Page 1


A

PEOJECT

BOOK

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

BY

LUELLA

BUSSEY

NEW

HENRY

HOLT

COOK,

B.A.,M.A.

YORK

AND

COMPANY

IN


u

ck.x x

a

\

V(^"(

*;"

; *"

*

.

LIBRAflt

COLLEGE

HARVARD

GIFT BOSTON

'p

OF

COMMITTEE

SCHOOL

MAR

LIBRARY

1932

23

Copyright,

1920,

BY

Henry

Holt

and

Company


""

"

TO

E.

A.

C.


/

TABLE

OF

CONTENTS

CHAPTER

PAGE

I. The

Business

Going

op

School

to

1

The parallel meaning of "businesslike." between school and business.": Earning wages and earning school credits. A business Code for the classroom. Making a business of accuracy. Making a business of learningto write. Making the classroom a businesslike place. The

"

"

"

"

"

II. Imagination

Business

in

20

The

practicalbusiness value of imagination. Observation the Imaginationredeems routine. basis of imagination. Originality. The place of originality in business. "

"

"

"

Positive

III. The

The

need

Attitude

op

in business

of

Mind

46

independentjudgment. The power to convince. Understanding the issue. What constitutes proof. Two kinds of evidence. Logical inference. Reasoning by analogy. The Brief. Parliamentarylaw. "

"

"

"

"

"

"

IV.

English

Better

"

for

the

Student

Business

69

expressionand thought. Self-helptoward Better English. Better pronunciation. useful vocabuA largerand more lary. More Eliminating telling sentences. habitual errors from one's speech. The

relation between

"

"

"

"

V.

"

Correspondence The

Business.

in

old and

the

90

type of business letters.

new

"

in letter-writing.The Originality "

of "

The

letter.

a

student.

"

The

correspondence application. The personal

letter of

personal interview.

"


CONTENTS

vi

VI.

Auvmrmmo

Salesmanship

and

Literary

values

Psychology

have

of

words.

The

slogan.

Narrative

advertising.

The

"

applied VIL

The

The

The

Student's

value

Keeping

of

to

current

Classified

of

Dramatic

"

ganda Propa-

"

of

advertising

the

163

business

thought.

bibliographies

"

of

choice

Reading

reading

with

up

review.

of

letter.

principles

"

coinage

right

advertising.

"

salesmanship.

to

Business The

"

advertising

advertising.

advertising.

The

"

in

"

in

part

a

Advertising.

"

words.

124

man.

The

"

book

"

for

the

dent stu-

business.

Appendix

A.

The

Appendix

B.

Grammatical

Appendix

C.

A

Form

Digest

of

the

Letter

Business

181

Helps

of

the

193

Rules

of

Punctuation

203 .

.


who be

to

to

expect

technical

a

business

author

that

assumes

English thing

of

out

has

each

implication

To

do

the

real

for

a

correctness.

which must from

the

the

the

and

Such

ambitious

know

tedious

lift them how

which

dog-trot

who

the

hopes the

of

the

make

VH

sion expres-

life.

level

patter

that

the

dull,

must

aims

to

ments, advertiseformal

mere

have of

rapher stenog-

who

of

will

qualities.

The

write

to

sentences

"

mercial com-

which

these

clerk

must,

persons

"

for

business

English

evinces

above

of

language

English

requirement.

out to

of

secretary,

talk

write

will

kind

assistant

content a

of

a

originality,for imagination,

for

a

Such

situations

minimum be

to

buyer, the

must

meeting

business

facility in original

the

English

aspires

who become

is the is but

Correctness

teach

to

cause be-

English.

them

in

course

a

a

either

we,

of

makes

as

English,

Business

language.

of

aim

ability, and

it best

which

calls out

to-day

creative

serve

in

judgment

Business

define

we

students

of

stilted

and

students, namely and

essentially like

carpenter's

mind

the

the

contrary,

than

more

or

distinction

artificial

defeats

habit

English

in

creates

an

no

directly, demarcate

or

pseudo-technical with

that

is

business

English"

particular terminology, should

its

by

so

in

business;

doctor's

apart

English

the

On

of and

terms

"Business

of

English.

writers

many

business

of

The

English.

by

isolation

essentially different

an

Business

existence

jargon justifiesthe

business as

the

students

pretend, however,

not

made

implication

that

texts

of so-called

study

rejects the

author

It does

business.

enter

school

high

for

especially

designed

is

book

This

VIEW

OF

POINT

lary vocabu-

a

the

place, common-

break have

away

at

least


viii

POINT

rudiments

the and

of

"haw." in

VIEW

style which

a

The

developing

OF

of

aim

the

this

student

the

is not

style of

is to

text

something

suggest

of

means

than

more

"hum"

technical

correctness.

this

Further,

it.

pupil

sees

write

letters

It

able

and

material The

taught

Teachers

of

author

and

to

be

can

to so

the of

and

are

as

not

from

business

accustom

the

office.

classroom

the

student

to

in the

to

than the

curacy fight inac-

teacher's

a

habit.

class.

habit

Red

to

to. these

methods

the

passing

from

sterner

disciplineof

the

to

which

text, then,

composition,

methods

ink

refusal

This

of

do

theory.

highest standard

rudiments

self-

complain

staunch

a

of

in

to

business

particular

man's

jar felt by youth the

a

with

it deals

the

up

a

"

to

Students learn

"

given

"review."

schools

way

repeating

impressive

endless

they

of

ways

inaccurate.

effective

demand

less

demanded

apply to

and

manuscripts

far

so

stop nagging

assume

corrections

accept

one

the

facts

enthusiasm

practical

for

are

that

been

stimulate

practice what

believes

from

students

basic

has

graduate

the

to

composition in

would

principles

school

the

them

suggest

to

grades

ignore

ness busi-

principles

high

to

provide again

to

the

students

is to

in

and

these

space

aims

grammar

than

from

habitually

what

Consequently, and

experience

to

students.

previous training has

help, rather

"

teach

advanced

self-improvement

The

to

solve

to

business

large

for

punctuation

that

facts;

designed

is

composition.

for

use

lives of the

in the text

whose

to

pupil how

or

of

men

school

high

a a

write

aims

It

student

simple

business

only

as

teach

to

would

employer

solve.

to

business

pretend

not

an

that

problems be

does

that

with

deals

text

classroom as

tender the

to

aims and

lessen

discipline business


PEOJECT

A

BOOK

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

CHAPTER

The

THE

BUSINESS

word

"businesslike"

particular

is

care,

work, that

person

business

not.

or

carefully kept, and

we

keeping

the any

exchange

the

other

One

of

in

"

In

teacher

person

practical

We

in

take

if

we

are

hand

we

other

be

be

businesslike

to

perhaps,

food

and

not

hold house-

Or

a

dent stu-

paper

have

may

be

may

tween be-

the

to

expect

time

of

stock; we

we

are

a are

not

a

eral gen-

customer

selfishly punctual

encroaching unfairly upon in

illegibletheme.

an

it is

only fair

In to

thorough, efficient,and

businesslike.

business, competition forces must

being

as

client,housekeeper

ought

if

prompt,

words,

in

class, he

products, services, ideas, to

engaged

untidy, he

and

our

home

in the

his

transactions, whether

we

keeping

in

arithmetic

botany

all

student,

promises;

a

his

In

dealing.

our

of

time

in

is

are,

buying

be

may

shows

efficient he

His

ness busi-

person

impractical.

clerk, lawyer

of others

inconsiderate in

of

from

housekeeper

a

unbusinesslike.

unsystematic

are

methods

and

family, teacher

a

accounts

capricious and

and

businesslike

of

speak

school.

at

customer

if

her

are

late

frequently

When

practical, and

household

assignment

forgotten the

and

of business.

disorder, his theme

in

be

may

SCHOOL

borrowed

been

has

often

called

be

may

TO

businesslike, whether

is

Her

equipment

GOING

thorough,

We

unbusinesslike.

I

OF

applied outside

and

IN

survive. 1

to

one

In

be

other

businesslike.

departments


PROJECT

2

of

a

The

earlier

and

the

more

business, the

of

Being businesslike

is businesslike

One

through habit. outside

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

businesslike.

of chance.

matter

habits

them

IN

to be

ought

one life,

not

BOOK

a

person

widely he

like unbusiness-

or

can can

nesslike acquire busi-

apply

will successfully

more

is

he

them

apply

in business. EXERCISES

examples

other

five

1. Give

of

being

businesslike

side out-

of business. 2.

Give

Topics

Theme 1. The

of

examples

five

being unbusinesslike. Written

"

courtesy of being businesslike. who

is

time.

2.

The

person

3.

The

selfishness of carelessness.

4.

A

5.

Shiftlessness is not

Teachers

Oral

or

never

need

particularperson

and

on

not

be

a

bore.

sign of genius.

a

Employers

that his employees are employer assumes prompt, he discovers one who is not as thorough, efficient. As soon he dismisses the laggard. He says, "I cannot afford to hire inefficient help." This employer reckons his time in dollars and cents. Any carelessness or inaccuracy that encroaches An

upon

his time

or

the

prompt

execution

of his business

is

inefficient eliminates profits. He service as he eliminates poor equipment. the school is a Now, looked at from any angle you please, business in your town large business organization. What or city has a bigger payrollthan the body of teachers, clerical helpers,janitors,students in your school system? has Which in permanent a greater capital investment

encroaching

upon

equipment?

Which

budget

of your

school in this

his

has

school

light?

a

largerbudget

system?

Did

you

than ever

the

yearly

look at your


THE

BUSINESS

OF

GOING

TO

SCHOOL

3

EXERCISES

facts which

Get

1.

system

as

bear upon business

a

the

conceptionof

the school in

organization. Have

the last five reports of your board similar literature which and any

classroom

the

of education can

be

obtained. 2.

total number

is the

What

in your

engaged

school

system? is the total

What

yearlybudget? is the amount What paid to the teachingforce? Impressivesingleitems of the budget, such as expenditure for heating,books, etc.

3. 4. 5.

If the school is then

really"Big Business",at

financial side,should

not

the value

an

of time

for

a

"I

didn't

A

pupil to

offer to

hear

teacher

as

the

teaching to

correct

hand

in.

teacher's time

and

Students

Employees

a

Is it not

idea of

same an

unbusinesslike

its

imposition excuses

"

papers

from

the

forgot my pencil"? standpoint of efficient

whenever

just as

pupil remembers

a

of

much

a

trespass

to a

upon

to be

ferent, lax,late,careless, inaccurate,or indifbe upon an employer's time.

Employees know

that they must

measure

up

to

a

certain

in order to hold their

standard

that fixed requirements be favors

teacher

the

on

assignment," "I

It is

it would

as

employer?

afford

cannot

them

the teacher have

least

be to

positions. They seldom ask laid aside for them; that special

granted them.

Employees repeat explanations and

do excuse

not

expect

ployers em-

carelessness.

realize,often only after sad experiences,that they of business which demands must accept the stern discipline that a task be performed correctlythe firsttime. Students too often postpone this disciplineof meeting fixed standards and can only acquire it through unfortunate They

experiences after they leave

school.

Students,

not

em-


PROJECT

4

BOOK

IN

ployees,pleadfor more bargain with

BUSINESS

time in which

ENGLISH

to finish

assignment;

teachers,asserting that

"good intentions" shabby work and admit

offset poor work; hand in it is shabby.* These are the sins of students should

would

of business

an

condone

in

Written

an

Theme

which

no

man

employee. Topics

(Developthe idea thai petty carelessness permittedin school in business.) leads inevitably serious inefficiency to more 1.

Great

2.

My

3.

The

4.

The

5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

dailyerrors during the class

faults from

business

hour.

gets his lesson.

early student

stenographerwho forgets her notebook used to forget her textbook. teacher; employer. Getting used to a particular "Hell is paved with good intentions." School,a business experience; business,a schooling. like teachers. If employers were more like employers. If teachers were more

10. The

favorite stock refused my of borrowing. inefficiency

teacher

11.

The

12.

Making the same Day dreaming

while

should

she

13.

grow.

twice; in school;

error

the

teacher

makes

Leaving assignments until the last

15.

Excuses and

Credit In

in business. the

ment; assign-

repeat?

14.

you

excuse.

can't offer

than

more

moment.

once.

Wages

business

there

is

a

cold

and

calculatingefficiency

of credit,service, In matters governing all transactions. an exchange of products,the code in business demands efficiencywhich treats all individuals impersonal, severe exceptions on personalgrounds. alike and makes no In business one is paid only what he is considered actually to have

earned.

It sometimes

happens that

men

and

women


THE

over

are

GOING

SCHOOL

TO

5

honesty inaccuracy or disemployer's judgment; but, broadly speaking,

under

or

of

an

because

paid

of the

given for value received and service is treated as commodity to be sold for what it is actuallyworth to the is

payment a

OF

BUSINESS

buyer. How

students

many

I did.

"Well, Miss

Smith

I don't

what

I

but

out;

them;"

or

type them

for

expects

own

is for

an

mistakes, and

than

her

getting letters

didn't

so

ployer, em-

work

tried to get those

some

the

to

does.

credit that

buyer of those

should

their work

finish

accept the

I an

services,his moral

same

gation obli-

that properly,if they expect credit, They should be too self-respecting has

been

not

earned.

If

a

student

business,he should begin while in school

to enter

and

learn

there

reason

to

more

any

or, "I

worth

of business

ask

didn't do

saying

of

do;"

of business

to do man

think

again, "I forgot yesterday's letters;may the services of such would to-day?" What

Students

to

I

made

employee be employer?

a

see

salary than

more

would

to

practisethe principleof honestly earning his

way. Theme 1.

How

does

one

Topics

learn what

he is worth?

Setting a value on my own qualifications. than I think 3. Accepting cheerfullya lower mark

2.

I

deserve. 4. How

to

get

an

increase in salary; in marks.

(An

analogy.) alibi for poor doesn't like me."

5. The

6.

How

7. The 8. 9.

worn-out

much teacher

marks

to

mean

exposed my

Profitingby my Estimating my I right?

work:

"The

teacher

me.

pretense.

failures. own

monthly grades; how

often

am


PROJECT

6 10.

Marks

BOOK

IN

not

always

are

worth;

BUSINESS

expressions of student value. always measure (An

true

cannot

money

ENGLISH

analogy.) 11.

A

12.

"A

13. 14.

method

of

marking

good paymaster

that

only when work is done." (May be applied to school life.) My report card, my salary for the month. My year's credits;what interest will these earnings bring?

15.

Teachers

don't

16.

The

file system of

17. 18.

Reading marks in class. Competition stimulates efforts

19.

The

20.

Papers marked

open

failure of

Such

students.

live up make

not

to a

"A"

grades.

student.

by students. a

of code

sort

behavior

code might be

good resolutions. them. However,

demand Code

Business I.

for better

overconfident

an

them.

earn

recordinggrades.

called

put in practicein the classroom.

to write down to

a

students

"give" marks;

might put togetherinto simpler aspects of businesslike code

efforts.

pays

We

A

best inspires

for

The this

on

some

of the

the

part of

the business

It is easy

of

man's course

in trying pinch comes particularcode does

impossiblevirtues.

for the

Classroom

Promptness. 1. A

student wait

him.

expect the whole

not

school

to

A

does not traveling salesman expect a train to wait for him; he adapts himself to its schedule and allows time for emergencies.

A cars

for

should

him

make

business He

should

student

not

his teacher

consider and

excuses

late for school.

foresightand

should

whine

a

fellow

class recitation by

a

allow

class

as

He

if blocked

should practise

for possibledelays. an

students.

appointment with To

interruptthe

late arrival calls for

an

ex-


GOING

OF

BUSINESS

THE

TO

SCHOOL

7

of business apology. The man late for an appointment or interrupt does not come without feeling meeting by his tardy entrance a of failure for not having lived up to his sense a

planationand

an

obligations. Work

2.

be done

should

off is

after, the date

Suppose

employer,

nowhere

was

"

there

secretary

such

a

moment

explanation,true

an

was

no

chance

emergency? is likelyto wait

student

a

of directors.

The

the

meet

to

school

board

a

in the files." At

might be, when

secretary to

I couldn't find that material.

could he offer such

how

his

for the report is at hand.

hour

says to his

It

made

asked

report to

a

for work

before,not completion of a task.

had

employer

an

Excuses

be

set for the

collect the data for The

should

time

on

habit of putting

The

habit.

unbusinesslike

an

done

not

time.

on

as

for his

Yet

it

ployer em-

often

in

until the recitation

is started,the class is before

offeringan

waitingfor his report, explanationfor not having it

ready. II. Tools A

Ready. should

student

provided with

the responsibility of being

assume

necessary

equipment.

He

has

no

right

If he forget his pencil,his textbook, or his papers. does forget,he should not molest his neighborby borrowing. Can you imagine a stenographer enteringher employer's

to

office and

pencil; may

my

notebook;

saying I borrow

I write

may

my

him

boldly, "I

forgot yours?" or "I forgot my the edge of your notes on

to

'

newspaper?' III.

UnderstandingOrders. A

student

directions

or

should

not

expect his teacher

assignments because

It is his business

to

to

repeat

of his inattentiveness.

not get correctly,

the second

time,


PROJECT

8

but

BOOK

ENGLISH

first,all explanationsconcerning classwork.

the

No

BUSINESS

IN

employer the

in school

tolerates indifferent

ever

student

attention;while learn,by practice, ability

must

to listen. IV.

Following Orders. student

A

learn to follow directions

must

half

understand

To

correctlyis of

habit

assignment and

an

He

enough.

not

complete

follow

that

train himself to the

must

if he

accuracy,

explicitly.

intends to win

ever

the respect of future business associates. V.

