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ACCORDING TO ANCIENT CUSTOM The Discovery of Thynghowe and the 1816 Perambulation of the Lordship of Warsop, Nottinghamshire. By Stuart C. Reddish and Lynda Mallett Based on a paper presented at the National Museum of Iceland, Reykjavik, in collaboration with Thingvellir National Park. March 9, 2012

We have a bit of an historical problem, the romantic story of Robin Hood. Around the world the story of Robin and his band of outlaws is what everyone associates with when they hear the name of Sherwood Forest. Robin and his merry band are a great attraction and evoke a by-gone age but the story has taken over and diverted attention away from any real history. But now from the depths of Sherwood Forest a hidden history, one that has only recently been discovered, is beginning to emerge. In 2004 we acquired a number of old documents. Among them was an original account of the 1816 Lordship of Warsop Boundary Perambulation1. This document described how a number of local people and jurors, walked the boundary of the Lordship and engaged in marking it in different ways to make it memorable. Included in this account was a simple reference, 'according to ancient custom', describing the act of historical assembly on a place called Hanger Hill. This assembly of the people of Warsop included the 'drinking of ale and the eating of bread and cheese brought from the village; and the running of races'. The document also identified the special significance of this particular place by mention of three stones on the summit, two boundary stones and an unmarked standing stone. In 2005 we relocated this 'meeting' place and could identify it by the presence of the stones as recorded in the perambulation document. At that stage the site had been absorbed into the middle of dense forest, and lost to community memory. When we searched the archives and records we discovered that this site, up until the early 1600's, had been called Thynghowe, and the unmarked stone was called the Birklands 1. 1816 Lordship of Warsop Boundary Perambulation, Original Manuscript, Private Collection, Stuart Reddish & Lynda Mallett.

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Forest Stone2. Thynghowe then seems to have had its name changed as on all future maps it became Hanger Hill. This appears to coincide with estates around Sherwood Forest passing from Crown ownership to ducal ownership and Hanger Hill is therefore the name by which it is known today. Hanger Hill is also significant as being a possible derivation of 'haugr' meaning in Old Norse (ON) a mound or barrow, or a 'hangra' a steeply wooded declivity. Realising the significance of a Thyng (or Thing) as a Viking assembly site, we knew we were looking at a possible Danish Viking or Dane-law assembly site in Sherwood Forest. This was a part of the forest history that had never been recorded before. Also, this site appeared to have undergone little change over time apart from being reclaimed by the forest. We have from the start included local people in all aspects of the research. Recognising the significance of the site and the part it had once played in the cultural history of the local communities we invited a group to accompany us to Thynghowe to decide how we could protect it. We formed a Friends group from the three local history groups and began to survey, research and record all that we found. Our members have also created a Thynghowe Trail with way-mark posts and accompanying leaflets. To support this ongoing work we developed a website and now use social networking through a 'blogspot' and a presence on 'facebook'. Throughout the landscape research of the site we have been supported by the Forestry Commission who manage Birklands, this part of Sherwood Forest, on behalf of the Welbeck Estate. We benefited in our early days by being involved with the Sheffield Hallam University project to develop The Heritage Woodland Manual3. Our site became one of eight case-studies and our members received training in landscape investigation and interpretation as part of the Woodland Heritage Champions Project. We have linked with various other organisations and projects to network and gain as much knowledge as we can about 'Thing' sites throughout Northern Europe and Scandinavia. Through our association with the international THING project 4 we have given presentations in Shetland and Orkney5 and the 2 1609 Sherwood Forest Survey. Original PRO Kew, Copy Nottinghamshire Archive 3 The Heritage Woodland Manual, A Volunteers' Guide to Investigating Ancient Seminatural Woodlands in England. Wildtrack Publishing 2007 4 THING project. Northern Periphery Progamme 2009-2012 5 Viking Assembly Site Discovery in Sherwood Forest. Stuart Reddish & Lynda Mallett. Conference Proceeding: 04/2010; In proceeding of: Northern Periphery Programme

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Faeroe Islands6, and also visited the Gulatinget site in Norway. We have then linked information and opinion back to our Thynghowe site. Through networking at the THING conferences we were able to collaborate with the University College London's research on The Landscapes of Governance who carried out an acoustics and magnetometer survey of the site. We were also supported by Nottinghamshire County Council funding, and the County Archaeologists and Friends of Thynghowe members carried out a topographical survey in January 2011 7. This revealed some very interesting and exciting anomalies which we are still researching. The perambulation document enabled the re-discovery of a significant number of ancient Forest stones and parish boundary markers, many boundary features were discovered deep in the undergrowth. It was through re-engaging with the significance of the site and its relation to boundaries that a further consideration had to be made to its topographical situation with regard to Kingdom boundaries. At various times in history the boundaries of Northumbria and Mercia had been disputed through the area. The battle now thought to have been fought at Cuckney (Hatfield) between King Edwin and Penda is testimony to this. Also, the border between the Kingdom of York and the Five Boroughs of the Dane-law could have been here. The site itself is at the point where three boundaries meet; the Parish of Edwinstowe, the Lordship of Warsop and the Township of Budby. Researching the archives, libraries and private collections has provided the earliest record of Thynghowe we have found (so far) to around 1251. In this Forest Book it records a Royal Survey and perambulation in Birklands8 identifying the name and the hilltop in relation to other recognisable topographical features recorded along the boundary of Sherwood Forest. The significance of the status of a royal hunting forest plays a part in the recording of the laws and practises of the Forest and the importance of deer management within its boundaries. It also explains why the site has not been subject to normal farming THING project 6 Viking Law Thing Discovery in Robin Hoods Sherwood Forest. Stuart Reddish & Lynda Mallett Conference Proceeding: 10/2010; In proceeding of: Thing Sites International Networking Group 7 A Topographic Earthwork Survey of Thynghowe Hanger Hill Nottinghamshire. Andy Gaunt Community Archaeology Nottinghamshire County Council 2011 8 Forest Book, Bromley House Library, Nottingham

