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UCLG and Strategic Planning in Metropolitan areas: The Case of Durban, South Africa: Dr. Michael Sutcliffe


PART 1: OUR GENERAL MANDATE


We live in an urbanising world

2000

Urban 3 Billion +

Rural 3 Billion

Total 6 Billion

2025

5.4 Billion

3.1 Billion

8.5 Billion

(+Immigration)

2050

75% projected to live in cities

10+ Billion


Where our ecological impacts are enormous Amount of land and water used to produce resources consumed and assimilate waste produced by cities Greater London 125 times its area

Ecological Footprint


Where the rates of growth are not constant 

Population growth rates are not distributed evenly: Structure of settlement patterns differ enormously Short, medium and long term prospects vary


Where our municipalities are faced with massive infrastructural and health challenges   

Diseases HIV/AIDS and TB Majority of our people poorly housed without access to water, sanitation, electricity


Where we must be planning now for climate change 

In South Africa some areas will become wetter with more intense wind and rain and others will become drier This will increase the vulnerability of our people given poverty, recurrent droughts, inequitable land distribution, and agriculture being overwhelmingly dependant on direct rainfall. The interplay between poverty, climate change, political governance, conflict and HIV/AIDS is most likely to produce a daunting future scenario for the African continent. And as the world warms, sea levels will rise


Where providing access becomes a major challenge Public transport  ICT  Services  Jobs  Health  Etc. 


Where energy is becoming more limited and more expensive Issues of peak oil and the implications for planning ď Ž Electricity ď Ž


Where our past defines us


Where the gap between the rich and poor is growing


Where there are different communities of needs


PART 2: UCLG AND CITY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES


United and cities and Local governments     

United Nation recognizes Local Governments 2004 founding of UCLG (Unification of FMCU and IULA) More than 100 direct members Local government association of 136 states (out of 192 UN) 8 regional sections

Africa Asia Europe Euro-Asia

Latin America Middle East North America Metrópolis

14/ 14 30.01.08


United and cities and Local governments The Urban strategic Planning committee supporting UCLG agenda

 World position of cities on strategic planning  Promotion of tools to push for increased local powers in determining development  Self-evaluation of local experiences  Integration of networks and practices in the international development cooperation  Leadership and city-to-city cooperation  Sounding board inside the Cities Alliance  to be proactive, not just reactive

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Policy outcomes and processes: Structuring principles for Urban Strategic Planning

Understanding the city as a system: integrating technical, environmental, political, social and economic interests in the same territory

3 realms of Leadership, the crosscutting capacity is crucial for success!

16/ 14 30.01.08


TRENDS The insights in practices of planning in the different regions revealed some trends:

Africa: the decentralization process is still to conclude in many countries ďƒ CDS play a frontrunner role for institutional responses

Latin America: local governments have tackled the problem of inequality through inclusive strategies that put in practice local democracy

Europe: drastic changes in labor markets, consolidation of urban regions and funding of service in led to new definitions of competitiveness , strategies help to build long term local responses Policy Paper Urban Strategic Planning_Executive Summary


TRENDS Eurasia: strategies helped creating confidence with stakeholders for the transition from centralistic planning systems. Asia: after focusing on economic development with a certain success on investments, climate change and social dialogue are of outmost importance to be addressed strategically.

Mediterranean: traditional compact city, negative impact of urbanization along the coastline, a more (social and environmental) balanced development model requires better intergovernmental cooperation. North America: financial and infrastructure crises as well as increasing poverty revive Policy Paper Urban comprehensive planning and community development Strategic Planning_Executive Summary


Policy outcomes and processes: a.4.1 (…) a.3.1 (…) a.2.1 (…) a.1.1 (…)

a.2

Linear Phases

a.1

c.4.1 (…)

b.4.1 (…) b.3.1 (…) b.2.1 (…)

c.3.1 (…) c.2.1 (…)

b.1.1 (…)

a.3 (…)

Activities

Sub-activities

Methodology for Urban Strategic Planning

c.1.1 (…)

c.3 (…)

b.3 (…)

c.2

b.2 b.1

a. Assessing City Development Opportunities and Capacities

b. Strategy Planning

c.1

c.

