by Makers of Architecture

Floor area: 65 m2 Design / Build: 2013-2014 Location: New Zeeland Construction: Makers Fabrication Type: Prefabrication / CLT Construction The main thing I like about this building is the concept of flexible design system that enables the residents to move, add to reconstruct or even recycle their homes. I believe that such material is one of the new and yet not fully discovered resources in architecture. Masters of Architecture claim that architecture like this - as study and elegant as it is cost-efficient - if the way of future.

Construction: Makers of Architecture developed a special system that could be used in conjunction with CLT providing a weather tight and highly insulated solution which can be applied to almost any design concept. The studio structure was constructed in 3 days due to the precision of CLT panels manufactured off-site. The CLT structure was clad with plywood. Another significant quality of the design is minimum waste of material as it was planned through digital optimisation.

AS for the interior CLT structure creates a nice and warm glow inside the building. Various paint or finishes could be applied or plaster board finishes could be erected

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A. PRECEDENCE STUDY

minimum flat

In my building system I decided to adopt both structural and aesthetic qualities. Many openings allow light in the building most time of the day. In Puukuokka OOPEAA uses double low-E glazing, although I consider using triple glazing because of its durability and energy efficiency.

Puukuokka Floor area: 18650 m2 Location: Finland Construction: OOPEAA Type: CLT Construction

It is clear that if needed almost any finishes could be applied. In Puukuooka instead of natural atmosphere architect uses whitish materials to create a contrast with outside image of the building.

This building appeared unusual to me not only because the use of CLT, but because of its height. Manufacturer Stora Enso took advantage of strength of CLT construction to design an eight storey modular building using only this material.

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B. CONSTRUCTION EVALUATION

minimum flat roof

external walls

windows

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B. CONSTRUCTION EVALUATION

minimum flat ground floor

separating floor

* Ceiling treatment A: 2 layers plasterboard (20 kg/m2 minimum) on independent timber joists (100 mm min clearance between top of joists and underside of base floor) with 100 mm minimum mineral wool (minimum density 10 kg/m3) laid in the cavity formed by the ceiling. Painted

upper floor

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SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENTS

minimum flat

ground floor wooden floor material 25mm concrete screed 65mm rigid floor insulation 100mm dpm on concrete slab going below dpc concrete upstand 200mm sand blinding 50mm trench fill foundation with steel reinforcement

After analysing ground floor construction types, I realised thatsome factors in my ground floor design are not quiet yet considered: - load distribution Half of the ground floor space in the building is used to host a reading room which means that the foor has to carry the loads of 20-30 max people at the same time. In the future I would change it to timber or CLT based floor layout to improve structural perfomance and enable regular repair maintenance - insulation It is needed to increase the amound of insulation in order to restrict thermal bridging at floor/wall junctions and therefore reduce heat loss. + I would suggest some insulating around the foundation itself

timber ventilated cladding 15mm timber battens 50mm clear cavity 50mm breather membrane cimentituous board 9 mm insulation 100mm CLT panel 100mm vapour control layer plasterboard 12,5mm

- fire resistance As I am using Cross-laminated timber as the main construction material, I am concerned that as soon as wood shrinks air would be able to pass througn the gaps in lumber. Thus I would apply a roofing membrane to the floor/wall junction. The path for air would become longer, would not go away though.

external walls

PS ? Would you please suggest what I could potentially use to stop this leakage completely?

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CONSTRUCTION DECLARATION

minimum flat

1 brickwork 100 mm 2 brick ties centred 450mm horizontally and 400mm vertically + clear cavity 50mm 3 breather membrane 4 cimentitous board 9 mm 5 insulation 100mm 6 CLT panel 100mm 7 vapour control layer 8 plasterboard 12,5mm wooden floor material 25mm concrete screed 65mm rigid floor insulation 100mm dpc 150mm above ground level dpm on concrete slab going below dpc concrete upstand 200mm sand blinding 50mm brick 100mm lean mix fill 50mm block 100mm trench fill foundation with steel reinforcement

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CONSTRUCTION DECLARATION

minimum flat

wall section: brickwork 100 mm clear cavity 50mm brick ties 200mm from the edge of the window frame breather membrane cimentituous board 9 mm insulation 100mm CLT panel 100mm vapour control layer plasterboard 12,5mm

window detail: 1 window shading system 2 steel lintel 3 cavity tray 4 dpc overlaping cavity tray 5 rigid foam insulation to fill the gap above and below window

triple glazing

window frame steel plate supports window frame

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CONSTRUCTION DECLARATION

minimum flat

chipboard 22mm plasterboard 12,5mm insulation 50mm CLT panel screwed to the wall structure timber battens 50mm chipboard deck 20mm mineral wool insulation 100mm

CLT wal threated rod adaptor wood cap

2 x plasterboard 12,5mm CLT floor

1 - timber ventilated cladding 15mm 2 - timber battens 50mm clear cavity 50mm 3 - breather membrane 4 - cimentituous board 9 mm 5 - insulation 100mm 6 - CLT panel 100mm 7 - vapour control layer 8 - plasterboard 12,5mm

Diagram illustrates how two CLT panels are fixed together

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CONSTRUCTION DECLARATION

minimum flat

chipboard 22mm plasterboard 12,5mm insulation 100mm CLT wal CLT panel screwed to the wall structure timber battens 50mm + service zone 50mm plasterboard 12,5mm

threated rod adaptor wood cap CLT floor

1 - timber ventilated cladding 15mm 2 - timber battens 50mm clear cavity 50mm 3 - breather membrane 4 - cimentituous board 9 mm 5 - insulation 100mm 6 - CLT panel 100mm 7 - vapour control layer 8 - plasterboard 12,5mm

Diagram illustrates how two CLT panels are fixed together

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CONSTRUCTION DECLARATION

minimum flat

cement slates 20mm timber battens 50mm breather membrane + cimentituous board 9mm insulation 240mm vapour control layer CLT panel 100mm fixed to the wall structure timber battens 38mm plasterboard 12,5mm

wall layout: timber ventilated cladding 15mm timber battens 50mm clear cavity 50mm breather membrane cimentituous board 9 mm insulation 100mm CLT panel 100mm vapour control layer plasterboard 12,5mm

gatter cement board 10mm soffit board cement 10mm 10mm gap

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TECTONIC INTENT

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minimum flat

There’s beauty in balance. Today the line between art, architecture and design is a lot more fluid. In my building proposal I tried to find a balance between three and create a space that would become comfortable to both look at and be inside. In this project I focused particularly on fundamental gathering of people, community within a certain space. Therefore, structure in this case is the leader, that dictates not only structural performance of the building, but its character and atmosphere inside. At the moment I’m still trying to figure out what I am dealing with, how architecture works, what lies in its base and how its elements are connected. Although I believe that the structure I chose is complementary. It enables easy and fast construction and at the same time provides all spatial and structural qualities I needed. If design is a type of communication, construction parts could be classified as “words” that make up the “sentences” in architecture, while aesthetic qualities engage us in conversation.

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ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY COURSEWORK2. PART A

ARC2009

Architectural Technology -

Couesework Submission Part 2A Access Audit Report

GARAGE Museum of

Contemporary Art. Moscow, Russia

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CONTENTS

01 02

INTRODUCTION

AUDIT AND LOCATION SCOPE

3

4

Car parking Steps and Stairs Sanitary facilities Websites

03

SUMMARY

13

04

REFERENCES Appendix A

14


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INTRODUCTION

“Stroke” (from Latin insulto) - literally “jumping, jumping”,

meaning “attack, stroke, pressure”, the diagnosis of “stroke” is an acute disorder of cerebral circulation.

building architects location partner in charge project architect area project year space distribution

OMA Gorky Central Park of Culture and Leisure, Krymskiy Val Street, 9, Moscow, Russia, 119049 Rem Koolhaas Ekaterina Golovatyuk 5400.0 sqm 2015

Museum / Gallery 3 560m² Services 814m² Restaurant / Bar 394m² Education 335m² Retail 305m² Total 5 408m²

disability ? Founded in 2008 by Roman Abramovich and Dasha Zhukova, Garage became the first philanthropic institution in Russia to create a comprehensive public mandate for contemporary art. Old soviet building (1968) was reconstructed by Rem Koolhaas and OMA and was transformed into a contemporary museum space.

