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In this issue

Volume 31, No 224

publlshed slnce 1985

A S l A’ S L E A D l N G m aga z l ne f o r the plastlcs and rubber lndustry

Features 焦 點 內 容 13 複合材料: 深入到醫療應用領域 16 Front Cover feature – Kraiburg TPE’s Malaysian headquarters is celebrating its 20-year success record with operation and capacity expansions

20 Flexible Packaging – Compared to other materials, plastics have lower environmental costs, thus adding to flexible packaging’s sustainability edge

24 Country Focus: Indonesian Packaging Industry – The bottled beverage sector is filling the gap in Indonesia’s lack of safe water; meanwhile a plastics levy and other challenges may water down future growth of plastic packaging

Regulars 概 要

Publisher Arthur Schavemaker Tel: +31 547 275005 Email: arthur@kenter.nl Associate Publisher/Editor Tej Fernandez Tel: +60 3 4260 4575 Email: tej@plasticsandrubberasia.com Editorial/Production Coordinator Angelica Buan Email: gel@plasticsandrubberasia.com Chinese Editor Koh Bee Ling Circulation Abril Castro Email: abril@taramedia.com.my Admin & Finance Manager Tean Arul Email: tean@taramedia.com.my

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2 Industry News

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MCI (P) 029/08/2015

6 Materials News

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10 業界新聞

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is published 8 times a year in Mandarin and English by Kenter & Co Publishers’ Representatives BV.

VW’s cheat device scandal has put a bad rap on emissions testing, but at the same time has furthered prospects for electric vehicles; injection-moulded packaging is influenced by consumers’ varying product perceptions The new electrostatic gloves standards are to be matched by glove producers with single wall carbon nanotube; OcSial pioneered the SWCNT synthesis technology, enabling its large-scale commercial use DIGITAL+PRINT

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On the Cover

A S l A’ S L E A D l N G M A G A Z l N E F O R THE PLASTlCS AND RUBBER lNDUSTRY

Kraiburg TPE celebrates its 20th year in Malaysia: two decades of achievement, expansion and growth

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Industry News

M&As/Restructuring • US-based bioplastics firm Metabolix is restructuring under which it will brand itself as Yield10 Bioscience and focus on developing disruptive technologies for improvements in crop yield to enhance global food security. Thus, it will eliminate 50% of its staff and will pursue the sale of its biopolymers business. After this, the company's annual cash burn rate is expected to be US$5 million compared to US$25 million prior to the restructuring. • One of Europe’s leading packaging manufacturers in the food and nonfood sectors, Greiner Packaging, has

entered into a joint venture in India with New Delhi-based diary packaging provider Century Ultrapack, after its expansion in Turkey last year. In the first year, investments will be made in a significant expansion of production capacities using Western technology. Century Ultrapack was established in 1980 and is owned by the Bajaj family. Some of its customers include Mother Dairy, Amul and Pepsico. • By having made two acquisitions, US materials supplier PolyOne Corporation has created a new division known as Advanced Composites in its

Machinery News • Canada’s machinery maker Husky Injection Molding Systems has been operating its automated manufacturing line at its Luxembourg facility since January, enabling shorter lead times and providing more capability to produce highly repeatable manifolds. This is the third straight year that Husky says it has made a significant 2

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investment in new manufacturing equipment to support its growing base of hot runner and controller customers. Husky currently produces hot runners and controllers on three continents in more than 54,000 sq m of manufacturing space. Additional investments are planned for hot runner manufacturing at its US and China

speciality engineered materials business. Bolstering its existing portfolio of thermoset composite solutions is Gordon Composites, which develops profiles and laminates for use in vertical and crossbow archery, sports and recreation equipment, prosthetics, and office furniture systems. The second acquired business, Polystrand, operates on continuous reinforced thermoplastic composite technology. • Electronics/electrical components maker Molex is acquiring medical parts supplier Phillips-Medisize Corporation, which is owned by US private equity firm Golden facilities. Husky’s goal it says is to be the industry’s first choice for melt delivery systems, as seen by its innovative approach to reducing sources of waste and variability in the injection moulding process. • Nordson Corporation’s BKG product, which includes underwater pelletiser systems, is now also the group brand name for the company’s range of polymer melt delivery equipment, including filtration

Gate Capital. US-headquartered Phillips-Medisize specialises in the medical device and diagnostics, drug delivery, and primary pharmaceutical packaging markets. It employs more than 4,300 people in 17 production locations throughout the US, Europe, Mexico and China and has annual sales of over US$700 million. Phillips-Medisize itself has been on an acquisition trail having recently acquired medical contract service provider Injectronics Corporation, as well as Medicom Innovation Partner that specialises in personal connected health drug delivery device solutions. systems, ovens, gear pumps, and valves. The melt delivery system business that Nordson acquired from Kreyenborg in 2013 will be moved from its existing facility in Münster, Germany, and combined with the nearby BKG pelletiser business. Nordson will expand its operations in Münster to include advanced engineering and manufacturing systems, a new warehouse and inventory system,


INDUSTRY NEWS a dedicated aftermarket section, and an expanded technology centre. The Xaloy product will continue to be used for Nordson’s screw and barrel products, and its European operations will continue to be headquartered at Neckarsulm, Germany. • Japan’s maker of injection moulding machinery Ube Machinery Corporation is acquiring an 85% share in compatriot machine maker Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Plastic Technology (MHI). The scope of the agreement also includes the transfer of MHI's injection moulding machine sales bases in the

core overseas markets: North America, China and Thailand. Plans also call for the establishment of a sales company (to be a wholly owned subsidiary of Ube Machinery) to handle the injection moulding machines marketed by Ube and MHI. For 2015, Ube had sales of 45 billion yen and MHI, 10 billion yen. As of 1 April 2016, Ube had 1,034 employees and MHI, 145. • Switzerlandheadquartered Maag, a manufacturer of gear pumps, pelletising systems, filtration systems, and pulverisers, has opened its first sales and service centre, including a rotor sharpening

workshop for strand pelletisers, in Gujarat, India, at Gala’s facility, which has been part of Maag since October 2015. This facility follows the recent expansion of Maag’s sales and service centre in Thailand. • Italy-based hot runner supplier HRSflow has opened a service centre in Querétaro, Mexico, in cooperation with WCS, to provide technical service support to its customers and OEM users of its hot runner systems located in Mexico, with 24-hour service provided, says the firm. Meanwhile, it has also set up a new facility in Bangkok, Thailand, to provide sales,

service, spare parts and technical support to local Thai toolmakers and injection moulders. HRSflow is the hot runner division of Inglass SpA. • US-based manufacturer of sheet extrusion machinery Processing Technologies International (PTi) is adding a US$10 million plant expansion at its Aurora, Ill. headquarters. The company says it will increase overall plant capacity by 50% by adding 40,000 sq ft of space to add on to its current 60,000 sq ft. The expansion will take its operation to 100,000 sq ft and over 120 employees.

Plant Set-ups/Capacity Expansions • Sabic and ExxonMobil Corporation are considering the potential development of a jointly owned petrochemical complex on the US Gulf Coast. If developed, the project would be located in Texas or Louisiana near natural gas feedstock and include a worldscale steam cracker and derivative units. Before making

final investment decisions, the companies will conduct necessary studies and work with state and local officials to help identify a potential site with adequate infrastructure access. • UK and US-headquartered petrochemicals giant LyondellBasell will build a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) plant on the US Gulf Coast, with a

capacity of 500,000 tonnes. It will be the first plant to employ its new proprietary Hyperzone PE technology. Startup is planned for 2019. LyondellBasell currently produces a total of 3.5 million tonnes/year of HDPE, including capacity of its joint venture facilities. The company is a leading worldwide producer of all forms of PE with a capacity of 6 million tonnes/year. Recently, the

company completed work on ethylene expansion projects at its La Porte and Channelview sites in Texas. A third ethylene expansion project is currently underway in Corpus Christi, Texas. Additionally, development of a world scale propylene oxide and tertiary butyl alcohol (PO/ TBA) plant at the company's Channelview site is progressing. SEPTEMBER 2016

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Industry News

• South Korea’s LG Chem is investing KRW400 billion in building the country’s largest elastomer facility. The 59,400 sq m factory in Daesan, South Chungcheong Province, will be completed in 2018. It will significantly increase its production capacity of elastomers from the current 90,000 to 290,000 tonnes/year. The output, with estimated sales of KRW600 billion, will safely put LG as the world’s third largest elastomers maker after Dow Chemical and ExxonMobil Corp. LG Chem has a patented technology on metallocene catalyst that is crucial in producing the polymers. • Dow Chemical’s Packaging and Specialty Plastics (P&SP) business has opened Pack Studios Singapore, the second Pack Studios centre for the Asia Pacific region after Shanghai, China, and the sixth location globally. Aimed at accelerating packaging application projects through a global network of laboratories, technical experts and testing equipment, Dow says its Pack Studios enables a collaborative innovation process that helps customers deliver faster commercialisation of new and improved packaging. • Japan’s Sekisui Plastics has stated up a new

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corporation in Mexico, Sekisui Plastics Mexico, and opened a new US$7 million manufacturing facility in the city of Valle de Santiago, Mexico. The plant has a moulding capacity of approximately 60 tonnes/month with room for future growth. It will initially produce products moulded mainly from Piocelan hybrid mouldable foam resin used in automotive applications for energy absorption, light weighting and safety, as well as packaging products for automotive parts shipment. It will also produce packaging materials and systems for a variety of industrial and consumer applications.

• Japanese chemicals supplier Mitsui Chemicals is expanding capacity for its Milastomer vulcanised thermoplastic elastomer (TPV) by adding on one line of 5,000 tonnes/year at its wholly-owned domestic subsidiary, Sun Alloys. Commercial start-up is slated for October 2017. Currently, Sun Alloys has total compounding capacity of 60,0000 tonnes/year for Milastomer and other Mitsui Chemicals products.

• With satellite services revenues having increased by 4% globally from 2014 to 2015, reaching US$127.4 billion, powered by continued growth in consumer satellite television, satellite broadband and Earth observation services, Tokyoheadquartered Mitsubishi Electric Corporation has started constructing a facility that will double its satellite-component

• Another Japanese supplier, Sumitomo Chemical, is building a new production facility for polyethersulphone (PES) in Chiba, Japan. The new facility will have a production capacity of 3,000 tonnes/year and is scheduled to start production in 2018. When the facility becomes fully operational, Sumitomo Chemical's total production capacity of PES, combined with the existing

production capacity in Sagamihara, Japan, by 2017. The factory is Mitsubishi Electric's core production and testing site for solar array panels, structural panels and other satellite components.

facility in Ehime, will grow twofold. • Japanese chemicals firm Showa Denko (SDK) is expanding production capacity for VGCF carbon nanofibre that is added to cathodes and anodes of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) to improve electrical conductivity. It will gradually increase its VGCF production capacity at its Kawasaki plant from 200 tonnes/year at present to 300 tonnes/ year by the end of 2017, to meet growing demand for large LIBs used in cars. • US chemicals firm Chemours has opened a new Teflon finishing plant at its Changshu Works site in China. Chemours says it invested US$15 million in this plant, which will enhance and expand its production and cater to demand especially in China and the Asia Pacific region. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and the best known brand name of PTFEbased formulas is Teflon. This new plant will augment Chemours’ already considerable presence in China, which includes a new coatings R&D centre and technical service lab in Shanghai, which opened earlier in 2016.