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development since the time of the Norman Conquest. An adjacent deer park at Kings' Clipstone, used often by King John, ensured its desired use for future centuries. We are fortunate to have discovered maps containing details showing the significance of the site both as Thynghowe and more recently as Hanger Hill. A map of Nottinghamshire in the 14th century, from the archives of the Duke of Rutland, clearly shows the King's deer parks and Thynghowe, giving Thynghowe more status than nearby villages which are not recorded9. Various Royal Forest Surveys have recorded landscape places and features. The 1606-1609 survey clearly shows Thynghowe, the Birklands Forest Stone and the Warsop Lordship Boundary as it still is today. Thynghough Assarts are clearly shown on 17th century estate maps. There was then the renaming on maps to Hanger Hill, but still, it was recorded in preference to some nearby village names. The name ‘Sherwood’ was first recorded in 958AD when it was called Sciryuda, meaning ‘the woodland belonging to the shire’. It became a Royal hunting Forest after the Norman invasion of 1066. It was popular with many Norman and Plantagenet kings, particularly King John and Edward I. The ruins of King John’s hunting lodge can still be seen at the village of King's Clipstone only 3 miles from Thynghowe. This site is also under current research and may reveal new information in the near future. Many of the place names that are recorded in the landscape of the area of Sherwood Forest are of Scandinavian origin. There was a period of initial conflict that took place in Nottinghamshire between the Anglo-Saxons and the Vikings. It may have begun with Ivor the Boneless in 846, who fought a battle where Nottingham now stands, and continued when land in the Sherwood area was given to 1,500 Viking militia to create homesteads10. The creation of a Wapentac (wapentake) would have been likely in order to accommodate the development of communities whilst populating the area and dividing up the land. Whilst previously, local historians felt there may have been an Anglo-Saxon Moot at this site, there is now the consideration to be made to the indication that the Viking Danish WarriorFarmers, may have chosen the area of Sherwood Forest because 9 Duke of Rutland Archive Belvoir Castle 10 Anglo-Saxon England Sir Frank Stenton

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of its geology, and were the first to create an assembly here. Bunter Sandstone was regarded as marginal farming land and was therefore sparsely populated. This decision for the Viking Danish settlement in this area could have been a deliberate choice to limit the Viking Danish settlers from coming into direct conflict with Anglo-Saxon farmers. The Anglo-Saxon's had already developed farming communities along the fertile Trent River Valley. It is therefore unlikely that a major moot would have already existed on this site before the arrival of the Viking Danes. The Viking site of Thynghowe could have evolved later into a Kingdom boundary assembly or developed as a Shire-moot in Shirewood as part of the 'Hundred' system. The Dane-law was established in Nottinghamshire probably from the late 800's onwards to its formal recognition in the early part of the 11 th century11, the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw, which included Nottinghamshire, being recognised as a separate administrative area. Our conjecture is that Thynghowe was a significant meeting and assembly place during the period of Viking Danish settlement. The site may also have continued in use for assemblies under the Normans as part of the Royal Forest administration. There are references to the resistance of the local free peasantry to the implementation of Norman Forest Law over the freedoms of the Sokemen of the area and that may have provided many causes of dispute that were arbitrated at an assembly. The need for a continuing assembly may be acknowledged, as Thynghowe is recorded as being on the Forest boundary in 1251 four hundred years after the first possible Viking Danish occupation of Birklands. Thynghowe is marked significantly on a 14th century map of deer parks in northern Nottinghamshire, and again four hundred years later in 1609 during a further Forest survey. Thynghowe probably enjoyed continued use as meeting place until at least our last written record in 1816. Soon after that date Enclosure or Inclosure Acts changed the use of the landscape and forest management intensified. The Welbeck Estate and the 4th Duke of Portland began a complete re-planting of Birklands in 1823 to create much of the layout of the forest as we see it today12. The Friends of Thynghowe were awarded ÂŁ50,000 by the 11 Anglo Saxon England Sir Frank Stenton 12 William Speechley: the planting of Birklands Sherwood Forest. Stuart Reddish Forthcoming.

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Heritage Lottery Fund in 2011. This recent project undertook a LiDAR survey of the forest to try and capture data that would possibly reveal more archaeology around the site of Thynghowe. Again, it is the priority of the research to involve as many members of the community as possible by undertaking workshops and training with local people and to introduce them to this new history of Sherwood Forest. There is also a commitment to a full program of dissemination of the research in all forms of media. This will include upgrading the website, extending social media access, publishing educational materials, promoting the cultural heritage through talks and displays, and compiling an academic report. Each historical feature is, and will be, plotted and recorded bringing together a better understanding of the forest. All the initial survey work was undertaken by local volunteers and will be added to by others recruited during the Heritage Lottery funded project. This includes the full extent of the Birklands forest and includes recording the possible site of a 13th century chantry for King (Saint) Edwin of Northumbria, who died in battle locally in the 636; a 19th century water meadows scheme developed by the Duke of Portland; centuries of woodland management features; and Ministry of Defence World War II archaeology. The topographical survey undertaken by the County archaeologists gave us the opportunity to look at Thynghowe in relation to the surrounding landscape and define the area from which Thynghowe would have been clearly visible. When cleared of tree cover Thynghowe could have been seen from many miles away especially towards the old Roman river crossing of the Trent at Littleborough and the Viking Danish winter camp at Torksey (winter 872-3) also on the River Trent. The summit results show a number of raised features. The hilltop has been steepened. Two of the three boundary stones which once stood at the summit have been moved. The much older Birklands Forest Stone still appears to be in its original place but the hilltop site may have used a large existing evergreen holly clone13 as a landmark feature14. The mound can be seen to dominate the skyline and is a prominent feature when viewed from its surroundings. The wider occupation of this area dates 13 Ilex aquifolium 14 Significant Trees Of Birklands Lynda Mallett Forthcoming