The facade of the building is made of a technological twolayer polycarbonate and raised two meters above the ground, while its skeleton remained concrete construction. (figure 3 and 4). Open areas that became exhibition spaces remained the same: concrete supports reinforced and covered with plaster. 5400 sqm area is divided into three floors. Northwestern part functions as an education and research centre, while large spaces in the south-west host exhibitions, projects and events (figure 5). In the raking of the most visited museums and exhibitions in Russia in 2015, Garage occupies the eleventh place with the number of 538 205 visitors.

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Garage recognizes the diversity of general public’s abilities and needs, and a variety of programs and services is offered to ensure the accessibility of the Museum and its collection.

I have decided to analyse particularly ones who experienced a stroke, focusing on my grandmother (19147). An acute impairment of cerebral circulation, culminating in stroke, is a condition that accompanies the cessation of blood flow in any of the brain structures. This leads to a persistent disruption of the neurologic function due to the death of the nerve tissue site. One of the most common is a decrease in strength in half of the body. Although my grandmother has trouble with moving, but despite that she is on track and quite an active woman, therefore always ready for adventure.


113

AUDIT LOCATION AND SCOPE name location date of the survey weather conditinos

GARAGE Museum of Contemporary Art Gorky Central Park of Culture and Leisure, Krymskiy Val Street, 9, Moscow, Russia, 119049 Wednesday, 5th April 2017 Partly cloudy

AC C

ES

AC C

External Environment: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

S1 ES

S2

X

Car Parking Setting-down points Pedestrian Routes Shared spaces Street Furniture External Ramps External Steps Handrails

Internal Environment:

GARAGE

9 Entrances 10 Doors – external and internal 11 Doors – access control systems 12 Doors – opening and closing systems 13 Entrance Foyers 14 Reception desks and service counters 15 Seating 16 Horizontal circulation 17 Surfaces 18 Internal ramps, steps and stairs 19 Passenger lifts 20 Platform lifts 21 Sanitary facilities 22 Wayfinding, information and signs 23 Communication systems and acoustics 24 Switches and controls 25 Lighting

X X

Building Management: 26 Building Management checklist Communicatons: 27 Information

Clear print Large print Braille Telephone services Audio tape Digital

28 Websites 29 Communication services

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X

GARAGE museum site plan


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AUDIT LOCATION AND SCOPE

4 3

2

ground floor plan

7 5

8

6

7 - bookshop

3 - lab

9 - loading

2 - lobby

1

9

4 - reception

5 - cloakroom

6

6 - bar/cafe 0

spatial diagram

1 - entrance

8 - kitchen

10 - gallery

11 - workshop

10m

exhibitions & projects

research & education

Cross-sectional diagram would enable better understanding of the space. Behind the cloakroom community space is concentrated: cafe, bookshop on the ground floor with media cluster and a cafe on theare connected with 1st floor (still in construction). Though 1st floor is currently unfinished, conceptually it is going to become the second part of the functional centre of the building.

ground floorl: new commissions, installations, experimental storage 1st floor: solo exhibitions, group exhibitions, survey exhibitions

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1st floor: archive displays, research projects mezzanine: screenengs, children’s workshop, mediatheque (research and education)


115

CAR PARKING

Museum visits should be made as accessible to the wider public as possible; this is important because it maximises the utility and therefore the value of museums. Proximity car parking is a fundamental part of developing accessible museums for those with mobility related disabilities. This can be true even in cases where despite a museum venue being theoretically accessible to disabled users, any significant distance between the allotted parking facility and the museum. can discourage disabled users from attending.

GARAGE MUSEUM

MAIN ENTRANCE TO GORKIY PARK

MAIN ENTRANCE TO GORKIY PARK

Museum of Contemporary Art “Garage” is in the eastern part of the Gorky Park of Culture. The closest to Garage car park is located on Krymsky Val, next to the main entrance to Gorky Park and includes 180 parking spaces (figure ..). It takes about 10 minutes to get to the museum from the car park. Therefore, it is quite inconvenient for visitors who would like to visit the museum independently or don’t have enough time to walk. CAR PARK

original route from the car park to the museum

But more importantly, people with disabilities have no service to get to the building. Although the location is not perfect, the parking area itself is quite large. Normal price is 100 rubles per hour, but free for disabled. There is a designated parking provision for disabled, around 15 spaces are provided.

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GARAGE MUSEUM


116

CAR PARKING car park design proposal Although I wound suggest introducing car parking right next to museum (figure ..), as access for commercial vehicles is needed and, moreover, it would make the museum itself more independent. Figure .. suggests alternative transport access and car parking location and plan.

estimated car space proportions for disabled users

GARAGE MUSEUM

CAR PARK PROPOSAL

car park proposal next to the building

shared area

accessible car space

6600

accessible car space

1200

1200

1200

1200

2400

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2400

2400


117

INTERNAL STEPS AND STAIRS

3

1 5

2

main entrance

Gallery spaces in the building are designed as wide corridors lined from the large public space at the centre of the building. Therefore, the focus of the concept is watching and experiencing the space rather than exhibiting artists work.

2

4

mezzanine floor plan*

In the central lobby one can straight away see the monumental staircase leading to the 1st floor. It is enhanced with the bright orange floor that is contrasting with concrete floor of the rest gallery space (2).

cloakroom

1

2

physical model

Preserved mosaic was used as a decoration of the interior spaces of the museum. The range of tapes and tiles could enhance the grip on the stairs in order to prevent slipping.

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One may argue that the exhibiting spaces are squeezed together that makes the experience uncomfortable, although staircases lead the way through the exhibition. Thus it is vital to consider stairs’ qualities in terms of health and safety.


118

Staircase leading to the WC on -1 floor (the only WC in the building). This staircase clearle needs additional light source and a second hand rail would be also helpful. Although I am perfectly well, I was concerned anout slipping while walking down. Alternatively, Slip resistant and high visibility treads, cleats, edgings and tapes for stairs could be used.

4 The additional hand rail fitted at a height that matches the existing rail could be applied But if I am being honest I would suggest using the lift that is available 15 m away.

Bookshop is oriented along the set of stairs, which makes it quite difficult to visit for wheelchair users and elderly.

3 BOOKSHOP

Stairclimbers could become a potential solutino with either a seat onto which the user transfers or with an attachment onto which a wheelchair can be attached. They are normally operated by an assistant or carer and are designed to climb up and down a flight of stairs. Moreover, they are not attached to the staircase so they can be transported and used on different staircases.

I assume that this staircase was premanufactured and installed after the floor was designed, because of that 0.5 step. Although it might be an imteresting design feature, the area illustrated int the sketch is unaccessible for people with limited movement abilities. Once again, potentialy stairclimbers would help, bit is it worth it?

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5

staircase detail


119

SANITARY FACILITIES Sanitary facilities for people with access needs are extremely important, because older and disabled people (collectively millions of people!!!) are potential visitors and having accessible and usable toilets would increase community education, visitor’s numbers and gallery profit itself. Wheelchair-accessible restrooms are located on each floor of the Museum and in Garage Education Center. The toilet doesn’t have any objections on the way and is clearly visible from the main circulation area of the museum (figure1). The door is opening outwards and is fixed with a horizontal closing bar fixed to the inside face.

As I mentioned before staircase to WC is quite dark and has hand rail on one side only, therefore my grandmother used disabled toilet facilities.

The area of WC is around 4 sqm. The room contains a standing height washbasin, but no finger rinse basin next to the WC. + There is no emergency cord (figure 2,3). Reasonable improvements are indicated in the diagram: Additionally, I would suggest providing pictures of the toilets in access guides or the website to provide a clear understanding for the visitors of what to expect.