Materials News

Composites: going bone-deep into medical applications Polymer composites, reinforced plastics and advanced composites have been used in the manufacture of medical prostheses and implants over the last decade. Advanced composites, containing approximately 60% of resistant continuous fibres made of carbon, glass or aramid materials, are increasingly being used in medical equipment such as surgical instruments, orthopaedic products and biocompatible implants, says Angelica Buan in this report on the medical applications market.

Medical composites market a boon Bone fractures are not just about contending with the pain from an injury. More often than not, and especially if not treated immediately, this medical condition will lead to far more serious complications that could debilitate a patient. In serious cases, orthopaedic devices may be required. T h e g r o w i n g g e r i a t r i c p o p u l a t i o n and number of sports injuries are major drivers for the global orthopaedic implants market that will be worth US$6.2 billion by 2024, according to Grand View Research. The increasing number of road accidents and sports injuries, as well as an ageing population (people above the age of 65 years), are factors in the rising number of orthopaedic conditions. The need for high quality devices at more affordable costs underpins the demand growth for implants, prostheses, splints, and other similar apparatus. Thus, could composites fit into this mould? Expected to post a CAGR of 6.91% between 2016 and 2020, the global medical composite materials market is pacing towards increased demand from medical applications, according to a new report, Global Medical Composite Materials Market 2016-2020, by Research and Markets. The report says that carbon fibre and fibre glass composites are not suitable for prosthetic socket materials because they are brittle, despite their high tensile strength. This limitation has resulted in the use of nylon, polyester and acrylic and epoxy resins in the manufacture of prosthetic and orthotic devices. The adhesive and mechanical properties of the resins and fibres influence the performance of these products, the report says. Research company Technavio states in its Global Medical Composite Material Market for Orthopaedics report that medical composite materials are being used in implantable medical devices; and the composite materials help in biocompatibility and osteoconductivity.

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Carbon-fibre composites can be fabricated with stiffness and tensile strength comparable to the bone they replace. Examples are press-fit femoral stems made from laminated unidirectional carbon fibres in PEEK, polysulphone, liquid crystalline polymer (LCP), and polyetherimide (PEI). Shown here are interbody fusion devices made from Invibio Biomaterial Solutions’s PEEK-Optima Enhanced HA, combining PEEK material and hydroxyapatite (HA), a proven osteoconductive material

Shown here is a Piccolo PF Nail made by US-based CarboFix Orthopedics from carbon fibre-PEEK, used, for example, in osteoporosis-related trauma fractures

Biodegradable polymers are modified with a ceramic component to form implants. Carbon fibre/PEEK polymer composites are also being used to manufacture orthopaedic implantable material as other materials can lead to osteolysis and implant loosening.

Improving robotic devices with composites In a related development on composite advancements, to improve features of robotic devices, a team from the US agency National Science Foundation (NSF) is tinkering with the idea of using a synthetic material, ionic polymer-metal composite, which is a kind of an electroactive polymer with electricity running through it to change shape, into artificial muscles.


Materials News

NSF researchers are working to transform an ionic polymermetal composite into artificial muscles. Shown here is a small 3D printed soft robotic hand

Also called soft robotics, these devices can be more manoeuvrable and have better interaction with humans, the researcher says, adding that the advancement in soft robotics with composite-made artificial muscles will benefit physically challenged people across the globe. The research team working on the composite muscles is led by Kwang Kim of the University of Nevada, together with researchers from South Korea and Japan. The other US collaborators include the University of Utah, the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and the Polytechnic Institute of New York University. According to the researchers, creating artificial muscles requires not only developing a powerful, flexible material, but figuring out how to precisely control and cleverly manufacture it. One of the big challenges in soft robotics is finding the right material, which “has to be soft, but also has to produce enough power to do lots of different things.” Still in its infancy stage, the research is supported by NSF's Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) programme, which supports global research collaborations across all fields of science and engineering. Biodegradable composites for bioresorbable implants Bioresorbable polymers, likewise, are capturing a significant share in the medical composites market.

MarketsandMarkets reported that major applications such as orthopaedics and drug delivery are boosting demand for bioresorbable polymers. The market size, in terms of value, is expected to reach over US$1.4 billion by 2021, with a CAGR poised at 13.42% between 2016 and 2021. Equally important as an orthopaedic application in driving market growth is the drug delivery application, which MarketsandMarkets assesses to partake the highest growth rate within five years. In drug delivery applications, as patients do not prefer taking injections and other procedures repeatedly, a bioresorbable controlled drug delivery matrix is implanted in their body. This, then, encourages consumers to pay more for the better quality products that do not need to be removed by a second surgery, as they get absorbed in the body once they complete their function. Meanwhile, researchers at the US Brown University say that the degradation rate of biodegradable polymer polylactic acid (PLA) can be decreased by treating it at various temperatures and pressures, thus broadening the scope of potential medical applications. PLA is a semi-crystalline material with a molecular structure that is partly ordered into crystals while the rest is disordered, or amorphous, like glass. Work by previous researchers had shown that treating PLA with heat could increase the material’s crystalline makeup, which could help to increase its strength. Researchers treated PLA samples under different temperature and pressure conditions for varying amounts of time. The treatments increased the amount of crystalline area in the material, but there was another, more surprising finding. At higher temperatures and pressures, the amorphous parts of the material became birefringent, meaning that they bend light differently depending upon how the light is polarised. Birefringence is typically observed in crystalline materials, so seeing it in the amorphous regions of PLA was a surprise.

Treating PLA with heat and pressure creates crystals and causes polymer strands to become more organised, thus making the material more useful in medical applications

The new amorphous phase combined with the overall increase in crystallinity in the treated samples could have significant implications for the material’s mechanical properties, according to the researchers. SEPTEMBER 2016

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Materials News

The higher crystallinity could make it stronger, while the more ordered amorphous sections could make it last longer. That slower rate of degradation could be particularly useful in medical applications. If the rate at which PLA degrades can be controlled, the rate at which it delivers a drug can be altered. There is also interest in using PLA for plates and screws used to stabilise broken bones. The advantage of PLA-based implants is that they degrade over time, so a patient would not need a second surgery to remove them. PLA may degrade too quickly for some of these applications, but if this new polymer phase slows degradation, it may become a better option. The researchers plan more research aimed at quantifying changes in material properties as well as investigating whether this phase can be induced in other semi-crystalline materials. In the same token, German speciality chemicals company, Evonik is researching the potential of using biodegradable composites for bioresorbable implants, to potentially replace metal in implants used for the internal fixation of fractured bones. Implants play a key role in supporting bones until they heal. Today’s metallic devices typically remain

Evonik is researching the use of biodegradable composites for bioresorbable implants, to replace metal in implants

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in the body for the rest of the patient’s life or require additional surgery for removal; while, devices made with Evonik’s new composites will be absorbed by the body gradually once the bone healing process has taken place. These materials consist of polymers and of substances that naturally occur in bones. Benefits include doing away with additional surgical procedures to remove the implanted devices and faster regeneration of bones, says Evonik, adding that it wants to create bioabsorbable implants to replace damaged tissues with healthy tissues. Its current work on biodegradable composites is a first step in this direction, it says. The company says that its knowledge in PLA “is an excellent foundation for the development of materials and solutions for regenerative medicine.” Resorbable polymers are popular in such applications as dissolvable and drug-eluting stents and implantable fixation devices. In all of these applications, the rate of resorption is a key property. Consequently, Evonik researchers are exploring composite materials that reinforce biodegradable polymers with inorganic substances, such as derivatives of calcium phosphate. Not only do these additives strengthen the material, they enhance its biocompatibility. As the polymers gradually break down, calcium and phosphate can be absorbed into the newly formed bone tissue. In the near term and with the right materials, Evonik also plans to dabble in 3D printing to create made-to-measure implants for individual patients. Cutting-edge laser with ceramics More popularly associated with pottery, ceramics are also showing beneficial potentials in medical composites. In MarketsandMarkets latest report on the technical ceramics market, it highlights the market’s potential worth of US$8.49 billion by 2021. The market, with an estimated CAGR of 6.43%, will be driven partly by increased usage in the manufacturing of medical devices and implants that are used for bone and tooth replacements. Technical ceramics have been an area of interest for innovative medical applications. One of the more recent concoctions is a ceramic-based laser developed by scientists from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT). The ceramic laser will be used as a minimally traumatic laser scalpel for surgical operations, and also for cutting and engraving composite materials. Ivan Obronov, a researcher at MIPT, and his colleagues from the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), and Moscow-headquartered company, IRE-Polus, used a ceramic obtained from compounds of rare-earth elements – lutetium oxide with added thulium ions (Tm3+:Lu2O3). It was the thulium ions that enabled the ceramic to generate laser radiation.


Materials News

Russian scientists have developed a ceramic-based laser, to be used as a laser scalpel, and also for cutting and engraving composite materials

Obronov commented that ceramics are a promising type of medium for lasers because they are produced by sintering powders into a polycrystalline mass. Moreover, the materials are cheaper and easier to manufacture than single crystals, which is important for mass adoption.

The new laser converts energy into radiation with an efficiency of more than 50%, while other types of solid state lasers have an average efficiency of approximately 20%, and it generates infrared radiation with a wavelength of about 2 microns. Radiation from the most common infrared lasers, with a wavelength of about 1 micron, has very little absorption and penetrates deep into biological tissue, which causes coagulation and large areas of “dead” tissue. A surgical scalpel needs to “operate” at a very specific depth, which is why 2-micron lasers are used, as they do not damage underlying tissue. Compared to the usual 2-micron flashlamppumped holmium lasers used by physicians that are expensive and bulky, ceramic lasers are cheaper to manufacture, simpler, more reliable, and four times more compact. Aside from medical applications, ceramic lasers present more advantages than the widely used 1-micron lasers used for cutting metal, where polymers are practically transparent to them. However, a 2-micron ceramic laser can effectively cut and engrave plastics, such as composite materials. Thus, with advancing technology, lightweight and heat-resistant polymer composites, as alternatives to metals and alloys, will play a prominent role in future market growth.

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Front Cover Feature

KRAIBURG TPE celebrates 20 years in Malaysia; on an expansion drive With the global and regional markets for thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) expected to grow in the future, KRAIBURG TPE’s regional headquarters in Malaysia, where it also has a facility, is expanding its operations, ready to face the growing market demand.

P

established our production facility in Seri Kembangan. Our initial production capacity was 2,500 tonnes/year and by 2017 it will be 10,200 tonnes/year, truly a remarkable achievement indeed! We will be celebrating our 20th anniversary this year in Malaysia, with our Asia Pacific staff force having grown to 120 personnel. Indeed, we are confident and ready to meet the huge demand for our products within the Asia Pacific region.

PRA: Provide a brief history of KRAIBURG TPE in Malaysia. Hew: We first commenced operations in Nilai in 1996, with just three staff. In 2002, as the business expanded, we moved to Puchong, Selangor. Then in 2008, we

PRA: KRAIBURG TPE has expanded its offices regionally. Which countries does this reach extend to? Roland: KRAIBURG TPE is continuously expanding its reach, as a commitment to lead as the premium TPE

RA spoke to Roland Ritter, Director, KRAIBURG TPE Asia Pacific, and Hew Hong Yong, Managing Director of KRAIBURG TPE Technology (M) Sdn Bhd, to provide an update on the company’s operation in Asia.