Pride of Workmanship. The

done

student

must

develop a pridein good

even

in doing the work

is its

own

is building

a

foundation

poor

dislikes. The

in business.

advertisement

himself

contents

he

ship, workman-

for

job

The

student

business

a

while in school with

life who

low standard

a

well

of

quality. Perhaps own

every

student

that in school work

to

while of

does

tolerate

not

future

careless habits

in

might be, student.

a

or a

carelessness.

particulars it be

It is worth

he

A

student himself

allows

will

possible imthe

ness Busi-

puts his

acquire

to

during school days.

of work

fob

Writing

Theme "

Kipling's If",given below, either poetry, describinga business student who may

I. Write

it from

Would

its standard?

danger, if

Suggestions

in prose become

conduct.

some

student of business to fightcareless habits.

a

business

to

nearer

come

he falls short in

businesslike

of

of its standard

reads through this code

who

parody

of

successful business "You'll

be

a

Your

man.

business

man,

my

last line son."

or

Or

idea write

ideal standpoint of a student, describingan Make portrayalconcrete and pertinent. your

the


PROJECT

10

talk with

If you can Or walk

25.

BUSINESS

IN

BOOK

crowds

with

ENGLISH

and

keep

lose the nor Kings If neither foes nor loving friends can

26. 27.

If all

28.

50.

If you With

51.

Yours

32.

And

29.

"

with

count

men

fill the

can

Earth

what

"

touch,

common

hurt

you,

much;

too

none

unforgivingminute

sixty seconds is the

but

you,

virtue,

your

of distance

worth and

is more

run,

everything that's in it,

you'llbe a Man, my Son! Rudyard Kipling

"

"

Note. "an

An

illustration

can

dress to make

of

such

parody, taken from 'If*for Girls,"by Elizabeth Lincoln Otis is given below. "

"If you Yet

If you But

not can

yourselvesattractive

make

puffsand curls

swim

and

be

row,

of the gentlergraces

II. Write

either of the two

resolutions

respect my honest

and to

fair with

my

and

delight;

active

sight;"

creed

etc.

modeled

after

printed below:

profession, my

be honest

strong and

lose not

The Salesman9 1. To

chief

your

Student's

Business

a

a

8

Creed and

company as

company,

fair with

me;

myself. To be

I expect my to think

pany com-

of it with

worthy loyalty,speak of it with praise,and act always as a trustcustodian of its good name. To be a man whose home word carries weight at my office;to be a booster, not a knocker; a pusher, not a kicker; a motor, not a olog. 2. To base my expectationsof reward on a solid foundation of service rendered; to be willingto pay the priceof success, in honest effort. To look upon work as opportunity my the most to be seized with joy and made of,and not as endured. painfuldrudgery to be reluctantly lies within that success 3. To remember myself, in my own tion. brain,my own ambition,my own courage and determinaTo through expect difficultiesand force my way


hard

them; to turn struggles. 4.

To

experiencesinto capitalfor future soul; to.jc"rryan possiblecustomers; kill doubts with cheerfulness,

with

dispel ill temper

strong

and

convictions

friction with

active

reduce

an

agreeable personality. To make a study of my business; to know my profession detail from the ground up; to mix brains with in every efforts and

my

system and

use

in my

method

work.

To

everything needful by never lettingtime find me doing nothing. To hoard days as a miser hoards missions, dollars;to make every hour bring me dividends in comincreased knowledge or healthful recreation. future unmortgaged with debts; to save To keep my money cut out to amusements until well as earn expensive as it; afford them; to steer clear of dissipation and guard I can health of body and peace of mind as my most precious my find time

8.

11

believe in my propositionheart and of air of optimism into the presence to

5.

SCHOOL

TO

GOING

OF

BUSINESS

THE

to

do

stock in trade.

man

good grip on the joy of life;to play the like a gentleman; to fightagainstnothing so hard own weaknesses,and to endeavor to grow as a sales* with the passage of every day of time. and as a man

This

is my

7. Finally, to take game as

my

a

Creed. "

Suggestions

do you

1. What 2.

Did

3.

Do

4.

Apply

5.

Enlarge

you

6. What

7. Use

the idea of

a

salesman

upon

rendered

to students.

the ideas in line 1 and

the first half of

paragraph 7.

followingwords

custodian

like this one?

paragraph 3

figuresof speech the

Analysis

practisethe idea in paragraph 2?

students

line 2 in

Oral

like best in this creed? meet

ever

for

Chicago Portrait Company

are

particularly suggestive?

in sentences

reluctantly dispel

of your

own:

dissipation


BOOK

PROJECT

12

Subjects

Theme 1. Be

(based not

motor,

a

IN

BUSINESS "

The

on

clog

a

in

ENGLISH

Salesman's

Creed

")

class recitation.

graph Para-

1.

2. Recitations 3.

opportunities. Paragraph

$s

student

The

whose

words

2.

weight

carry

with

his

fellows. 4.

Making

5.

Keeping

6.

The

7.

Getting

recitation count.

every

record

my

a

4.

clear.

of mind

peace

Paragraph

after

good grip on

a

correct

recitation.

the joys of school life. Paragraph

7.

sportsmanshipin

the classroom.

8.

Good

9.

The

slacker

10.

The

price of good marks.

in class.

Resolved

(From 1. That

2.

3.

Poster, January,1919)

trying to get something for nothing in other words; that we all do just a littlemore grafting, than we agree to do, rather than just a littleless. That honesty is a questionof expressionhere on earth,with its rewards in profits now, here on earth; that honesty is not a question of morals with but a promise of a blissful idleness in a doubtful beyond, later on. That fear is the root of all evil; for if one neighbor cheats himself againstsome in his store it is to fortify element us we

That

cease

"

of his store.

out 4.

all

The

the basis of all lifeis business

system by which true

are

to

life;that business is the wants and needs; that we

supply our true to social life as life, political we

we

are

true

to business life.

5. That

that 6.

think of others

we we

do

as

we

as

we

would

have

think; the thought

them

think of us; precedesthe act.

that the cooperationis the real brotherhood of man; does not requirte the poverty of prosperityof one man

That

another.

-

-


OF

BUSINESS

THE

the

both

7. That

idle

GOING and

man

the

dishonest

they be possessedof littleor much, and

abominations

SCHOOL

TO

to their communities.

1. 2.

3.

Oral

fob

whether

man,

fools in themselves

are

David

"

Suggestions

13

Themes

"

(based on

Gibson

Resolved

")

for

Getting something

nothing. Paragraph 1. "Business is business." Paragraph 4. Rule in business. The Golden Paragraph 5.

4. "There

is plenty of

at

room

the

top."

graph Para-

6.

5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

policy" from a practicalpoint of view. Paragraph 2. "Murder will out." Paragraph 3. Signs of cooperationin business. Think twice before you act. Paragraph 5. Fear is the root of all evil. Paragraph 3. "And shall compel thee to go a mile, go whosoever with him twain." (Matthew v, 41.) "Honesty

Accuracy in He

cent.

houses

a

cannot

cent off."

and the Classroom

Business

business

In

is the best

bookkeeper's sheet must be console himself with, "Oh,

His balance

of

a

good repute

word

blemishes

must a

be

the rest of the letter cannot

there

is demanded think

cannot

accuracy

mailed

he

a

as

creates

a

business spelled mis-

impression

an

facts.

letter;he

a

In all business

correct. to

to

only

letter perfect. One

letter; it

which

I'm

Letters from

be exact.

must

correct

must

An

employee know

that

he did. Students

off; I

knew

my

paper;

my

book

excuses

often

say,

"Why,

answer

my

the spellingof that word I think

when would

I be

I handed

came

worth

in that

to class."

was

just

a

cent

but I

forgotto correct assignment; it was in

In business

consideration.

none

of these


PROJECT

14

What

BOOK

would

Expect from a Student in an (With apologiesto A. M. Hitchcock.)

Business

a

English Class? There

the

is

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

IN Man

form, penmanship, accept a scrawled, untidy

required mechanical Would

indentations, etc.

he

his business be the effect upon would manuscript? What of permitting lawlessness in such matters? of carelessness, the common There errors spelling, are

them?

upon

he

punctuation. Would

grammar,

careless theme

The

Less.

bestow

red

more

he would

not

ink

accept

rewritten in the

until it was

pupil'sbest style. There is the composition obviously written merely to meet a requirement, to "get by." Little effort,except a real composimuscular, has gone into it. It is in no sense tion. Would he accept such a lazy, half-hearted kind of work? effort until the "ratherNo, he would call for a new more-or-less" student had produced a "just-so" theme. Business

teaches

task

is

The

Business

a

its students that it is not

and

task

of

that

Learning

they

learn

must

that

a

until it is done.

done

to Write

be made business. As soon a we as activitymay take a thing seriously,decide to put our best efforts into its perfection,systematize those efforts and employ them have "made of it," as the phrase a business we regularly, "HI it my business to provide entertainment make goes. of a social committee, for the evening, says the chairman

Any

"

and

unless she will be

a

"business"

means

failure.

into

management know

that

unless

orderingthe will not

ice

We

our

cream

be set for

our

do not the

mind of

scenes

committees or

know

we

can

that the

this

ness enteringof busi-

our

social life. We

make

business

a

pleasure. We

never

can

have

has one thingsin life unless some for providingthem. business responsibility learn anything well until in we never Similarly,

words

we

"make

a

of

providingthe orchestra,the stage

the worth-while a

ing even-

business

of

learning." That

of

any

assumed

our

does

own

not


BUSINESS

THE

that

mean

that

remember

be swallowed

must

we

system

a

GOING

OF

serves

SCHOOL

TO in

up

system. We

a

that if we

end and

an

15

the end it serves, the system is but hollow We can't learn to play the violin without

must

forget

and

meaningless. systematizingour

We can't learn practiceno matter how talented we are. dressmaking, or farming, until we approach the subject our seriouslyand with enough system to make learning steady,rapid, and thorough. We can't learn to write and talk better until we seriously

put in force toward

that

talk better few

too

as

as

the

does not

learningto

write

of the class in

enter

upon

seriousness

a

A

few

try to improve; but

to

always

with

English,but

steady seriousness.

any

it their business whole

efforts

our

accept learningto write and

generalaim

it with

pursue

a

Students

end.

make class

thorough, systematicregulationof

a

that

dents stu-

the

the business of be

can

called

businesslike. Theme

1. A

party that

Topics

managed

was

2.

Getting through

3.

A

efficiently.

the dishes in

housekeeper who

businesslike fashion.

a

scoffed at "business

enteringthe

home."

5.

Efficiencymakes good times possible. Inefficiency spoilsthe spiritof the home.

6.

The

7.

two Success,one. part inspiration, (Edison.)

8.

Making

9.

Systematic studying.

4.

fumbler

as

a

friend.

head

your

save

learn without

Trying to

11.

Systematic practicemakes

The A the

Classroom, classroom

a

Place be

may

analogy may

of the school will

be

perspiration

time.

your

10.

parts

system.

perfect.

of Business

thought of

carried out

permit.

as

as

a

placeof

business and

closelyas the equipment


16

PROJECT

BOOK

Suggestions

for

Analysis

What

ENGLISH

Analogy

this

of

of each

clerical business

What

with 3.

Oral

BUSINESS

is the business

1. What 2.

IN

student

in the class?

is there to be done

in

tion connec-

the routine of the classroom?

business

in Business

is there

the school that

a

class

English might do for practice?

there

(a) Are

about

student

activities

that

advertise

plays,programs?

4.

(6) Is there secretarial work that teachers might trust an English class to do? What sort of business organization might enable a class to solicit such

5.

6.

departments of your school thus correlate theory and practice? Are there other opportunitiesabout school for business other

What

practice? equipment should

7. What

What

additional classroom

your 9.

What

10.

Examine each

equipment more

sort of books

his desk

for

the may

each

in your

like

would

an

a

have

in order

would

room

make

office?

business

have

man

upon

ready reference?

followingtypes be

student

in class.

to be businesslike 8.

work?

used

of books

and

learn how

efficiently:

(a) An Englishgrammar. (6) A text on composition. (c) A dictionaryof synonyms. of commercial (d) A handbook The

correspondence.

followingare good suggestions: (a) Whitney's "English Grammar/' Practice Book (6) Hitchcock's "New (c) Fernald's "Dictionary

of

in

Synonyms."

tion." Composi-


18

PROJECT

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

BEFORE

THINK

YOU

ENGLISH

SPEAK!

Name .

Error

"

9)

Signature

reporting error.

of person

"

Date

II.

Error

Sheet:

technical the text

to

errors. or

be

used It

notebook.

for

might

recording individual's be

own

pasted in the front

of


THE III.

BUSINESS

OF

of Term's

Graph

GOING

SCHOOL

TO

19

Work. 123

Themes

56789

4

etc.

Grade in percentage

passing line

of

Number

inexcusable errors

In red ink

A

or paper with one excellent the matter now 88, 89 for list of " inexcusable

N. B.

paper "

General

errors.

Theme

2.

Working overtime. The grind in school

3.

Brilliant students

4.

Average students

1.

is below grade inexcusable errors is otherwise. See pages 86, 87,

more

no

Topics

the efficient student.

versus

I have I

who

known known

have

didn't improve.

to

profitby their

failures. 5. 6. 7.

Making the most of the study period. Burning the midnight oil; poeticbut inefficient. tion; out of a class recitaGetting my money's worth" "

or, 8.

Taking

books

effect 9.

Short

10. The

as

on

cuts

a

as

home

my

effort entitles

without

me

to.

looking at them;

the

student's morale.

for efficient studying.

student

from

much

who

grows

the teacher.

to

depend

upon

specialhelp


CHAPTER

II

IMAGINATION

in Dollars

Imagination

I

has

which

another

grows

If

the

degree, ago,

in a

be

to

would

we

business

a

in

part

dollars

laughed

have

of

letter, or

business.

and

at

and find

we

efficiencythere to

it.

uncompromising to

increasing

an

A

of

a

heart

sentiment that

these

decade

appeal having pay

in

cents.

Theme

"Business

1.

Clerks

2.

Personal

Business"

is

who

Topics but

Something

more

friendly.

are

Service

in

Bureaus

large

city

stores.

will increases

3.

Good

4.

The

5.

A

salesman

6.

A

form

7.

The

8.

A

9.

Departments

10.

ness busi-

survive.

can

personal.

imagination to-day

But

and

idea

the

us.

contradictory

it aims,

friendly and

and

warm

other

the

on

he for

almost

calculating

and

hand,

one

before

assures

spirit of

stern

demand

impersonal

severe

constantly

this

understand

spirit in business is

business

on

this

world

described

must

one

BUSINESS

Cents

the

already

along with

But

and

is Business"

"Business

Chapter

IN

personal

greater

Business,

with

a

a

that

advertising.

personal appeal. a

personal

intimacy letter

business

in

touch

with

letter

trade.

with

tone.

in window a

heart to

cater

great adventure 20

displays. appeal.

individual in human

taste.

service.

ment depart-


IMAGINATION

BUSINESS

IN

11.

Business, a chance to do the in a helpful,pleasingmanner.

12.

Successful

13.

What

14.

Business

15.

Business teaches the housewife.

16.

Art

17.

Business

anounces,

18.

Business

educates

19.

Business

encourages

20.

Business

preaches sermons.

And

celebrates

at the

same

Thanksgiving.

business.

"Spring is here." the public. sports.

time that business calk cut

it calls out, with efficiency, that

turn

can

that this

almost

poet should

have

seem

may

strange

place in prosaic

a

business,but it has. An engine to the likelyto be but a thing of iron wrought

manufacturer

is

in

noisy factories To a yachtsman of time and labor and money. "faithful friend" which brings him safelyto the

it may be a harbor. The for their

for greater

equal ardor,for imagination

good will into profits. It

faculty of the

at the cost

passing.

does for children.

has invaded

so

things of life

necessary

selfishness in business is

business

21

advertiser and

salesman

take this

"

affection

"

They must understand not only the engine but the yachtsman as well. Their imagination must tell them what appeal will most surely convert the yachtsman into a customer. To the advertiser, the modern poet in business, a soap, a fabric,a device,a machine, are not cue.

"

"

merely things. a

story, an

mind. makes

He a

In

idea, a

each

he

memory

sees

an

with

association,a picture,

which

realizes that it is truth

to

lure the

public

imaginativelytold

that

sale.

EXERCISE

Find where

examples of pictures and common

articles

are

stories

in

advertising

imaginativelydealt with,

For ^

foods, medicines. example, soaps, automobiles,


22

PROJECT

O by "w Bdwrn

The firstof

a

BOOK

IN

ENGLISH

Rtprinlcd ait Iheir jwmiiiton Lamp Works. (page 21) series of paintingsby Mamtild Pabrish, portraying the development of Light " Truth Illustrating

r

BUSINESS

ImaginativelyTold

"


IMAGINATION

BUSINESS

IN

23

PROMETHEUS It is recorded sea

and

heavens

was

called

This

the

Then

seas

fishes

and

But and

which

took

of all

and

went

down

brought

and So

the

runs

it is to

lighted

bit

legend handed

the

candle, then

flame

a

first

Edison

and

at

to

to

ness, swiftthe

man,

him.

upon

In

aid of Minerva the

the

chariot

of

the

ancient

poets, and

origin of

light that

the

of

the

sun

vapor,

and

shell, a skull

a

iron

task

fulfill the

to

became of

with

earthward

sun.

labored

vessel

after

Edison,

laboratories and

bronze,

or

or

then

finally electricity

a

was

seeking

And

in

to

the

make

the

the

of

MAZDA

lamps

are

mean

types

many

marking that

of

a

great

have

Company

lessly tire-

efficiency

in

more

been

and

continuously still

better

the

ideal

of

distinct

and

more

"

Electric

experts

1020

one same

service

General

number

of

first

that

Between

lamp.

each

been

produced

experimenting,

lamps

developed, has

of

large

a

electric

idea

cost.

much

MAZDA

been the

lower

a

erected,

proceeded

strength,

returning

torch

gaseous

Edison

the

Always

research

and

A.

have

lamps

advance.

light

of

chariot

a

practical incandescent

bulb

crude

oil, then

from

1879, Thomas

the

by

us

story

His

began.

metheus Pro-

and

chained.

and

caught

thus

sary neces-

task

the

with

at

leaving willing pioneers have

ages

means

the

man

man.

to

the

filled with

clay

torch

Prometheus

after

Prometheus of

In

to

down

painted

has

torch

Through that

light

the

bestow

who,

his

beast

creating

accordingly

left to

Prometheus,

fire and

Parrish

He

plains,

the

Prometheus

to

of

with

undertook

nothing

lighted

So

task

gifts of courage, he came but when

various

others,

to

the

and

sea.

gods.

animals

work.

interpret this interesting

Maxfield the

the

and

the

assigned

other

his

and

land

the

through

created

and

appear,

Epimetheus

many

heaven

to

up

all the

turned

he

to

by

was

animals, he had

perplexity

his

and

the animals

upon

stars

desired

was

supervise

to

sagacity noblest

the

and

mountains

the

deity arranged

protection.

was

aspect.

one

wore

interposed,

universe

Epimetheus,

him

for their

the earth,

beginning and

together

possession of the

animal

providing

bestow

the

lesser

some

his brother,

and

of

god

rivers* caused

nobler

a

blended

in the

Chaos.

great

and

that

legend

all

were

offices of

good the

in ancient

comfort.