1

1

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WEBSITES

Information of the website is available in two languages: Russian and English

GARAGE website: http://garagemca.org/en Website information and social media activity enable museums to not only tell the community about their collections and events, but to have a dialog with the audience and receive feedback. But making a website that is clear and easy to use is the new challenge. Speaking about elderly we all know how hard it can get sometimes to send a text, not talking about googling the information about museum they are about to visit (based on my grandparents).

One could book tickets in advance online and plan their visit rather than going all the way to the museum

Contact informaroin is availavle. + most searched info is in green to make it more visible + font is not too small and readable

I analysed certain aspects that would be applicable to the first website visit: 1. Museum location, address and opening ours 2. What’s on 3. Is the information accessible online, well-presented? 4. How easy is it to understand the route from a to b? Image above illustrates homepage of the website. It’s design is quite minimalistic and clear. Animated illustrations change within the interval of around 5 seconds to give a hint about what’s on and to make one interested. + If one clicks on them it leads the info about the show.

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Each page contains information about exhibition for users with disabilities (ex. exhibition itour n sign language)

Despite the map transport information is provided, which makes it a lot easier to find (particularly for elderly)


121

WEBSITES

Moreover it is porrible to view and download museum map online

Information for visiters with sidabilities is provided, althouugh I found it quite basic. For example, the info abount ramps in the building could not only say that they are available but indicate in which part of the building they are located so a user would go to the right place straight away.

experiment I have decided to conduct and experiment and see how long would it take my grandmother to find which exhibition is on in MAY, how to get to the museum and how much would be tickets for her and myself togethre. I wish it was sucsessful and she would have taken around 10 minutes to find all that information, but she struggled in changing language of the website, so I had to navigate her myself. But this made me do a research and I find some useful points for the website for disabled, such as resizable text*

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After scroling down any web page Calendar of upcoming events and GARAGE News are available.


122

SUMMARY “In fact we have a moral duty to remove the barriers to participation, and to invest sufficient funding and expertise to unlock the vast potential of people with disabilities.” – Professor Stephen Hawking.

Separating people according to their disability is itself irrational. The fact that two people move about in wheelchairs does not make necessarily them friends. People are united by common interests, cultural events, tastes. The museum is a point of contact for art lovers, independently of the condition of their health. After combining those aspects together, the architects or planners’ main objective becomes to increase the number of people to experience the power of art that is on display. Thus, it is highly significant to address the needs of everybody who visits the museum. In terms of the GARAGE’s accessibility, it is still not systematic. Although there are programs for the disabled, they do not adapt the entire space. Several developments were suggested, but incorporating them would only improve building’s separate elements. This coursework helped me to understand that providing complete freedom of movement for elderly and disabled is not charity or publicity, it is standard.

Word count: 1234

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REFERENCES http://rbth.com/arts/2016/08/10/moscows-garage-museum-leads-the-way-for-visitors-with-disabilities_619541 https://www.moma.org/visit/accessibility/wheelchair http://www.arch2o.com/architecture-design-disabled/ http://jeyjoo.com/blog/designing-a-website-for-disabled-and-elderly-users

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ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY COURSEWORK2. PART B

ARC2009 Architectural Technology

Couesework Submission Part 2B Means of escape

Exploring experience 150008424


125

CONTENTS

01 02

SUMMARY AND CALCULATIONS Original

SUMMARY AND CALCULATIONS Amendments

7

12

03

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

13

04

STRATEGY

23


126

SUMMARY AND CALCULATIONS | ORIGINAL

strategy To comply with Approved Document B: 1. Second final exit is needed on the Ground floor to reduce travel distances. 2. Get rid of the void between ground and -1 floor to provide distance between final exit and the void over 4.5m. 3. Protected staircase is essential to provide a clear escape path through all the floors, reduce travel distances to final exit and reduce the density of people. 4. Refuge points need to be introduces within the protected staircase 5. Make staircase of the Reading room protected staircase

escape stairs The circulation of the building is designed to be circular to create a route through the gallery. Although such strategy is not practical in terms of escape routes. Though I could not make these stairs protected because most of them connect 2 floors only. Thus, additional protected staircase (1) was incorporated. Amendments made helped to provide adequate escape routes from the building and did not interrupt much my initial design intentions.

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Type of accommodation as outlined in Appendix C.

Type of accommodation

4.

Type of accommodation as outlined in Appendix C.

Type of accommodation

Floor space Factor m2/person

Area of room (m2)

Calculation

4.

Reading room

1.0

53

53/1.0

53

8.

Art Gallery

5.0

109.15

109.15/5.0

21

21

10.

Bookshop

7.0

10.75

10.75/7.0

1

10.75/7.0

1

9.

Office

6.0

6.9

6.9/6.0

6.9/6.0

1

Ground floor total maximum opacity

Floor space Factor m2/person

Area of room (m2)

Calculation

Maximum Number of people (rounded nearest whole person)

Reading room

1.0

53

53/1.0

53

8.

Art Gallery

5.0

109.15

109.15/5.0

10.

Bookshop

7.0

10.75

9.

Office

6.0

6.9

SUMMARY AND CALCULATIONS | ORIGINAL

Ground floor total maximum opacity

171

Type of accommodation Type of as outlined in accommodation Appendix as outlinedC.in

Type of accommodation Type of accommodation

C. Appendix 4.

Reading room

Floor space Factor Floor space m2/person Factor

Area of room Area of (m2) room

m2/person

(m2)

1.0

53

Calculation Calculation

53/1.0

Maximum Number of people (rounded Maximum Number whole nearest people (rounded of person)whole nearest person) 53

Area of room (m2)

Calculation

Type of accommodation as outlined in Appendix C.

Type of accommodation

Floor space Factor m2/person

4.

Cafe/Bar

1.0

95.7

95.7/1.0

Plant Room

30.0

7.5

53/1.0

Art Gallery Cafe/Bar

5.0 1.0

109.15 95.7

109.15/5.0 95.7/1.0

21 95

14.

14. 10. 11. 9.

Plant Room Bookshop Kitchen Office

30.0 7.0 7.0 6.0

7.5 10.75 11.25 6.9

53/1.0 10.75/7.0 11.25/1 6.9/6.0

01 1

11.

Kitchen

7.0

11.25

11.25/1

8.

Art Gallery

5.0

46.5

46.5/5.0

8. Ground floor maximum total -1 floor total opacity maximum opacity

Art Gallery

5.0

46.5

46.5/5.0

9 171 105

Type of Type of accommodation accommodation as outlined in as outlinedC.in Appendix Appendix C. 4.

Type of Type of accommodation accommodation

14.

Plant Room

11. 8. 8.

Kitchen Art Art Gallery Gallery

Floor space Area of Calculation Maximum Number Calculation Floor Maximum (rounded Factorspace room Area of people Factor m2/person of Number whole of m2/person (m2) nearest room people person) (m2) (rounded 1.0 95.7 95.7/1.0 95 nearest whole 30.0 7.5 53/1.0 0 person) 7.0 11.25 11.25/1 1 5.0 61.25 61.25/5.0 12 5.0 46.5 46.5/5.0 9

1st floortotal total -1 floor maximum maximum opacity opacity

Maximum Number of people (rounded nearest whole person)

95 0 1 9 105

-1 floor total maximum opacity

Type of Type of Floor space Area Calculation Maximum accommodation accommodation Factor Number of Type of Type of Area ofof Calculation Maximum Floor m2/person as outlined in people accommodation accommodation space room room Number of people C. Appendix (m2) (rounded as outlined in Factor (m2) (rounded nearest nearest whole Appendix C. m2/person whole person) person)

8. 8. 9. 1st 8. floor total

maximum 2nd floor total opacity maximum

Art Gallery

5.0

Art Gallery Office

5.0 6.0

Art Gallery

5.0

56.26 56.26/5.0 61.25/5.0 19.25 61.2519.25/6.0 27.5 27.5/5.0

11

12 3 12 5

19

opacity

Type of accommodation as outlined in Appendix C.