Strategy Implementation

Participation and Institutionalization: Cross-cutting and continuous supporting activities (supporting each of the activity blocks)

Planning Cycle: Identifying strenghts and weakness while defining the main strategies for local development

Time

19/ 14 30.01.08


Exchange/Mentoring UCLG facilitates sharing of results and processes Durban’s MILE programme also supported to consolidate capacity building on “living the lessons of Durban”. Ongoing mentorships: Start

Mentee City

Mentor City

2009

Ciudad Sur association (Chile)

Rosario (Argentina)

2009

Lilongwe (Malawi)

Johannesburg (South Africa)

2009

ANAM (Namibia)

SALGA and Durban (South Africa)

2010

Blantyre(Malawi)

Ekurhuleni (South Africa)

2010

Mzuzu (Malawi)

Durban (South Africa)

2011

Mombasa (Kenya)

Bergen (Norway)

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Mediterranean cities: recommendations  

  

Support leadership and mentoring across cities and Encourage inclusive and partipatory strategic planning Participate in international city networks and projects to share resources and technical assistance for sustainable development and to facilitate decentralization. Promote learning of the historical spatial model of the Mediterranean city (shared social and environmental spaces) Use UCLG as the global platform to offer references and contacts Learn also from the South’s transformation processes

21/ 14 30.01.08


PART 3: LOCATING OURSELVES IN AFRICA


Africa is large


Uneven development


Durban’s Africa programmes 

 

  

CIFAL DURBAN – Training programmes in sustainable urban management practice since 2003 AFRICA PEACE CENTRE – Working with ACCORD (African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes) AFRICAN COALITION OF CITIES AGAINST RACISM - The eThekwini Municipality in partnership with UNESCO has embarked on a programme to assist cities fight against Racism and Xenophobia. NEPAD CITIES PROGRAMME: PLUS 30 NETWORK OF SUSTAINABLE CITIES MILE


PART 4: THE NEW MUNICIPAL SYSTEM IN SOUTH AFRICA


Establishing Municipal Governance: 1994 onwards 

Where we are coming from: Municipal governance which is:  (i) Racially-based;  (ii) Fragmented;  (iii) Underdevelopment;  (iv) Control-oriented, and  (v) Non-accountable administrations Where we need to go: Establishing Municipal Governance which is:  (i) Integrated  (ii) Developmental  (iii) Accountable  (iv) Representative and Participatory  (v) Delivery-oriented


OBJECTS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT •

A municipality must strive, within its financial and administrative capacity, to achieve the following:

To provide democratic and accountable government for local communities

To ensure the provision of services to communities in a sustainable manner

To promote social and economic development

To promote a safe and healthy environment

To encourage the involvement of communities and community organisations in the matters of local government.


The Newly demarcated Municipal System 

Pre-2000 there were over 1000 raciallybased authorities, there is now a wall-towall system of democratic local government with:   

6 (A Category) Metropolitan areas 46 (C category) District Municipalities 231 (B category) Local Municipalities

Since 2000 the major focus on building the capacity of municipalities to deliver on their legislated functions


Metros: Population Density Municipality

Population 2007

Geographical Area (square km)

Population density (persons/square km)

Ethekwini (Durban)

3468086

2291.9

1513

Ekurhuleni Metro

2724229

1924.4

1416

Nelson Mandela

1050930

1958.9

536

Tshwane

2345908

2174.6

1079

Cape Town

3497097

2454.7

1425

Johannesburg

3888180

1645.0

2364


PART 5: STRATEGIC PLANNING IN DURBAN


1. Properly locate our economic strategy 

 

  

Ensure right balance between economic, social and environmental strategies and action plans 4.5 million people Africa’s key port and logistics location to drive development in Southern Africa: eThekwiniGauteng corridor key focal point for growth Major manufacturing base for Africa Key tourism and eventing destination Could well be Africa’s first Olympics venue


City’s Developmental Approach Vision

Values, challenges and choices 8 Point Plan

Strategic focus areas

Programmes

Projects


2. Develop clear long-term plans (2070 years) and stick to them!     

 

2010 and beyond strategy Climate Change Energy and water Importance of Food security Reducing costs of labour power: (i) housing development, (ii) Integrated public transport, (iii) Electronic connectivity Growing logistics, manufacturing and tourism Spatial development plans to unlock growth and densify residential areas


Imagine Durban 70 year scenario • Climate protection

• Social Services • Health Care • Efficient and Effective Government

• Spatial Development plan • Bulk Infrastructure • Energy Resource planning

• Basic services • Housing Delivery • Bridging the digital divide • Public Transport System • Skills Development

Caring city

• Economic Development • Tourism

Job creation/ economically successful city Smart city

Equal and democratic city

2005

2010

IDP: 2010 and Beyond

2015

Sustainable city

Poverty reduction

2025

2050

2100


accessibility

caring and empowering

prosperity and livelihoods

IDENTIFIED THEMATIC AREAS, GOALS and STRATEGIES culture & diversity

environmental sustainability

safety


Package of Plans


2010 and beyond strategy


Strategic Input : Metropolitan Logistics Platform

South

N2

Remaining

934.46

94.5

1028.96

Central

3259

297.1

3556.1

North

733.9

311.7

1045.6

Outer West

547

908.5

1455.5

Cato Ridge S’

TOTAL

1611.8

7086.16

To Gauteng

we ni

Pinetown

Umgeni

Occupied

Total HA

N3

 

New economic Node in North (N2) Consolidation of Western Node at Cato Ridge (N3) Expansion of the SDB/ Port (N2) Consolidation of Pinetown New Germany New node at Shongweni