So

from

hand

along, growing only

as

lighting

the

within which

for

humblest

reach

Prometheus

now

home

torch

the

brilliant

more

symbol,

a

hand

to

with

Edison as

no

of Prometheus each

year.

MAZDA olden

has

But

lamps palace

of all the

latest

refinement

bestowed

upon

mankind.

ever

of the

the

passed

been torch

perform was,

remains its

thus

task, ing plac-

original blessing


PROJECT

24

BOOK

advertise

and

BUSINESS

all business

Broadly speaking to

IN

depends

sell,whether

to

ENGLISH its

ability products,services,

it be

upon

in business without talents,or ideas. There is no success this abilityto sell;and salesmanshipobviouslyis based upon

the

imaginativefaculties. Topics

Theme

Imagination 1. Business 2.

Business

in

Business

tells stories to the public. makes

imaginativeappeals with

the

following

ideas:

(a) The spiritof the home. (6) Patriotism. (c) Peace on earth,good will (d) The beauties of Nature. of childhood. (e) The romance "

3.

Business

tells fairy stories.

4.

Business

revives

5.

Business

likes to

Imagination

to

see

dull routine

old memories. the public.

tease

uninterestingtask interesting and into pleasant occupation. The ability an

of the labor

the monotony

beyond

men."

Routine:

Redeems

Imagination makes turns

toward

involved

the

to

beauty and worth of the product created,is to be coveted Spading a garden, by all who would enjoy their work. scrubbing a floor,sorting checks, typing letters is all dull, labor without

mechanical a

clean kitchen, an

sent.

All labor

perceivesand so

many

to

a

orderly business,and a

assumes

enjoys the

thousands

the vision of flowers in full

of

men

dignityto

new

purpose

and

a

which

women

lifeof grindingmonotony,

to

message

the it

person

of mechanical in their

social

be

who That

serves.

in this world

sensing the joy of purpose without ever of the colossal tragediesof life which one

bloom,

are

demned con-

routine

is efforts, philosophers.


PROJECT

26

BUSINESS

IN

BOOK

ENGLISH

5.

job. Singing while you do a monotonous mechanical tasks. The rhythm of some Washing dishes made interesting. Building air castles while my fingersare busy.

6.

Observations

2. 3. 4.

of human

nature.

7. A trivialincident that brightened a dull day.

charming pictureI

work;

to

simple terms imagination is the abilityof the mind and reproduceimpressionsgained through the five senses and originalconceptions. I see combine, them into new

to

8. A

saw

on

to

way

my

school. 9.

patheticface that haunts conversation interesting

A

10. An

Basis

The

of

me.

I overheard.

Observation

Imagination "

In

cloud;

I close my

I hear the

in

ears

my

of

fruit

first grape

stocking on

our

the power

of

Christmas

to retain these

ing the feelstillfeel/' stilltaste

can

stillsmell

or

of

shiver at

can

us

a

cloud. out

are

carry

"I

a

eye,

peach and

a

dentist's drilling." Some

that fell out cases

long after

waves

for several seconds.

memory

imagination our

these

mind's

of the fuzz, I shall doubtless

"the

say,

we

in my

If I bite into

sound.

the sensation in my

of the

roar

of the

range

and stillsee

eyes

to

the orange

morning.

In

all

impressionsexists

sense

less degree in every individual. have as the basis of our mental equipment these

in greater and All of

us

images

sense

furniture. into

them mind's

put

a

eye

We

myriads a

woman

scene

from

story out the

new

we

be

a

sense

these

saw

having

product

of

We

may

see

in California seen

of the details from

combine

again in The

imagination. Thus

another.

An

our

into it

and

in Boston.

impressions, buildingone

mental

our

impressionsand

forms. once

recall

we

his

of

the rest of

to construct

take

may

would works

of which

out

a

scene

inventor

bination com-

writer for his

builds

experience of his past impressionsand fashions in his imagination an originalidea. Farther and farther upon


we

of pure observation. Only realm

will

actual

learned

for

to

use

their

imagination.

Impressions

to the class that

to prove

that

have

the material

have

ever

who

those

Your

Aim

27

into the experienceof the senses imagination,but the basis of imaginationis from

travel away

senses

BUSINESS

IN

IMAGINATION

alive with

observant of detail,

are

you

Write from five senses. observed facts,on any of the experience,describing are

you

actual

your

followingsuggestions: 1. A salesman

whose

is a

appearance

4.

bargain counter scramble. A descriptionof the "boss." "Quitting time" in a largestore

5.

Types

6.

An

7.

A

2. 3.

A

in

seen

street

a

attractive window

8.

bird's eye view of The mills at sunset.

9.

The

boss

Fashions

11.

A

12.

The

13.

An

14.

The

blind

15.

The

policeman

busy

seen

car.

display. the city.

on

the street.

on

a

corner

rainyday.

city at night. effective street man

car

advertisement.

sellingpencils. at the

semaphore.

Suggestions to entertain the

1. Write a

dull theme.

Choose would

3.

factory.

or

out.

goes

10.

2.

good advertisement.

a

scene

you

class; don't bore the class with waste

yourself are

your

paper

"Theme"

your

interestingtitle be

of

article. interesting

an

time

on

the obvious.

interested in if you

interest others. head

Don't

Don't

Writing

for

an

or

advance

"English"; let advertisement


28

PROJECT

BOOK

4. Re-read

have

you

to

make

and

sure

in

spelling, punctuation,and the impressionyour theme would

errors

no

grammar

in its final form

theme

your

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

IN

mar

otherwise make.

Questionsto 1. Does

ask

in re-reading yourself your

the theme

create

theme:

picture?

a

2. What

details accomplishthis?

3. Would

outside interesting letter perhaps?

in 4. Do

be

the theme

a

I show

5. What

a

classroom,

of observation?

powers

detailswill prove

to my

reader that I

am

a

keen

observer? Suggestions

Miscellaneous 1. Take page

topicslisted on

of the theme

one

add

and

to

of the

any

the

observed

preceding facts any

as: coloring imaginative you please,

(a)Put

into the

scene

in another

saw

(6)Interpretthe

of three

story.

a

senses

increases with the loss of the other

How

does Helen

what

would

her idea of

part in the lifeof

a

Keller

"imagine"? Upon

tree be based?

a

business

man

Illustrate from:

play?

L

a

you

scene

two.

4. What

make

theme, the powers of observation of any peopleof your acquaintance. the life of Helen Keller. Note how strength

2. Contrast in

3. Read

and

scene

you

actually saw, using to explainthe bare facts. imagination

your

two

observed,characters

you

salesman.

(a)The (b)The

lifeof

a

life of

an

(c) The

lifeof

a

merchant.

(d)The (e)The

life of

a

clerk.

lifeof

ft

stenographer

employee.

does keen observatio


IMAGINATION

Try

5.

IN

BUSINESS

29

to recall offhand:

(a) The

of the conductor

appearance

last rode

(6) The

details of

(d) Read

a

such

some

strange

a

you

Sherlock

can

Holmes

of observation

Bring abilityto see Using Observed

or

many

powers

Facts

Instinctive in

stranger made

impression some

See how

the

car

you

on.

at the theater

(c) The

on

at a

you

place. you

last in.

were

recall.

story and

the

note

of that famous

tive. detec-

class illustrations of uncanny

to

as

room

upon

a

glance.

Basis

for the

Imagination

is the desire to make

things. To see and make picturesof what we see; to hear and write music; to reproduce the odors of the gardens in costly perfumes; to bring together into a salad fruits and vegetableswhose blend of flavors are

man

appealsto

deep-rooted. The

those

he

has

melodies; and

seen

in

the

palate;these

artist creates

new

nature; the musician

desires to create

pictures out composes

of

new

the

in his experience sees originalperson material for his imagination'sbuilding. No experience is too trivial or too insignificant to suggest possibilities to his imagination. Out of the commonplace he fashions the romantic; out of the usual,the unusual; out of the prosaic, the poetic; and out of the old,the new. His mind is habituallysortingover odd facts,is continually combinations of facts in his eagerness to trying new get on the trail of an idea,an invention,a plan,or a suggestion. The imaginativeperson's mind is never quiet. On the street car, in the lobby, at the noon hour, in books, in crowd, at work or at play, the imaginative mind makes a combines new ideas. new associations, A student who wishes to develop his imaginationmust the playground, in the On develop this sense-acuteness.

classroom,at habit

to

watch

home and

and

on

listen.

the street,let it be his

daily


PROJECT

30

A 1.

2.

BOOK

Chance

and

the door

between

and

goods. the lady

of the house

the door

just rung

window

bell.

On

placardare the followingwords : solicitors will pleaserefrain from ringing

printed on

"Agents

attractive

an

in athletic

has

agent who

an

Imagination

describe

conversation

a

ENGLISH

Your

Exercise

to

Imagine in detail and displayfor a dealer Imagine

BUSINESS

IN

this door

bell

a

otherwise

or

The

of this house."

disturbingthe

agent has

not

seen

pants occu-

the

placard. 3. 4.

describe

and

Imagine Imagine

"push

a

conveniences 5.

Coin

word

a

7.

Imagine

8.

Write

9.

a

be used

to

home

where

all electrical

installed.

are

in your

Picture

button"

job.

as

title

a

or

for

name

some

organization.

student 6.

ideal

an

mind's

an

eye

ideal

employer.

ideal class recitation.

an

one-act

play or

a

short story

using well-known

advertisingcharacters,the Cream of Wheat chef,etc. By using picturesof the Campbell's Soup Kids or other series of scenes for a advertising characters make to tell an advertising a funny supplement or story. Suggestion

Use

bits of your

materials from

own

experience; don't try

structure

for your

everywhere

and

as

combine

well

as

them

to build

into

new

to

create

the

it; take ideas ones.

Let

the

material,and your imagination the It's combination that must only do the building. have the stamp of originality.

your

observation

give

you

Miscellaneous

1. Name

their

five

for opportunities

imagination:

the

followingto employ


IMAGINATION A

janitorof

A

druggist in

A

waiter

A

stenographer for

A

milliner

Name

3.

In these to

large apartment

a a

a

31

building.

town.

exclusive

an

in

small

resort.

summer

absent-minded

an

residence

doctor.

district.

jobs that commonly requireno imagination. five jobs,name opportunitiesfor the workers

employ their imaginations as

the

5.

in

BUSINESS

five

2.

4.

IN

a

means

of

relieving

monotony. business

positionsthat especially require sort of imagination in each? imagination. What ing: Analyze the need of imagination in each of the followName

some

Sellingmillinery. Reading the gas meter. Solicitingcharity contributions. Applying for a position. the studies in the curriculum

6. Name

imagination. 7.

Argue

your

own

Discuss

pointof

view

offer stimulation

(6) Imagination

"

develop the

them. on

the

the commercial

(a) The subjectsin

that

to the " as

.

following: course

I

"

,

imagination. importantas

any

other

in business. singlequalification

Seeing What

the

Fellow

Other

Sees

casually about the aisles of a of department, fascinated by the wonders large hardware had not intended to buy anything; You ware? kitchen were just waiting for a package to be wrapped in a you neighboringdepartment and were whiling away the minutes. Have

That

you

table

ever

yonder

wandered

was

coring,cleaning,etc.

full of the latest novelties for And

as

you

looked

paring,

for the latest de-


PROJECT

32

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

"That reminds spied just an ordinary egg beater. the me," you said, as you searched for a quarter. And next counter, strange enough, had just the piece of Pyrex that you had been looking for to complete your set. vice you

Had

it

occurred

ever

to

that

you

the

of

manager

that

of women's student He knew a department was ways? women's tendency to forgetto replaceworn-out egg beaters. He might have put up the advertisingsign,"Just to remind you" but he knew that you would supply the slogan yourself in the right place. He if he simply put the counter remembered his wife's saying years when they were ago

stillnewly married

the waffles that she

on

I could remember

to

so

get

their first egg

beater

proudly made, "Oh, dear, I

do wish

those those

little things when the hardware

old I

out

worn

new

a

that

waffles with

entered

had

but

beater.

egg

I

one.

down

am

department

I almost

never

can

town."

some

And

years

spoiled

remember when

he

later he made

incident and a whole lot of other "insigtrifling nificant" And that was experiencesof the days and weeks. why he climbed so rapidly from clerk to manager. Haven't irritated at the often, in a store, become you awkward fumbling of a clerk over stock that she didn't seem of that

use

After

know?

to

five minutes

of ineffective

searching,she

quiteunconvincingly,"I guess we haven't that in stock." she did have it,but simply couldn't find it. Or You knew haven't you been "just looking" for hats and been enjoying yourselfwhen a clerk appeared and shadowed you around didn't you in each case if resentingyour loitering? And as the proprietor, fashion, "If I were I know say in human said

I would

what

What

do."

littleobservations of yours, to

them

use

as

imaginationlead and

could you

A where

man

once

long

rows

if you of

manager you

would

a

back to the

do

you

with

these

two

given a chance department? Could your were

now

point of view of the customer

thereby improve trade? walked of

up

the

aisles of

a

furniture store

dining-room chairs monotonously lined


PROJECT

34

BOOK

Mr.

Dear

IN

BUSINESS

:

My father died when I was the impressionable age when wonderful

twelve years old justat I considered him the most "

in the world.

man

left me

He

ENGLISH

good name, a very small legacy,a deal of the.Scotch-Irish fighting spirit and a wonderful picture of himself. I'm not ashamed to tell you, Sir,that the photograph of Dad helped me over lota of rough placesin a

"

the Road

Many

of Success. time in the old

to get days when I was fighting a toe-hold in the Big Town, I'd come to my littlebedroom beaten. And, somehow, justa glance tired,discouraged, at those big,trustingeyes of Dad's with the tinylaughing wrinkles 'round-about,would fillme with strengthand determination. Then I'd pick up the handiest weapon, and start out again to take part in the battle.

And

a

now,

about

YOUR

With

son.

all of your

heart

and

soul,you want him to grow up a strong,decent,manly chap. He will be going away to school now in a few days. You cannot accompany friend and pal. him as a counselor, But you can send a wonderful support your photograph. That boy of yours wants a real,man-like pictureof his show to the fellows with a Dad a photograph he can bit of a catch in his voice, world of pride, and maybe a wee "

"

as

he says, "That's Dad!" And he shall have it. For when

with me,

we'll forgetall about

you

come

conventions

to talk it over and

stiff-and-

starchy things if you say so, and just make a human, natural,real,life-likepicture. I'm mighty fond of taking everyday photographs,and I've noticed that the work a loves is quiteapt to be pretty well done. man Perhaps it would be best to make an appointment this morning. There's a telephoneon your desk and one on mine. My number is Main 2436. Truly yours, P. S.

And

of

course

YOU

want

a

pictureof the lad,in

togs with the manly smile that sets your heart aglow. 'Twill keep you up to par in.the days to come.

his

new

So

bring him along. Reprinted from

The

Mailbag of December, 1917


IMAGINATION Analyzing

in the letter?

the writer imagination?

Has

stimulate

he

3. Does

4.

What

5.

Underline

6.

What

the words

which

suggestive.

are

color is this letter?

imaginative letter is

dull.

never

One

by picturesof familiar places or by words associations.

familiar

he

what

see

his words a

tences sen-

imagination?

one's

appeal to

of words

sort

what

In

imagination?

your

words?

or

An

35

Letter

the

is the chief appeal made

1. What 2.

BUSINESS

IN

to

that

imaginative writer

An

by the magic

sees

is

of his

stupid interview

dull conversation,a

summon

makes

details,the

conjure up pleasantmemories. are

bored

never

A

power

up

you

of

dull letter,

usuallydull

cause be-

they lack imaginativecoloring. Make

specifically any

Describe 1. A

Classmates

Your

See

of the

A

dull half hour

waitingfor

3.

A

dull time

party.

4.

A

dull letter.

5.

A

dull conversation.

6.

A

dull theme

at

us

following:

book

review

A

3.

An

4.

A

business

5.

A

book

interview

"

Be

you

the

car.

yourself. details that

your

half hour's wait for

2.

Note.

See!

in class.

read

by interesting:

1. A

a

Don't be dull

"

Convince were

You

dull class hour.

2.

Note.

What

in you

an

a

any

train.

English class.

overheard.

letter. read.

yourself. interesting

"

of the

following


36

PROJECT

IN

BOOK

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

EXERCISE

List ten

for

synonyms

and apply each interesting

to

some

noun.

Theme

Topics

followingtopicsin language that will stir the reader's imagination: Write

theme

a

on

of the

any

bore in the classroom.

1. The 2.

The

3. 4.

enjoyment of unpleasant places." Looking out of the window.

5.

A half hour's wait for

6.

An

7.

A

8.

An

9.

The

10.

bored

in the classroom.

"The

apology

for

train with

a

the street

eavesdroppingon

recitation that aroused

in

car.

spontaneous applause.

imaginativeperson'sview of a enjoyment of trivial things.

Humor

observer.

keen

a

crowd.

elevator.

an

EXERCISE

Rewrite

the

language.

The

pretending he induce

In

student

try the wonders

going

am

You

camera.

very

are on

see

good.

be

of

you

think

to show

you

photography by

how

that it is very

can

he would

does

his

he

scriptio de-

miss

picturesque?