Type of accommodation

8.

Art Gallery

1st floor total maximum opacity

12 105

1 171

8. 4.

Cafe/Bar

Maximum Number of people (rounded nearest whole person)

Floor space Factor m2/person

5.0

Area of room (m2)

Calculation

61.25

61.25/5.0

Maximum Number of people (rounded nearest whole person)

Maximum occupancy capacity for entire building: 307

Floor

Number of Persons Existing

Number of Escape Routes/ Exits

12

-1

105

1

12

Ground

171

1

1st

12

1

2nd

19

1

Floor

Number of Persons Existing

Minimum Width of Escape Route, corridor and door opening

-1

105

750

Ground

171

1050

1st

12

750

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Type of accommodation as outlined in Appendix C. 8. 9. 8.

SUMMARY AND CALCULATIONS | ORIGINAL2nd floor total

Type of Floor accommodation space Factor m2/person Art Gallery 5.0 Office 6.0 Art Gallery 5.0

Area of room (m2)

56.26 19.25 27.5

Calculation Maximum Number of people (rounded nearest whole person) 56.26/5.0 11 19.25/6.0 3 27.5/5.0 5 19

maximum opacity

Using Table 3, Approved Doccument, Part B: Maximum occupancy capacity for entire building: 307 Type of Number ofType of routes and exits Floorfrom a Room Area of Minimum escape

accommodation accommodation space original plansin do not comply with Table 3 Factor as outlined Appendix m2/person C. Floor Number of Persons 8. Art Gallery Existing 5.0 9. Office 6.0 -1 105 8. Art Gallery 5.0 Ground 2nd floor total maximum 1st opacity 2nd

room (m2)

56.26 19.25 27.5

171

Calculation Maximum Number of people (rounded nearest whole person) Number of Escape 56.26/5.0 11 Routes/ Exits 19.25/6.0 3 1 27.5/5.0 5 1 19

12

1

19

1

Maximum occupancy capacity for entire building: 307 Floor

Number of Persons Existing Using Table 4, Approved Doccument, Part B: Floor Number of Persons Existing -1 105 Ground 171 Minimum escape route, corridor and -1 105door opening widths for each storey 1st 12 Ground 171 2nd 19 1st original plans comply with Table 4 12

Minimum Width of Escape Route, corridor and door opening Number of Escape Routes/ Exits 750

1050 1 750 1 750 1

2nd

19

1

Floor

Number of Persons Existing

Minimum width for each stair

-1 Floor Ground 1st

105 Number of Persons 202 Existing 31

1000mm Minimum Width of Escape 1000mm Route, corridor and door 1000mm opening

2nd -1

19 105

1000mm 750

Ground

171

1050

1st

12

750

2nd

19

750

Floor

Number of Persons Existing

Minimum width for each stair

-1

105

1000mm

Ground

202

1000mm

1st

31

1000mm

2nd

19

1000mm

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19

2nd floor total maximum opacity

129

Maximum occupancy capacity for entire building: 307

Floor

Number of Persons Existing

Number of Escape Routes/ Exits

-1

105

1

Ground

171

1

1st

12

1

2nd

19

1

Floor

Number of Persons Existing

Minimum Width of Escape Route, corridor and door opening

SUMMARY AND CALCULATIONS | ORIGINAL

-1 105 Using Table 7, Approved Doccument, Ground 171Part B:

750 1050

12

750

19

750

Floor

Number of Persons Existing

Minimum width for each stair

-1

105

1000mm

Ground

202

1000mm

1st

31

1000mm

2nd

19

1000mm

1st 2nd Minimum width for each stair

Using the formula for the calculation of Minimum Final Exit Width, Approved Document, Part B: This can be calculated from the following formula: W = (N/2.5) + (60S)/80 Where: W = width of final exit; in metres N = number of people served by ground floor S = stair width in metres As all my fire exits are located on the ground floor, I am giong to calculate the width using the total number of users. W = ((307/2.5) + (60(1.5)) / 80 W = 2.66 = 2.7m

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SUMMARY AND CALCULATIONS | ORIGINAL

Using Table 2, Approved Doccument, Part B:

Maximum travel distances for occupants of building when exiting

Floor

Travel From

Travel to

Travel distance, one direction (m)

-1

Cafe/Bar Plant Room

Storey exit Storey exit

14 [max 9m] 2.8

Kitchen

Storey exit

11

Art Gallery Reading room

Storey exit Final exit

7.5 10 [max 9m]

Art Gallery Bookshop

Final exit Final exit

15 [max 9m] 10.5 [max 9m]

Office

Final exit

9.5

Art Gallery Art Gallery

Storey exit Storey exit

6 9

Office Art Gallery

Storey exit Storey exit

10 12

Ground

1st 2nd

original plans do not comply with Table 2 SUMMARY AND CALCULATIONS AMEDMENTS

Floor

Travel From

Travel to

Travel distance, one direction (m)

-1

Cafe/Bar Plant Room

Storey exit Storey exit

9 2.8

Kitchen

Storey exit

11

Art Gallery Reading room

Storey exit Final exit

7.5 6

Art Gallery Bookshop

Final exit Final exit

9 9

Office

Final exit

9.5

Art Gallery Art Gallery

Storey exit Storey exit

6 9

Office Art Gallery

Storey exit Storey exit

10 12

Ground

1st 2nd

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SUMMARY AND CALCULATIONS | AMENDMENTS

ground floor plan 1:100

floor -1

ground floor plan 1:100

cafe / bar / events space

ground floor plan 1:100

cafe / bar / events space

cafe / bar / events space

cafe / bar / events space terrace 1

terrace 1

terrace 1

bar

WC plant room

kitchen

WC

WC

cloackroom lift

WC1

lift

lift

lift

WC2

temporary gallary

reading room staff room

floor -1 (1:500) *figure .. max travel distance from cafe/bar = 14m

reception

main entrance

ground floor (1:500) *figure .. max travel distance from reading room = 10m

reading room staff room

reception

main entrance

ground floor (1:500) *figure .. max travel distance from art gallery = 15m

reading room staff room

reception

main entrance

ground floor (1:500) *figure .. max travel distance from bookshop = 10.5m

mazimum travel distance that does not comply with Table 2

sketches illustrate process of protected staircase design

Protected staircase was integrated on floor -1, thus maximum travel distance (one directinon) has changed from 14m to 8m To provide an additional fire exit I got rid of the void leading to the floor -1, therefore the maximum distance has decreased: for art gallery: from 15m to 9m for bookshop: from 10.5m to 9m For the reading room also additional exit was integrater that changed the maximum travel distance (one direction) from 10m to 6m Although maximum travel distances to the storey exits complied with Table 2, additional protected staircase was applied. This wound potentially reduce overcrowdedness while leaving the floor.

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Floor

Travel From

Travel to

Travel distance, one direction (m)

-1

Cafe/Bar Plant Room

Storey exit Storey exit

14 [max 9m] 2.8

Kitchen

Storey exit

11

Art Gallery Reading room

Storey exit Final exit

7.5 10 [max 9m]

Bookshop

Final exit

10.5 [max 9m]

Office

Final exit

9.5

Art Gallery Art Gallery

Storey exit Storey exit

6 9

Office Art Gallery

Storey exit Storey exit

10 12

Ground

SUMMARY AND CALCULATIONS Art Gallery Final exit | AMENDMENTS 15 [max 9m] 1st 2nd

SUMMARY AND CALCULATIONS AMEDMENTS Maximum travel distances for occupants of building when exiting

Floor

Travel From

Travel to

Travel distance, one direction (m)

-1

Cafe/Bar Plant Room

Storey exit Storey exit

9 2.8

Kitchen

Storey exit

11

Art Gallery Reading room

Storey exit Final exit

7.5 6

Art Gallery Bookshop

Final exit Final exit

9 9

Office

Final exit

9.5

Art Gallery Art Gallery

Storey exit Storey exit

6 9

Office Art Gallery

Storey exit Storey exit

10 12

Ground

1st 2nd

Type of accommodation as outlined in Appendix C. 8. 9. 8.