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back to the Bronze Age and this hill top would have been a prominent feature then. Our recent topographical survey also shows other earthwork features on the site. When taken together some of the features could suggest an outline of a 'Court Circle' which is adjacent to the raised mound or possible 'Law Rock'. These underlying features could be much older and possibly date from the Bronze Age. Our current project will supply LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data at half metre detail. This will assist in the location of features previously unknown and unrecorded such as the possible relationship between the Court Circle and a distinct enclosure at the side of Thynghowe and a wider Iron Age landscape and field system. We will be also be examining the wider site for the presence of 'booth's' (or buรฐs in Icelandic Norse) found alongside Thing sites such as at Thingvellir in Iceland. The name of the township boundary of Budby or Buรฐby at the Thynghowe summit indicates the farm of the booths in Icelandic Norse. Our project includes a final celebration event in May 2013 and will be a Viking Living History Camp in Sherwood Pines a large forested venue close to Thynghowe. We will recreate a Viking Spring Thing assembly and wapentake to show what such an assembly might have looked like, with displays and demonstrations. We want to recreate the sounds, sights and smells of a Viking settlement under the Danelaw in Sherwood Forest in order to convey some of the intangible cultural heritage of the area. We all love the famous Robin Hood of Sherwood Forest, and the image of an outlaw helping the poor stand up to their oppressors, is a stirring and inspiring story. But, what we have uncovered in the last few years is a story of Sherwood Forest that is indeed real. Thynghowe is a place of assembly and a place of territorial organisation, but also it is a place of dispute resolution. In Sherwood Forest over 1000 years ago there was the possible beginnings and extension of democracy in England. The Danelaw was recognised as being different and inclusive of a free peasantry and that may have given cause for democratic influences to go far beyond our own shores. Because of this, like the stories of Robin Hood, the history of Thynghowe is stirring and very inspiring.

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The Manor of Warsop Perambulation Verdict Dated 26 July 1816 At a Court Leet and Great Court Baron of Henry Gally Knight Esquire held in and for his said Manor at Warsop aforesaid on the 5th day of July in the 56th year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord George the Third by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland King Defender of the Faith and in the year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Sixteen and thence adjourned to the same place on the twenty sixth day of the same month of July before Isaac Wilson Gentleman Steward of the Courts of the said Manor. We the undersigned being the jurors of the said Court then and there duly sworn Do present that we met pursuant to the summons of the said Steward of the aforesaid Court and to Public Advertisement and other Notices thereof given on the said fifth day of July now instant and again on this twenty sixth day of the same July for the purpose of Perambulating the Boundaries of the said Manor of Warsop And that we did accordingly Perambulate the Boundaries of the said Manor in the course and direction herein after mentioned and described and which We do hereby declare and present to be the Boundaries of the same Manor as follows (that is to say) We commenced our perambulation at the top of Sand Hill North of the Town of Warsop aforesaid in the Public Highroad from Warsop to Worksop in the said County where part of us the said Jurors proceeded in Eastwardly Direction to Perambulate what is usually called the Forest Round and other part of us in a Westerly Direction to perambulate what is usually called the Wood Round and all of us met at a Stone within the said Manor near a Farm House and Farm called Pea Field where the said Manor adjoins to the Township of Mansfield Woodhouse in the same County And the following are the boundaries of the said Forest Round viz + / ii From the said Sandhill near which on the East of the said High Road a Cross was dug at a place called Joseph Stump we proceeded in an Eastwardly direction along the ends of some Closes of East Bathurst in the occupation of John Presley in the direction of an ancient Lane or Bridle Road the right to which was asserted by cutting the bark of some Larch trees which had been planted within the said Manor by the said Earl and making 8


According to Ancient Custom.

way through some fences which had been improperly set across such ancient Road and thence to the Western Hedge of the farm called Gleadthorpe belonging to his Grace the Duke of Portland and in a Northern Direction along such Hedge and thence turning in an Easterly Direction to the Public Lane leading from Gleadthorpe to Cuckney the middle of which Lane at that place being the boundary of the said Manor Thence in an Easterly direction until the boundary turns nearly at right angles in a Southwardly direction by the side of a Plantation of the said Duke and thence to Gleadthorpe Gate where a cross was dug and at a short distance turned in an Eastwardly direction over Norton Forest Having on our Right the Hedge of Gleadthorpe Farm which at that place bounds the Manor Thence to Hazel Gap to the lately made Turnpike Road from Budby to Cresswell then turning in a Southerly direction by the side of the Hedge of Gleadthorpe Farm until a Cross was dug at a place where the boundary turns in a Southwesterly direction leaving Gleadthorpe Farm on the right through a plantation upon Budby Forest planted by Earl Manvers and thence along the South East Side of Gleadthorpe Farm the Hedge of which again becomes the Boundary to a River called the River Maid which at that place bounds the Manor for about one hundred yards and then through part of the Gleadthorpe Farm where Budby Forest is the Boundary - A Cross was dug at the North East Side of that River which the Boundary crosses at that place - And after crossing such River proceeded in a Southern and South Westerly direction around that part of Gleadthorpe Farm the Hedge of which again becoming there the Boundary of the Manor until we arrived at a very ancient Boundary stone set upon Budby Forest said to be the Stone set to mark the extent of Budby Township and which Stone William Wilkinson one of the Jury aged seventy five years deposed that he recollected being there ever since he could remember anything and he was born within the Manor of Warsop no letter or Mark now appears on this Stone From that Stone proceeded almost at right angles in a Southerly direction where Gleadthorpe is again the Boundary Crosses were dug at the last Stone and at the turn We then proceeded in a Southwesterly direction skirting the ancient wood of Birkland Bilhaugh which is to our left about a quarter of a mile is a Boundary Stone and turning towards the right is another boundary Stone where on a W is carved on the side next Warsop thence along the North West side until we 9


According to Ancient Custom.