Umlazi

 

Approximately 2734 ha to be made available med-long-term ( between 5-20 years and subject to funding for services )

Airport

SDB/Port CBD

To Richards Bay


Transnet

eThekwini

Municipality

Vision

PORT OF DURBAN

IDZ AND BACK OF PORT AIRPORT DIG-OUT

Shared

BAYHEAD DIGOUT

2050 VIEW WITH TWO PORTS, IDZ, BOP AND FREIGHT CORRIDORS


Water 20 year plan


Public Transport Strategy

M25 M45

M13 M32

N3

M19 M13

M1


EXAMPLE – ICT DEVELOPMENTS

Truroland

Tongaat

Moreland

Verulam

ICT and electronic requirements being addressed • Wireless public buildings. • Fibre optic upgraded to carrier class and extended for business and community use • Wireless WAN rollout covering the city • Public Transport call centre (Dec 2008) • CCTV, tourism kiosks and communications (2008) • Terrestrial trunking (2009) • Secure network

Mzinyati

Umdloti

Ottawa

Phoenix North

Phoenix industrial

Ntuzuma

D

Greenbury

Waterfall

D

Newlands Clermont Parkhill Hillcrest Pinetown Umgeni

Reservoir Hills Durban North

D D

Berea Park

D

Klaarwater Mayville Mariannridge

Bellair

Rossburgh

Chatsworth D

Jacobs Havenside

Woodlands

Mobeni South

Durban South Himalayas

Engen Tara

Merewent Sukuma

Umlazi

Ispingo Lotus Park

Umbogintwini Plangweni D

Illovo South

Planned rollout Current Transtel Electrical Substations


Housing delivery plans

45


Strategic Input : Metropolitan Open Space

Legend EThekwini Municipal Area D'MOSS Proclaimed - EKZNW Proclaimed - NRB Municipal Nature Reserve EM managed Private/State/other managed Conservation zones

• 50% of the municipal area has been significantly transformed • eThekwini Municipal Area (EMA) – 229 193 ha • D’MOSS – 74 731 ha (33% of EMA) • D’MOSS mapping is undertaken with 1 in 5 000 aerial photos • To be underpinned by a systematic conservation plan (in prep) • Estimated conservative value of D’MOSS ito EGS is R 3.1 billion p.a. in 2003 (excl contribution to tourism) • Total protected – 10.9% • Total protected & managed – 8.4%


Strategic Input : Climate Change Risk and Vulnerability •

• •

• •

Challenge with incorporating climate change considerations into spatial planning is linked to the lack of accessible and accurate down scaled climate data. Will need tools to be developed to assist local government to use and interpret these data once they become available. Ethekwini Municipality has pioneered the development of an Integrated Assessment Tool. Key sectoral risks evaluated in detail during the development of the tool included : – Extreme rainfall – Food security – Vegetation – Health; and – Sea level rise Two time lines considered: Intermediate (2045-2065) and Long term (2081-2100) future. Additional work : SEA , reserve determination Demographic Studies to Test Spatial Development Plans


Example: climate change mitigation


The New Urbanism


Activity Patterns Plan OFFICE & RETAIL OFFICE, RETAIL & RESIDENTIAL OFFICE, RETAIL, SERVICE INDUSTRIAL RETAIL RESIDENTIAL RESIDENTIAL, LIMITED RETAIL HOTEL TRANSPORT URBAN SPACE


Forms of New Urbanism


New Urbanism is about the “Old Durbanism”


3. Addressing Indigence 

 

Free Basic Services 9KL Water (300000HH), Free electricity, free property rates Food security (over 6000 community gardens) Creating employment Essential services to informal settlements


4. Building Our Knowledge Base: Durban’s MILE

4 Pillars of Mile Capacity Enhancement

Empowering Officials with Tools through Learning and sharing

Learning Partnerships And Networks

Collaborative Research

Learning, Sharing And Network building

Leveraging Partnerships With Tertiary Institutions

Municipal Technical Support

Offering a Municipal Technical Support service

Knowledge Management Co-ordination of Ethekwini Knowledge Management Agenda


Capacity Enhancement Mile Master Classes •Strategic Governance for the 21st Century • Creating Financially Viable Municipalities • Managing the Water and Waste Water Challenge • Rethinking Solid Waste • Climate Change for Coastal Cities

• Decent Human Settlements: Rising to the Challenge • Effective Spatial Planning and Land Use Management for Municipalities • M & E made easy: Lessons from eThekwini


PART 6: ADDRESSING SERVICE DELIVERY


Achieving our mandate: what to do! 

   

Thinking Big and Acting Small: Short terms goals, long-term horizons Create critical mass for sustainability Build stronger networks Focus on successful regions Address our financial model (business tax, development levy, national grants) Unlocking development


Thank you!


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