KRAIBURG TPE is expanding its current capacity. The company increased the size of the facility in Seri Kembangan, Selangor. By the end of 2017, it will be able to produce 10,200 tonnes/year of TPEs

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Hew Hong Yong, Managing Director, KRAIBURG TPE Technology (M) Sdn Bhd, is proud of the firm's achievements in Malaysia over the past two decades


Front Cover Feature

According to Roland Ritter, Director, KRAIBURG TPE Asia Pacific, the company plans to localise its TPE manufacturing facilities and introduce a unique virtual factory concept to meet the increasing demand of its products in China The company has an extensive network and besides the facility in Malaysia it also has facilities in Germany and the US

manufacturer and global competence leader. In 2004, we successfully entered the Chinese market through a joint venture with Milton Holdings; in 2007, we opened a local sales office in India. Today, our Asia Pacific sales network includes sales offices in Malaysia, China (Shanghai, Wuhan, Shenyang, Guangzhou), Hong Kong, Taiwan, India (Bangalore, Pune, Delhi, Chennai), Thailand, Vietnam, South Korea. We also have sales partners in Japan, South Korea, Australia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Philippines.

PRA: Since KRAIBURG TPE’s headquarters is in Germany, explain the technology transfer process to Malaysia? Hew: KRAIBURG TPE’s production capabilities and offerings in Malaysia have broadened extensively over the years, as a result of having cooperated closely with the corporate office in Germany. Both technical and product knowledge have been successfully transferred through a communication structure of global networking and training of personnel.

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Front Cover Feature In fact, today, more than 90% of TPE compounds produced in Germany are able to be reproduced at the Malaysia plant, utilising the existing facilities and resources, except for the medical and drinking water compounds.

With quality as one of its key concerns, KRAIBURG TPE is a leading supplier of TPEs to OEM manufacturers around the world who have appraised its materials

Since the Malaysian production started up in 2008, the manufacturing practices applied in the facility have been highly appraised by the numerous global OEMs we work with. PRA: How was the company’s performance in 2015 globally speaking and also in Asia and China? Roland: Globally speaking, our performance was very encouraging in 2015, especially within China and Asia on the macro level. In fact, we have doubled our revenue in Asia, over the last five years. We are confident of achieving even better results in 2016 and beyond, given that our global sales revenue increased by 13% (2015 versus 2014). Plus, we achieved a 20% increase in turnover in the first quarter of 2016, compared to the same period in 2015. PRA: Has the slowdown in China’s economy affected the business? What future plans are in store for the Chinese market? Roland: KRAIBURG TPE’s business in China has been positively encouraging. In fact, our sales have increased significantly, in lieu of the slowdown. Perhaps we can attribute this to the successful implementation of our R&D and sales and services strategy that are aligned to meet market needs. We are expanding our warehouse in China to strengthen our logistic supply in the Chinese market in order to increase logistical efficiency whilst

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providing better services, and to meet the increasing demands for our products. We will continue to expand our logistical infrastructure in the near future by establishing new warehouses in strategic locations across China to further improve our fulfillment efficiency and support long-term growth. PRA: KRAIBURG TPE has recently successfully registered the Chinese branding name- 凯柏胶宝®. Explain the rationale behind this. Hew: We have internationalised our globally renowned products with a localised touch to strengthen our business in China with Chinese brand identities relatable to Chinese values and culture. For instance, we have painstakingly researched and developed 凯柏胶宝® to represent KRAIBURG TPE in Mandarin. The last character “băo” (宝) literally means “treasure”, implying that KRAIBURG TPE offers a wide scope of “treasures”, from customised compounds, superior quality, excellent service and more. PRA: The automotive and in general transportation markets represent more than half global TPE consumption. Is KRAIBURG TPE investing in new resources for these sectors? Roland: Yes, KRAIBURG TPE will be investing in R&D, new product development and lab test equipment expansion for the above mentioned sectors. To enhance our professional service to serve our customers better, we will be allocating product specialists to strengthen the customer experience in every industry. Our automotive TPE compounds already comply with weathering, odour, fogging and other requirements. These include the GM standard, Kalahari test, Florida test and others. PRA: Which other application sectors are doing well for TPEs? Roland: Apart from the automotive market, the consumer wearable and consumer electronics industry is our next big focus. This is because consumer wearable, consumer electronic and electrical devices are increasing the demand of using TPE materials. These include soft straps, wrist band, ear pieces, eyeglass frames for smartphone devices, power tools and so forth. KRAIBURG TPE’S COPEC® and For Tec E® are the ideal material solutions. The main characteristics of the materials include comfort, easy to be coloured, silky soft, irritation-free and good adhesion. On top of that, drinking water applications will also become the next highlight as well. Our drinking water TPE conforms to all important international certifications to ensure compliance with high safety and hygiene standards. They are therefore also ideal for use for hoses in sanitary systems or beverage dispensers.


Front Cover Feature Bring Your Ideas To Life! KRAIBURG TPE prides on making its customers’ challenges its own and offers a comprehensive service package that includes customer management, on-site support, international network and quality management

PRA: In what areas is KRAIBURG TPE strengthening to enhance the business? Roland: We plan to localise our TPE manufacturing facilities and introduce a unique virtual factory concept to meet the increasing demand of our products in China. Our aim is to enhance cost efficiency and speedy response time to benefit our customers. To enhance our business, we plan also to expand our sales force and technical service team. For the benefit of automotive makers, we will provide solutions to them on specific applications by listing our TPE compounds that have been globallyapproved in the Approved Source List (ASL) for their car models that are produced in different regions. Furthermore, we recently launched a colour compounding service to offer comprehensive colour solutions to our customers. Our TPEs can be colourcompounded upon request, regardless of application requirements. Our colours are consistent with worldwide colour qualities, allowing our customers to brighten up their products with our colourcompounded TPEs. PRA: In view of sustainable development, what has KRAIBURG TPE done to make the materials “greener”? Roland: We are already looking into other eco-friendly, sustainable alternatives to replace the use of white oils currently used in the production of our compounds. PRA: KRAIBURG TPE has a “CARING YOU & ME” Energy Awareness Campaign launched in April 2014. Explain what this is. Hew: The campaign focuses on the Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) aspects of employees. We are ISO50001-certified as of March 2016. With this, we are set to improve energy performance, minimise operational costs, enhance brand image and reputation through quality products, and better quality of life for employees and the community.

This is evident that we are strengthening our responsibility towards improving energy efficiency, in addition to our existing ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management and ISO 14001:2004 Environmental Management commitments. This also further highlights our continuous organisation-wide commitment towards energy efficiency and environmental management as we strive to capture, sustain, and continuously expand energy savings while supporting sustainability and carbon reduction goals. The facility is ISO50001-certified as of March 2016; in addition to its existing ISO9001:2008 Quality Management and ISO14001:2004 Environmental Management commitments

The company’s CARING YOU & ME initiative focuses on the Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) aspects of its employees as well as environment conservation and preservation

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Flexible Packaging

Zeroing in on food safety and sustainability Ensuring that food does not turn bad is the primary function of all forms of packaging. But flexible plastic packaging ensures much more, for example, ensuring sustainability, one of its many perks, says Angelica Buan in this report.

Plastics, a better fit for packaging Food spoilage and contamination are almost always linked to mishandling or inadequate hygiene during food preparation. Other important factors, including oxidation, temperature and exposure to light, are often overlooked as culpable factors. Though food and beverage packaging comes in a variety of materials, lately plastic flexible packaging has been scoring points for consumers and manufacturers alike. This is because plastic use lower environmental costs than other materials, a new study finds. UK-headquartered Trucost, in its latest study titled Plastics and Sustainability: A Valuation of Environmental Benefits, Costs, and Opportunities for Continuous Improvement, finds the environmental cost of using plastics in consumer goods and packaging is nearly four times less than it would be if plastics were replaced with alternative materials. Although alternative materials (glass, tin, aluminium and paper) are viable alternatives to plastic in many consumer goods applications, they incur higher environmental costs in the quantities needed to replace plastic. Based on Trucost’s assessment, substituting plastic with alternatives that perform the same function would increase environmental costs from US$139 billion to US$533 billion. One of the reasons for this savings is that because strong, lightweight plastics are able do more with less material, which provides environmental benefits throughout the lifecycle of plastic products and packaging, Trucost explains.

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The study also says that the environmental costs of alternative materials can be lower per tonne of production but are greater in aggregate due to the much larger quantities of material needed to fulfil the same purposes as plastics. To further reduce plastics’ overall environmental costs, the study recommends measures such as increasing the use of lowercarbon electricity in production of plastics, adopting lower-emission transport modes, developing even more efficient plastic packaging, and increasing recycling and conserving energy of post-use plastics, to help curb ocean litter and conserve resources. Fresh options to glass for wine packaging An unlikely product that can uncork the benefits of using flexible packaging is wine. Until recently, and with the changing consumption patterns, wine producers were resorting to packaging wine in heavy, chunky glass bottles that were more costly to ship than other packaging formats. Now, a cocktail of formats are used like bag-in-box containers, aseptic cartons, glass-like plastic bottles, and several other package types.

Swedbrand’s Top Flow technology, a plate in the bottom of the box, is attached to a spring that pushes the wine upwards


Flexible Packaging A new study from Freedonia, World Wine Packaging, backs this alternative packaging trend. Glass bottles, specifically the 750-mm size, remain the dominant packaging format for wine; alternative packaging formats are generally not ideal for wine that will be aged for an extended period, but are suitable for wines intended for consumption not long after they are bottled, Freedonia says. It also mentions that many traditional wine producing countries have shifted from the standard packaging formats towards the more innovative bag-in-box, plastic bottles, and others. Furthermore, metal screw caps and synthetic stoppers have established an appreciable market presence, Freedonia added. As for shipping wines from source to target markets, bulk packaging has now advanced. On the other hand, advances in bulk packaging technology have enabled shipping of vast quantities of wine, thus saving a considerable amount in shipping costs, particularly for wine that will eventually appear in stores in heavy, breakable glass bottles, the study says. Barrier properties, lighter weight are plus factors Meantime, US market intelligence firm, Infiniti Research, estimates a growth at a CAGR of 5.38% for global flexible packaging market within the 2015-2019 period. Flexible packaging secures a growing market share, projected to be worth US$351 billion by 2018, UK market researcher Smithers Pira has also pointed out. This shift to flexible packaging from the rigid type is with good reasons: it has barrier features, and is enabling manufacturers to ensure appropriate levels of barrier for the product and end-use. Moreover, it incorporates barrier material that deters harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun, moisture and other contaminants from reaching the product content. Material advancements have birthed new flexible materials such as styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) to replace foil, which can be susceptible to breakage when creased. SAN is tough even in thin layers, and recent production methods have improved the flexible properties of this resin, Smithers Pira said. Likewise, consumer demand for packaging transparency is also because transparent barrier films are replacing traditional materials, such as flexible foil, for various applications. For manufacturers of liquid products, flexible packaging offers lighter options, like for example Swedish packaging company Ecolean’s Air Asceptic 1,0 0 0-ml packaging for liquid food. “Even though the package is light and thin it has a multilayer structure that protects the content. The eight-layer material is based on the

Ecolean Air Aseptic's lightweight package maybe light and thin but has an eightlayer material based on the Ecolean Calymer technology with extended light and oxygen barriers

unique Ecolean technology with extended light and oxygen barriers, protect the product quality inside and assure its characteristics during the entire shelf life,” says the firm. Thus, flexible packaging is steering towards the trend of lighter packaging like pouches, which would allow producers to reduce packaging weight by 50%, given the availability of newer, more efficient filling technologies. Other advantages include less wastage as it uses less plastic (and materials for labelling) compared to rigid packaging; and offers aesthetic shelf-appeal to consumers.