arrived at a place called Hanger Hill where on stands a Plantation of Earl Manvers upon which Hill stand three Boundary Stones one of them is marked with the letter E on the side next Edwinstowe where the Boundaries meet another without a letter and another carved with the letter W on the side next Warsop being the Warsop Boundary Stone upon this Hanger Hill according to ancient custom Bread and Cheese and Ale brought from Warsop were given away to a number of Persons from Warsop who had Assembled there and also to a number of Boys who ran Races for it stood upon their heads in the crosses which were dug [XE] as Memorials of the Boundary particularly Francis Wardley [?] a boy about ten years of age who won the race From this place we proceeded to another Boundary Stone whereon a W is carved on the Warsop side which stands under a very ancient Oak Tree apparently as old as the most ancient tree in Birkland *Billhaugh* which Tree is remarkable as being the only ancient Oak Tree *in Birkland* which remains standing within the Manor of Warsop - Proceeding thence a little farther towards the South West to another Boundary Stone where a cross was dug and it appears to have been the ancient Custom to dig a cross at that Stone which is called the Golden Cross said to be so called by an Old Man of the name of George Johnson putting a Golden guinea upon the Stone on which he made a boy stand upon his head and rewarded him with the gold - thence proceeded in a Westerly direction to another Boundary stone marked W and afterwards in the same direction to another and thence to a Guide Post standing on the open Forest which appears to stand near the Junction of the Three Townships of Edwinstowe Clipston and Warsop and there is a Boundary Stone with an E on the Edwinstowe side [**] that Guide Post appears by the inscriptions thereon to be two miles from Edwinstowe and four from Ollerton and the Arms denote the roads To Edwinstowe To Ollerton To Warsop and To Mansfield Woodhouse about one hundred and fifty yards to the West of this Guide Post at a place where the Boundaries of Edwinstowe Clipston and Warsop Meet the Letter W was dug upon the Turf and the Letter E appearing to have been recently dug on an Edwinstowe Perambulation was filled up as being considered as an Encroachment upon Warsop from this place proceeded to Clipston Park Pales at or near to a place called the old Womans Grave where a Poor Woman of the name of Wass who had hung herself was buried - proceeded 10


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thence in a Westerly and South Westerly direction still along the Open Forest in some parts of which the Middle between two ancient Banks appears to be the Boundary in corroboration of which some years ago a man of the name of George Unwin was prosecuted for killing rabbits within Clipston and that the Matter was contested at Law they were convicted because it appeared in Evidence that they were a yard or two on the Clipston side of the Midway between those two Banks and we proceeded thence in a Direction nearly due West along the Side of Clipston Park Pales passing on the Northern Side of a very ancient Oak Tree standing in those Pales call'd Parliament Oak under the Branches of which Tradition says the Ancient Barons met and brought King John (the few remains of whose palace stand at Clipston) to those Terms which laid the Foundation of that Great Charter of our Liberties called "Magna Charta" which History informs us was afterwards signed at Runnymede - And we ended our Perambulation of this round of the Manor near a Farm House and Farm (belonging to Henry Gally Knight the Lord of this Manor now in the Possession of Daniel Newton) called Pea Field as before mentioned near which place the boundary of this Manor adjoins the Township of Mansfield Woodhouse aforesaid - And where according to ancient Custom we met those Jurors who had perambulated that part of this Manor called the Wood Round as aforesaid - the following are the Boundaries of that Part of the said Manor of Warsop Perambulated also at the same time called aforesaid the Wood Round (viz) from the aforesaid Sand Hill near the Cross dug on the East of the High Road from Warsop to Worksop at the said place called Joseph Stump as aforesaid, part of us the said Jurors proceeded on such Perambulation in a Westwardly direction in the said Wood Round along the outside of the Fence dividing the Estate of the said Earl Lord Bathurst (in the occupation of Mrs Nuttal) and the Estate of Henry Gally Knight Esquire (in the occupation of Mr Davis) for about a mile when we come to a Wood called Collier Spring Wood and Cuckney Hay Wood where a Cross was dug then we proceeded nearly in like direction thro that Wood along a Bank that bounds the several Parishes of Warsop and Langwith till we come into certain Land called Minster Land in the occupation of Mr Beeston where another Cross was dug Then continuing in the like direction thro a Wood called Lord Stubbings on the inside of the Fence which bounds the Estates of the said Earl Henry Gally 11


According to Ancient Custom.

Knight (in the occupation Mr Edeson) for about half a mile where a Cross was dug, Then in a Southerly direction for about half a mile along the Fence bounding the Estates of the said Henry Gally Knight and the Duke of Devonshire when we came to a certain Fence which divides the Parish of Shirebrooke and the Estate of the said Henry Gally Knight Leaving that Fence we proceeded along the Fence bounding the Duke of Portlands Estate and Shirebrooke and then crossed a Road called Carter Lane Road and continued nearly in the same direction for about half a mile when we again entered the Estate of the said Henry Gally Knight called Storth and proceeded along the Boundary Fence of Shirebrooke and the said Henry Gally Knights Estate for about half a mile Then crossed Wood Lane and went in a Southerly direction for nearly a mile along the Fence bounding the Estates of the Duke of Portland (in the occupation of Richard Eyre) and of Edward Greaves Esquire (in his own possession) and went round a Wood called Hind Carr Wood when we came to the Estate of General Hall on both sides the boundary Fence then inclining to the South East we proceeded until we came to the Garden Wall of the said General Hall Thence along the side of that Wall in a similar direction to a Thorn Tree standing nearly in the middle of the Field Fronting the House of the said General Hall on which a mark was made and continued in the same direction down to the Lake of said General Hall which we crossed just on the right of a Little Island therein to an Oak Tree standing in the middle of the opposite field also belonging and in the Possession of said General Hall Thence along some Thorn Bushes in the same field to the Boundary Stone standing on the North side of the Mansfield Road dividing the Parishes of Mansfield Woodhouse and Warsop where a cross was dug We then crossed that road to an Ash Tree (on which a cross was made) standing nearly opposite the said Boundary Stone into a Close of the said Henry Gally Knight occupied by Mr Newton and thence in an Easterly direction over that Close to an Ash Tree standing in the Fence bounding the Estate of the said Henry Gally Knight and Warsop Forest where a Cross was also dug and along that Fence in a similar direction to a Lane called Stubbing Lane where a cross was dug and we continued along the side of the same Fence to a corner of the Forest called Pea Field Corner near to the aforesaid Farm-house and Farm called Pea Field where (according to ancient custom) we met those Jurors who 12