Type of Floor accommodation space Factor m2/person Art Gallery 5.0 Office 6.0 Art Gallery 5.0

Area of room (m2)

56.26 19.25 27.5

2nd floor total maximum opacity

Calculation Maximum Number of people (rounded nearest whole person) 56.26/5.0 11 19.25/6.0 3 27.5/5.0 5 19

Minimum Number of escape routes and exits from a Room Maximum occupancy capacity for entire building: 307 original plans comply with Table 3

Floor

Number of Persons Existing

Number of Escape Routes/ Exits

-1

105

1

Ground

171

1

1st

12

1

2nd

19

1

Floor

Number of Persons Existing

Minimum Width of Escape Route, corridor and door opening

-1

105

750

Ground

171

1050

1st

12

750

2nd

19

750

Floor

Number of Persons Existing

Minimum width for each stair

-1

105

1000mm

Ground

202

1000mm

1st

31

1000mm

2nd

19

1000mm

9 out of 19


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STRATEGY

G + 1.5

ADAPTED PLANS

Unprotected or open voids running vertically between two or more stories Travel distance at the furthest point on top-most level, which is furthest from any protected stair corridor or lobby, to the Final Exit(s)

Travel distance from the wheelchair toilet, which is furthest from any protected stair, corridor or lobby, to the final exit(s)

2

refuge points disabled person

for

Final Exit 1 Final Exit 2

17 out of 19


134

STRATEGY

G

ADAPTED PLANS

Unprotected or open voids running vertically between two or more stories Travel distance at the furthest point on top-most level, which is furthest from any protected stair corridor or lobby, to the Final Exit(s)

1

Travel distance from the wheelchair toilet, which is furthest from any protected stair, corridor or lobby, to the final exit(s)

4

refuge points disabled person

3

for

2 Final Exit 1 Final Exit 2 Final Exit 3 Final Exit 4

18 out of 19


135

STRATEGY

-1

ADAPTED PLANS

Travel distance at the furthest point on top-most level, which is furthest from any protected stair corridor or lobby, to the Final Exit(s)

Travel distance from the wheelchair toilet, which is furthest from any protected stair, corridor or lobby, to the final exit(s) refuge points disabled person

for

19 out of 19


136

ABOUT ARCHITECTURE. ESSAY

M A S S

H O U S I N G

MA N I F ES TO

Rationale:

Introduction:

The mass housing crisis is one of the most challenging issues that communities are facing today. There is a vast range of ideas that could potentially help us find a new and more effective way to improve or structure our community. After analysing the history of past mass housing construction, it seems essential to transform the familiar by conscious intention and direct the design into the unfamiliar new. Although this manifesto is not aimed to be inventive and propose the reconstruction plan of contemporary mass housing architecture, but to introduce some guiding principles to advance our understanding of the nature of community transformation. Using past experiences, the essay itself will demonstrate how these principles might work in specific cases. It will argue that there is no such thing as a perfect housing manifesto while we should look for multiple perfect housing manifestos. There is need to create a mass housing structure for interaction stems from the isolated nature of our modern communities. The modern society idealized mobility by building the highway system and racing to the suburbs. Therefore, the size for a new planning structure should be a conscious choice, so people can feel connected not only to the building, but on the city-wide context, to provide the relation that enables one experience a sense of safety that comes from a place where we are a member both physically and emotionally. It is essential to admit that my ideas represent the path to improvement rather than to transformation. Although the proposal of this manifesto would be to potentially rethink the whole notion of how architecture is produced.

Architecture is capable of changing the world and people’s lives. The multiplicity of systems and forces that influence designing process has been, and still is a subject of considerable academic interest. This essay will endeavour to evaluate the way one sees the world and to present an innovative approach to mass housing design. Particularly, it will present architecture as one of the links in the chain of social design. To better understand the relationship between the influences that affect architectural nature, such aspects as political, economic and social would be examined. The main aim of architecture is to give a coherence to the world. However, in the recent decades, significant mass housing inequalities have been evaluated along European urban sector. London, for instance, as the largest city in United Kingdom represents mass housing problems in its extreme. Based upon current housing policy, in the next section inequalities would be examined and potential solutions would be provided for an adequate mass housing system for the future. The aim of the essay is to provide an overview of past mass housing production and suggest alternative strategy as a more effective way. Although listening and observing is a curtail part of the process, it will be argued that conceiving architecture lays way beyond contextualization and that effective design is produced by asking the right questions and seeking answers only within creative collaboration between architects and the community.

Conversation about The New Way of Accountability Diagrams 1,2 represent the attempt to analyse the change in architectural approach from clear separation of its elements to more collaborative and

Student Number: 150008424 Morova Polina

1

The abstract of the manifesto could be explained by the following aims: 1 To create an organization that is not based on normal coherencies, but based on randomness 2 To perceive architecture is not a built substance, but a life form 3 Introduce additional levels to multiply the space available for the inhabitants 4 Provide more green spaces (ex. green roofs) 5 Collaboration and interaction are the key elements of the community 6 Make borders between different domains to blur 7 Introduce a collaborative cloud that enables collective experience in the central space 8 To design not appearance, but experience

2

5

3


137

derived from the human body.3 He assumed that after calculation city’s density it was possible to estimate an approximate territory needed to accommodate the city and build strongly within that territory (Figure 3,4). Yet mass housing plan was to be regulated by law, it would also allow a certain amount of freedom for “artist’s” fantasy and initiative.

Architecture of revolution: individuality Architecture plays a crucial role in creating and directing society, it has a strong relationship with the social, cultural and political aspects. Connection between architecture and society is extremely emotional. Although as a form of knowledge that is changing over time, architecture could amplify conflict between contrasting economic and cultural positions. In the next section, perception of architecture as social and political revolution instrument will be reconsidered. Particularly, the argument has been made most forcefully by Le Corbusier. He was convinced of the vital social influence of architecture. As numerous architects of modern movement, he perceived architecture as a crucial mechanism in provoking social and political change, that has a power create a new and better world. Esther Charlesworth recounts, for example, that Le Corbusier’s mass housing manifesto played a vital role in the approach to reconstruction of post-war cities since 1945 and gave a dominant role for architects as urban decorators.1 The main debate was framed around two major methods. The Facsimile approach suggested duplicating or rebuilding of historic city cores as it was with only slight reconsiderations to reconnect with local architectural traditions (Figure 1).

Fig. 1: Reconstruction of Prague, 1945

Fig. 2: Reconstruction of Rotterdam, 1945

Fig. 3: In experimental manifesto for Paris reconstruction “Plan Voison Le Corbusier proposed a master plan, where 18 skyscrapers were located within a certain geometry, while the rest of the territory was set aside for highways, parks and pedestrian zones.

Fig. 4: A fragment of ‘Plan Voisin’ with a multiple-layered highway system in the city centre. Illustration is taken from Le Corbusier’s book ‘La Ville radieuse’, 1935.

Nan Elli argues, however, that attempts to discover universal solutions were futile and that architecture was designing for an ideal man rather than for real people. Indeed, there is no such thing as a universal architecture. It is always responding to the specific place and time.4 Lebbeus Woods introduces such term as “architecture of resistance”, where architecture denies any cultural change and implies linear progression of history. He argues that architecture should reject any acquiescence to conventional thinking, but, to the contrary, it must heighten one’s expectations of what could happen to the site and one’s idea of what architecture as a creative force could bring to the community.5 As a consequence of Le Corbusier’s influence, post-war architecture in United States and western Europe remained isolated towers followed by unending blocks of mass-produced residential houses. (Figure 4,5).