Oxygen Barrier Level 100x flexed

Standard Alu-Laminate

12PET/8Alu/75PE

AmLite ULTRA

12PET/Ultra SiOX/90E

+ 30% Oxygen Barrier 100xflexed

Transparent packaging that allows consumers to see the product inside has been a growing trend in recent years, but metal-free packaging was often not a practical option for products requiring an outstanding barrier. Amcor says its AmLite Ultra offers an option with a higher barrier, using Ultra SiOx coating, with oxygen barrier levels comparable to that of aluminium. The company has done tests to show that the AmLite Ultra oxygen barrier outperforms aluminium by 30%. AmLite versions are also available with a white sealant layer, resulting in brighter printed colours. It can be used for a range of ambient dry food products, as well as medical and personal care products, in a variety of pack formats, including bags, stand up pouches and spouted pouches, flow packs and sachets SEPTEMBER 2016

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Flexible Packaging Consumers weigh in on sustainability Meanwhile, consumers are becoming more conscious on the amount of waste generated from packaging, according to UK research firm Mintel, in its latest global packaging trend report. It says that a majority of shoppers it surveyed are aware of packaging sustainability, with about 52% preferring minimal to no packaging in their food purchases and smaller packages for more perishable items because that allows for less food wastage. Meanwhile, 56% of consumers are likely to choose a product that offers better protective features against food spoilage. Since sustainable packaging is moving up to the top of product purchasing decisions among consumers, manufacturers are taking the cue. TIPA, an Israeli start-up company, has developed biodegradable films for flexible packaging, which it says have the same mechanical and shelflife properties as most plastics and are suitable for dry, baked and frozen goods, as well as fruits and vegetables. The fully compostable films, when discarded, decompose in 180 days, and The biodegradable films from TIPA become fertiliser are fully compostable for soil. TIPA’s biodegradable films will be wrapping the coffee-house inspired granola bars produced by a New York-based natural foods and lifestyle brand start-up Sheffa Foods. US firm Dow Chemical has, through a collaboration with the Sustainable Packaging Coalition (SPC) and other industry members, created a recyclable PE-based barrier packaging through the use of its recently launched RecycleReady technology. It can be used as flexible barrier pouches and packaging for products like granola and nuts, the company says. The stand-up pouch made with Retain polymer modifiers is the first of its kind with barrier film that can be recycled in a PE recycling stream, according to Dow. When combined with other PE resins, the Retain compatibiliser offers a recyclable solution with enhanced barrier characteristics. These recyclable flexible pouches incorporate multiple layers but use only PE as the basic raw material, the company says.

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To meet consumer demand and sustainability needs, Dow says its first-of-its-kind RecycleReady technology helps create recyclable flexible stand-up pouches

Solutions for a longer shelf-life Guaranteeing longer shelf life for fresh foods is a challenging feat. India-based Uflex says it works closely with local customers to extend the shelf life of exotic fruits like lychees, rambutans and mangosteens, to name a few. The company’s Flexfresh Equilibrium Modified Atmospheric Packaging (EMAP) provides the solution to maintain consistent oxygen and carbon dioxide inside a package. Ashok Chaturvedi, Chairman/Managing Director of Uflex, says that during the initial phase of trial, they were confronted by the need to tap into a solution of extending shelf life of fresh tropical produce, which traditional polymers (being used for the same purpose) may fail to achieve. “Most polymers available were either good barriers to oxygen or water, and it is critical to have a unique polymer that could offer the precise requirements of both oxygen and water barriers. In fact, all existing fresh produce packaging solutions in the world grappled with the problem of water condensation inside the bag, a fact that was established during our market study,” he said. He added that for products that perspired heavily, it was found that the MAP did not work since higher CO2 inside the bag changed the organoleptic of the produce. This is critical for fresh produce packaging because oxygen needs


Flexible Packaging to be maintained to keep the product in aerobic conditions. During transpiration, humidity gets released and condenses inside the bag causing fungal and bacterial infections on the produce, he further explained. Thus, Uflex introduced the Flexfresh EMAP, where humidity is maintained at 98%, and thus the product is absolutely dry without allowing condensation. This results in low weight loss of the produce as it continues to breathe in hydrated oxygen available inside the bag. In several experiments on various products, it was observed that the ratio of oxygen and CO2 was maintained at an equilibrium. Flexfresh, which is biodegradable by composting, is currently available as liner bags in 5 kg and 10 kg standard international sizes, flow wraps, FFS film and lidding film. Parkside says it is the first to have developed flexible packaging with built-in antimicrobial technology using a silver-based additive that can be added into coatings on the outer face of packaging. It is known to kill 99.9% of microorganisms, such as campylobacter, widely recognised as a key challenge for the poultry packing industry

UFlex’s Flexfresh EMAP enables longer shelf life for exotic fruits

Meanwhile, Uflex is also applying a shelf life extension solution for packaging rambutan, which has a short shelf-life. A favourite fruit in the tropics, rambutan (also known as a hairy fruit) has to be consumed within 48 hours of its harvest. It loses about 8% moisture per day when stored in ambient conditions, which promotes discolouration, making the fruit’s skin turn black and thus unfit for consumption. Meantime, shelf-life issues also tackle food safety, since inadequate shelf-life measures could promote microorganism growth, a major cause of food deterioration. UK-based speciality packaging company Parkside Flexibles has introduced flexible packaging with built-in antimicrobial technology for fresh poultry and protein products. Parkside uses silver-based additives in the coating of the outer packaging to stunt bacteria growth, especially that of Campylobacter, an organism that is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness.

Parkside’s antimicrobial solution has also been incorporated into PET packaging. The company has several collaborations, including that with UK-based snack food company Seabrook Crisps. It has recently launched a re-closable bag created with laser technology, which removes the need for a separate label and gives brand owners flexibility to choose any opening shape, size and position. It, thus, among its other merits, addresses portion control and food waste concerns. While spoilage is a normal part of food’s life cycle, there are means to slow this process down and prevent food wastage, such as employing packaging that can effectively keep it fresh over a long period of time. In other words, the right packaging can ensure the safe delivery of a product to/from the source – producer, manufacturer or store, to the targeted consumer. In a collaboration with Parkside, Seabrook Crisps has launched a new reclosable share bag, created with unique laser technology, enabling consumers to peel open the front of the packet, making it easy to share the contents, before reclosing it and saving for later

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Indonesian Packaging Industry

Challenges on the horizon for bottled and packaging sector Among its many resources, Indonesia has an abundant supply of water catchments. It has more than enough water to supply its 250 million population, but due to problems with distribution and lack of safe drinking water, demand is surging for bottled beverages. But other challenges are looming for the packaging sector such as the impending excise tax on plastic packaging that may slowdown growth of the bottled and packaged food and beverage industry, says Angelica Buan in this report.

Lack of clean, safe drinking water What is plaguing the country’s ability to quench the water needs of its people is the uneven distribution, poor management and lack of infrastructure, which have left parts of the country with insufficient access to water. For the most part, 35% of the country’s households have water sourced from wells and public taps; while the rest satiate their requirements from water bodies, rain water, refilling water stations and others. Nonetheless, potability and safety of water are matters of concern. Pollution and other contaminants are depriving Indonesians access to safe water supply. For example, most industrial and domestic waste is discharged into rivers, which is a source for many households that do not have access to piped water. In a recent report by TechSci Research, researchbased global management consulting firm, it says that water degradation is an outgrowth of the increasing population and industrial development, especially in the western region of the country. “Domestic and industrial wastes spoil the drinking water sources, and small scale mining activities near the rivers also contribute to the cumulating mercury level in river water,” it says.

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To make water safe, water treatment, mostly by boiling, has been employed in 70% of households across the country, according to the country’s Demographic and Health Survey 2012. But rural households are resorting to water treatment far more than urban households, since the latter prefer bottled or refilled water. The TechSci report on Indonesia’s water purifiers market supports this finding. It says that the water degradation situation in many areas of the country is a reason for reliance on either bottled or boiled water. Alternatively, households invest in water purifiers.

Many households in Indonesia prefer to use bottled or refill water for drinking

Need for safe drinking water globally Globally, the bottled water market, which consists of the retail sale of sparkling flavoured water, sparkling unflavoured water, still flavoured water and still unflavoured water, is witnessing gains. In addition to unsafe water supplies, a growing awareness to consume less sugar is also pushing the global bottled water demand. US-based GrandView Research projects growth in this sector, on account of shifting consumer preference from high calorie carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) to healthier alternatives that are fortified with vitamins and flavouring agents. Asia is one of the largest markets for bottled water. Population growth and rising awareness towards vitamin-enriched water in China, India, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia is expected to be an important factor to fuel bottled water demand. Indonesia’s bottled water industry is a fast growing sector and is significantly contributing to the economy, India-headquartered Mordor Intelligence says in a report, adding that growth in the domestic market also segues to introducing improvements to water facilities.


Indonesian Packaging Industry This year, the growth target is at 10%, according to the Indonesian Bottled-Water Business Association (ASPADIN), and is higher compared to the 7.8% target set by the Industrial Ministry. The association sees it as a realistic projection given that the Indonesian economy is growing, yet on the other hand, the problem with water supply is building up. With local consumers shifting to bottled water, ASPADIN sees bottled water production reaching up to 27 billion litres this year, against the 24.7 billion litres produced a year ago. Dealing with waste problem of plastics Bottled water offers a solution to the lack of access to safe water. However, at the end of its life, the plastic packaging that helps keep the water hygienic is said to antagonise the environment. Indonesia has a notorious lead as the world’s second biggest polluter of plastics after China, according to a University of Georgia-led study last year. Data from the Environment and Forestry Ministry cites that Indonesians use up to 9.8 billion/ year plastic bags. Globally, only China uses more plastic bags than Indonesia. As for the country’s per capita plastics consumption, it is relatively lower at 14 kg, compared to Thailand’s and Malaysia’s average of 40 kg; or Singapore’s 80 kg per capita consumption. Early in the year, the country implemented a six-month trial campaign in 23 cities to reduce the use of plastic bags, with a fee of Rp200 levied for each plastic bag. But its biggest challenge was to convince small retailers in traditional stores and markets, which account for 90% of the country’s retail sector. Retailers’ association APRINDO said its 100 members used nearly 11 million plastic bags last year. Its target is to reduce the figure by 20% by 2020. The public reacted positively to the plastic bag ban, with an immediate 25% reduction in the 23 cities, according to Environment and Forestry Ministry data.

Wiwiek Roberto PT Pamerindo Indonesia Jakarta T: +62 21 2525 320 F: +62 21 2525 482 E: wiwiek@pamerindo.com www.pamerindo.com

And though the government subsequently issued a circular to regional governments stipulating the continuation of the policy, some retailers are apparently unaware of this, continuing to give out free plastic bags.

Carolyn Lee International Expo Management Pte Ltd Singapore T: +65 6233 6777 F: +65 6233 6768 E: carolyn@iemallworld.com www.allworldexhibitions.com

Marek Szandrowski Overseas Exhibition Services Ltd London T: +44 (0)20 7840 2108 F: +44 (0)20 7840 2119 mszandrowski@oesallworld.com www.allworldexhibitions.com

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Indonesian Packaging Industry Tax on plastic packaging may dehydrate packaging growth Meanwhile, another tax is going to hit the plastic packaging sector. Recently, the Indonesian government said that it will levy an excise tax of Rp200 on all food and beverages packed in plastic packaging before the end of 2016. According to preliminary information from the Finance Ministry, the excise will be imposed on bottles, bags and sachets. However, lower rates may apply for companies that focus on recycling activities. It is expected that the higher price of products packed in plastic materials will discourage consumption of these products and therefore there will be less plastic waste.