It is very

picnic;you

a

Do

parts of his recitation

what

to splendidopportunities

"I

demonstratinga pocket kodak,

was

sellingcameras.

was

to

you

recitation in imaginative

following student

put

to work

small

this little

but its

pictures

convenient

to take with

you

it in your

pocket

you

AU

push this lever and the camera opens. about distance There is no difficulty or anything. It You find your pictureby looking is off ready to snap. have

to do is to

into this little finderwhich

ready, you taken.

push

It is easy

turns

the snapper to load.

The

out

in

and

When the

you

are

picture is

beauty cf this

camera


IMAGINATION is that it is convenient

Who

wants

BUSINESS

IN

and

to carry

to be mthout

simple to operate. in summer?"

camera

a

37

Originalityin Business this strenuous

competition has extended into every phase of life. Men not only compete for trade; of ideas. there is a livelycommerce are Every day men of money. One buying and sellingideas for large sums In

sells

of ours,

age

idea

for

labor-savingdevice for thousands of dollars; another sells his idea for an original advertisement,a movie scenario,a funny supplement series. man

If

an

new

of his times

keep abreast

would

one

some

this strenuous

intellectual

"Uneeda"

invent

he must

be alive to

competition,to this exhilarating of wits that goes on about him on the billboards, in game and in the market. aginatio the newspapers, Perhaps an alert imwill earn at a singlestroke a year'ssalary. It required no phenomenal genius to coin the word or

apple

an

biscuit built up in a story is told of a man

named

his

and

Ideas

have

him

a

ain't

him

if he

had

ache tooth-

a

toothache,sir; that's

a

rich. rich.

men

greater weight than for

asked

reply, "That made

who

man

$50,000,000 corporation. The cigarstore swellinghis cheek with

Someone

Lucky Strike,"made

the

a

a

chewing tobacco.

Yet

corer.

the labor

"One

singleidea

of all men,

century" (Emerson). Hard

make If a man can bring success. his neighbor, the world will beat

a

animals

path

and

have gines en-

alone will not

work

better

may

trap than

mouse

his

one door, somesaid. Too few people jointhe quest for the original. for staying with the "I'm not a genius" is our pet excuse who Neither crowd. was Woolworth, the man originated

the

5

and

10

cent

store

suggested the idea.

have

occurred

clerk.

He

he did it by

was

to

a

told

A

store.

puttingup

to

little incident

It occurred

thousand

others.

get rid of

to

a

a

country

by chance; it might He

some

sign Anything

was

odds

"

a

in

on

an

and

ordinary ends

this counter

and

5ff."


38

BOOK

PROJECT

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

EXERCISE Is the

followingadvertisement

picture in

a

theme.

18M"

The

original? Interpret the

Most

IMO

Elaborate Event

in Our

History

Celebrates

The

Founding of The YoungoQuinlaiiCompany Ytort Ago Twenty-six

Spring Opening Monday


IMAGINATION

Suggestive

BUSINESS

IN

Material

for

Magazine

39

Reference

Work

2.

hunting in business,McClure's, V. 45, p. 79, October, 1915. Getting the new way first, System, V. 27, pp. 127-132,

3.

February, 1915. Ideas, giant powder in business,System, V. 24,

Idea

1.

pp.

451-453.

fortunes

Big

4

small

from

ideas, Illustrated World,

V. 26, pp. 574-579.

Making

5.

money

out

of your

ideas,System, V. 33,

56-57, January, 1918. who at 28 suddenly had man

pp.

The

6.

a

ican great idea,Amer-

Magazine, V. 84, pp. 52-53, October, 1917. Woolworth's story, World's Work, V. 25, pp. 659-665. Big dreams that come true, Everybody's,V. 35, p. 607. King of the ten cent bazaar, Current Opinion,V. 55,

7. 8. 9.

p.

211.

who

Man

10.

millions

saw

in

V. 61, pp. 70-78, May Note.

Look

"

other

up

Consult

Business."

a

nickel,Literary Digest,

3, 1919.

referencesto articles on

the Reader's

Guide

under

"Ideas

such words

in as:

etc. ideas, invention,advertising, genius,originality ,

There

are

by

of small

inventions

commonplace incident

some

invented

who

man

hundreds

of

a

which normal

the crimped hair pin asked

were

gested sug-

life. The

his wife

one

day why she always bent her hair pins before putting them Her replythat if she didn't,they would soon into her hair. responsiblefor his patent. in hooks and eyes not The man who originatedthe "hump" problem of hooking his wife's gown but only solved his own fall out

was

that of millions of other husbands. A

clerk in

of papers paper

he

And

he made

a

fortune.

pensionoffice was so troubled by the number was requiredto put togetherthat he invented a

clipand

made

his fortune.

a


PROJECT

40 A

BOOK

watchful

became

tainted

invented

of

one

for

their reward

And

what

about

man

ENGLISH

noticed that lemon

the house

they did, thousands

of others

Written

or

Theme

might

have

done.

Topics

Id6as which

might have been mine. Give examples of ideas you had, but didn't

before

got ahead

one

some

ideas from

home

or

school

It Paid A

to be

express

of you. Choose simple life. Make point your

of view that it is often the first man, who gets the credit. man, 2.

juice

So he by going through a metal squeezer. glass. These modest geniuses littleguessed keen observation and imaginative thinking.

Oral 1.

BUSINESS

IN

not

the smartest

Original.

story of

profited,even

of your though in only a

a

acquaintance who

person

small

way,

by his

originality. 3.

My

OriginalIdea.

Own

(a) A new kind of candy I invented. (b) A game I invented. (c) A story I created. (d) A piece of furniture I invented. (e) A word I coined. (/) A riddle I devised. (g) A charade I worked out. (h) A design I originated. (i) A garden I planned. (j) An originalparty I suggested. (k) A method I devised for simplifying: (1) My (2) My (I)Any 4.

chores. .

studying.

other idea not

Opportunities for : originality

any

mentioned. of

the

following to

express


PROJECT

42 9. 10.

ENGLISH

odd

are

thousands

of littleways

Little mannerisms

the crowd.

of

breaking away from easilybe acquiredby

may

attempt to avoid the trite and the commonplace.

honest

Each

BUSINESS

IN

trade. personalitythat won She haunts the foreground,not the background. An

There

an

BOOK

day there

are

hundred

a

chances

for observation

the dull background

imaginationto set out our personalityfrom of commonplaceness. Your

Exercising

1.

Think

2.

supply

may

Suppose

three ways

descriptivematerial

any

of

Small

Ways

of introducing strangers.

ways

wish

and

restaurant

in

sittingopposite a

are

you

Originality

op

novel

two

up

You

Powers

and

to

stranger in

conversation.

a

open

wish.

you

a

gest Sug-

opening it,barringany reference

food,weather, or the service. 3. Write a friendlyletter, avoiding any to

(a) enumeration

last letter.

your

mention

not

may

you

of what

are

to avoid

of the

following:

did since you {This does not mean you

wrote you

interestingincidents

catalogingincidents

but

ing accord-

time.) (6) apologiesfor delay in answeringletter. (c) intimations that you have littleto say. to

4.

Take

student

5.

verbatim

down

in any

an

class.

originalrecitation. Suggest an originalmenu

average

Rewrite

for

a

class

wieners, potato salad, lemonade overworked

recitation of any that it is an so

picnic. Avoid

and

any

other

items.

originalreply to each of the following: (a) "How are to-day?" you (b) "Lovely weather we are having, isn't it?" 7. Suggestan original titlefor any theme recentlywritten

6.

Suggest

which title.

an

was

headed

with

some

commonplace, general


IMAGINATION

8. Write

original conversation

an

Make

customer.

9.

BUSINESS

IN

commonplace remarks. Make an apology for some that avoid

between

clerk

and

avoid

trite

and

clerk

your

43

slightoffense with words

the conventional.

and gracefully ing avoidcompliment, originally the hackneyed.

10. Accept

a

Platitudes: Express the 1. "I understand

have

you

2.

"Is there

something for

3.

"Are

waited

4.

"There

you

idea

same

a

originally.

vacancy." in silks?"

you

on, Madam?"

is good value in this goods, madam."

5. "In reply to yours of the 5th instant,etc." 6. "Thanking you in advance, etc." 7. "Please write at your earliest convenience." 8. "Can I show you something in linen?" "

9.

Is the lady of the house

"I will justtake

10.

a

minute

at home?

of your

"

time,lady."

Imitation Imitation

has been

called the suicide of the soul and

yet

who illustrations in historyof men received find many imitation. Robert their first impetus to originalityfrom we

achieved

Stevenson

Louis

much

of his charm

of style by

Often we find an invention imitatingauthors he admired. superseded by a slightimprovement. Some one borrowed idea and used his imaginationto better it. We the original cannot

escape

from

the influence of others into

originality.There is suggestionis so subtle that pure

no

such

we

often

thing. The claim

realm

a

power

of

of

nality complete origi-

without

recognizingour debt to countless ideas which idea received its impulse start. our Every new us gave from other ideas. One man originatea part of a scheme, may another The

man

accepts it and adds his

combination

is

own

contribution

original.Honesty impels the

man

to it. to


BUSINESS

IN

BOOK

PROJECT

44

ENGLISH

acknowledge his debt; such a debt does not detract from his originality. own To develop originalityone must borrow from the great facts the human

wealth of ideas and

we

may

do

Learning

Original

be

to

to what

Imitation

through

of five words

note

a

phrases

or

recently

you

and make specificor unusual sense opportunity for yourselfto use them likewise.

an

in

used

heard

2.

What

think.

or

1. Make

thought is the stepping stone

and

done

others have

is heir to.

race

a

the title of any book you that title. Get theme on

Take a

-see

on

a

shelf and write

idea merely from

your

the title. 3.

Take a

else to suggest for idea you can get some one class talk and improve it by adding, or subtracting,

or

4.

The range

any

changing

In your

theme

next

etc., of

any

attempt

as

assignment imitate

author

you

with

contact

through such

fond

are

the style,tone, Label

of.

your

imitation.

originalpersons

most

of

content.

contact

are

those who

have

the

largest

the

experiences of others. Only suggestionsfor originality come.

can

Honesty of Authorship Honesty in most matters is,however, often found

regarding the

sentiment words

and

ideas.

giving credit

to

deception. If

one

To

the

of conduct "

among

honest"

borrowing

use

author

is honest

the

and

words

when idea is borrowed

To

using

others'

of another or

loose

a

of

without deliberate

in quotation, he will acknowledge express

statement

accept credit for the whole of

but part of it is originalis dishonest. and

There

people

is either careless

candidlyhis borrowings,either by quotation marks.

is apparent.

the expressionoriginalsuch

a

a

or

position com-

If the division


IMAGINATION

of

credit

would

is that

become

this

fair-minded

the

and

world

the

the

if I

expression

marks

be

to

not

or

author.

one

would

We

are

be"

to

all

may

accuse

of

me

Shake-

giving

without

past

credit. in

Honesty

no

the

of

quotation

the

expression

this

used

no

"To

knows

heritage;

common

plagiarism

assign

not

ideas

some

that

known

need

One

Shakespeare;

speare

well

so

that

however,

happens,

necessary.

use

is original

idea

the

another.

of often

have

if the

45

by

acknowledgd

frankly

similarly,

person;

It

be

BUSINESS

IN

is

authorship

credit

giving

simply

where

credit

is due.

Miscellaneous

Develop 1.

Life

The and

of

a

Bank

Originally

Check.

write

then

with

Visit

"

aid

the

Consult

biography.

Topics

Theme

of

bank

a

observe

imagination

your

details,

for

and

Fisk,

a

"Modern

Banking." 2.

3.

The

A

Adventures office

write

Movie

of

or

public

create to 4.

The

a

with

story

Market

movie

observe

1.

a

Parcel.

a

and

the

early from

the

color

with

of

a

After

"

Street.

market

Biography No.

of

Daily

title Visit

"

in

the

to

a

post-

just suggested. a

wholesale

street

and

morning

pictures your

visit

a

that

you

then able

are

imagination.

Newspaper.

"

Do

as

in


III

CHAPTER

THE

In

the

group,

every

the

club, there

the

positive

and those

are

that

or

has

its few

the

on

who

know

with

feeble

a

without

up to

the

of

no

"There

have

ability

no

be

can

to

fact,

a

thought

a

lack

than

and

associates

not

only

bear

but

by day

day

little

a

before

Parliament

Grand

Jury

of talkers; by

largely composed Stevenson

it has

in

importance

his of

the

excel

to

Essay forming

on

definite

No

time

in talk every

among

our

congress

measure

been

that

has

opinions.

by not

Robert

Talkers"

shaped comes

prepared

Thus and

that

first declared, public

are

is written

"Talk

46

and

to

pat

great international

ago

grow

reason.

flight of

assistance."

their

content

initiative, judgment;

that

right.

long

book

no

is

of public opinion

course

to

nearer

but

that wrongs

the

and

first corrected

errors

in

public

sitting, where

always

to

part

a

the

cheer

ness sluggish-

questions

illustration

and

book

simple questions

on

criticize,to

to

of this

themselves

to

the

there

people

weighty

They

ambition

fairer

no

think

many

obligations

and

class

every

opinion

Too

bear

line

mental

for

opinions

who

.

subject;

the

their

settle.

won't

opinions they have

.

call

definite

form

to

whose

know."

I don't

sensing

ever

those

Every

who

urge,

In

they

which

matters

dull.

many

what

"particular importance"

their

.

and

the

clique,

background,

the

who

led.

are

positively

"Oh,

world

and

the

and

suggest, and

the

party, and

vivid

time,

good

history

all

toward

who

hesitate

in

the

MIND

the

foreground

negative,

look

figure

the

OF

room,

the

and

responsibility for walls

class

always

is

gathering

social

ATTITUDE

POSITIVE

the been

Louis

describes

;


THE

ATTITUDE

POSITIVE

Wall

flowers at

2.

Students

recitations

volunteer

receive

should

credit.

extra 3.

Doing

4.

Am

I

5.

My

share

6.

"What

than

more

assignedfor

was

"self-starter"

a

do I have

or

in the formation

is the

of my

use

opinion won't settle

any

the lesson. to be cranked?

of

publicopinion. thinking about politics; my question."

conversationalist.

7.

A

8.

talk,the spice of life. take in. as Giving out as much you

9.

47

party.

a

who

MIND

Topics

Theme

1.

OF

"That

me"

reminds

Good

of the

.

(In a

tion.) conversa-

signalsto an employer that deserving an increase in salary is evidence that you initiative;do something he has not told you to do; is to be done without its being pointed out to you; One

surest

this letter

ready opinion on is

There

old Arabian

an

positiveattitude know He

assume see

what

have

when

that advertisement

a

it

for.

is asked

is

proverb which

epitomizesthis

of mind:

that doesn't know

"He

or

are

you

and

doesn't know

that he doesn't

fool; shun him!

a

that doesn't know

and

knows

that he doesn't know

is

simple; teach him! He wake He

that knows

and

doesn't know

that he knows

is asleep;

him!

that knows

and

knows

that he knows

is wise; follow

him." Theme

Topics

2.

Asking questionswhen I know I don't know. My pridein knowing that I know.

3.

"I

1.

knew was

the

answer

right," Did

all the time

I know?

but I wasn't

sure

it


BOOK

PROJECT

48

Finding

4.

I don't

what

out

BUSINESS

IN

ENGLISH

know, the

first

step towards

wisdom. The

5.

One

who

person

knows.

get into the fourth class is to

to

way

"guesses" he

attitude toward

those

thingsyou

are

sure

step by step increase that definite attitude what

know

increases;to

what positively

know

don't

you

as

know,

your

and

tive posi-

know

you

what

know, know

you

the

assume

and

knowledge think, you

then set about

to

learn. Know

Write your

a

own

on

dress of

Cash

and

3. If I

were

4.

Public

5.

An

6.

Does

of the

woman.

censor.

person,

what

"

it pay to "boss"? I need much money

is he?

to make

me

happy.

the public. exploits spiritof an employee. of a secretary. personality how you play,and I'll tell you what me

9.

The

11.

Tell

12.

"If you

hire

The

business

ownership.

Fashion;

13. The

a

movie

a

8.

10. The

any

carry.

educated

7. How

14.

Think!

followingtopics expressing and concretely: definitely opinionspositively, theme

1. The 2.

You

what

commerce

are.

thing well done, don't do it yourself; expert." The age of specialization.

want an

you

a

dangers of specialization. capacity for enjoyinglittlethings.

Reading character from 16. Telephone courtesy. 17. Building air castles. 15.

of

the

face.

clerks I like.

1"

The

19.

"How

20.

employer's personality. If I were again. a freshman The voice of the city. (What does it say to you?)

21. 22.

An

sort

to live

on

24 hours

of office expressive

an

a

day."


PROJECT

60 2.

Your

3.

You

BOOK

IN

employer dictated had

been

You

were

asked

positionand

one

You

knew

6.

You

were

did not

have

what

the customer

of

a

fellow-employee's dishonesty.

left alone in the office for

employer

asked

you

how

day.

a

much

of

increase

an

8.

of pay you deserved and why. Your employer asked you your opinionof your in the office.

9.

You

that the theme

knew

justread

asked

10.

Your

chum

11.

Your

employer asked

to let her copy

you

to say

you

employer contradicted

Your

that you

could prove was thought you deserved

13.

You

14.

A customer

15.

Your

he

would

this

if she knew meet

you

upon

fact

a

correct. an

teacher

one

knew

he

asked

1.

concerning

you

increase of

from

good recommendation.

no

chance

be

when

out

was

salary.

insultingand patronizing. prospectiveemployer was about to call

expect

To

he

problems.

your

was

telephone the

depend

not

was

in.

was

How

in class

rival

of the author.

the work

12.

were

for.

5.

7. Your

errors.

another.

clerk and

a

ENGLISH

letter full of

a

discharged from

applying for 4.

BUSINESS

whom

could

you

Assume

the

on

that

by

particularteacher

and

had

followingsituations?