According to Ancient Custom.

had perambulated that part of the Manor called the Forest Round as aforesaid - and on this twenty sixth of the same July we the said Jurors again met pursuant to adjournment and we went to the said Pea Field Farm and in a Valley near such Farm commonly called Smale Dale (where this Manor adjoins the Township of Mansfield Woodhouse) a cross was Dug about seven yards on the South side of a Gate in Clipstone Park Pales leading into Clipston Park from which Cross we proceeded through the same Valley in a Westerly direction to the Hedge which divides the said Pea Field Farm from the open Forest where another Cross was dug and ten other Crosses were likewise dug between the first Cross and this Cross to denote the Boundary of this Manor and the Letter to commemorate the same a stone was set down at the first of the said Crosses near the Clipstone Park Pales whereon the Letter W. was carved on the side next Warsop and in the course of the perambulation two Stones respectively marked "M. W." and appearing to be set down by persons of Mansfield Woodhouse were Dug up and broken as being within and encroachments upon this Manor - And we the said Jurors then and there completed our perambulation of this Manor of Warsop and do give and declare this writing to be a true and lawful presentment of the boundaries of the same Manor accordingly And pray that the same may be kept along with our verdict hereunto annexed by the Steward among the proceedings of the Courts of this Manor. The Jurors above mentioned were directed in boundary of this Manor where the same adjoins the town ship of Mansfield Woodhouse at or near a place called Smale Dale by the undersigned William Featherstone aged 72 years and James Hind aged 76 both of Warsop aforesaid who were brought up there from infants and (who had several times previously perambulated the boundaries of the same Manor more than forty years ago) and by John Barlow of the same place aged 76 years who had known this Manor from a child and to whom the above description of the boundary there of where the same adjoins the township of Mansfield Woodhouse as aforesaid was read over in the presence of the said Jurors And they and each of them the said William Featherstone James Hind and John Barlow Having been first sworn in court do depose and declare such boundary As witness the hands of us the said Jurors this said twenty sixth day of July in the 56th year of George III 1816 13


According to Ancient Custom.

John Featherstone Robert Jackson Samuel Davy Henry Davy Val Hodgson William Warren Emanuel Burrows Thomas Bowler Samuel Featherstone Samuel Turner William Robinson John Duckmanton William Beeston Jnr William Wilkinson

George Brummitt William Beeston Snr Thomas Smith John Eyre Henry Reynolds Jnr Henry Reynolds Thomas Hallifax Nathan Jackson Charles See William Wright John Bowett John Hawksley James Hind George Eamon

To be true to the best of their knowledge and information Signed William Featherstone James Hind John Barlow Witness Wilson

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Archive Research Sources for further information http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/manuscriptsandspecialcollections/index.aspx Document Ref MS 72 Ref No Show full catalogue for this collection Title Forest Books relating to Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire, c.1700-1744 Dates Of Creation 1700-1744 Extent 2 volumes Abstract The collection contains two manuscript forest books relating to the administration and legislation of Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire. One of the volumes is based on 17th century material, the other volume is 18th century. Admin History The first volume in this collection (MS 72/1) was apparently compiled as a precedent book for reference by local forest officials. It was suggested by Helen Boulton, in 'The Sherwood Forest Book', Thoroton Society Record Series: volume 23 (Nottingham: Thoroton Society, 1965), that the volume dates to 'before 1680', and could have been compiled by or for William Cartwright, gentleman of Southwell, who was appointed keeper of the walk of Farnsfield in Sherwood in 1673, and whose deputy was one of the Warren family. However, the first 61 folios are written in a lawyer's hand of the early to mideighteenth century. The remainder, following straight on from the first hand, is in a round hand of similar date. The book was transcribed in the early twentieth century by W.A. James, prebendary of South Muskham, who dated it at 'about 1700-1725 by the writing and contents of the book'. It is possible that it is a slightly later copy of a compilation created in the seventeenth century. The second volume (MS 72/2), written in 1744, has similarities with the first, but has additional entries suggesting that it was compiled by an antiquarian with an interest in Sherwood Forest, rather than as a working document. There is nothing within the volume to identify the compiler. Custodial History MS 72/1 is is marked with the signature of Richard Becher [of South Muskham, d 1800], in a different hand from the rest of the text. By 1880 it was in the possession of the Carding family of Combs Farm, Farnsfield, descendents of the Warren family of the same place. The Warren family had been for many years connected with the forest. It is probably a coincidence that a Michael Carding or Carden was deputy keeper of Roomwood and Osland from around 1665 to at least 1673. MS 72/2 bears the book plates of the naturalist Salvin Osbert (1835-1898), and of an unidentified individual named James Comerford, with the family motto 'So Ho Ho Dea Ne' [Comerford family of Kilkenny, Ireland]. The volumes were acquired by the library of The University of Nottingham in 1952 and 1955. Scope And Content The collection comprises two manuscript volumes bound in leather, relating to the administration and legislation of Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire. The volumes include copies of statutes and ordinances, perambulations of forest bounds, inquisitions, examples of writs, chapters of regard, and extracts from the forest eyres. Matters such as the status of people living in the forest, felling of trees, hunting of animals, and boundary marks are discussed. Names of places and people associated with the forest are occasionally given. Both volumes are based on earlier forest books, particularly the late-fifteenth century Middleton Forest Book also held at The University of Nottingham, and also transcribe authenticated copies of the public records in London (now held at The National Archives), sent to Nottinghamshire. The identity of the compilers of both volumes is unknown. The first volume (MS 72/1), containing 147 folios of text and a further c.100 folios of blank pages, begins with the following statement: 'A forest book containing the laws, statutes and ordinances of the forest of Sherwood in the County of Nottingham'. The first 54 folios contain the same material as the Middleton Forest Book and parts of the early-seventeenth century Forest Book in The National Archives (Exchequer KR Accounts Various 534/1). It