Plastic packaging, like shopping bags, are charged Rp200 a piece

By imposing this additional excise tax, the government's tax revenue will rise. Given that Indonesia's tax revenue has been disappointing so far this year (and has been disappointing in recent years) the government is eager to find new sources of income. Since most Indonesians have the habit of consuming plastic-wrapped snacks and bottled drinks, this excise tax constitutes a great source of revenue. However, the plan for the tax has been met with fierce resistance, especially from stakeholders active in Indonesia's food and beverage and packaging sectors. Affected sectors have said that if implemented, this move could impede the industry, dent sales and even cut down jobs. The Indonesian Food and Beverages Association (Gapmmi) said the tax would burden customers. Along the same lines, the Indonesian Olefin and Plastic Industry Association (Inaplas) says that consumers would be left without any alternative form of practical packaging. The association furthers that plastics remain the best wrapping material, compared to paper, glass, steel or aluminium, and for manufacturing, because plastics need the least energy.

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"Plan for the tax has been met with fierce resistance, especially from stakeholders active in Indonesia's food and beverage and packaging sectors." Gapmmi also says it could weaken Indonesia's industrial competitiveness in ASEAN. This could then hinder development of Indonesia's manufacturing industry (perhaps giving rise to more food and beverage imports from abroad). The Forum of the Associations of Plastic Using and Producing Industries (FLAIPPP) said the tax would cost the government Rp528 billion in losses annually from other sources of revenue such as sales and income taxes and slower sales of food and beverages in plastic packaging. Inaplas and other organisations say the government should focus on the development of good waste management systems, instead of using the excise as a tool to gain additional revenue. Are free trade agreements the way out? Despite the downside of the excise duty on plastic packaging, the industry can still fill its cup with other opportunities. A new free trade agreement (FTA) between Indonesia and the EU, its fourth largest trading partner is also being negotiated. Indonesia is the sixth ASEAN nation to negotiate a bilateral FTA with the EU that facilitates trade and investments and covers a broad range of issues, including customs duties and other barriers to trade, services and investment, access to public procurement markets, as well as competition rules and protection of intellectual property rights. Included also is a comprehensive chapter aiming to ensure that closer economic relations between the EU and Indonesia correspond with environmental protection and social development. Clinching the trade agreement would represent a huge market of 750 million consumers. Trade in goods between the EU and Indonesia amounted to over EUR25 billion in 2015 with EU exports worth almost EUR10 billion and EU imports from Indonesia worth more than EUR15 billion, resulting in over EUR5 billion trade surplus for Indonesia, according to the communication issued by the EU. Products exported by Indonesia are machinery and appliances, textiles and footwear, plastic and rubber products, and agricultural products. The EU exports to Indonesia mostly industrial products, including machinery and appliances, transport equipment and chemical products. Indonesia benefits from the EU's one-way customs duty discounts for developing countries under the standard Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP).


Indonesian Packaging Industry There are yet other avenues for growth opening up for the food and beverage industry. Its low calorie health drinks as well as instant food and beverage products may soon be heading for the South African market, a non-traditional market for Indonesia. At a trade event, Africa’s Big 7 (AB7), held in June in Johannesburg, buyers expressed their interest in Indonesian food and beverage products to be made available across the continent. Aiming for lower costs The food packaging industry is seen to remain the largest plastics end-user, accounting 60% of plastics consumption, according to Global Business Guide. The prospect of bringing down cost of plastic packaging lower is good news for the food and beverage industry. The local plastics manufacturing is seeing the long-term advantage of curbing dependence on imported raw materials to lower production costs. By 2022, local manufacturers are expected to source more materials locally upon completion of four production facilities for olefin – a key feedstock for the manufacture of plastic products. According to Inaplas, the facilities, two will be located in Kalimantan (Central and East), one in Papua, and the other in Sumatra, will have a total production capacity of 2 million tonnes/year. The 600,000-tonne/ year Sumatra factory, which will process coal into olefin, will begin construction by 2018.

Some of the local brands of bottled water in the Indonesian market

Local access to raw materials can significantly pump up plastics production, Inaplas said in a report. The commissioning of the olefin plants can plug the demand gap of some 1.7 million tonnes of plastics materials in the country. Meantime, the potential cost savings mentioned above will surely trickle down to the food and beverage industry, which provides a remedy against the scarcity of safe water: in a bottle.

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Injection Moulding Asia Automotive Industry

Car emissions: automotive industry’s game changing issue Meeting global carbon emission goals is a feat

Far reaching outcomes; vehicle makers under scrutiny t was a nifty innovation: software tucked within the vehicle’s electronic control module that switched to a “clean” mode once it detected that an emissions test was being run. But Volkswagen (VW)’s defeat device has put the German car maker’s reputation at stake, when it was found to be fibbing emissions data during tests undertaken. Some 11 VW diesel car models, like Jetta, Beetle, Audi and Passat, were equipped with the device. The emissions issue continues to unravel further and consequences will be far reaching. In Europe, sales for diesel vehicles have dropped and IHS Automotive projects the market share for new diesels sold in Europe will decline by about 35% by 2027. Other diesel car makers have been dragged into the issue with allegations of rigging tests; while other vehicle makers have been found to be using defeat devices. For example, Germany’s certification specialist TÜV Nord discovered defeat devices in Opel’s diesel cars, which the expert says cause “exhaust gas treatment in those cars to be severely limited, allowing the emissions of more poisonous NOx than permissible by law“. Meanwhile, Japanese car maker Nissan has also been called out by South Korea for rigging a device in its British-built Qashqai car. It, however, denied the allegations. Across the globe, car models are undergoing stricter testing than ever. The Australian Automobile Association (AAA) is allocating A$500,000 to conduct its own on-road emissions tests of 30 models sold in the country, including both the pre-modified and modified versions of VW’s TDI diesel models. Even South Korea, after fining VW US$6 million, has expanded its probe on foreign car brands. About 100 models from 23 companies are to be investigated, according to the Environment Ministry. Meanwhile, Netherlands has hinted at banning new diesel or gas-powered cars by 2025, and will make way for Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs), powered by battery or hydrogen fuel cells. Germany is heading in the same direction, staving off 95% carbon emissions by 2030. Norway’s efforts to increase the use of electric vehicles are paying off, with some 29% of all new cars sold in this category. But in the US, sales of hybrids and electric cars remain modest at 1% of new car sales.

that is worth prevailing for the automotive

I

industry, says Angelica Buan in this report.

Vehicles: main culprits of pollution here is no doubt that vehicles are one of the main pollution contributors. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) says in its audit that more than 90% of air pollution in cities in developing countries is linked to vehicle emissions due to the high number of older vehicles, poor vehicle maintenance, inadequate infrastructure and low fuel quality. Emissions spewed from personal cars are generally low, yet the accumulation of smog from all the vehicles on the roads undoubtedly contributes to the poor air quality. While most developed countries, according to UNEP, have already set up measures to curb vehicle emissions, in terms of fuel quality and vehicle emission reduction technologies, most cities in developing countries have yet to catch up. Fine prints in carbon emissions policies vary from country to country, but the common goal is to cap the pollution from automotive emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). The US has the Environment Protection Authority (EPA) standards and Europe has emission regulations (which for now only cover exhaust PM emissions) that are adopted as part of the EU framework for the types of approvals for cars, vans trucks, buses and coaches. Nonetheless, the situation with defeat devices has opened up the need for stricter implementation of emissions rules. The introduction of the Real Driving Emissions test (RDE) procedure for testing air pollutant emissions by diesel cars, beginning September next year, is expected to better reflect the actual emissions on the roads and reduce the current discrepancy between emissions measured in real driving to those measured in a laboratory, the European Commission (EC) has stated. The RDE procedure complements the current laboratory-based procedure to check that the vehicle emission levels of NOx, and in a next stage also particle numbers (PN), measured during the laboratory test, are confirmed in real-time driving conditions.

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Injection Moulding Asia Automotive Industry A recent offer, the BUDD-e electric van, which VW showcased at the Consumer Electronics show in Las Vegas early this year, features 101 kWh batteries that enable up to 373 miles of pure electric range. The high-performance battery is flat for space savings, and integrated into the entire vehicle floor. Nissan recently launched its BladeGlider sports car in Brazil. The 100% electric-powered vehicle features control systems that are integrated into the steering wheel and fed into an advanced data monitor showing speed, battery charge status, regeneration mode and torque display. Both the engine and the powertrain lithium-ion battery have been developed by Nissan’s project partner, UK-based Williams Advanced Engineering.

Electric vehicles to hit zero emission mark he fracas has cost VW a huge sum: about US$15 billion to compensate for buybacks, penalties and damages and to cover lawsuits, mainly in the US where it has sold nearly 500,000 vehicles. But the carmaker has admitted to installing the cheating device on more than 11 million cars worldwide, with 8.5 million in Europe. Also, VW is required to invest US$2 billion in projects that will promote the use of ZEVs in the US. Adoption of ZEVs or electric vehicles (EVs) aims to help taper the carbon emissions problem plaguing the automotive sector. Across the globe, there are five regions that are likely to dominate the EV market, namely the US, China, Europe, Japan, and South Korea, according to the US-based International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT)’s white paper published in 2015. These regions make up 75% of world vehicle sales and 76% of world vehicle manufacturing. In the transition towards zeroemission driving, EVs powered by ultra-low carbon electricity or hydrogen will be needed, it says. Like many European countries drafting a zeroemission future, Germany has set a 2050 target of cutting CO2 emissions by 95%, by requiring all new cars registered in the country to meet zeroemissions specifications by 2030. Norway’s National Transport Plan (NTP), a 12-year plan that is revised every fourth year and prioritises resources within the transport sector, is aiming for 100% ZEV sales by 2025. Additionally, it proposes for zero-emission compliance by 2030 for all new heavier class vans, 75% of new longdistance buses, and 50% of new trucks. Car manufacturers are, at the same time, introducing new EV models. Even VW will rebuild EV models, as announced in its Strategy 2025, an initial step to recoup its setback, and will offer more economy-focused and utility vehicles.

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Nissan says its BladeGlider is more than a concept and a production version is expected by 2020

Swedish vehicle manufacturer, Volvo Cars, has previously stated intentions of offering plugin hybrid variants of every model, and it has introduced new hybrid models. Its target is to sell up to 1 million all-electric and plug-in hybrid models, in total, by 2025.