Can

you

you.

the

initiative?

your

dramatized:

Place:

Sweet's

Time:

9

Cast:

Store.

a.m.

Manager. Girl

Situation: of

Candy

applying for position. Manager enters balcony,looks

girlswho for

a

have

arrived in

answer

Dismisses salesgirl.

to

them

an

as

over

crowd

ment advertisetoo

young.


POSITIVE

THE Girl her

ATTITUDE tries to induce

lingersand even though

MIND

51

the manager

to

try

she is but seventeen.

Place:

Store of General

Cast:

Clerk.

2.

OF

Merchandise, silk counter.

Customer. asks

Customer

Situation:

for

a

certain grade of silk.

"

her

"

something else, trying to make a sale since she is out of that grade. Customer covers disClerk shows

Conversation

ruse.

would

What could

if you were the customer, and if you were the clerk? get out of the dilemma

you

you

say

Applicationin

for

person

experience. What conversation

A

4.

positionadvertised.

Power

say to the

you

telephone.

a

over

the telephone of your The

a

would

You

accepted a position.

are

manager? have recently

You

informed

now

appointment

to

a

abilityto convince

depends in no A

others.

small

student

to decide

think for himself and

measure

must

upon

learn not

the soundness

of his

validityof judgments.

Theme 1. A

student

whose

3.

A salesman

4.

Holding one's

5.

A

6.

Why

own

a

carry

his opinions

conviction.

persuasivetongue. in

a

parlordiscussion.

excitingindoor sport. should study debating.

good-naturedargument, I

only

is convincing.

manner

A recitation that did not with

one's

Topics

2.

7. He

one.

for himself,but he must

also to persuade others of the

learn

better

over

to Convince

Success in business

and

now

Suppose required and you are just out experience was fill the positionand of school. You think you can decided have lack of to apply regardlessof your

3.

to

follows.

clinched the argument.

an


52

PROJECT

BOOK

8.

The

9.

Persuasive A

10.

fascination

debate

IN

BUSINESS

of the open

ENGLISH

forum.

tactics in business. that

was

as thrilling

as

moving picture.

a

Persuasion The

convince

to

power

Persuasion

argument. it.

It adds

a

to convince.

is based

is broader direct

mean

an

interest in the arguments

audience,you logicand

bear like

the a

same

in

audience

an

arguments

to take

won

your

based

upon

be very simple or complex the playground over on a

marks

track

discussions

of sound

not

affairs, ranging disputed point all arguments, so-called,

reasoning. A

collision between

two

real argument

trains

coming

is the

on

from

opposite directions. Most impromptu like two trains passingone another on different

are

In other words

tracks.

is not

feelingsof those

presented. Having

Congress. But

head-on

there is not

a

definite clash of

interpretationof the point under understood by the disputants.

opinion.

cludes in-

reason.

debate

a

gets

and

argument

to the

appeal

present sound

must

Arguments may from a wrangle to

than

Persuasion

we

persuasion and

upon

The

discussion

EXERCISE In

the

following"arguments"

decide

whether

opinion; if not, show why not. Do a, 6, c, d, e clash with II?

distinct clash of clash with I? I. Resolved:

should

Women

democratic

have

the vote

as

a

there

is

Do

6, c,

a,

matter

a

of

justice.

Arguments againstthe proposition.

(a) Women's place is in the home. (6) A woman's vote would only duplicatethe the male

(c)Women members

of

of her household,

member

already

vote

indirectlythrough family.

vote

of their

the


ATTITUDE

POSITIVE

THE

Billboard

II. Resolved:

of the

MIND

OF

advertisingis

a

53 to

menace

the appearance

community.

Arguments againstthe proposition. those who ride on street cars. (a) Billboards amuse (6) Billboards acquaintone with new products. (c) Theaters need billboards for their advertising. (d) Churches have used billboards. (e) Billboards cover up old scrap heaps, city dumps,

lots,etc.

vacant

Understanding the Before

Issue

argument

an

it is necessary that the issue clearly.No

progress,

may

involved, understand differences of interpretationof the question should sides

both

the

of the argument.

energy

been

have

considered

How

arguments

many

divert would

stopped immediately had the opponents whether or not they were arguing about the

first same

would have been saved thing; and what embarrassment had not last,that they agreed,not they discovered first,

disagreed. Theme

assigned in advance gatheractual material.) be

(To

1. 2.

3.

Topics

in

order

thai the students

may

only to find that they agreed. After a heated argument they forgot the originalpoint under dispute. Before they realized it,they had shifted sides in the They argued for

an

hour

argument. 4.

He

5.

A

likes to start arguments chairman

It would "freedom

by

"

be of

futile for two '

Do

he cannot

kept the "trains

who

speech'

freedom."

but

until each both

on

people to had

finish them.

the track." set out

defined what

accept absolute

discussing he meant

freedom?

What


PROJECT

64

BOOK

BUSINESS

IN

limitations does each put upon the word? settled it is idle to try to prove are

speechis the bulwark

of

ENGLISH Until such definitions

that "Freedom

of

Democracy." EXERCISE

In the have these

to

underline the words that would following questions be defined before a debate could proceed. Use

topics,also,for

a

exercise preliminary

in

debate,

definingthose parts of the questionthat need particular

interpretation. "

1. In the

long run

honestyin business

pays

in dollarsand

cents.

2.

plan is a step in the right Henry Ford's profit-sharing direction.

3. The

daylightsavingidea should be retained

for

large

cities. 4. Cash

and

Carry stores

do not live up to their boasts of

savingpatrons money. Proof

impromptu debate is a series of unproved the debaters merely state their opinions out withassertions; of their statements. provingthe truth is proved by fads and inferences. A fact A statement is a matter of concrete evidence. The sun shines,dogs build houses;these are fads easily chase cats,men demonstrated. is a matter of opinion. That men An inference are brave, that the "pen is mightierthan the sword," that Caesar was greaterthan Napoleon,these are inferences only. combination of One proves a statement by a facts and inferences. For example,I can prove that a certain toy is red by actually the producingthe toy and thus establishing fad of its redness. If I look in my pocket for my purse, however,and find that it is not there,it is not so easily The

,

average

demonstrated

X

what has become

of it. In this

case

I may


ATTITUDE

POSITIVE

THE

OF

MIND

66

inferences:(1) I forgot to put it there, (2) I lost it,or (3)it was stolen. I can establish the fact that I put it in my pocket through the testimony of a friend who saw me put it there. I can further inferthat I did not lose it because pockets are deep and without holes. my draw

of three

one

The

logicalinference

most

next

then, is that it

Such

these facts and

I must

next

going from

ences, infer-

seek facts to

facts to inferences

inferences to facts is the basis of proof.

from

and

stolen.

was

establish this inference.

from

EXERCISE

of the

Which which

are

following

are

arguments

and

assertions?

mere

The

Resolved:

statements

highercost

consumer

pays

the cost of advertisingin

a

of the article advertised.

Proof 1.

Advertising increases competition lowers

turn

2.

Merchant

A

in

Kansas

butter

more

competition in

prices. (Negative.)

of butter

sell

and

he sold butter

City by 43

at

and

cents

make

to fewer

an a

more

people

at

extensive

tisement adver-

able to pound was profitthan when 67 cents a pound.

(Negative.) Facts

Inferences

and

EXERCISE

Which

are

statements

pure

can

facts and

which

be established

as

are

inferences?

Which

facts?

1. A 2. 3.

dog is largerthan a rabbit. Mary is a better student than John. Mary received better marks than John report card. likes ham.

4.

Jane

5.

Washington

crossed

the Delaware.

on

his last


PROJECT

56

6. Cats

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

drink milk.

7. Skating is 8. Electric

better winter sport than

a

lightsare lamps.

tobogganing.

pleasingto the

more

eye

than

kerosine

Everyone should have his hobby.

9.

10. There

are

seven

colors in the spectrum.

obtainable. Complete proof is only theoretically

What

by proofis the most conclusive evidence Two be obtained. people argue and the one who

mean ordinarily

we

that

can

get the best facts to support his

can

inferences from logical Two

and

case

draw

the most

wins the debate. those facts,

of Evidence

Kinds

evidence is the

Personal

evidence is the

testimony of persons; testimony of things. Both

stantial circum-

kinds of

sonal valid,but one may contradict the other. Perevidence is the testimony of a witness and its value depends upon the followingconsiderations:

evidence

are

(a)Is (6)Is (c)Is (a)Only truth,who

the witness of good character? he

judge?

he prejudicedagainsteither side?

the testimony of is

to

competent

a

reputed to have

man

who

is

of the past,is of any value in the settling (6)The abilityto observe closelyand in all

the

same

We

would

not

people. to how

as

Neither in the

case

a

eyes

a

do

accept the testimony of

blind partially

of

Some

of

child alone.

a

an

likelyto tellthe

constantlytold the truth in

automobile

holdup would

dispute. accuratelyis not not see correctly. a

person

who

is

accident happened. mony we accept the testi-

On the other hand

we

would

accept

in preferenceto that of a electrician, in the case of a house who knew nothing of electricity, man supposed to have been set on fire by crossed wires. In all the competence of the have to consider carefully cases we person to judge accurately. issue is of a witness for or againstan (c)The prejudice the testimonyof

L^

an


IN

BOOK

PROJECT

58

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

Authority

opinionsdepends upon the testimony of that is,of those who have The evidence of authority, others. sion, already expressedthemselves on the subjectunder discusbulk

The

of

our

a

branch

of

personal evidence and the branch that of us rely on to prove most our points. We quote from books, or any other magazine articles, nized recognewspapers, authority on a given subjectwhen we wish to clinch It is perfectly must true that we our rely upon arguments. the observation of others who have better opportunitiesto judge, but one must not quote authorityrecklessly.One does to a tests to an authority as one must apply the same witness: is he of good standing,is he competent to judge, and is he unprejudicedenough to be able to speak the truth? is

"

"

Further,the person you are tryingto convince must recognize know, for example, that Edison your authority. You is an but if your opponent authorityon electric lighting, does not know that he is an authority,your quoting him will have

littleeffect.

EXERCISE

person'sopinion on the followingsubjectswould have most weight with you? Choose your authority the basis of the tests suggestedin the previouspassage on on authorityand evidence. What

"

1. The

"

value of

literarysocieties.

2.

The

business man's

3.

The

number

4.

How

5.

The

to

earn

need

for

of credits needed

a

a

collegeeducation? for

graduation. while attending school.

money

dangers of

Circumstantial

"

too

course specialized

of

study.

Evidence

Things testifyas well as people. A broken milk bottle the side walk, a littlegirllooking back tearfully, testify, on quite as clearly as words, to the mishap.


POSITIVE

THE

ATTITUDE

OF

MIND

59

EXERCISE 1

.

Read

Sherlock Holmes

a

of circumstantial 2.

Pick

story. Bring

evidence.

examples of accumulated

out

i.e. of several the 3.

to class examples

circumstantial

dence, evi-

all pointingto

circumstances

conclusion.

same

find Similarly,

instances

where

circumstantial

evidence

contradicts itself. Circumstantial contradict

each

and other.

personal evidence In the latter

may

support

or

the conclusion

case

to

be drawn

will depend upon the value attached to each kind is an example: Your cat clingsbristling of evidence. Here to

a

branch

of

a

tree.

A small boy with his dog stands under

the tree,the dog barking, the boy laughing. You that

conclude

boy's dog chased your cat. The boy, however, declares his dog is not at fault. In the face of the evidence so plainlyexpressed by the circumstances you can hardly believe his statement. minister comes But just then your he saw a strange up and supports the boy'sstory by testifying dog chase your cat up the tree and that the boy and his dog had justdriven off this intruder when you appeared on the the

scene.

Logical Inference There

method

are

follows

child touches as a

two

a

well-known

experiment,the hot

stove

and

he discovers that it is hot. third

or

of

processes

reasoning. One

other follows reflection. withdraws

He

his hand

tries it again and

fourth time, each time with

the

same

A

quickly perhaps

result.

His

experimentsteach him, then, that a stove is hot. Thus he establishes from his experiencethe generaltruth that a stove is a hot thing. This process of reasoningis called induction; i.e.arrivingat a general truth from particular experiments. general truths have through the whole experienceof the Many

such

thus race.

been

arrived

at

Ice is cold,water


PROJECT

60

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

is wet, iron is

heavy; these are general truths arrived at one's experience No through the experienceof mankind. has ever disproved them; so we accept them as generally I immediately As I approach a stall in the barn true. are reflect,"horses "This horse,then,"

known "

I reason,

(generaltruth). likelyto kick; I had

kick"

to

is also

better not go too close to his heels." of

This process of reasoning, the generaltruth to the particular instance

going from

The

is called deduction.

two

processes

make

what

up

we

call logical reasoning.

EXERCISE

method

which

Determine

of

reasoningis employed

following instances; in each the

propositionand

point

case

out

the

Irishmen

2.

Mary

are

o'clock.

general

instance. particular

reputed to be witty; John is he is likely to be witty. stayed up three nights in succession

1.

in tne

She

was

mornings.

on

cross

each

late hours

I guess

man; Irish-

an

until ten

of the three following do not

agree

with

her. 3.

Most

4.

Most

women

boys like stories of adventure; Jack

doubt 5.

like Stevenson's

"Treasure

will

no

Island."

representativestudents voted against abolishing football;I judge then that the students as a whole

Ten

are

The

get married; I'll probably get married.

againstsuch

step.

reasoningarises from a faulty inductions from experiences.For "Four persons in my neighborhood believe

greatest number

tendency to make example, I argue,

a

of

errors

in

dishonest; therefore he must Four be dishonest." are testimonies,while significant, hardly conclusive proof. Or again, I argue, "Municipal ownership has failed in San Francisco; therefore it would the iceman

in

our

district to be


THE

POSITIVE

fail here." evidence.

Here An

ATTITUDE

MIND

OF

again is a conclusion based

induction

be drawn

must

insufficient

upon

only

61

from

general

experience. Reasoning by Analogy bad dreams after Suppose I say, "I have twice dreamed agree eating welsh rabbit late at night; welsh rabbit must diswith me." This reasoning is inductive. Suppose I say further, Since welsh rabbit disturbs my sleep,cheese eaten doubtless have the same at night would effect,as welsh rabbit is made This last conclusion chiefly of cheese." "

is called reasoning by

analogy.

I

assuming that

am

similar

will produce similar results.

causes

"

Again,I say, Our school should have the quarter system; Chicago Universityhas the quarter system; therefore our should

school

The

soundness

successful

quarter system

of my cases

it."

of this argument

depend upon two other considerations: (1) Are conditions in Chicago similar to those in our school? (2) Was

would

the

have

analogy would compared.

in Chicago?

depend

upon

The

accuracy

the likeness of the two

EXERCISE

Test the accuracy

of the

followingconclusions

from

drawn

analogies: 1. I

should

not

I

because

be

failed in

in the test and

a

Failure

the

test.

given

he did not

in Chemistry Smith

John

receive

a

just failed

Failure for the

term. 2.

I

ought who

3. I

to

is

get 18 dollars

no

older than

a

week

I gets

to start with.

that,and

so

Mary

I think I

the same amount. ought to demand ought not to have to support myself; no other boy in our neighborhood supports himself;why should I have

to?


62

PROJECT

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

Summary An

is carried

argument

drawn

are

A real argument and

to collect facts in

aims

support of inferences

to infer

correctlyfrom facts collected. Proof depends the comparative strength of facts and inferences given

upon

both sides

on

The

Brief

The a

ference by facts and inferences;inby induction, deduction, or analogy. on

of the formal

form

"Brief."

complete

It is

debate

is

technicallyknown

brief analysisof the

a

It works

statements.

main

backwards

as

assertion in

from

the main

assertion. Illustration

Resolved:

Women

should

Affirmative argument 1.

It would

mean

It would

women.

have

to

with

compete

other

dress better than they do.

could

pay

for

more

durable

material

less for eccentric styles.

and 2.

for not

who

(6) Women

dress.

:

would

women

Brief

uniform

have

economy

(a) Women

a

of

make

think

women

of

other

things

than

clothes,

(a) At present It would

mean

(a) Under

women's

many

thoughts are

taken

with styles.

up 3.

too

greater social democracy for

present conditions in the matter

many

of clothes

women,

women

and

are

bish snob-

judge worth

superficially. Note

that

statements;

in the Brief:

(2) each

main

(1) all

complete is supported by a complicated debates,

statements

statement

are

each

longer and more sub-topic would be supported by illustrations and

more

facts.

sub-statement.

In


ATTITUDE

POSITIVE

THE

Topics

OF

MIND

63

Debate

for

Before debating,analyze the questionin "Brief"form. 1. Men

and

should

women

receive the

same

wages

for

equivalent work. 2.

"Criticism

3.

Service rendered,not

from

only come

can

time

above."

spent, should

be the basis

of wages. 4.

Employers have

right to

no

dress,savings,and 5.

The

6.

There

dictate

habits of

concerningthe employees.

tippingsystem degrades human should

be

in the household

i.e.all work

the

day, and

in

servants

no

social

in

that

order

the prostitute pictures.

art and

be

no

education

Newspapers

should

9.

Commercial

competition is the

The

board

and

state

or

city

commercial

8.

stylesin women's

maids

with.

away

picturetheaters should be under

control

10.

modern

society; should be done by the a

classification of

servants, etc. should be done 7. Moving

nature.

gain should possiblein moving

independent of

their advertisers.

of

cause

eccentric

clothing.

of Trade

contributes

no

real service to

business.

Discussion

According to Parliamentary

In order

that

questions that

to

will arise at

learn to discuss business

intelligently

meetings

of

various

be prepared

so

suggested in the previoussection that they can be carried on according

parliamentary rules. procedure will

man

may

of the debates

sorts,some may

students

Law

of the

meeting

and

The

followingoutline give simple directions to to the students

who

of

mentary parlia-

the chair-

carry

on

cussion: dis-


1.

IN

BOOK

PROJECT

64

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

Organization: that your teacher nominate from one

(a) Assuming

permanent

is temporary of your

man, chair-

number,

a

chairman.