Le Corbusier, Oeuvre complète: Le Corbusier: 1910–1929, (Berlin: Les Editions d’Architecture, Birkhäuser, 1995 [1929]), pp. 56-64.

3

Alternatively, the second method proposes reconstruction with radical transformation of urban character (Figure 2). Le Corbusier though has rejected the facsimile approach criticising it as identical reconstruction. His modern architecture and planning theory suggested a strong idea that dictates not only the scheme for contemporary city, but completely uncompromising life model. Quite radical, the manifesto resists existing state of things, but suggests a “theoretically tight-water formula to arrive at the fundamental principles of town-planning”. He argued that discussed principles can serve as the frame for any system of modern town planning.2 The essential aspect of Le Corbusier’s approach was to reconsider the relationship between the organization of functions through zoning regulations, a master-plan, and measuring system 1

Esther Charlesworth, Architects Without Frontiers: War, Reconstruction and Design Responsibility, (Oxford: Elsevier, 2006), pp.26-36.

2

Le Corbusier, The city of tomorrow and its planning, (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1971), pp. 30-32.

4

Nan Elli ed., Architecture of Fear, (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1997), pp. 22-25.

Lebbeus Woods, Thoughts on Architecture of Resistance, http://www.lebbeuswoods.net/LW-ResistanceText2.pdf Accessed 30.01.2017 5

7

Fig 4: Residential complex “Pruitt-Igoe” in Saint Louis, USA is an arrangement of 30 buildings 11 stories height each (1954-1974). Was designed by Minoru Yamasaki based on functional city ideals promoted by Le Corbusier and CIAM.

6 Fig 5: Esplanada dos Ministerios, centre of Brasilia. The project was inspired by “The Athens Charter”, a document about urban planning published by the Swiss architect, Le Corbusier in 1943.

Therefore, many historians comment that modern urbanism turned out to be repressive, sterile, antisocial and generally disliked. Although, interesting approach is encapsulated in Peter Cook’s opinion on the subject. He claims, that when we talk about the anti-house, we are still talking about the house. Thus, Le Corbusier manifesto could not win, but one must admit that such theory immeasurably empowered our intentions to rethink the idea of architecture and make a move towards new reality.


138

ABOUT ARCHITECTURE. ESSAY

Architecture and politics: retribution Architecture is the reflection of the processes and the time that they were made. It is significantly embedded with multiplicity of forces that could come from any place. Architecture’s capacity of social change is very fragile as such relationship compromises autonomous power by various structures of control. Architects only act in behalf of the society, their clients. However, it is critical to admit architecture’s special significance as an instrument of social and political influence. Only by its presence architecture causes either negative or positive reactions. As Neil Leach comments, architecture is the expression of the true nature of society. Monumental architecture raised up as an autonomous element reflecting political and social ideology.6 Although, building appearance is not always supported by objective readings of its message. This approach suggests the view that the political content of architecture could not be obvious as its philosophy remains mainly invisible. Yet ideology, as Neil Leach observed, drives its very potential through its invisibility. It constructs a background level of consciousness which impacts all political and social actions (as cited in Stanley Fich, 1994).7 Yet there is little doubt that the political content is often overlooked although it is the most obvious act of the building. USSR’s 1930s mass housing architecture, for instance, became vital in the process of heightening the politic authority. It inspired citizen’s faith more effectively than thousands of speeches would. Although construction technologies were limited at the time, soviet engineers and architects achieved an exceptional quality of the buildings and, moreover, introduced innovative building techniques. Some constructions were designed with massive parts distributed along the axes of the building rather than being concentrated in the centre. Such technique creates a visual effect that makes the building look enormous and heavy (Figure 7, 8). However, there is a theory about the unofficial political background of Stalin’s architecture, that suggests the linear idea of secret corridors purposely inserted into the building structure as an additional method of control. It is important to mention that such accommodation was provided only for party members and professors that had a high influence and knowledge of state secrets. Potentially, members of the civil service were overhearing tenant’s conversations, resulting in many people “disappearing” overnight. The act of the building, therefore, was deeply political and marked the historical period of significant social unrest.

Fig. 7, 8: The Kudrinskaya Square Building is one of seven Stalinist skyscrapers, designed by Mikhail Posokhin and Ashot Mndoyants. Taken from: http://students.sras.org/ moscows-seven-sisters/

Alternatively, some modern architects presented manifestos of ‘democratic’ architecture., As Jenks and Valentine recount, the essential aspect of this model is avoiding excessive uniformity, while at the same time avoiding excessive variety. It is to reach the balance between being abstract, individualised and disharmonious whilst not becoming a utopian living-model.8 According to Joan Ockman the term ‘democratic architecture’ itself is quite contradictive. He believes that, Poetic symbol of democracy emerges from utopian interpretation of progressive, modern society.9 Although, the tension within this concept are still evident, what is the relationship between politics and architectural style? As Neil Leach recounts, the argument about liberate architecture was observed, for instance, by such architects as Frank Lloyd Wright or Vincent Scully, while none of them had estimated the link between building typology and politics.10 Yet it is obvious the concept of democracy itself is historically and culturally unstable, which makes it debateable whether architecture can be an instrument for building a scheme for democratic ideology. Perceiving architecture as a political and social product, it is necessary to accept that its communal background is crucial in terms of reading architectures philosophy. Jameson, for instance, claims that once taken out of its social and cultural environment, architecture would lack its political efficacy and a building itself would lose its face and will not be capable to make a political statement without certain historical context.11 Considering all the factors that affect our reading of architecture, one can conclude that aesthetically, architecture cannot be political, while through its form, function and background it effects our life. Yet it is questionable whether architectural form itself could somehow affect the politics of use.

8

Jencks and Valentine, The Architecture of Democracy: The Hidden Tradition, (New York: Wiley-Academy, 1987), p. 25.

9

Joan Ockman, What is Democratic Architecture? The public Life of buildings, https://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/what-is-

democratic-architecture-the-public-life-of-buildings Accessed on 29.01.2017

Neil Leach, Architecture and Revolution: Contemporary Perspectives on Central and Eastern Europe (London: Routledge, 1999), pp. 114. 6

7

Neil Leach, Architecture and Revolution: Contemporary Perspectives on Central and Eastern Europe (London: Routledge, 1999), pp. 1-

14, and Stanley Fish, There’s No Such Thing as Free Speech — And It’s a Good Thing Too, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).

9

10

Georges Bataille, Architecture, in Neil Leach (ed.), Rethinking Architecture, (London: Routledge, 1997), p. 21.

Fredric Jameson, Postmodernism, or, The Culturalc of Late Capitalism (Poetics of Social Forms), (Durham: Duke University Press, 1991), pp. 54-82. 11

10


139

Architecture and economy: inequality Architect Lick Fai Eric Ho in his design manifesto proposes an innovative approach on economic and social value of architecture. He categorizes four key design approaches that are accepted by contemporary architects and urban planners, for instance, open-planning system, that could not dictate the living model.12 As Paul Barker comments, it is a humble idea even for ‘experts’ to determine the ideal scheme of urban planning, as considerations about what is best for other people are subjective. In contrast, some architects operate as public prosecutors trying to support community interests. This method is aimed to empower individual and public role in the planning process. In the next design scheme Lick Fai Eric Ho proposes an open building process, where public participation is at a smaller scale. John Habraken, for example, also introduces an alternative to existing mass housing production, where architect designs only intermediate framework, whereas the internal structure could be modified and adapted based on inhabitants needs.13 Core and fill design method can be illustrated on controversial social housing by Alejandro Aravena, where inhabitants fill in half of the house structure based on their budget and aesthetical preference. (Figures 9,10).