Inspired by the iconic Microbus and powered by a pure-electric powertrain, is VW’s small electric van known as BUDD-e

Volvo’s V90 is available with a hybrid powertrain

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Injection Moulding Asia Automotive Industry Charging of EVs a challenge Vs include hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), fullbattery electric, and hydrogen fuel cell types. The latter is said to pose the greatest potential in EV technology targets by 2050. Current trends and data on EVs, however, show more plug-in EVs being used, due to their increased availability, marketing, and sales in recent year. EVs also pose a few challenges, such as the quick-charging infrastructure that is not yet standardised, and charging stations are far and few. The US is seeking to speed up the adoption of EVs through the expansion of charging infrastructure, unlocking up to US$4.5 billion loan guarantees to support innovative electric vehicle charging facilities. Some 50 industry members have committed to the Guiding Principles to Promote Electric Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure, which will initiate the collaboration between the government and industry to increase the deployment of electric vehicle charging infrastructure. Volvo, together with other car makers like Tesla, BMW and VW, are advocating for a global standardised charging infrastructure for EVs, and thus back the Charging Interface Initiative (CharIN), founded to establish the Combined Charging System (CCS) as the standard for charging battery-powered vehicles. Volvo says, with the CCS, which will offer both regular and fast charging capabilities, electric car ownership will become increasingly practical and convenient – especially in urban environments that are ideal for EVs. The CCS combines single-phase with rapid three-phase charging, using alternating current at a maximum of 43 kW, as well as direct-current charging at a maximum of 200 kW and the future possibility of up to 350 kW – all in a single system.

of EVs charged on a variety of North American regional grids, it says that the one exception (in the zero emissions concern) comes when the electric car is charged on a grid with a heavy mix of coal. This, UCS says, is an increasingly rare circumstance as coal plants are “retired or retrofitted for natural gas”. Some studies also shed light on the role of EVs in curbing emissions. A recent report, by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) indicates that widespread adoption of electric transportation, including electrification in the off-road sector, could dramatically cut down emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and improve air quality. The report projects GHG emissions through 2050 to drop by as much as 64%, from light-duty vehicles, from the current levels. The report credits the expanding range of EVs, such as the Chevy Volt and Nissan LEAF.

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Nissan says it has sold about 200,000 of its LEAF model

Volvo says it has already laid the groundwork for its rollout of hybrids and electrics, developing the Scalable Product Architecture (SPA) and Compact Modular Architecture (CMA), both of which can incorporate hybrid or all-EV powertrains. It plans to begin introducing at least one new chargeable vehicle each year, including an all-electric car in 2019. Meanwhile, Tesla Motors is investing over US$4 billion into EV development by 2020; German automotive makers are also ploughing in US$7.5 billion into EV production by 2019. Across the industry, some 24 new EV models are expected to grace the market before 2019, says the report. Thus, the VW scandal not only jolted the entire automotive industry and instrumented stricter implementations of carbon emissions control, it has also thrust the EV sector forward.

EV’s zero emission claims, in perspective nother point of contention for EVs is the claim that the vehicles emit zero emissions. HEVs, PHEVs, and EVs are said to produce lower tailpipe emissions compared to conventional vehicles but emissions may be produced by the electrical power source. The US-based Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) contends that EVs that use electricity as fuel produce fewer emissions than their conventional counterparts. When the electricity comes from renewable sources, EVs produce zero emissions. Mapping out the “wells-to-wheels” carbon footprint, which include all emissions related to fuel production, processing, distribution, and use

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Injection Moulding Asia Packaging Industry

Packaging evolving with consumer demand P a ckaging influences consumers’ vary i n g p r o duct pe r ce p tion, leading to sa les. R i sing up t o t he competition, converte r s a r e t apping t e c hno lo gies to respond b ette r to cons um e r dema n ds, says An gelica B u an i n t his r e por t . Milacron’s Klear Can is a patented co-injection moulded, PP/EVOH transparent plastic can

Klear Can is a patented co-injection moulded, PP/EVOH plastic can, which the company developed as an alternative to metal cans for fruits, vegetables, soups, meats, and other products. Milacron says that Klear Can is the first truly transformational innovation in the canned food preservation industry’s nearly 200-year history, adding that its unique feature is that its transparency allows brands to demonstrate their products to consumers. Milacron’s first major commercial sale, it says, is for a large brand owner in Asia, after what it says were “extremely successful qualitative testing with consumers in Asia conducted by Nielsen Market Research.” Though Milacron would not comment on the end customer, it is reportedly thought to be tropical fruits packer Del Monte, since Milacron mentions that “the first major commercial sale is for a large brand owner focusing on tropical fruits.” Milacron did say that the customer plans for the Klear Can to be in-market, on retail shelves and available for consumer purchase no later than Q1 2017 and that the license to mould the components is included within the purchase price of the entire system. Based on barrier layer percentage, Klear Can provides more than two years shelf life, and is also cost competitive to metal cans. It uses the same filling; seaming and retorting machinery as metal cans so minimal downstream investment is required. In addition, it allows manufacturers the flexibility to mould cans at the filling site, ie. via “through-the-wall” supply operations, which offers operational efficiencies. Other benefits are: its BPA-free for safe food contact; lightweight, stackable and dent-resistant, designed to withstand standard retort pressures and temperatures of up to 130°C; plus it use a single standard metal can end, and uses the industry standard can end double-seam process.

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ave you ever bought a product because of its packaging? Purchasing decisions based on packaging aesthetics and features are common among consumers. A consumer research by UK-headquartered Pelican Communications finds that four out of 10, or 38.5% of consumers, are persuaded by innovations in packaging, such as longer shelf-life, ease of opening, resealability, and interactive features. The role of packaging has branched out multidimensionally, and has now become a gateway to product perceptions. In fact, packaging now has become a tool for marketing a product, enabling sales and market shares to increase, according to a paper on the effect of packaging on consumer behaviour published by the European Journal of Scientific Research. Processors are following these trails to increase sales and product positioning. Advancements in technologies, including injection moulding, are enabling these soughtafter features in a wider range of plastics packaging. Allied Market Research in its recent injection moulded plastic market report, projects a global growth value of US$162 billion by 2020, posting a CAGR of 4.9% from 2015 to 2020. Packaging will continue to dominate the market, owing to the increasing adoption in consumer goods, healthcare and cosmetics products. Other enduser segments such as automotive, medical and electronics are levelling up the market.

See-through food packs ecause today’s consumers want to see products inside the packaging, a timely innovation is Klear Can by US machinery maker Milacron Holdings Corp.

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Injection Moulding Asia Packaging Industry Sustainability a big factor in today’s packaging t is important to note that current trends in packaging include sustainability, which is also becoming a significant factor in consumer purchase decisions. US/Netherlandsheadquartered Nielsen cites that 55% of its surveyed global online consumers across 60 countries are amenable to paying more for products and services from firms that commit to positive social and environmental impact. Thus, new packaging has to take this into account. According to Milacron, Klear Can is fully recyclable. “After consumer use, only a small amount of metal remains on the can’s upper rim, the residual ring on the flange will separate during the grinding phase.” It is similar to many PP plastic containers with double seam EZO can ends. The base is plastic and the rim is a very low percentage of the package, making it microwavable. The product is over 98% plastic after the can is opened, thus, it qualifies as a 5 for recyclability. Meanwhile, another Milacron co-injection technology seeing traction is Kortec embedded technology, now being used in the production of 100% recyclable single-use coffee pods. The single-use coffee pod market has grown rapidly over the past decade and Milacron says its technology ensures that the newly designed pods are able to enter the recycling stream rather than the landfill. Steve Morris, Milacron Vice-President/General Manager, explained, “Recyclability is driving major design changes within the coffee pod market, and will continue to create new capital equipment demand to support this growing

consumer product. A key benefit of an injectionmoulded cup is the ability to mould features into the cup that replace the addition of costly components such as filters. This benefit also eliminates a second moulding process, scrap, assembly costs and part weight.” Currently, most single-use pods are thermoformed polystyrene and not recyclable. Manufacturers are eager to move to recyclable injection moulded PP cups over the next three years. Globally, there are billions of single serve cups on the market. Injection moulded cups also have better mechanics allowing them to use more shapes, provide wall and barrier consistency and produce better clarity in clear parts. These cups also have a flange seal off area and no barrier breakthrough.

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Technology spills over in bottling Cola wars” has been an effective marketing campaign by major soft drink producers, and is indicative that the soft drink market is huge. Mumbai-headquartered Mordor Intelligence forecasts the global soft drink concentrate market to reach US$ 35.1 billion by 2020 at a CAGR of 5.5% from 2014.

Sidel says its Matrix Filler SF300 FM utilises modules that fill PET bottles at rates of up to 80,000 bottles/hour

According to UK research specialist Smithers Pira, the bottled water sector is one of those markets in which materials have gotten lighter and lighter over time. However, it says that “manufacturers have now reached the stage where PET bottles cannot be made much lighter.”

Kortec embedded technology is being used in the production of 100% recyclable single-use coffee pods

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Injection Moulding Asia Packaging Industry Sidel collaborated with Algar Agro to light weight its vegetable oil bottle

These criteria support the growth of the caps and closures market, expected to reach nearly US$52 billion by 2021, according to Transparency Market Research’s global caps and closures market study. To fill up the brisk demand, Husky Injection Molding Systems, Canada-headquartered machinery maker, has recently launched its next generation system for high output beverage closure moulding. The HyCAP 4, which will be demonstrated at this year’s upcoming K2016 show in Germany from 19-26 October, features engineering advancements, including several new capabilities and features. Combined, these enhancements allow HyCAP 4 to deliver industry-leading performance and productivity, as well as significantly more energy savings of up to 40%. The energy savings translates to lower production costs, Husky says.

But more recently, French PET bottle manufacturer Sidel collaborated with Brazilian producer Algar Agro to reduce the total weight of its 900 ml PET bottle for edible oil by 22%. Working together, the companies were able to reduce the total weight of the finished bottle from 18 to 14 g, said to be world’s lightest 900 ml bottle in PET for vegetable oil. Algar Agro installed two Sidel Matrix machinery, making it as the first oil producer in Brazil with integrated injection and blowing in its PET production process. Market taps sealing convenience ood and beverage closure technology continues to advance to make opening mechanisms more effective and convenient and simpler to use. An example of a closure that responds to the demand for ease of use is the new FOG 27 closure launched by Germany-based Sanner. FOG 27, which is used for nutritional supplements packaging, aims to make opening easier, especially for elderly users. Sanner claims that their closures only require a third of the effort in opening compared to the conventional closures. Caps and closures are important product differentiators, and companies see them as vital piece to enhance consumer experience of the product; as well as assure of packaging durability.

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Husky’s HyCAP 4 designed for high output beverage closure moulding delivers more energy savings of up to 40%

The system is also equipped with intelligent features that make it easier to use, with simplified controls for faster process set-up and improved repeatability. Enhancements include a new part eject assist feature to ensure a consistent freefall of closures at the fastest cycles, and sensor-driven mould alignment to reduce mould wear. Gerardo Chiaia, Husky’s President of Global Beverage Packaging says that “more productivity, increased ease-of-use, reduced energy consumption are all achieved by specifically designing the mould, machine, hot runner, auxiliary equipment and software to work in harmony, while adding more automation to make the system fully integrated and intelligent.” Thus, product improvement is challenging the injection moulded plastics industry to remain competitive. Continuous innovations in design, specificity, and customisation have led to the frequent launch of new and advanced products, resulting in the adoption of newer applications.