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According to Ancient Custom. then goes on to include other material of later date. The latest dated item is dated 1666. The volume is accompanied by four items of correspondence, 1903-1953, relating to its loan to various people for study purposes. It is sometimes known as 'The Carding Forest Book'. The second volume (MS 72/2) begins with the following statement: 'A book: Concerning the Forest of Sherwood extracted from two old forest books one in the possession of Sir George Savile Bart [this book is now held by Nottinghamshire Archives] and the other of Mr William Watson of Farnsfield [possibly MS 72/1, mentioned above].' The volume is dated 1744 and is written in a single hand of contemporary date. The first 100 pages closely match the first 54 folios of MS 72/1, the Middleton Forest Book and the Exchequer Forest Book. However, it also contains other items suggesting that it was compiled for antiquarian interest rather than working reference. It includes: list of meanings of certain blasts on a hunting horn heard in the forest, terms describing deer and rabbits, descriptions of forest terms and offices, hunting restrictions, plea concerning the Abbey of Rufford, perambulations, and articles. The volume was re-bound, probably in the late eighteenth or early-nineteenth century. At this time, a printed engraving of a deer hunter, published in London in 1782, was inserted at the beginning of the volume. Mgt Group Family and estate collections Mgt Sub Group Nottinghamshire Arrangement No archival arrangement has been necessary. Language English Language Latin Term Forests and forestry - England Nottinghamshire FindingAids This description is the only finding aid available for the volumes. Copyright on the description belongs to The University of Nottingham. Access Conditions Accessible to all registered readers. Copyright Identification of copyright holders of unpublished material is often difficult. Permission to make any published use of any material from the collection must be sought in advance in writing from the Keeper of Manuscripts and Special Collections (email mss-library@nottingham.ac.uk). Reprodn Note Reprographic copies can be supplied for educational use and private study purposes only, depending on access status and the condition of the documents. Condition Good but the cover of MS 72/1 is loose and the binding would benefit from attention. •

• •

• •

Related Material The University of Nottingham; Department of Manuscripts and Special Collections: 'The Middleton Forest Book', 15th-16th century. Reference: Mi L 3/1-2 Related Material Nottinghamshire Archives: 'The Savile Forest Book' and 'The County Forest Book'. 16th-17th century. Related Material British Library: 'The Manvers Forest Book'. 16th century. Reference: Egerton MS 3596 Related Material Bodleian Library, Oxford: Manuscript book relating to Sherwood Forest. 16th-17th century. Reference: Ashmole MS 1145 Related Material The National Archives: Two manuscript books relating to Sherwood Forest. 17th century. Reference: Exchequer KR Accounts Various 534/20, 534/1 Related Material Bromley House Library, Nottingham: Manuscript book relating to Sherwood Forest, 17th-18th century and transcription of MS 72/1 by W.A. James, 1933. Publn Note Helen Boulton, ed., 'The Sherwood Forest Book', Thoroton Society Record Series: volume 23 (Nottingham: Thoroton Society, 1965).

Document Ref Pl C 63/12 Ref No Show full catalogue for this collection Title Copy letter from Joseph Fletcher, Chatsworth, to Mr John Renshaw; 11 May 1792 Dates Of Creation 11.5.1792 Extent 2 ff Content Description Repeats the contents of a letter dated 31 Oct. 1791 relating to the Duke of Portland's rights over various lands in Sherwood Forest and in the manors of Mansfield and Edwinstowe [see Pl C 63/7 above]; explains that Mr Gould has been incapacitated through illness and has requested Mr Fletcher (as his predecessor as land agent at Welbeck) to answer the queries of the 'Commissioners for enquiring into the state and condition of the Forest and Land Revenues of the Crown'; states that the Duke of Portland and his predecessors have exercised their rights over Lindhurst Wood and Nomans Wood in the manors of Mansfield and Woodhouse, and over the Hays of Birkland and

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According to Ancient Custom. Billagh in the manor of Edwinstowe, for more than 100 years; offers in evidence for such claims legal cases dating back to the reign of King Charles II. See Pl E12/13/1/4/40 for copy and Pl E12/13/1 series passim for related material. DocumentRef DatesOfCreation Title Show full record Ma 2 P/50/1 1900 c Map of Birkland, Edwinstowe, Nottinghamshire; n.d. [c.1900] Show full record MS 237 1895-1902 Papers relating to Nottinghamshire local history compiled by Cecil Foljambe (1846-1907), 1st Earl of Liverpool, 1895-1902 Show full record Pl E12/4/1/49 8.10.1808 Draft appointment of copyhold premises in Edwinstowe, Nottinghamshire, to William H. Cavendish-Bentinck-Scott, Marquess of Titchfield [later 4th Duke of Portland]; 8 Oct. 1808 Show full record Pl E12/4/1/50 8.10.1808 Draft appointment of copyhold premises in Edwinstowe, Nottinghamshire, to William H. Cavendish-Bentinck-Scott, Marquess of Titchfield [later 4th Duke of Portland]; 8 Oct. 1808 Show full record Pl E12/4/2/39 13.1.1820 Copy award for the enclosure of Crown lands in Sherwood Forest, Nottinghamshire; 13 Jan. 1820 Show full record Pl E12/4/2/45 8.1.1819 Copy agreement for an exchange of lands in Nottinghamshire between the 4th Duke of Portland and the 1st Earl Manvers, 8 Jan. 1819; n.d. Show full record Pl E12/4/2/46 23.1.1821 Award and valuation of estates in Nottinghamshire intended to be exchanged between the 4th Duke of Portland and the 2nd Earl Manvers; 23 Jan. 1821 Show full record Pl E12/6/11/12/14 27.7.1868 Draft covenant to surrender copyhold land in the manors of Edwinstowe and Edwinstowe Rectory, Nottinghamshire, to the 5th Duke of Portland; 27 Jul. 1868 Show full record Pl E12/6/11/12/15 1868 Draft surrender of copyhold land in the manor of Edwinstowe, Nottinghamshire, to the 5th Duke of Portland; 1868 Show full record Pl E12/6/11/12/58 1894 Draft admittance of the trustees of the will of the 5th Duke of Portland to his copyhold estate in the manor of Edwinstowe, Nottinghamshire; 1894 Show full record Pl E12/6/11/12/68 18.8.1894 Draft enfranchisement of Kingstand Farm, Edwinstowe, Nottinghamshire, in favour of the trustees of the 6th Duke of Portland; 18 Aug. 1894 Show full record Pl E12/13/1/4/22-43 Jul 1849-14 Nov 1851 Documentary evidence etc. for the reference between the Duke of Portland and the Earl of Scarbrough; July 1849-14 Nov. 1851 and n.d. Show full record Pl E12/16/1/1-11 1726-1825 Bundle of enclosure awards, Acts etc. relating to places in Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Staffordshire; 1726-1825 http://www.nottinghamshire.gov.uk/home/leisure/archives.htm Family and estate records: Nottinghamshire Archives redirects to the University any records which relate to existing collections held by the University. The exception are papers relating to the Portland of Welbeck family and estate, the deposition of which would be discussed between the Keeper of Manuscripts at the University and the Principal Archivist or their successors if the wishes of the estate are unclear. Information relating to document ref. no. 157 DD/2P/27/15 Warrant (copy) to Duke of Newcaslte to make a riding in Birklands Wood, recites ? DD/2P/27/13. From Godolphin to Surveyor of Royal Forest N. of Trent.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (2nd...] Date: 1709 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