Thus, along with constant experimentation and thorough analysis such design method could potentially offer the most extraordinary and broad solutions to mass housing subject. Lick Fai Eric Ho claims that there should always be the balance of planning freedom and individual empowerment.14 Although today it is common to have a dominant author or a dominant ideology. Zaha Hadid’s Architect director Patrik Schumacher, for instance, has proposed quite radical 8-point mass housing manifesto at the World Architecture Festival in Berlin.15 His main argument involves privatizing public space, ignoring building regulations and scrapping social housing in London. Such an approach, according to Schumacher, would help to increase the density in many parts of central London and thus address the solution for housing crisis. What is interesting, however, is the debate that the manifesto caused in the society. Citizens argue that Schumaher’s argument attempts to restrain and increase inequality, they negatively describe it as the approach ‘to fit algorithmically simplified life-model that forms simplified humans to suit it’.16 It is crucial to notice, that the proposal itself was made at the World Architecture Festival, where the standard ticket costs about 1150 euros. Therefore, Patrik Schumacher was not only delivering a message to the architecture community, by the was making a statement to the ultra-rich corporations. Yet it is a controversial statement, most of the frustrations expressed in Schumaher’s manifesto are reasonable, change is needed in many aspects of housing development. Solution though could be not in privatization, but wellbalanced governmental control of the market, avoiding creativity limits. Architecture touches a vast area in terms of knowledge base, where mass housing particularly requires attention. Either by individual or collaborative process, architects and planners are challenged to read the city and environment and to experiment with contradictive design methods. Design either improves or creates a detriment to the community it is for, there is no in between.

Fig. 10: Quinta Monroy project in Iquique, Chile by Elemental. Taken from: http://www.archdaily.com/10775/quin ta-monroy-elemental

Fig. 9: Villa Verde in Constitución, Chile by Elemental. Takenn from: http://www.archdaily.com/447381/villa-verdehousing-elemental

Alternative trajectory implies less planner versus public interaction, where architect’s decisions are based on city reading and evaluating major activities and human interactions within the community. Relationship between city and its inhabitants is unpredictable and spontaneous.

12 Lick Fai Eric Ho, Open Manifesto for Mass Creation http://www.mascontext.com/issues/8-public-winter-10/open-manifesto-for-mass-creation/ Accessed on 1.02.2017 13

John Habraken, Supports: an alternative to mass housing, Second edition, edited by Jonathan Teicher (UK: Urban International Press,

1999), p. 43.

11

14 Lick Fai Eric Ho, Open Manifesto for Mass Creation http://www.mascontext.com/issues/8-public-winter-10/open-manifesto-for-mass-creation/ Accessed on 1.02.2017 15 World Architecture Festival, 15 - 17 November 2017, Arena Berlin https://www.worldarchitecturefestival.com 16 Amy Frearson, Patrik Schumacher calls for social housing and public space to be scrapped https://www.dezeen.com/2016/11/18/patrik-schumacher-social-housing-public-space-scrapped-london-worldarchitecture-festival-2016/ Accessed on Accessed on 5.02.2017

12


140

ABOUT ARCHITECTURE. ESSAY

Architecture and social behavior: interdependence With different approaches architecture creates a new form of public sphere in the society and impacts the way we interact. There is little doubt about the clear correspondence between the architecture of a place and the character of the community that has settled there. A Mass housing manifesto should explore how to produce architecture to help citizens to become better connected on a local level. Peter Block, however, suggests the view that modern community is based on the concept of living among ‘like-minded people’, we choose individuality over belonging.17 Architecture today implies isolation and fear rather than sense of security; our perception must be renewed. To experience a sense of belonging again, architecture must reclaim the value of human relationships. But large-scale transformation occurs only through gradual change of small components. As Block recounts that It is the small moments, where citizens experience the intimacy of the small group and at the same time feel as a part of a larger community that still shares their interests.18Architecture, of any scale, should provide opportunities for people to gather. Every meeting and conversation we have help us better understand what community we live in and draw conclusions about whether we want to change it. Overcoming of fragmentation then is crucial in mass housing. The gaps between social sectors of the city such as residential, commercial and cultural organizations are oriented to provide separation and privacy rather than overlapping or interacting with one another. Architecture is traditionally seen as a built individuality and independence rather than interdependence. Though it is vital to recognize that such parallel structures added together do not create an alternative community and moreover, there is much higher risk of conflict in pre-categorized areas. Such ideology could become the foundation for community failure. As previously discussed, architecture is one of the most overlooked aspects in generating and directing social and political conflicts. Marwa Al-sabouni, architect from Homs, Syria, claims that the old cities in Syria were built to enable interaction within community in a place that gave people a sense of belonging, and that people used to share a remarkably unified experience. Although as the shape of the urban environment changed, so changed the lifestyles. Marwa emphasizes that new urban planning system initiated differentiation rather than the sense of unity and common existence. Coherent communities became distinct social groups, alienated from each other and the place itself.19 Besides, similar kind of instability is already recognizable in urban neighborhoods in several European cities. It is questionable then which building principles to adopt and whether we should come back to traditional way of construction. Peter Block comments, that it is vital not only to remember the backgrounds, but re-member the community, put it together is a challenge for modern urban environment.20 Design strategies should challenge not only current architecture model, but other structures that have influence on social behaviour. Neil Leach argues, for instance, that architectural form itself is not able to resolve social problems, it could only contribute in some way. The guarantee of freedom is freedom (as cited in Michel Foucault21, 1983). Leach explores the concept of panopticon as an apparat for creating as sustaining a powerful social control and determining behaviour. On the contrary, Foucault emphasises political use of the building over the

architectural form as a force that controls the behaviour of the community. He comments that the architect has no power over a human.22 It is debateable therefore that there is an ideology that will enable architecture to act as a force of either liberation or repression. Yet if we understand architecture as a backdrop force to other social institutes, collaborative creation will enable us to act together and make a few steps to create better community.

Peter Block, The Structure of Belonging, (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2009), pp. 240. Peter Block, The Structure of Belonging, (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2009), pp. 246. Marwa Al-Sabouni, How Syria’s architecture laid the foundation for brutal war, https://www.ted.com/talks/marwa_al_sabouni_how_syria_s_architecture_laid_the_foundation_for_brutal_war Accessed on 5.02.2017 17 18 19

Peter Block, The Structure of Belonging, (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2009), pp. 240. Michel Foucault (1926-1984) - French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, philologist and literary critic. 20 21

22 Michel Foucault, Of Other Spaces: Utopias and Heterotopias (New York: Columbia Books of Architecture and Rizzoli, 1993), pp. 420.

13 14


141

Conclusion:

Bibliography:

Proposal of innovative mass housing concept is way more complex that might first appear. Analysed aspects help to better understand how architecture should be arranged in both functional and experiential ways. Although the more research is being made, the more irrational seems the belief in a perfect solution for current housing crisis. It is necessary to distance ourselves from any discussions and recognise that whilst architecture has a distinct role in social change, its impacts are limited to societies willingness to accept its ideologies. It is important to stop projecting an alternative future, but to become accountable and start acting as owners and creators of both light and dark parts of the world. Only by facing the whole picture of the world and admitting that the transformation is required for us and not for ‘them’, it is possible to create the community we want to live in. Peter Block concludes, that the future of the community depends on the change of our mindset. It is necessary to see the modern housing crisis as an inevitable consequence of modern society and take a step towards accountability and communal transformation. Instead of writing manifestos, we should build them.