Sanner’s FOG 27 is an example of a closure that responds to the demand for ease of use

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Rubber Journal Asia Industry News • Swedish firm Trelleborg has acquired Germany-based Schwab Vibration Control, a manufacturer of vibration control components and systems, as part of its strategy to enhance its anti-vibration business. Schwab manufactures anti-vibration and suspension solutions for applications within the rail industry. With offices in Switzerland and manufacturing partners in Poland, Romania and Turkey, the firm also offers products for the off-highway and industrial sectors, aligning with Trelleborg’s own anti-vibration expertise. The transaction is expected to be finalised during the fourth quarter 2016, with completion subject to the approval of the relevant authorities. • Poland’s Sanok Rubber Company, specialising in a wide range of rubber and plastic parts, including rubber/ TPE sealing systems, has become the sole shareholder of China’s Qingdao Meteor Rubber & Plastics. The shares were acquired from the US-Chinese SIDA Corporation. Sanok Rubber was formerly known as Stomil Sanok. Qingdao Meteor Rubber & Plastics was set up as a joint venture between SIDA and Germany’s Meteor Gummiwerke, which makes sealing systems and components from PP, EPDM and rubber, for automotive OEMs. Prior to the deal, Sanok Rubber Company held a 20% stake in the Chinese producer through its German subsidiary Draftex Automotive. • Kal Tire, a Canadian company that provides mining tyre management and supply, has acquired the tyre services business of software company Klinge & Company in

Australia. Kal has been operating in Australia for about six years and it has been its goal to expand to eastern Australia where the majority of major mines operate. • Japanese firms Zeon Corporation and Sumitomo Chemical are considering forming a joint venture of both companies’ Solution Styrene Butadiene Rubber (S-SBR) businesses. The companies say they will look into transferring their current S-SBR operations, including those of their respective subsidiaries, to the new company with the aim of strengthening the S-SBR business. This new partnership will accelerate new product development, enhance cost competitiveness and secure a stable product supply. The new company will be set up in 2017. • Trinseo is planning to sell its latex and automotive-plastics businesses in Brazil to a local company, because it says the businesses would likely be more valuable to a local company that has a larger scale and critical mass in the region. The deal should be closed by the fourth quarter of the year. The US-based styrenics producer recorded a US$13 million charge during the second quarter for the estimated loss on the sale as well as for severance. Trinseo operates two production sites in Brazil: the company’s latex segment in Guaruja and the performance plastics facility in Limao. • Sumitomo Rubber Industries will increase passenger car and light truck tyre production capacity in New York, US, from 5,000 to 10,000 tyre units/day by the end of 2019. The group is planning to invest US$87 million over the next four

years on factory upgrades to achieve its goal of increasing production capacity and productivity. The conclusion of the group’s longstanding global alliance with the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company in 2015 has given it more freedom in conducting its business in North America. • Apollo Tyres is investing about Rs27 billion to double the manufacturing capacity of its bus and truck radial tyres in Chennai, India, from 6,000 to 12,000 tyres/day. The first phase of expansion will be completed by October 2016. Meanwhile, tyres from its greenfield facility in Hungary, with a total capacity of 5.5 million passenger car and light truck and 675,000 heavy commercial vehicle tyres, are expected to roll out early next year. The facility will produce both Apollo and Vredestein brand of tyres and will complement its existing facility in the Netherlands. The acquisition of Reifencom, Germany-based tyre distributor with both online and offline presence, will help the company improve its mix of distribution channels in Germany and Europe. • Germany’s Continental is expanding its Hefei tyre plant in China that it opened in 2011. The company has continuously expanded its passenger car and light truck tyre production capacities to 5 million units/year. With this additional investment of EUR250 million, the stage is set for further expansion phases that will take output to 14 million units/year. At the same time, expansion of bicycle tyre production to 13 million units/year by 2025 is underway. In all, since the original groundbreaking,

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Rubber Journal Asia Industry News

Continental has already scheduled investments of more than EUR500 million at the Hefei plant. Meanwhile, the company is planning to build a new tyre plant in Asia as all of its existing plants in China, India and Malaysia have reached full production capacity. According to Sirivan Koo-amphorn,

General Manager of Continental Tires Thailand, the Hanoverbased firm is considering Thailand or China with the final decision to be taken this year. Sirivan said that the parent firm is looking for a new site to expand its tyre business in the Asia-Pacific region, adding that Thailand is an important market. Sirivan said that tyre sales in

Thailand have experienced robust growth over the last four years, with Continental holding a 3% share of Thailand’s overall tyre market. Thailand uses 8 million tyres/year for vehicles and 3 million/year for heavyduty trucks. The company is expecting a 20% increase in sales this year from the nearly 1 billion baht posted last year.

Materials News • According to the Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries (ANRPC), which account for 90% of the world’s natural rubber (NR) supply, demand will gain strength by 2017. Total NR production in July 2016 was 6 million tonnes, a 0.2% year-on-year increase. Production went up in Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam while production in China, Malaysia and India fell. ANRPC countries saw a 4.4% year-on-year increase in consumption with 4.7 million tonnes for July. From AugustOctober 2016, a slightly slower growth in consumption is expected. Factors include uncertainty overshadowing the global economy after Brexit, geopolitical tensions in the Middle East, with cross-border complications. • The medical grade silicone market size is projected to reach US$7 billion by 2021, growing at a CAGR of 9.4% during the forecast period, said a report published by MarketsandMarkets. The high growth in the global implantable device market has been boosting the market and increasing the number of new product launches. Major players such as Dow Corning (US), Wacker Chemie (Germany),

Shin-Etsu Chemical (Japan), Momentive (US), Bluestar Silicones (France), and 3M Company (US) are expanding and launching new products to achieve growth. • According to a new market report by Research and Markets, the future of the global aerospace tyre industry is looking positive with opportunities in the commercial, regional aircraft, general aviation, helicopter and military aircraft segments. It is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.9% from 2016-2021. The major growth drivers are increase in aircraft delivery and increase in the frequency of flights. • US-based clothing company Patagonia has launched the world’s first and only neoprene-free wetsuits that are made from natural rubber sources, developed in partnership with US material supplier Yulex. It supplies what is said to be the world’s first high performing, nonsensitising, 100% plant-based, ultra-pure natural rubber that is Forest Stewardship Councilcertified. Yulex sources its material from Guatemala, where rubber trees are grown on reclaimed farmland. The rubber is blended with a small amount of chlorine-free

synthetic rubber for increased ozone and UV resistance, and to meet Patagonia’s rigorous demands for durability and strength. • A new strain of dandelions with natural rubber at its roots has been developed by scientists at the Ohio State University. Rubber-yielding dandelions could potentially be cultivated in a wider array of habitats, allowing rubber to be produced closer to where it’s needed and cutting down on the cost of energyintensive transportation. But the dandelion is a much less efficient source compared to the rubber trees grown in Southeast Asia as it only has 10 to 15% rubber in its roots. Scientists are still working on trying to perfect the dandelion strain, called Buckeye Gold, to make it economically viable and to make the crop less vulnerable to disease and better able to withstand herbicides and pesticides. Scientists are also working to improve the process that extracts rubber from the root fibres. However, farmers won’t start growing dandelions unless they’re confident of the profits it will yield. But scientists say they are confident with the interest from tyre makers growing.

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Rubber Journal Asia Materials News • German tyre maker Continental plans to expand its Taraxagum tyres from dandelion rubber, which it started working on five years ago in collaboration with the IME Fraunhofer Institute, Julius Kühn Institute, and ESKUSA, a plant breeding company in Parkstetten, with a research facility for industrialising the cultivation and processing of Taraxagum dandelion rubber. Continental plans to invest EUR35 million in the first project phase at its Anklam research facility in Germany. A small series of Taraxagum test tyres with tread made from pure dandelion rubber was tested against conventional tyres made from natural rubber from the hevea brasiliensis rubber tree and the results were extremely positive, says the firm. Adding that it wants to drive forward the production of Taraxagum, Russian dandelion was cultivated in such a way that it could be produced in greater quantities than the traditional rubber trees. In the first experiments, Continental produced passenger car winter tyres and engine mounts from the Taraxagum rubber.

Continental is expanding its research into rubber from dandelion roots

• Saudi Arabia’s tyre market is expected to hit US$2.12 billion by the end of this year and to grow at a CAGR of 10.8% for the forecast period of 20162026, says Persistence Market Research. This market trend

Besides being neoprenefree, the Yulex wetsuits use recycled polyester in the linings

is expected due to the favourable government regulations and rising demand for passenger cars in the country. The number of people choosing cars, including passenger cars, are increasing due to record year-round high temperatures. Another major driver is the lack of luxury or value-added tax on the purchase of commodities in the region. The passenger car sub-segment is the most prominent sub-segment in the market and is expected to continue the market trend, accounting for over US$1.43 billion at the end of 2016. Major players in the Saudi Arabia’s tyre market include Pirelli, Yokohama Rubber Company, Apollo Tyres, Toyo Tire & Rubber Company, Bridgestone Group, Hankook Tire, Continental, Cooper Tire, Goodyear Tire, and Michelin. • With 3D printing an emerging technology, US company Emerging Objects has developed a formula for using recycled rubber content in 3D printing using tyres that are cryogenically reduced to a micronised rubber powder with many possible applications in

the building industry. It envisions using this material to make 3D printed outdoor furniture and as 3D printed panels for exterior building components such as wall panels that can be used for acoustic and sound dampening purposes. Its first object is a rubber pouf that can be used as a low seat, a foot stool or a playful object. It is printed in eight parts that are adhered together to make one strong piece. The detailed, bevelled texture on the surface of the pouff gives the appearance of button tufting, making the piece look padded and soft. Raw material is from Lehigh Technologies.

Emerging Object’s rubber pouff is 3D printed out of our recycled rubber tyres

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Rubber Journal Asia Gloves

Complying with the new standard for electrostatic properties in protective gloves The introduction of the EN16350:2014

by the individual directives, but where individual directives contain more stringent and/or specific provisions, these special provisions of individual directives prevail. One of these, Directive 89/656/ EEC – use of personal protective equipment – lays down minimum requirements for personal protective equipment (PPE) including anti-static and ESD gloves, which have always been important in the European and US markets. The EU and US markets make up more than 60% of the total worldwide consumption of antistatic and ESD gloves 1 and for clients within these regions, ensuring the gloves’ characteristics comply with the worldwide most influential EN standard is a high priority. Products tested in accordance with the standard and which display the appropriate label for certified ESD protection are preferred by consumers. Traditionally, other countries quickly follow the EU’s lead, which suggests that worldwide adoption of the new standard for gloves’ vertical resistance level is not too far away. Almost 80% of the more than 150 billion disposable gloves that are manufactured and used annually are produced in Malaysia and Thailand. The new EU Standard implemented by all of their main customers poses a significant challenge to manufacturers as they have to find a way to comply with the new Standard EN16350:2014 and fast. In addition to setting minimum requirements for the surface resistivity/resistance, the EN16350:2014 standard dictates that the contact resistance of a latex glove must be less than 100 megaohms (Rv < 1.0 x 10 8 Ω) 2 . Commonly used conductive technologies do not enable manufacturers to easily comply with the new EN standard, requiring a new solution.

standard, which deals with the electrostatic characteristics of protective gloves in July 2015 meant that manufacturers had to look at new ways to match the updated requirements. The use of standard carbon black and metal fibres to meet the new standard can lead to difficulties in the manufacturing process largely because of the high loading levels required and the associated complications implementing these materials into the latex material matrix. In contrast, the use of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as a conductive additive for anti-static and ESD gloves provides an easy solution for manufacturers to comply with the new protection standard for electrostatic properties without the need to make changes to the production process. At ultra-low loadings - less than 0.05% - SWCNTs provide high electrical conductivity and retain colour brightness in gloves and don’t require any changes to be made to existing processes.