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According to Ancient Custom.

Information relating to document ref. no. 157 DD/2P/27/18

provision as to Duke's right to timber etc., Duke to have reversion on Queen's death. Recites grant to Earl of Newcastle in DD/2P/27/12. Warrant for drawing up to pass Great Seal.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (2nd...] Date: 1710 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/HA/2/4/1

4/1/17; 78; 27 Aug 1965 Plot 21, 34 Appleton Road, Beeston; DD/HA/2/4/1/24; 63; 16 Nov 1967 67 Appleton Road, Beeston; DD/HA/2/4/1/22; 99; 9 Jun 1967 Plot 32, No. 44, Appleton Road, Meadow View Estate; DD/HA/2/4/1/22; 87; 6 Jun 1967 16 Appletree Close, Date: 1931 - 1970 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/P/6/4/302

Accounts of sale of wood in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire for the Duke of Portland. The accountants were: Edward Smith Godfrey 1815-1842 Charles Neale 1842-1859 William Cripwell 1870-1876 The areas of woods and plantations covered were Welbeck, Clipstone, Date: 1815 - 1876 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/4P/75/37

White Lodge and 57a. with timber and tithes, and 2a. adjoining for life or 9 yrs. if longer, at 6d. p.a.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (4th...] Date: 1658 - 1659 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. 157 DD/2P/28/272 b

Delivery Note: Delivered to Mr. Astley in Birkland. Cordwood. 742 cords at 8d. per cord. £296.18.6. "In Wenmon's Accounts" (found with 28/272a. above.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (2nd...] Date: 1710 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. 157 DD/2P/27/13

of Park for that period. Recites report of Surveyor General based on affidavits or certificates of William Wenman, John Cosen, William Jessup, Robert Monkton; Queen to hold park for life, reversion to Duke.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck Date: 1709 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/P/6/4/302/16

Welbeck, Clipstone, Hucknall Torkard, Birkland and Harlow. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (6th...] Date: 1821 - 1822 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/4P/84/62

Memos. on trees as surveyed in Birkland and Bilhagh, 1609-1790 (cp. Rooke), trees at Rufford, c.1794, Duke of Norfolk's plantations, c.1780, and Welbeck, 1775, with notes of growth, etc.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (4th...] Date: 1800 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

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According to Ancient Custom.

Information relating to document ref. no. 157 DD/2P/27/51

Clipstone Park enclosed by Edward II when they were granted pasture rights in Birkland.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (2nd...] Date: 1334 - 1665 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. 157 DD/P/27/32

there; a book of records concerning Sherwood Forest; fees and salaries of forest officers; who appoints the clerk of the forest courts; extra-parochial tithes; assarts, particularly at Blidworth.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (1st... Date: 1671 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/4P/75/76

Letter, Dennis Hayford at Rowmley to Wm. {William?} Wenman; declining birch cordwood in Birkland (riding), but hoping for some next spring.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (4th...] Date: 1710 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/4P/75/60

and Nomans alias Foresworn Wood (i.e. £3), and 6s. 8d. p.a. in right of others. 19 June 35 Geo. III. (1795) Royal Portrait and Great Seal. Parch.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (4th...] Date: 1795 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. 157 DD/2P/27/14

by Earl Godolphin to Thomas Hew, surveyor general of His Majesty's Woods north of Trent, to cut the riding across Birkland Wood.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (2nd...] Date: 1709 - 1800 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/SK/229/1

Revesby, Revell, Rufford, Rolleston, Rossell, Radford, Reeves, Skegby, Sutton, Staples, Sneinton, Thoresby, Whitlodge, Walesby, Willoughby, Woodhouse, Welbeck Park, Woodborough, Warsop, duke of York and archbishop of York. Schedule of claims and other Date: 1661 - 1676 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives Information relating to document ref. no. DD/4P/62/75/3 Letter, C. Hugh Lushington at Debdale Hall, Mansfield Woodhouse to (Neale). Col. Coke left keys for Welbeck, Clipstone and Birkland, and C.H.L. would like permission to use them.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (4th...] Date: 1863 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. 157 DD/P/27/26

Dand and sold by the Countess to Robert Pleasington for £79.17.4. "Mr. Dand was his partner".. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (1st...] Date: 1598 - 1599 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

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According to Ancient Custom.