(b)Vote for chairman by risingvote. (c) The elected chairman should: (1) Appoint a secretary to keep minutes. of the (2) Explain the purpose meeting. (To discuss and some

2.

Order

one

of the

vote

upon

the merits of

debatingtopics.)

of business:

(a) If

the meeting is the first meeting,new

business

is presented (thatis the topicto be discussed)

(1)and (2)of (c)under Organization. the Q")If the meeting is a second or third of a series, followingis the order of business: (1) Minutes of last meeting read and approved. after

(2) Reports might

of have

(A committee appointed to look up

committees. been

information.)

(3) Unfinished business. (4) New business. (5) Adjournment. 3.

Duties

of presidingofficer:

(a) Call meeting to order. (b) Call for minutes, reports etc. (c) Recognize speakers, keep order in debate and limit the time of speakers. (d) Decide pointsof order. decision. (e) Put questionsto vote and announce ask a (/) If chairman wishes to debate, he may member to presideduring his speech.

(g)In

case

of

a

tie vote he may

cast his vote.


IN

BOOK

PROJECT

66

(c) A (d) A

motion

ENGLISH

to refer

motion

questionto committee. lay questionon table,i.e. to layfuture meeting.

to

aside until 7.

BUSINESS

Amendments:

(a) An

should

amendment

that the motion the last two

be stated thus:

in

by strikingout paragraph I etc.,so .

(6)An

amendment

offered to

as

amended be

may

amendment

but

offered to amendment

no

.

.

"

will read,

proposed amendment

a

move

be amended

words

that the motion

"I

a

proposed should of

a

be posed pro-

amendment.

MISCELLANEOUS

I. How addressed and

would to

a

you

the

answer

daily paper?

In

followingcommunications let your judgment a theme

logic be apparent. I. The

To

EXERCISES

Hours

op

Work

the Editor of The Journal:

pleasurein work, no satisfaction in achievingand that so many thousands are struggling and striving accomplishing, lowest point? Is Edison to reduce the hours of labor to the very one our great exception,who from pure love of labor works 16 to Is one hours of leisure 18 hours of the 24? happierwith so many Cannot acter, a person develop strengthof chardaily on his hands? sense concentration, poise,high ideals and good common in the factoryand workshop; why this great and constant struggle Is work 44-hour week? for an 8-hour day, and a something cate Cannot and dreaded? to be shunned something be done to inculin our growing boys and girlsideals of service,an ideal of one making each waking hour one of profitto himself or to some in teaching else? Can it not be a part of the school curriculum need 124 hours each week Do we patriotismand Americanism? for rest and recreation with only 44 or 48 hours of work per week ? much leisure wisely Leisure is expensiveusually, few can use so so Is there

no


POSITIVE

THE and

Did

well.

ATTITUDE

67

class demand much so agricultural leisure, be scarcer and dearer than at present. certainly

One

"

II. Here

is

a

believesin work.

who

Mystery

Real

of The Journal:

the Editor Can

MIND

the

food-stuffs would

To

OF

tell

why

doing housework are than those working in stores? Why looked down upon any more interested in refined, aren't the men intelligent girlsthat know I am how to keep house and work? a good looking,intelligent of 24. I do domestic work for a lovelyfamily in woman young district. My work is interesting the Kenwood ing to me. My workone

any

conditions much pay

better

from

afford to

are

me

excellent.

livingthan

I have

I would

$6 to $8 for my

women

young

have

board

and

the very

best of food

I to work

were room

every

a

"

uptown and week.

I

can

good stylishclothes. I like books,enjoy concerts and the movies; in fact I am a woman. very up-to-dateyoung and wherever I go it is always alone. While on the But whenever street car and at the movies I can dozens of cheap looking, see to shabbily dressed girls,painted and powdered, and all seem I happen to be in a gatheringof have plentyof friends. Whenever folks the fact that I am somebody's maid is againstme. young There are real ladies doing the work I am cause doing,and it isn't bethey haven't brains enough to do anything else. It is because they see the advantage they have over working in a store There is no chance for us to or factory. But one thing is sure. have the companionship and friendshipof young which all men would rather spend their girlsnaturallylike,because the men that make a meager time with girls livingin a store or factoryand buy their clothes on the instalment plan, than with practical, that are not ashamed to do the work that capable young women nets them the best livingand most money. One of the " Titties." wear

"

II. What

1.

(a) I

would

be

should

not

your

be

answer

fined; for

to the

ments? followingstate-

I did not

know

I

was

breaking the law. (b) I should not fail;for I didn't hear the assignment given.


BOOK

PROJECT

68

(a)

2.

many

who

I ought

not

theme the "You

3.

to be

I ought not

(6)

thing but

same

blame

dissatisfied

about

You're

it.

the teacher

bad

as

in the

as

to

man

to

see

that

ask

me

anything

what

know

to

them.

property

look-out

supposed

catch

the

saw

didn't

my

class did

real estate

"You

You

copying

didn't

said the

own

right.

for

for others

customer.

is all

plumbing

punishment

me/'

It's your

yourself.

not

am

caught.

book;

a

for I

punished;

suffer

to

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

not

are

from

needn't

the

IN

the

are

you

buying." Note. "If

4.

Take

"

the customer's

cashier

a

I'm

"I

5.

tried

"But

best,"

my

and It

king and

than

life needs

employer

in the wheel will

but

think

for us;

see

the

in

of

progressiva tendencies, learn

personality.

to

let

to

kings

and

world

of affairs

complex industrial and

less

is not

a

dogmatic dumb

cog

responsibility. Youth

use

much

to-morrow

If you

assertiveness.

own.

individual

The

in the

Our

of

employee

day

but

to-day.

ago.

alert sharer

an

their

of

forefather's

our

progressive employee

The

of quick

women

minds

intelligent co6peration

of this individual

your

and

important part

more

just discharged.

realistically.)

with

old fashioned

out. look-

own

replied the employer

men

individuals

are

more

supervision.

of

and

far

a

employee

more

his

his errors."

conversation

thought possibleyears

was

to-day

and

more

masters

plays

the

enough, perhaps, in

father

rulers and mind

needs

well

was

said

(Finishthe

judgments,

sure

to discover

best isn't good enough,"

your

world

changes himself, it's

paid

not

kindly. The

short

part.

would your

of

more

keep abreast

mind,

your

will,


IV

^CHAPTER BETTER

ENGLISH

People often

FOR

say,

whether

"

except in

with

a

STUDENT

I can't express it." It is who this remark make do

people very

BUSINESS

but

know,

the

doubtful

know/'

"I

THE

vague

It is contentment

sense.

inadequate vocabulary and

inaccuracy of expression which do not first cloudy thinking. We encourages The completed thoughts and then express them. possess has words into which act of expressionis thinking. If one to cast his thoughts,he will be the better able to receive new ideas. A housewife her jellymaking for lack of jelly ceases mind fillsup its thought recepsoon glasses. The average tacles an

stops thinking.

and The

revealed

war

among

the War

to

the American

Department

alarming ignorance of the

following raise

1.

He

2.

I

was

discharged from

was

sent

4.

Please

am

correct

my

These

sides of my

examples our

to

born

errors

as

reflect what

them.

(meaning

the

for

army

"

service).

goiterwhich

a

I

only air (heir). name

as

I could

not

go under

a

sumed con-

(assumed).

name

Both

inquiry

for.

home

his wife and

I

begin

we

of

Such

language.

own

into the surface

inducted

Letters

curacy inac-

the American

among

laugh, until

a

was

3.

among

their

of verbal

amount

population.

showed

deficiencies lie behind

mental

5.

astonishing

an

parents

are

old and

illustrate types of

so-called

educated

knowledge, a semi-correctness has

errors

American been

poor.

that

are

people.

for the

common

A

half

lazy American


PROJECT

70

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

sufficient. public,

Careless pronunciation, table leadingto ineviconfusion in spelling, has fostered such absurdities as

in

examples 1,3, and

Sentences 2 and 5 illustratethe inaccuracy

4.

thoughtwhich loose structure always produces. might be thought,perhaps,that such poor speech is of

It

confined to ignorant and careless people in their careless But a littleattention to what is beingspoken moments. on

very

well

on

that bad

Englishis a

evil. It is to be heard in the school

common as

conviction

bringsthe

hand

every

the street

Here, for

corner.

room

example, are

recitationsin high school classes which

were

taken

as some

down

word for word. 1. Teacher in

Civics class: "Can

a

how productivity explain

you

"

is limited

by capital? don't have capital, would be unable to prowe duce of largequantities grain or steel products.Like we export a great deal of steel to Europe and if we didn't would not be able to carry on this trade." we have capital,

Student: "If

we

of Analyzethe inaccuracyof thought and expression extract. The following suggestions may helpyou.

(a)"We"

"

explainthe

of the word

this

loose thinkingin the

use

"we."

of (6)"grainor steel products" does this limiting feeble indicate a products vocabulary?Suggest a more comprehensive expression. "

(c)"Like

we"

etc.

"

does

indicate incoherence of

(d)"and

of

if we

didn't have

etc. capital"

the explain

matter

well

as

does this

"

at all?

concise accurate language,revise this recitation attempting to make your expression indicative of your power and accurately.

tf

thought as

word

expression?How?

student

(e)In

this connective

to think

coherently


ENGLISH

BETTER 2.

BUSINESS

FOR

STUDENT

71

the different methods History class: "Name to raise money ing duremployed by the Federal Government in

Teacher

a

the Civil War."

"First, the Government, it printed

Student:

that

money

bonds

worthless

was

thai could be

paid

it sold

and

a

lot of paper

government they put a tariff

some

in ten years, and

and imposed internal taxes on all kinds of everything liquorsand tobaccos and they established the National Bank and put import duties on everything that came into the country."

on

(a) Explain

the

inaccuracy

each

of

italicized

passage.

(6) Re-group to

as

The

3.

the items

If you

is from

knew

"What

Student:

"He

doesn't know Teacher: Student: contract

"You "When

is

an

a

man

is

a

way

recitation in Commercial

a

about

nothing

this student's

would principal,, you? Teacher:

in such

answer

bring togetherrelated ideas.

followingextract

Law.

of this

undisclosed who

has

"undisclosed

an

explanationenlighten

principal?" an

agent work

for him

who

that he is in the contract." are

not

the

clear. Illustrate."

principalis undisclosed

is made, but it is later found

at

the time

that he is the

the

principal,

he will be held liable."

Look

cipal yourself the meaning of "undisclosed prinand define it in clear,simple language. Assume that you are explaining to one ing totallyignorant of the meanof the phrase. up

for

"

An

who

examination were

those to and

of these recitations shows

that the students

talking did not think straightand did whom they spoke to think straight. Poor

help English

not

thinkinggo hand in hand. Since clear thinkingis necessary in business,the business should regard poor English as he regards poor equipman ment. Marshall Field and Company of Chicago may be poor


PROJECT

72

cited

as

IN

BOOK

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

large business house which

a

has this view.

In

his aim to raise the level of the English of the expressing store employees,one of the educational directors says, the advantage that an adequate vocabulary We appreciate and the ability to speak simple and correct Englishgive to "

the

in the retailselling world.,,

woman

man

or

listof

errors

postedin the employees'rest

rooms

of the sort of reform which the company

ABOUT

HEARD

THE

.

he

he doesn't

I kin

I

I've got

I have

is some

can

I haven't

[ ain'tseen

look bad

look badly

has

Transfer this party

this call

These shoes

wear

good

wear

lightcomplexion well

What

kind,lady?

John,he them goods this here piece

seen

somewhat

better

He is light complected

What

kind,madam.

John

'.

those

goods this piece

Gover'ment

Government

enthused

enthusiastic

swell

hadn't ought-o

lovely ought not

bust

burst

ain't

isn't

gonto

goingto

have went

have gone

Beginningour

*

were

you

..

He don't

You

in bad taste

came

he did

He done

He

is attempting.

perfectly awful? unbecoming or

come

was.

thing some-

CORRECT

Isn't that hat

You

shows

HOUSE

INCORRECT

He

The following

sentences

with

"Say"

or

or

should not

"Listen."


BOOK

PROJECT

74

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

in your

daily speech is the basis for all improvement in English. Here are some simple things to do. It is not pretended that these are a complete guide to perfectionbut climb towards but by we perfectionnot by vague strivings steps which steps and toward

coveringmuch

on

to

own

of the

ground

tools the followingbooks.

as

dictionary. Don't size than or

yourselfto take these

Get

them.

Use

1. A

Force

goal.

will need

them.

count

can

you

your

You

be measured.

can

Funk

dictionaryof less "Intercollegiate Dictionary,"

rely upon

Webster's

and

any

WaghalFs, "Students'

Standard."

"

2.

A

These excellent: dictionary of synonyms. are rus." Fernald's,"English Synonyms"; Roget's,"Thesau-

3.

An

English Grammar.

Whitney V

"

EnglishGrammar

is serviceable. A

4.

composition manual of

Composition."

such ,

.

as

Woolley's "Handbook

.

I. Pronunciation

Foreigners often complain that American shrill and

Now

here is

hear

a

an

can

cultivate

is decidedlyworth All of

us

we.

a

better

mispronounce words.

should. stumble

words

common

you

sure

If you

learn the correct

pleasantly un-

complaint.

We

all like to

Anyone

speakingvoice.

The

with effort

course

it is not

that are

you

strange

word, but the that we make mistakes in uttering often. For use instance, many over

we

Of

a

difficult new

the following words people do not pronounce hundred. American, government, Tuesday, allies, Are

are

the making.

truly surprisingthing is the

is truth in this

opportunity to help oneself. voice. low-pitched, well modulated

little care

that

There

nasal.

voices

pronounce

the above

correctly: words

rectly? cor-

not, then the dictionarywill help you

to

look

up

way

to utter

them.

Suppose

we


ENGLISH

BETTER word

the

STUDENT

BUSINESS

FOR

supernatural.In

75

dictionary immediately

my

supernatural,I find the term in this fashion,su-p"r-nat' u-ral. These marks, following the word

which

how

show

diacritical marks. We if

we

Their

understand

must

to

are

is to

the word

use

be

meaning is explained in

what

these

called a

diacritical marks

', -,

~,

-,

pronounced, are

dictionaryin learninghow

a

reprinted

table. mean,

to pronounce

words. EXERCISE

Look

in

up

dictionarythe pronunciationof

a

Copy down diacritical markings.

words.

accentingeach

No the

slipof

a

paper

each

following

word

with

its

Itead the list aloud, pronouncing and

word, correctly.

is trying to

who

one

on

the

speak

better ought to slur

over

final consonants,

somethin

for swimming or saying swimmin distinctly. consonants something. Pronounce your

for

Practise

on

these.

1. su"scribe

6. ge" your 7. wouW Aave

of them

2.

Most

3.

got them

8.

giveme

4.

going

9.

and

5.

vrith

10.

liked

them

Vowels Most

bad

by

of

us

mistreat

some

habits in this respect are years

of the vowel

apt

to be

Qi mistakes,it is only by

a

sounds.

Since

our

pretty deeply rooted constant

carefulness


PROJECT

76

that

we

IN

BOOK to

come

can

the correct

use

intention

here to explain all the

a

begins

person

to

errors

attention

pay

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

to

we

are

such

effort he needs

discover for himself what

It is not

sound.

give the

See how

words? to be

to make.

vowels

Are

sure

you

in the following

dictionaryindicates these

your

an

excellent plan to look

vowels

are

over

lists of "Words

often

Composition," instance,has such a list. We are often surprisedto find looking through such a list that we have been mispronouncing word. Another of discoveringhabitual a way

Mispronounced." on

to the

Making

sounded.

It is

for

values

correct

If

to.

prone

matters, he will

the start in self-correction is the chief need. you

the

Woolley's "Handbook

mispronunciations of which member

of the family

mistakes.

A

person

or

a

we

are

of

friend to call our

should

is to

unaware

ask

attention to

keep his temper

our

he

when

a

is

thus corrected.

EXERCISES 1. Make

in better speech. plan for self-help rate. Suggestion:Let your plan be simple rather than elaboAim careful of more at getting started in the way speaking,rather than seekingimmediate perfection. 2. Make I Often Mispronounce." a list of "Words 3. Devise the

a

a

chart of

average

that it can 4.

Suggest ways each other.

some

student.

of the vowel Make

sounds

it of such

which a

trap

nature

be used in your classroom. of the class can in which the members

aid


ENGLISH

BETTER

BUSINESS

FOR

Suggest interestingclass

5.

The

77

in

pronunciation. be adapted to such

contests

bee "spelling

the

plan of

STUDENT

"

can

ends. Write

6.

explaininghow you have started correctly. speak more

theme

a

yourselfto II. Getting The

a

words

a

small

concern

with

of

should

person

is that

not remain a

small stock of ideas.

world

tented con-

small stock of

If

a

of limited ideas,then

is

person

he has

no

effort to increase his range of vocabulary; content to restrict his mental so horizon,

an

if he is not

more

a

a

stock of words a

to live in

then

why

usuallymeans

content

but

help

better vocabulary

greatest reason with

to

he will set himself

earnestlyto making

himself master

words.

Power

The

Words

of

to

Suggest

Thoughts

Illustration

Kleptomania: Suppose this to be a new word I have just looked up in the dictionary. I find it means mania for a stealing. I am surprisedto find,let us suppose, that there is this actual form of insanity; that people become balanced unthe idea of taking things. How over then, I in pronouncing sentence that a can a judge be sure reflect, for his acts?

prisoner is accountable

How

criminals

many

criminallyinsane,I begin to ponder, and how does the school of social workers test for kleptomaniaf In the new knowledge of mental tendencies,should lightof this new

are

crime to

be treated

as

a

disease?

idea,all suggested by the

word

I must

simultaneouslywith led to entertain

ideas,etc.

new

a

And

so

singleword.

take

I

move

on

idea

In order to understand

into account

new

of this new acquisition ideas,new questionswhich

my

from

ideas, and word, I lead to

am

new


BOOK

PROJECT

78

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

EXERCISE

Add

the

followingwords

to your

1.

Consulting the dictionary,

2.