Challenges providing the necessary conductivity level nti-static agents can be either applied externally or internally. Sprayed or coated external conductive agents form a conductive layer on the surface, allowing electric charge to flow and dispel static. Although this is a low cost solution to provide latex gloves with conductivity, it is not efficient because the coating can be easily removed by rubbing or washing. Furthermore, the conductivity of the coating is highly dependent on humidity. The new EN standard, which states the atmosphere during testing for the contact resistance must constitute an ambient temperature of 23°C (± 1°C) and have relative humidity of 25% (± 5%), makes the use of external agents even less effective.

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atex-based industrial anti-static and ESD safety gloves are widely used in the electronics, automotive, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, chemical and mining industries. The commitment to ‘level up’ to the best practice currently employed within the EU has been outlined in a Framework Directive (89/391/EEC), which lays down broad guidelines for health and safety, as well as places an absolute duty “to ensure the safety and health of employees in their workplace” upon employers. On the basis of this Framework Directive, a series of five individual directives were adopted. The Framework Directive with its general principles continues to apply in full to all the areas covered 4

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Rubber Journal Asia Tyre Market Gloves TEM image of SWCNT (Bar is 1 mm)

In the past, nitrile or inorganic salts used as conductive fillers were sufficient for latex to meet the requirements of the earlier EN1149 standard for surface resistivity. However, nitrile alone provides a contact resistance level of approximately 1 × 1011 Ω, which is insufficient for the new EN16350:2014 standard that requires a contact and vertical leakage resistance of < 1.0 x 10 8 Ω. The new standard also makes the use of inorganic salts as a final coating unworkable due to two reasons. Firstly, Natrium Chloride only provides surface resistance and not vertical resistance, which is a requirement of the new EN standard, and secondly, the new standard’s minimum requirements for the electrostatic properties of protective gloves set a relative humidity of 25%, compared with the previous standard of 50%, a condition where the salt coating will completely evaporate. As an alternative, internal anti-static agents such as carbon black dispersions or metal fibres can be dissolved in latex. However, the concentration of these additives in latex varies from 5% to 25% per compound, which inevitably results in a requirement to make major changes to glove manufacturing processes. Up until recently, there were no conductive additives available to glove manufacturers that could both meet the new EN16350:2014 standard and which could be easily implemented in existing manufacturing processes. Laboratory tests have demonstrated the efficacy of SWCNTs, with ultra-low loadings of 0.05% or less required to achieve the necessary level of conductivity. Embedded into latex, SWCNTs with high aspect ratio are capable of forming inter-connected networks between rubber matrix and carbon nanotubes. Therefore, a lower loading of such materials can provide the required electrical conductivity and simultaneously retain the mechanical properties of the elastomeric matrix, which makes them ideal for such applications. Years of studies have proven the significant conductive capabilities of SWCNTs. However, up until recently the lack of availability of SWCNTs in large

CURRENTLY AVAILABLE

RESULTS WITH SWCNT

Specific resistivity level

107–1011 Ω*m

102–108 Ω*m

Concentration of conductive fillers

>5%

0.03–0.075

Negative impact on mechanical properties

yes

no

Colour

yes

no

quantities at a consistent quality, made mass application difficult and cost prohibitive. In 2013, global chemical company OCSiAl developed a patented technology for single wall carbon nanotube synthesis, enabling large-scale commercial use for the first time. Graphetron 1.0 is the world’s first mass-production SWCNT reactor, enabling the creation of high quality single wall carbon nanotubes that are cost-competitive with standard conductive additives for a wide range of applications. RESULTS AT A GLANCE

The enchancements in parameters of latex after the implementation of SWCNT

Electrical resistivity <106 Ω*m

When embedded directly into the latex matrix, single wall carbon nanotubes create an additional highly conductive 3D network and provide uniform vertical conductivity.

No change in manufacturing technology processes

Water-based suspensions with high-quality dispersions of carbon nanotubes and latex-friendly chemicals provide compatibility with standard processes and equipment.

Ultra-low concentrations retain colour

Effective concentrations of single wall carbon nanotubes from 0.03% to 0.05% makes it possible to maintain bright colours in the end product, unlike most alternative conductive additives.

Developed specifically for each type of latex

Different types of surfactants were added to SWCNT dispersions to more effectively introduce single wall carbon nanotubes into natural and synthetic latex matrices.

Improved mechanical properties

Single wall carbon nanotubes create a strengthened network that intertwines with the composite matrix and reinforces the latex structure without critically impacting plasto-elastic properties.

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Rubber Journal Asia Gloves OCSiAl provides single wall carbon nanotube products under the trade name TUBALL, which contain 75% or more of SWCNT. To simplify its delivery into the matrix of different types of latex, a water-based suspension called TUBALL LATEX was developed, which features high quality dispersed carbon nanotubes and latex-friendly chemicals. An ultra-low concentration of SWCNT (0.03%0.06%) means both the production technology and formulation can remain the same.

CONTROL 0.03% 0.06% 0.1% SWCNT SWCNT SWCNT Latex

Experimental data on SWCNT introduction into latex matrix n order to evaluate the effects of SWCNT as a solution to provide conductivity in latex, a series of trials on a natural rubber-based composite, which was prepared with SWCNT using the latex stage mixing method, was conducted using a natural medium modulus natural latex (CL60) formulation with the addition of SWCNT water-based suspension via a standard mixing procedure. Nanotubes were dispersed in water utilising ultra-sonication and stabilised by adding a special surfactant. Natural rubber latex, consisting of 60% dry rubber content (DRC) and 61.2% total solids content (TSC) was purchased from Thai Rubber Latex Corporation (Thailand). TUBALL SWCNTs commercially produced by OCSiAl using the catalytic CVD method 3 were used in the trials. The diameter of one tube is 1.6±0.4 nm and the length of CNT >5 microns. To ensure the uniform distribution of SWCNT in water, an ultra-sonic disperser was used. Sodium poly [(naphthalene formaldehyde) sulphonate] and Sodium dodecyl benzenesulphonate were used as dispersants. Other components of the latex formulation were commercial grade. To prepare the water-based dispersion with 0.2wt.% of SWCNT the following were used: TUBALL – 0.2 wt.%, Distilled water – 98.8 wt.%, Surfactant* – Sodium poly[(naphthalene formaldehyde)sulphonate] (or leukanol) – 0.75 wt. %, Surfactant* – Sodium dodecyl benzenesulphonate – 0.25 wt.%. A mechanical mixer with water cooling tank was used for heat absorption and pre-mixing of the SWCNTs. After mechanical mixing, Sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate was added into suspension, dissolved and dispersed by ultra-sonication. The total power of the treatment of suspension using the ultra-sonic disperser was 2W · h/ml. The tests found that the required amount of the SWCNT-based suspension depends on the solid rubber content of latex and the final formulation. The table below (3) shows the amount of SWCNTbased 0.2% suspension that was added to the latex to prepare dipping solutions with loading levels of SWCNT from 0.03 weight % to 0.1 weight % (based

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167.00

167.00

167.00

167.00

SWCNT Suspension 50% ZnO dispersion

15.00

30.00

50.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

50% ZDC dispersion

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

50% Sulphur dispersion

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

106.56

115.56

124.56

135.56

Total

Recipe of natural latex based mixtures (Table 3)

on the solid rubber content). Aqueous dispersions of ZnO, ZDC and sulphur were prepared by ball milling using ceramic balls. Latex was mixed using an overhead stirrer at a speed that ensured thorough mixing of the entire latex mass simultaneously. All chemical components were added in accordance with standard processes and mixed. The SWCNT suspension was gradually introduced into the latex at a steady speed until the uniform grey colour was achieved. The samples were laid onto petri dishes, dried and subsequently cured. The electrical conductivity of the vulcanised films was measured in accordance with EN 16350:2014 standard. Surface resistivity/resistance (Ω) was measured in ohm along the surface of the material, between two specified electrodes (resting on the test specimen) and a potential of 100±5V. Vertical resistance was measured in ohm through a material, between two electrodes placed on opposite surfaces of the test specimen and a potential of 100±5V. Measurements of electrical conductivity were made at the temperature 23°C (± 1°C) and humidity level 25% (± 5%). The size of the sample was 40 x 15 x 1.8 mm.

CONCENTRATION OF SWCNT IN NATURAL LATEX. PHR

ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY. Ω*m

Control

>108

0.03

3.6x106

0.06

4.3x105

0.1

2.4x105

Electrical resistivity of natural latex based films with different load of SWCNT

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Rubber Journal Asia Tyre Market Gloves

+30%

property improvements by reinforcing the latex +21% +19% structure even at extremely low concentrations. As low as 0.03% to 0.06% SWCNT, depending on the type of latex, provides a vertical resistance level of 1x10 6 Ω to 1x10 4 Ω, more than sufficient to ensure compliance with the new EN16350:2014 requirements, whilst simultaneously maintaining Ultimate Tensile strength, M100, M300, colour brightness. elongation, % MPa MPa MPa Different water-based systems with dispersed nanotubes can be used for various latex formulations. Masterbatches can No CNT added be introduced into natural and synthetic latex 0.03% CNT matrices at the compound mixing stage without any Additionally, the mechanical properties of the additional procedures, making SWCNT a ‘readyvulcanised films were measured using a Shimatzu to-use’ conductive additive suitable for use in the AGS-X 2, 5 kN machine. Tests were made on a film manufacturing of anti-static and ESD gloves, such thickness of 0.18 mm. After assessing the mechanical as cleanroom, industrial and knitted latex coated, properties of medium modulus natural latex before supported and unsupported gloves. and after applying 0.03 wt. % of SWCNT to the solid content of latex, it was found that the tensile modulus TYPE OF LATEX VERTICAL M100 increased by 21%, and M300 by 30%. Tensile RESISTANCE LEVEL strength also improved by 19%, while stretching at Natural latex Film 0.03% of break remained unchanged. These results are fully 1X105 Ω•m compliant with the philosophy about the reinforcement TUBALL mechanism of SWCNT. Nitrile latex Film 0.05% of 1X104 Ω•m Performance benefits of SWCNT as the next-generation TUBALL conductive additive for latex gloves he high length-to-diameter ratio of SWCNTs Supported Nitrile Glove 0.06% 1X106 Ω•m creates an additional reinforcement net with of TUBALL nanotubes linked to macromolecules of latex and to other nanotubes. Due to the strengthened connection Vertical resistance level of latex with different amount of SWCNT within rubber matrix, SWCNT delivers exceptional The use of single wall carbon nanotubes as a chemical and mechanical properties that far outstrip conductive additive enables manufacturers to offer those provided by carbon black and other alternative high quality anti-static and ESD latex gloves that meet additives. the vertical resistance level requirements set out in The EN388 standard covers the test requirements EN16350:2014 Standard, simultaneously maintaining their for safety gloves and requires gloves to be scored mechanical properties. Producers in the Asia-Pacific region for blade cut resistance, abrasion resistance, tear have successfully conducted trials and launched pilot-scale resistance and puncture resistance. The majority production, without changing technology or formulation. of conductive additives negatively impact a product’s mechanical properties. In contrast, For more information, visit www.ocsial.com or email SWCNT suspensions provide significant physical latex@ocsial.com

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T

1 World Industrial gloves Market: Global Industry Analysis and Forecast to 2021 (Allied Market Research); OCSiAl. 2

Personal Protective Equipment Directive 89/656/EEC, 1989.

3

Pat. 2478572 RF: IPC B 82 Y 40/00 (2011); Pat. 8551413 B2 USA: IPC B 01 J 19/08 (2013).

7 S E P T E M B E R 2 016

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