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/4P/75/71

Draft letter for Duke of Newcastle to "my lora"; re. ridings in Birkland and making of new park.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (4th...] Date: 1709 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/P/6/4/139/1-3

Colliery account (1), account of sheep sold from Birkland (2) and an account of grass sold from Boler's water meadow (3). [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (6th...] Date: 1830 - 1831 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/P/6/4/131/1-4

Colliery accounts (1 and 2), an account of sheep sold from Birkland (3), an account of grass sold from Boler's water meadow (4). [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (6th...] Date: 1828 - 1829 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/4P/75/77

Letter, Jos. Astley at Mansfield Woodhouse to Wm. {William?} Wenman; price he will give for birch cordwood in Birkland, and he will fill up charcoal pits after.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (4th...] Date: 1710 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/P/6/1/27/7

Keeper of 'Runwood', 'Awseland', 'Billowe' or 'Billhaugh', 'Birkland Lindhurst', and 'Normans Wood' or 'Forsworne Wood'.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (6th...] Date: 1646 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/4P/75/64

and warren; that deer taken to stock the park to be counted; now (1), having received £1000, surrenders to (2) the premises and rights. Sig. and armorial seal of (1). Parch. Endorsed memo. of enrolment.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck Date: 1709 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/4P/75/57

soil, inhabitants of Edwinstowe the right of common; Crown cannot enclose to protect timber or deer.. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (4th...] Date: 1787 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

Information relating to document ref. no. DD/P/6/4/302/14

Welbeck, Clipstone, Harlow, Hucknall Torkard and Birkland. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (6th...] Date: 1820 - 1821 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The National Archives

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According to Ancient Custom.

Information relating to document ref. no. 157 DD/P/27/22

else. 4 June, 21 Ed. I. (4 June 1293) Endorsement of Enrolment in the records of the sessions in eyre for Sherwood Forest, by William Clay, clerk of the eyre. 25 Feb. 1662/3. [Nottinghamshire Archives, Portland of Welbeck (1st...] Date: 1293 - 1663 Source: Access to Archives (A2A): not kept at The

Nottinghamshire Archives newsletter Would you like to receive Nottinghamshire Archives' regular email newsletter? To sign up to the newsletter, either: •

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• Email us at archives@nottscc.gov.uk. Your personal information will only be used to send you news and information about Nottinghamshire Libraries and Archives __________________________________________________________________ In 1771 Bentinck sent Speechly on a tour of gardens in Holland where it is thought he learned about the design of stoves for hothouses, which he later improved on. In 1776 Bentinck asked him to write a description of the method of planting trees on the Nottinghamshire estates for Alexander Hunter's edition of John Evelyn's Silva. This later appeared as an article in Hunter's Georgical Essays (1803), in which Speechly also contributed a note on the possibility of raising pineapples.

The third Duke of Portland (FRS 1766) also assisted Hunter by paying for Silva's portraits of his famous oaks by the well-known artist S. H. Grimm, and allowed his head gardener, William Speechley, to contribute valuable instructions on raising oak plantations. 49 WILLIAM SPEECHLY. wrote Hints on Domestic Rural Economy; 8vo. On the Culture of the Vine and Pine Apple, with Hints on the Formation of Vineyards in England. On the Culture of the Pine Apple, and the Management of the Hot-House; 8vo. He made a tour in Holland, chiefly to observe the Dutch mode of cultivating the Pine, and the Grape. Mr. Loudon, in his Encyclop. calls him "the Moses of modern British vine dressers;" and in the Gardener's Magazine for January, 1828, has given an interesting and honourable character of him. He died at Great Milton, in 1819, aged eightysix.[60] Marshall, in his Planting and Rural Ornament, has given us Mr. Speechley's sensible letter on the Duke of Portland's Plantations. Mr. Johnson says "he perhaps surpassed every practical gardener of his age." http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/lss/services/mss/online/online-msscatalogues/cats/port_londonplc_estates.html http://www.eyemead.com/RO-TEXT.htm http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/a2a/records.aspx?cat=157-dd5p&cid=-1#-1 DD/5P/14/13-24 Welbeck improvement and garden accounts: William Speechley 1767 1770 Improvement and garden accounts of William Speechley 157 DD/5P/14/13 - 24 [n.d.]

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According to Ancient Custom. Contents: W.S. evidently was in charge of the gardens and outdoor improvements which proceeded contemporaneously with the Welbeck (house) improvements, and seems to have accounted to Benjamin Wilcocks - see DD/5P 6; and for an additional year in the series (1771) see DD/4P 58/97 and 98. [no title] 157 DD/5P/14/13 1767 Improvement account book. [no title] 157 DD/5P/14/14/1-10 1767 Vouchers to above. [no title] 157 DD/5P/14/15 1768 Improvement account book. [no title] 157 DD/5P/14/16/1-36 1768 Vouchers to above. [no title] 157 DD/5P/14/17 1770 Improvement account book. [no title] 157 DD/5P/14/18/1-19 1770 Vouchers to above. [no title] 157 DD/5P/14/19 1767 Garden account book. [no title] 157 DD/5P/14/20/1-24 1767 Vouchers to above (incomplete). [no title] 157 DD/5P/14/21 1768 Garden account book. [no title] 157 DD/5P/14/22/1-33 1768 Vouchers to above. [no title] 157 DD/5P/14/23 1770 Garden account book. [no title] 157 DD/5P/14/24/1-31 1770 Vouchers to above.

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According to Ancient Custom.

Appendix A: Photographs for Research Illustrations

Fig 1. 1816 The Lordship of Warsop Perambulation Document

Fig 2. 1816 Full Document

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According to Ancient Custom.

Fig 3. 1251 Royal Perambulation

Fig 4. Thynghowe recorded in perambulation

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According to Ancient Custom.

Fig 5. 1609 Survey of Birklands

Fig 6 Enclosure Act for Birklands 1818

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According to Ancient Custom.

Fig 7. 1852 Planting Plan Birklands

Fig 7. Circa 1904 Russian Lodge Birklands

Copyright Public Information Research Organisation 2012

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According to Ancient Custom: Thynghowe Archive Training  

Background notes to Archive Training HLF Project

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