Getting some

3.

Using

Of

only

words.

It

wise way

meanings

of

words

new

yourself.

quickly seen

suggest only random

intended

and

to illustrate their usage,

one

it will be

course

words

to

them

requirenew

ideas.

to illustrate how was

vocabularyby

not

intended

that The

lists of

random

last exercise

ideas interestingly to

suggest that

a

are

was

tied

practical

enlarge the vocabularyis by looking up the miscellaneous words. The true to gain way to

is to put oneself in the way of new words for their expression. To

ideas which hear

and

to

only ways of doing this. Yet while one is learningnew ideas,and consequentlynew words, through hearing and reading and thinking,one can of increasingthe vocabulary these basic means accompany read and to think

by various will

soon

be

in themselves

are

the

useful methods

of direct study of words.

It

that words discovered,perhaps with surprise, are interesting.The dictionarywill help to

For use. fascinatinghistories of the words we this word came to instance there is the word, silly. Now from the Anglo-Saxon where it had the form, saelig. It us blessed" did a word blessed. How meaning meant once uncover

"

"simple"? "witless/' "foolish," know that primitive peoples regard the weak-minded of providence. This at once the especialwards gests sug-

takeoii its presentmeaning of We as

the explanationof the mystery. histories. have equallyinteresting

Countless

other words


ENGLISH

BETTER See what

FOR

BUSINESS

STUDENT

79

ing dictionarytells of the historyof the follow-

the

words:

EXERCISE 1. Find

ten

words

which

imitate

sounds.

Illustration:

whiz.

orally to the class all the information your word. dictionarygives concerning some interesting

2.

Present

3.

Prove

be

that all the words

properlyused by and

a

illustrate the

found

in

a

dictionarycannot

present day writer.

meaning

4.

Define

5.

Read

An

practicalmethod excellently

of

an

obsolete word.

and chapter in the interestingbook, "Words their Ways in English Speech," by Greenough and Kittredge. a

of

lary increasingone's vocabu-

is to find synonyms (wordsof like meaning) for words shuffle along in Sometimes students who already known. their of any

speech with

a

meager

knowing several words group

of synonyms

vocabulary ask "What that

mean

the

use

thing?"

same

it is true there will be

is the

a

certain

In

mon com-

be ground; within this territorythese synonyms may used interchangeably; but there is also a certain line of meaning where each differs from the others,though ever so its thirty-seven word the "pure" and slightly.Take synonyms:

clean,clear,continent, classical, Absolute, chaste,classic, holy,immaculate, incorrupt, guiltless, fair, genuine,guileless,


PROJECT

80

BOOK

BUSINESS

IN

ENGLISH

less, innocent,mere, perfect,real,sheer,sinless, spotless,staintrue,unadulterated, unblemished,undefiled, unmangled, unmixed, unpolluted, unspotted, unsullied,untainted, untarnished, upright,virtuous. I say, "That is pure nonsense; she is a pure soul; I have a water; this is pure swindle; pure product; I drink pure that is a pure democracy, etc.,"using the same adjective I might have given finer to apply to a variety of ideas. she is

meaning had

I said "That

is sheer nonsense; upright soul,etc. etc.,findingfrom the above list

to my

accuracy an

of synonyms the exact avoidingthe monotony

shade

of meaning required and

of the

same

word

for

so

thus ings. mean-

many

EXERCISE

Use

the

given above adjectives

in the choice of

Care

in sentences.

adjectives givesa

our

fresh

pleasing

style that lifts it above the commonplace. Variety in speech is a delight and its accomplishment is a Too many worthy objectof painstaking endeavor. people's styleis spoiledby this monotony of diction. A word which is good in moderate becomes use a symbol of dullness when to

tone

our

repeatedlazily. "We

greatlysurprisedto see people assembled, evidently for some learned

inquiry,we people

on

a

field which crowd

to hear every

very

occasions our

word

to the

lazy habit a

that

a

great

great

a

crowd

great occasion. was

man

to

of On

address

the

subjectof greed interest. The great size of the sloped like an amphitheater enabled the great

greatattention A

so

were

with greatease

1

great thoughts presented." most

of

hearers to pick out the

words,simple as they may 1

FernaJd's

is that of using

have

us

like "good,"

word

and all listened with

a

word

sense

we

seem,

are

from

which

intend to convey.

we

on

all

trust

Such

reallythe hardest words

ExpressiveEnglish."


PROJECT

82

Give

BOOK

IN

for each

five synonyms

EXERCISES

THE

IN

OF

gatheringthese 2.

"

Roget's

"

in five

USE

OF

ENGLISH

uses. specific

A

DICTIONARY

SYNONYMS for each of the

1. Collect synonyms

Note.

BUSINESS

"

Thesaurus

followingwords.

be

should

consulted

in

synonyms.

Distinguishbetween

the

of

meaning

the

following:

pupil,scholar,student. 3. Do 4.

the

for the synonyms

same

Without

consulting word

Th6n

consult

Arrange

III. Better Next

to

command forms

a

dictionaryof

a

a

for the class in

contest

vocabulary, the

meager

language is I

employ. errors.

least,of these.

Most I

am

not

am

of

us

to

person'sspeech of cannot

of the and

class.

compare

synonym-getting.

make

found

can

avoid

in so

which

the

the most

glaring,at forms,

correct

us

beginning in throwing out

poor

of grammatical

deprivethe

force,and life. Let

a

sentence

much

thinking of the dull but

grace, a

be

sign of

surest

thinking here

the stodgy,awkward, flat sentences

we

recall for

can

synonyms

of

sentences

over

we

dictionary

or

lists.

the two 5.

dictionary

list all the synonyms you given by another member

synonyms any

a

collected for Exercise I.

see

of

average

whether our

daily


BETTER

ENGLISH

FOR

STUDENT

BUSINESS

speech these lock-step,ball-and-chain make

this

beginning only through

83

We

sentences.

conscious

can

attention

and

effort. The It

majority of

the sentences

utter

we

storming this morning, and is a compound Here sentence was

I

of this form:

are

late to school.

was

made

of

up

simple

two

sentences:

It

storming this morning (and)/

was

be combined

these ideas may

Now

1. The

made

storm

late to school.

was

in various ways: late to school this morning.

me

I

was

storming this morning, I was late to school. late to school this morning because of the storm.

I

was

late to school this

As it was

2. 3. ^

4.

me,

should

be eliminated

will enable should

delayed

storm

etc.

large proportionof this type

A

The

morning.

to

one

from

compound

sentence

speech. A little ingenuity The tongue rut. particular

our

this

escape

of

be trained to other sentence

forms.

EXERCISE

Change as

should

1.

I opened the door, and

I

saw

2.

The

a

woman,

walked

man

up

to

as

many

new

be altered if desirable,

possible. The wording may of the sentence but the originalsense closelyas possible.

forms

into

each of the followingsentences

a

be preserved as

strange sight. and

then he made

a

low bow. 3.

I have

forgotten my

pen,

and

I

cannot

copy

this

lesson. 4.

Abraham

Lincoln

was

love his memory. 5. The road was very

a

noble man,

rough, and

so

and

we

all Americans

were

severely

jolted. 6.

The

boys were the place.

and badly frightened,

they

soon

left


PROJECT

84

BOOK

7. I delightin 8.

newcomer's The

party reached

and

demanded

the lake at noon, took the boat for the island.

10.

The

lesson

often

We

to

extremelylong,and study it all. was

and

on

run

clause to clause with uttered

sentences

we

his book

often.

common

in

avoid

snap.

It is

should

use

a

mistake

them

such to

and

so's.

If

formless

practice

of speech,

lumps

with

sentences

our

to be afraid of short sentences.

frequently. Moreover, should

We

so.

listen to the

we

shall find this

bite off

they

I did not have

so

should

we

speaking acquaintance with other connectives

but,and

there

sentences, sticking

our

hearing,we

our

train ourselves

should

with

on

and and's,bat's,

To

one.

the

name.

9.

time

a

I go to concerts

from

up

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

music, and

looked

Henry

IN

learn to

such

use

a

We

form

besides

a

and,

useful words

as

nevertheless. accordingly, hence,consequently,

moreover,

EXERCISES 1. With

the aid of

list of

conjunctionswhich

3.

make

synonyms

be used

may

to

a

up

help

our

but's.

and's and

overworked 2.

dictionaryof

a

fairlylong paragraph of good modern prose mark all the conjunctionsand study their use. Improve the following. Change to two or more tences, senwhere it is impossibleotherwise to give form In

a

to these

(a) As

shapelesslumps of speech. on

were

we

and

way

moving

back

went

to

arrived there and found and

so

home,

proposed that we picture; and so

he

and

our

that to

our

tried to buy

confusion

the tickets;and

have we

then after

a

but our

to

go

turned

the Grand;

did not

we

should we

Henry,

met

we

a

around

when

we

we tickets,

enough money, had to give back laugh at the joke


on

BUSINESS

FOR

ENGLISH

BETTER

started for home

we

us,

STUDENT

85

again and walked

all the way.

(b) I

explainto you something about the operationof an adding machine, but I think to

want

the best way to do it is to show you one, for although the machine is simple enough when have

you

one

any

a

and

I

and, if you watch

and

to

operate it,and

almost

it,I find that it is difficultto mere descriptionof how it works; have brought in this adding machine,

can

follow so

learned use

will all

come

close around

up

me

I will do some carefully, easy it and explain the operation

me

problems with I go along, but if you as

do not understand

all

the

ask me questionsand steps, you can will repeat until I make it clear.

If

a

person

he will

listens to his

probably discover

own

that

sentences

they

are

or

I

those of others,

likelyto

fall into

a

fixed order of this kind: The The

man

quickly opened

the box.

order is this:

predicatemodifiers. predicate, subject, in this simplegroup Now even a change of order is possible of words. One might say:

Quickly the Even

such way

man

slight changes of

opened from

a

the box.

fixed order have

increasingthe vivacityof

your

a

prising sur-

style. A

markable slightpracticein this direction opens the eyes to the reAfter of form of the Englishsentence. flexibility be been opened, he will never a person'seyes have once satisfied again with dog-trotsentences. Here then are three specific things to practicein the hundreds of sentences utters daily. They are: a person (1) To avoid the compound sentence of two simple parts; with (2) To shun the formless lumps of words-8tU"" together "


86

PROJECT

BOOK

BUSINESS

IN

and'a,but's,and sofs; (3) To

ENGLISH fixed order

a

escape

in one's

sentences.

Naturally there

are

which

construction

niceties and

many

subtleties of

comprehended

tence sen-

in this

simple list. Any rhetoric will give instruction for further practice. But it is certain that steady attention to these three points in the construction of spoken and written sentences will do much

to liftone's

man's

speech.

IV.

Look

They

to

language a

to

secure

we

book,

as

Lastly,a listof

It is often

a

end.

same

to

possible our

put

may

Used

one

on

as

a

the track of

followinglist. If you form, correct yourselfon

wrong

takes. mis-

trustworthy

the

over

using

habitual

our

a

errors

Look

been

find

the

other such lists.

Consult

he

say

which

may use

or

she

or

his

or

hers; in using a

pronoun

ilarly refer to either sex, say he or his; Simthe masculine with each,anybody. Each

his basket. is singular. None

2.

None

3.

Politics is singular. of

sums

dollars

5. Don't

of

will a grammar difficulty, it has acquiredas a textbook.

firstaid in

a

common

his pet faults.

4. Treat

the

serve

of the terrors

be shorn of much

had

his

effort to make

an

them.

first discover

reference

1. Don't

already explained,

unconscious

often

are

frequentlywill

spot.

in

earnest

grammar

have

directions

friend to agree to call attention too, the practiceof consultinga

some

Then,

you

"

nate to elimitool,will work steadily of us commit such of speech. Most

errors

must

we

level of the average

serviceable

more

Since

errors,

in the

truly in

his habitual errors.

the dead

Trifles,But

care

is

who

one

any

styleabove

Like

addition

In

not

are

use

was

money

cares;

as

not

none

care.

singular. Ten

million

stolen.

don't for doesn't;He

doesn't.

It doesn't.


6.

FOR

ENGLISH

BETTER Don't

confuse

STUDENT

BUSINESS

affectfor effect.A littlecare

87

will form

the correct habit for you. 7.

Proved, not

8.

Don't

proven.

10.

or lady or gentlemen; say man In this day, the latter are preferredby best Don't confuse alone with only. Omit the of in approve of.

11.

Don't

say claim

12.

Don't

confuse

9.

use

not

13.

14.

difference

the

do this is very

me

is

Love

cheapened by

like?

mean

you

usage.

say.

cise, healthfuland healthy. Healthfulexerhealthy.

Understand Leave

when

woman.

between

let and

leave.

crude.

constant

use.

Do

you

Superficial girlslove everything and genuine people distinguishbetween

mean

body; every-

these

words. 15.

Can

and

care

may

are

stumblingblocks

to learn the difference and

don't

practiseit.

16.

Don't

17.

ifand whether. is a poor Don't confuse lend and borrow; this error of your intelligence. advertisement Leave out the he in "John, he went swimming." That is a sixth grade error.

18.

19.

Learn

say

party for

to those who

person.

the difference between

20.

Ain't is the mark

21.

Get

the LY

of the uneducated.

habit; she

does

it

nicely,not, she does

it nice.

Conquer the double negativehabit, / haven't no. not 23. Very often,not real often. Real is an adjective,

22.

an

24. 25. 26. 27.

adverb.

Behind, not in back of is right. not rather. Quite means entirely, Sure for surelyis crude. is no such expression as would There

nothing. If 28. Different from,

you not

of; it

means

have,say it. different than,is the correct idiom. mean

would


PROJECT

88

Get

29.

BOOK

IN

lay and lieand

Don't 30.

Don't

31.

Don't

grow

BUSINESS

sit and

errors

misplace only. Put phrase it modifies. half

make

don't make

recognizea

to

intelligent writer. correctly.

Learn

word

whole

of two.

out

is the

sentence

list.

the

a

mind

your

your

as

pose

sentence

one

on

it nearest

sentence

a

untangledin

set

with these

up

ENGLISH

and

one

To

or

be able

first requisite of

to

the

use

an

period

Are these correct?

(a) Imaginationisuseful in business. In advertising and salesmanshipparticularly. is a bad habit of (6) Loafing on the street corner there

course

32.

Keep the

are

point

same

worse

habits.

of view

throughout your

tence, sen-

if you would have clear running smooth shift of subjecthere: Note the awkward sentences. "If

have

you

much

"If

33.

washerwoman,

the machine

lunch and How

a

saves

washer

you

have

lunch;

you

would

have

any

Don't

a

readers.

of every

Keep 35.

a

a

machine."

mysterious its and theys to muddle Put your fingeron the antecedent

pronoun

you

a

use

don't

and

between

permit

and

noun

running narrative

is

any

pronoun.

awkward;

the past tense.

Example:

I

was

coming

steering his

man

off my

give her

must

you

be saved this trouble by

present tense in

use

old

this trouble."

you

woman,

interveningreferences The

give her

must

smoother, this:

your

34.

you

hat and

to the

Practice

to

the road.

Along

comes

an

I take through the ruts. Etc.,etc. speak to him.

cane

past tense throughout.

keeping time

relations

Make

changes

sentences.

time

start

down

sequences,

any

straightin necessary

to

these

logical


CHAPTER

V

CORRESPONDENCE

BUSINESS

IN

Introduction

Business

is

coming

correspondence.

urging

are

of

writing

to

a

The

great

men

and

in the

that

the

English

Stenographers dictation, of

and

increasing

an

require expert

modern

of

write.

flavor,

At

man.

greater Business The

of

manner,

time

opportunities

the

in

for

master

writing

of

forms

Letters, reports, all

"

human

of

are

ability

interest, of

siasm, enthu-

explanation, these the modern

on

history of business

the

the

writing

days

bureaus

all call for

competent

letter

these

business

inspiration, of stimulation,

of business no

appeal,

winning

of

convincing

the demands

other

such

increasing business, and of

In

copy

edge knowl-

correspondence in

fore. be-

ever

that

circulars, pamphlets,

magazines,

Letters

personal

salary.

and

proficient

merely

discover

phrasing.

in

multiplied

than

specialize

and

judgment

of

means

of are

which

letters,advertisements,

bulletins, trade

to

of

so

for those

more

in

number

licity Pubtising adver-

greater than

phrasing,

increase

in

pays

powers

departments,

are

do

can

advertising bureaus,

form as

who

their

practical value.

opportunities

language

its

upon

ship" Salesman-

develop

to

staffs,have

skillful in

are

English

have

we

who

the

more

"Silent

of

of skill and

secretarial

work

of

use

forces

correspondence

departments, their

and

more

women

high point

departments, divided

depend

to

of words

and

were

ness busi-

there

phrases.

Idioms invasion

advertising

has

correspondence

of to

a

very

notable 90

by degree

salesmanship affected

the

and tone


IN

CORRESPONDENCE

BUSINESS

91

style of the business letter. Business used to be conducted chieflythrough personal interviews and in those

and

the

days the business letter business

Such

agreement. Letters

purpose.

merely

was

letters had

couched

were

formal

a

in

record

or

a

business-getting formal, stereotyped no

phrasessuch as, yours at hand; contents noted; your esteemed vance; favor; yours of the 5th instant received; thankingyou in adthe conventional I beg to state. These were ear formal

of the

marks

business

letter.

still sees

One

such

escaped such stilted diction. But letters made of such phrases are flat, machine-like, cold, and ineffective. Modern correspondencerecognizesthe unlimited in letters, business-building possibilities booklets, and reports, and is making rapid progress advertisements to higher standards of effiin bringingits written matter ciency. Business letters are important in buildingup the have

phrases; we

good will of

a

by

means

no

An

house.

largelythrough the the

letters he writes and

reports he presents. The

and

memoranda

executive officermakes

assistant and

secretary. The

his reputation

through the is true

same

salesman

the

on

of

road

bad

impression largelythrough his oral find that business and written expression.Everywhere we creates

a

good

or

correspondenceis the black and white record of the author's abilityto think and to create favorable impressions. EXERCISES

Note to

the letters that follow.

style and

tone.