Al- Sabouni M. (2016), How Syria’s architecture laid the foundation for brutal war. Accessed on 5.02.2017, from https://www.ted.com/talks/marwa_al_sabouni_how_syria_s_architecture_laid_the_foundati on_for_brutal_war Bataille G. (1997), Architecture, in Neil Leach (ed.), Rethinking Architecture. London: Routledge, p. 21. Block P. (2009), The Structure of Belonging. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, pp. 240. Charlesworth E. (2006), Architects Without Frontiers: War, Reconstruction and Design Responsibility. Oxford: Elsevier, pp.26-36. Elli N. ed. (1997), Architecture of Fear. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, pp. 22-25. Fish S. (1994), There’s No Such Thing as Free Speech — And It’s a Good Thing Too. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Foucault M. (1993), Of Other Spaces: Utopias and Heterotopias. New York: Columbia Books of Architecture and Rizzoli, pp. 420. Frearson A. (2016), Patrik Schumacher calls for social housing and public space to be scrapped. Accessed on 5.02.2017, from https://www.dezeen.com/2016/11/18/patrik-schumacher-social-housing-public-spacescrapped-london-world-architecture-festival-2016/ Habraken J. (1999), Supports: an alternative to mass housing, second edition, edited by Jonathan Teicher. UK: Urban International Press, p. 43. Ho L. (2010), Open Manifesto for Mass Creation. Accessed on 1.02.2017, from http://www.mascontext.com/issues/8-public-winter-10/open-manifesto-for-mass-creation/ Jameson F. (1991), Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (Poetics of Social Forms). Durham: Duke University Press, pp. 54-82. Jencks C. and Valentine M. (1987), The Architecture of Democracy: The Hidden Tradition. New York: 8Wiley-Academy, p. 25. Le Corbusier (1971), The city of tomorrow and its planning. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 3032. Le Corbusier (1995 [1929]), Oeuvre complète: Le Corbusier: 1910–1929. Berlin: Les Editions d’Architecture, Birkhäuser, pp. 56-64.

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Leach N. (1999), Architecture and Revolution:16Contemporary Perspectives on Central and Eastern Europe. London: Routledge, pp. 1-14. Millais M. (2005), Building structures: From Concepts to Design, Second Edition. New York: Spon Press, pp. 54-57. Ockman J. (2011), What is Democratic Architecture? The public Life of buildings, Accessed on 29.01.2017, from https://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/what-is-democratic-architecture-the-public-life-ofbuildings Woods L. (2009), Thoughts on Architecture of Resistance. Accessed on 30.01.2017, from http://www.lebbeuswoods.net/LW-ResistanceText2.pdf


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DISSERTATION STUDIES. DISSERTATION PROPOSAL

In modernity, everything seems to have an established value, a certain set of cultural ideas. However, during the seminars, we were paying attention to unanswered questions of architectural experience. So, I started investigating the concept of architectural perception

Dissertation proposal

itself. So, how does one perceive the built environment? I consider one’s perception of the space and design going beyond visual and the aspect that affects me on a deep, subjective level is sound and how hearing experience is overlooked in architectural design. I situate design as a type of communication. It is about the way ideas speaks to their audience.

empathy, ability to think and feel. After reading more about sound in design, I found Julian Treasure2's idea quite challenging. He argues that sound affects our life in ways we never even think about. But the reverse of that idea is that becoming aware of sound and really listening could truly make our lives. However, I find possibility to follow algorithms when working with sound arguable, because sound is never the same and its perception varies. Jean François Augoyard3 also debates that the visual qualities of architectural form cannot be adapted to a certain sound domain. In further process of my research I am going to investigate more about both Treasure’s and Augoyard’s theories.

Therefore, the sonic experience is crucial in architectural practice.

Figure 3,4: Two interpretations of the same design recorded on different days. Figure 1,2: Rhythms and patterns of recording sound Drawing that represents experiential qualities over the visual form

Polina Morova Tutors: Rachel Armstrong and Andrew Ballantyne Route: 8000 words dissertation Architecture as a living substance. Perception, analysis and modelling of sound in architecture through the new notation system.

I started breaking down the design process into several stages and see how particular soundscape affects me and the way I design architecture (Figure 1,2). One could argue that visual qualities are dominating with its influences, but an object is a harmony of colours, smells, tactile qualities and sounds, which symbolises the system that is yet far from being completely analysed. This argument also discusses Maurice Merleau-Ponty1, which I found quite useful for my investigation. Sound is the most magnificent power that has ever existed. It is impossible to explain its magic, how it affects one’s emotions, triggers tears or calms one down. Interestingly, sound could remind us of who we love but never of those who we hate. It reminds us how strong our feelings could be. I believe that even if there is no visual component, sound would provide much more imagination. Architects design beautiful spaces, someone right now has created something wonderful. But my main objective in this research to find the way to get one closer to analysing space beyond its form. It is about

But how to share this idea and construct architectural experiment that that transforms theory into experience? In my dissertation research, I wanted to start with the personal, my own experience. Using my drawing as a way of discovering experience and as a tool for analysis, I experimented with various effects. There is a vast number of possible interpretations of sound in the drawing, using contrasting dynamics, rhythms and line thicknesses. But after observation of these patterns I came to a certain notation system that my drawings reveal. For example, Figure 1 and 2 illustrate the same space but in different times of the day. Although I found it much easier to develop my own vision on somebody else’s idea than to create it from scratch. Therefore, I did some research on a couple of artists whose approach I found most engaging. Jasper Johns4, for instance, uses quite literal representation of objects, as he considers that “the things mind already knows” host larger variety of meanings in it. Paul Klee, similarly, observed that his visual perception has its own pattern. 2 3

1

Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Phenomenology of Perception (New York: Routledge Classics, 2002), p. 45.

4

Julian Treasure, Sound Business (Cirencester: Management Books 2000 Ltd Forge House, 2011), pp. 93-112. Jean François Augoyard, Step by Step (Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 2007), pp. 55-58. Michael Crichton: Jasper Johns (USA: Abrams Books, 1977), p.23.


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He evaluated a special relationship between abstraction of the form and meaning of abstracting itself. Every proposal, whether it architectural design, painting or a music peace starts with certain elements – lines, forms, sounds that eventually abstract the ultimate experience that could be originated. Although I found Klee’s approach quite contradictory, I respect how he engages one in a conversation rather that gives an answer. Based on Paul Klee’s Twittering Machine (Figure 5), I am developing my own notation system, that would enable one to read sounds from the space and the other way around. Looking at the painting, one remarks that even elements from the same category have a certain individuality. Moreover, although the image is static, there is almost an invitation for the viewer to rich in and bring this to life.

Particularly, sound. Its emotional component is very hard to perceive without past background and take it as a new experience rather than a set of associations and visual images. Therefore, the secret of creating something true is to see, feel and hear the world like the first time. Nature, architecture and people. Certainly, architecture is a dynamic process, not a frozen image. Charles Jencks6, for instance, discusses the intriguing subject of how through sound and other expression architecture could attain new limits pf creative authority. While doing my research I am still trying to figure out what I am dealing with, how architecture works, what lies in its foundation and how its elements are connected. The main output of the dissertation is to develop an idea that would change the way I perceive architecture and even potentially create the new language of communicating architecture. Although I should not leave aside my main objective, to find methods of sonic translation that are not used and to find a use for them and establish a new connection between sonic and visual (Figures 6,7).

Figure 5: Twittering Machine by Paul Klee

It fascinates me how Twittering Machine becomes a special notation system of sounds that with its cacophony transforms the space entirely. One could imagine all these things at once balancing up and down, spinning around, rotating. It encourages one to think of spatial experience that evokes sound, energy and emotion. That means that sound makes invisible visible. Moreover, I find intriguing John Cage’s perception of sound and music5. I got the opportunity to visit exhibition in Saint Petersburg, Russia commemorating his work. He destroyed in a way the concept of music predetermined by society and created his own language as a way of performance. I experienced something new at that exhibition. Have you ever noticed that listening to the same sound or pronouncing the same word many times in a row makes it lose its meaning and transform into white noise? Although after hearing the same noise repeatedly there is a feeling that you hear that noise the first time. This feeling is quite unusual, because longer we live and more experience we get, less often we can see things with the fresh eye. Everything we experience now is based on own memories and perception. Feeling it in your chest, I feel really connected with the sound. 5

Figure 6, 7: Drawings represent my attempt to record both visual and sonic experiences

6 Charles Jencks, Architecture Becomes music, https://www.architectural-review.com/rethink/viewpoints/architecture-becomes-music/8647050.article Accessed on 18.05.2017

John Cage, Silence: Lectures and Writings (Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1961), pp. 42-50.

thank you

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