Which

ones

Underline stilted phrases. Which

and

Compare of

are

ones

the

as

type?

newer

approach

ones

conversational style? Which natural, in the mind of of good-will a feeling

the

contrast

a

simple,

help to establish recipient? Which

Are there any letters antagonism? Any? Indicate the passages whose meaning is not clear? which of the letters particur not clearlyphrased. Are any are ones

arouse

larlyenthusiastic? in tone? rewritten?

there any which letters do you Which Are

are

vincing unusuallycon-

thirik should be


PROJECT

92

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

Letter Dear

ENGLISH

1

Madam: As

your to as

we

are

information

factory, cover

booklet

a

which

Ford,"

of 29th for request Sept. the of the Ford operation under sending separate you entitled Facts from "Factory

per

detail

in

covers

tion the^ informa-

desire.

you

Yours

truly,

2

Gentlemen: With the

further

state,

would

5th

from

letter

statement must

that

ask

that

your have

we

office

Omaha

our

to

reply

which

sent

they of

"balance

and

be

same

letter

of

received

they

a

turned re-

and

you

paid

we

at

us

once.

truly

Very

yours

3 Friend:

Dear

U.

Your for

ready for

with

will

you

earliest

your

receipt

your

and

delivery

at

it

4$" Bond

Liberty

S.

is

now

please

convenience.

you. Yours

call

Bring

truly,

very

4

Sir:

Dear

We

the

12th, of

to

in

that

say

separate and,

if

know

and

which

canned we

cover.

you

find

we

will

of

receipt

in

are

you

fruit, are

for

asked and

in

same sending Please glance

anything supply Yours

letter

your

you you.

truly,

a

reply to

of

logue catawe

you

through desire,

beg under it

let

us


BUSINESS

IN

CORRESPONDENCE

93

Letter 4 rewritten:

Sir:

Dear

which

The

catalogue

you

asked

the

morning.

this

and

carefully, what just

want

we

are

pay

may

to

freight

you

examine

you

will

the

find

the

"trial

will

est inter-

quality,

factories,

the

shall

We

money. trial this It

it

best

sanitary

need.

mailed

to

which

of

is

for

was

read

216,

page

strictly prepared value for is a big to ship pleased you you

day,

sure

in

else

fruit,

Please

fruit

The

you.

We

on

canned

other

want.

you

offer

ord'er"

of

order

be

ever what-

or

either

and

case

we

door.

your

Yours

truly,

Gentlemen:

Answering motors

advise Bulletin

all

have

Thanking us,

to

beg

we

in

been

to

Electric of.

kindly

for

writing

very

truly,

Sir: I

September and

regret

remain, Yours

Dear

28th,

General

disposed

very

you

the

of

yours listed

clean

shall

give

to

sell

it

up!

you my

Yours

until house.

very

the

1st

Now

go

truly,

of

to

it


PROJECT

94

BOOK

BUSINESS

IN

ENGLISH

Sir:

Dear

Mr.

As

to

said

Omer

David

Copper-

field" "Fashions

They

human

knows

nobody

in,

come

like

are

"beings.

when,

why,

or

w

how .

But

of

that

course

before

was

our

time. the

Nowadays Dickens'

time, but

customers, to

know

most

"why,"

or

little

makes

like

ference, dif-

practical

certainly

our

good

self,

your

in

as

friends

and

expect

us

WHEN.

Right and

"how"

the

fabrics

"Forefather"

new

styles

fall

instance,

for

now,

just

are

in.

May them

to

the

have

we

of

pleasure

showing

you? Respectfully,

8 Dear

Sir: We would

reply have We

have say

position

no

will,

however,

file

in

near

future.

case

a

anything

more

of

at

that

that

we

place

the

should

we

give

time

we

you.

application occur

cannot

truly

in

and

9th,

present

could

encouraging,

Very

the

your

vacancy

that

Regretting you

favor

your

now we

yours,

in

offer

remain,

on

the


CORRESPONDENCE

IN

BUSINESS

95

9 Dear

Blwell:

Mr.

Thank to

reply unable

to

since

We how

explain filling

made

was

letter.

our

in

are, ridiculous

the

order

nearly

it evidently careless shipping

Quite a

very

that

however,

you, unusual

they

get

them

to

houses, us

if

we

feel

and

than

not

do

be

ago. blunder We

and

of

assure

quite

was

not better

expect

urge you elsewhere.

to

any

one

else.

that

glad feel

trade

with

However,

;you that

sure

business

just

you

of

where

not

do

we

other

serve

very and

trade

with

can

are

not

will

we

trial

another

the

tuxedo,

values and good by the growth

quarrel do

we can

We

was

evidenced

no

that

better

years

give

we

value,

have

you

two

a

experience

People

poor do so*.

We

for

clerk.

your

Undoubtedly as service, business.

our

course, mistake

exceptional.

and

good

prompt

your or

your

occurred

it

for

much

very

you

a

will you

little

give

us

will

disappointed. Yours

truly,

10

Gentlemen: You welfare know.

if

you

health. booklet and

of You

drinking

then

interested

are

the

in people your them would supply without

cups

these

thought Will

you

a

thoughtfully may

I

tell

and the Yours

office,

and I

individual

with

moment's

hesitation, their safeguard

would

please

comfort

the

in

read

my

little

convince rest

of

very

truly,

my

yourself, story?


96

PROJECT

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

EXERCISES 1.

Rewrite

2.

May

letters 1, 2, 5, in

simple natural style.

short letter be written

a

Pick

out

the shortest

expresses

a

human

with

personal touch?

a

letter in this series that

still

tone.

3.

the two writingsof letter 4. Which Analyze specifically possibilities? Why? copy has business-getting

4.

What

is the effect upon

you

articles, etc.,as

in letters 2, 5?

the little words, how 5.

What

6. What

kind

of

is the tone

wrote

man

of the omission If you

of subjects,

put in

changed?

letter 6?

is the force of the words

"I know"

in letter 10?

Originalityin Letter Writing

advertisingand

The a

been

part of every

sales letter is

business

ing becom-

more

time has there

no

greater diversityin the style of business writingthan to

capture and

Criticize each Consider own

your

At

venture.

to-day. All the devices known used

and

more

the mind

human

mind

are

followingletters of the

purpose

letter and

on

its

then

own

3.

Individualityof

4.

Personal appeal.

5.

Consistency of details.

6.

The

8. 9.

10. 11.

tone.

difference between

and eccentricity. originality

securingattention. Success in holdingattention. The form of the letter;spacing,etc. of the writer. The personality The English used. for

in

followingpoints:

2.

7. Devices

merit.

determine

Appropriatenessof style;taste shown. Effectiveness of letter;business-getting powers.

1.

being

retain attention.

of the

the

to


98

PROJECT

Think

BOOK the

over

night

crowds.

It's

There

is

in

we

money

and

like

card

remember

this: small

how

want

to

the

day,

made

it

a

matter

no

of

that You

to

if

State

Tri

Call

way!

during

who

really

have

during

the

night,

light,

use

me

44210,

you

"business

Sales

the

or

ing, merchandis-

must

come.

large

retail

THK:ZL

By

the

when

is,

men

success

facts

Use

how

your

least,

real

"business

"business

us

the

in the

put

And

you.

hand. your to tell us

your increase

tell

for

"

you

to in

figures

enclosed But

worth

obligating

would

the attracting considering.

of

proposition

without

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

IN

Manager.

Main

up,

6100

or

that's

Maybe

Thanks!

quicker.

II

THE

CITY

KANSAS

ELECTRIC

COMPANY

MARCH 19

Dear

Friend

Good

Morning!

The

most

little

into

house

went

fires

whose

of

of

children

home; was

the

sweet

her

relation

the

most

of

things. a year's

and

mother

a

incense

for

mother

in

was

costly

the

But a

saw

served

father,

children.

ever

no

dollars

thousand

living

I

home

perfect

19

was

beautiful

A

three a

tor crea-

with

her I

have


CORRESPONDENCE ever

even

seen; man

do

gooTi

this

house

her

face

and

it

always ideal

It

is

the

dull

a

lifted

was

work

and

keynote

She

the

wife, woman

Devices.

mother

the

"

This to

anxious

of

be

to

trade

try at golden

we

the

and

home-

the

use

at

we

of

of

all

we

women

they

come

call

upon in

to

times

times

the

to

whether

all

ourselves

that

Electrical

whether

or

the

economies

service and

my

and

"

is

company

Minneapolis,

we

as

day, has

homemaker,

in the to help trying homebuilding, homemaking when we keeping, suggest and the various Electricity

mind

into the

of

are

them,

of

always rang will and always be, been, of homemaker. a mother, wife,

ideal

here

which

looked

clear.

wonderful

of

to

inmate

every

involuntarily the

enabled

atmosphere

by created;

for

99

place common-

and

up

the

woman

her

BUSINESS

IN

bear

rule,

and

treat

would

like

to

them be

treated.

I

that

know

or

But

to

another

and

to

and give phone what telling you

Electricity help you look

for

Just

a

your

call

mind a

then,

your

"

lot

of

Won't a

as

that

good me

the

on

the

me a

opportunity wonderful thing is

daily from

Sincerely THK:ZL

wired.

your with

call

in

time

one

home

make

really in

down

forgotten.

letter,

NOW?

resolution

up was

reminder

gentle

at

your

mixed

this

take

resolved

slipped

got things

other

.

folks,

of

have

matter

the

intention

you

have

heart,

your

lots

like

you,

and

how

duties.

it

will I'll

YOU.

yours, Sales

of

Manager.


100

PROJECT

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

III

CIRCULAR-LETTER

PROCESS

COMPANY

Alabama

Benningham, MYOU

SHOULD

THERE

Will

Mr. To

BE

IN

ARMISTICE

NO

BUSINESS,

Sir:

don't

with

Indian

think

to

ear

is

it

is?

It

is

feet

in

the

wheels

the

perfect of

going

to

be

going

to

"fall

to

ground the

on

cadence

with

do

tramp, the

you

of

rumble

commerce.

onlooker"or,

an

an

recognize

What

way!

tramp,

reviving

of

"busy of

Are

you

are

you

too?

in,11 people

promptly

prepare

"

ADVERTISE.

A BIRD-

the

instinct

tramp,

just

Prudent THEY

the

need

SOMETHING

that

IN-

direct THE

circular

hatched

by of

CHARGES

ARE our

Process worm

is

message

of

that

If

other

or

the

early

workmanship

personal quality.

-HAND

letter,

PROVE

READY"

Listen,

U

You

BEST

YOU'RE

WHEN

Truth.

The

Yes

PIRE

MAY

printed

Bird

it The

service

what

need.

THE

may

be

LOW

PRICED.

you

Please

is

matter, surely

Co., getters.

is

the

allow

and

us

claims. PROCESS

the

COMPANY.

to

a


CORRESPONDENCE

BUSINESS

IN

101

IV

FENTON

LABEL

COMPANY

Manufacturers

of

Labels

Gummed

Pa.

Philadelphia, "I have

the

liked

think

he

presented to

wanted

him

Elbert

Hummard.

Bosco"

"Lookee

this

him

young with

horse

home.

I!m

in

The

t'other

the

stranger

million

question:

to

not

on

"Why,

about the

him?" and

coughed

head,

it"; to

horse

"

a

$62.50.

month

circularized

we

offering #7A

a

obtainable

for

to

the

more

than

satisfied

half

of

our

similar

order

on

to

the

purpose, to the square-

highest return in

grade money

every

follows:

were as respect. prices $5.00: 3,000" 1,000-- #2.00: $7.90: $13,50 12,000"

The

a

order

label

addressing

printed

over

trial

24 pounds strength breaking the double with inch, gummed to of offered fish and glue;

anyone

him

sickly,

want

you

think

sold

I

day

"Do

his

have

samples,

stock

-I,

said

scratched

standardized best

one

on

him?"

firms

enclosed

ride

then

with

for

Last

"

have

can

a

foot

matter

next

The

I

it.11

Now

this

"I'll

but

"You

I,

asked

man

replied,

was

smiled

fellow

"Nothing" My

might

horse, buying

dollars.

stood

and

what's

the

I

"

hurry!"

a

young

smile,

silly

fellow

said

five

for

12-12-18.

,

6,000"

to


PROJECT

102

BOOK

The

returns

54,000 offer; horses,

of

didn't

have

to

ask

Uncle

It include

you

by

return

in

this

show

offer,

must

to

send

we

share

a

to

know

like.

are

the

repeat

to

glad good

are

in

firms

check

your

customers

and

to

ery groc-

advice.

regular

our

going

are

got the they knew and they

Bushnell's

250,000 labels gummed

good

until

Parson's

want

we

we

with

offer,

the

order

mail. this

mislay

blank,

letter.

letter

and

to

good

to

time

The be

must

entitled

are

you is a

now

to

opportunity "

Don't order

Bert

them

see

labels, over

to

So, but

mosie

fair

an they had hut thing; what really

You

gummed

is

slow

customers

deluge!

mean

ENGLISH

fairly

were

the

we

BUSINESS

regular

our

then

to

IN

the

to

Right

price. it.

mail

Yours

check,

enclosed

truly,

very PENTON

LABEL

COMPANY.

Prend/

deer

fired

boss my thats

why

paper

outen

waste

is

mad

Ime

an

i

ritin

ime

ile

Swiped

this

rite

to

baskit

afrade

git leter

a

you

on/ dun a

boss

my ritin kard

for

leter it

an

bos

my an

put

dident

male

me/

no

mad

is

is

your thats

stamp

onto

it

dednt

at

sore

your

ime

an

me

riting#

i

an

the male

an

bak

no

sez

i

or

elts

afrade

in

put

lik

send

leter ime

hes

and

me

i

leter/ why

when

then

you in

kard

"

bak

send a

to

it

gives

stik

leter

a

you

to

boss

my

dident fire

he

you

shut

but

kard

one

rote

heel

i


CORRESPONDENCE

with

shure

"they

rite

tell

"

"boss

my

that

an

i

do

want

him

orders meny to fill em

so

evrybudy

it

trubbie thats

why the

sine

hand

the

rite

a

rite all-

kard

in

job

my

plese

so or

ime

need

i

ritin

Ime

for

quik

plese/

to

you

got you to "blame

not

ime

plese

git

have

how

new

munsingware for peeches

are

"

an

men

103

them

likes

to

he'd

enuff

make

cudent

"bisness

is

munsingware

good he

sez'if

"boss

my

BUSINESS

IN

"by

answe

leter

i

so

male wont

fired

your$

from

Trule

Billy the

Note.

letters that

The

"

office

follow were

Blank

Charles

students

in

Department

Rhetoric,

University

of

Minnesota,

Dear

Sir:

Your

interest leads

all

in to

me

interested

Hood

and the

school cast Mr.

on

of

being

the June

one

amateur

feel

much

by

School.

High

Dodge, of

The

by

written

Composition.

Business

Mr.

"boy.

of

production

that

Three

will

you

the

in

to

Kings"

hundred

fifty

by

Crane. their

will

Miss

work, be

you worth

you

very-

be

given

of

this

is

persons

Helen

Since

"be

"Robin

play

class graduating 23. May 22 and

coached Fred

performances

and

King know

know

while.

thing some-

that

the


PROJECT

104 Would

BOOK to

care

you

IN

dramatic

BUSINESS

mention

pupils

ENGLISH

the

as

to

play worthy

one

your

of

being

seen?

tickets

The

twenty-five

are

will

and

"be

at Piano

If

this

school

cents

fifty the

Monday and

teenth thir-

the

Cable

Company. like

would

you

sale

on

and

shall

be

information,

more

any

to

glad

it

give

to

we

you.

Yours

truly, Ro-b-eAtWM/cunt Publicity

Manager.

VI Blank

High May 10,

Mr.

C.

Ch.

Northern

J".

Essex

the of

given

Cross,

"

Hood

be

will and

Pred

"Monday,

May

reserved

and

obtained

at

lable

Piano

Three students

by The

13,

Blank

the

High

Red

with

co-operate

Kings" on May

presented

Crane.

of

it.

the

of 150 trained

cast

to

you

tion produc-

Kings,"

to

over

asking

are

advertising

"Robin

Noyes by a

turned

be

Three

class

graduation

will we

in

the

"

the

from

proceeds Hood

the

by

Cross,

I

Red

Nicollet.

"

entire "Robin

School,

Mr.

the

of

Division 10th

Sir:

Since

us

Emery,

Bldg.

Dear

School. 1918.

at

tickets Blank

Company

8

by

Alfred

22

and

carefully

23 lected se-

Helen King and tickets sale of opens seats o'clock. All Miss

at

High at

25^ School 8th

50^

and "

or

at

Nicollet.

may the

are

be


PROJECT

106

BOOK

SERVICE

NOTHING

FOR

advertised

successfully

We

wrote Hood," Get- together, forms

composed

conducted

letters.

many Now

help

for

you

Call

material;

"Ro"bin

letters

business

the

for

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

IN

the

for

for

search

a

miscellaneous the

let

ness "busi-

Department,

Typewriting

other

Alumni

business

BUSINESS

SERVICE

CLASS

nothing. on

we

the

By

raw

finished

product. service,

SERVICE

BUSINESS

THE

the

us

satisfactory

for

Yours

send

or

us, return

CLASS.

"

VIII Blank

High 14,

March

A.

Mr.

Warner, Passenger

W.

General

City

Twin

School, 1919.'

Rapid

Agent, Transit

Co.,

City. Sir:

Dear

In

to

making

out the

accommodate

extra cars evening, after people; working take to are ready cars lines

going

run

extra

cars

Did

school

of

it

to

the

during ever

In

public.

and

the

schedules,

your

occur

are a

ball the

to

morning

on

game crowd

state fair

the

put

fair

try

you

the

for

extra

many

and home; grounds

week.

you

that

students represents 2,000 Prom the of public? part

a

high

a

siderable con-

7:45

to-


CORRESPONDENCE 8:20

there

and

teachers

of

Line

Cedar

from

generally

appears.

By

is

too

one

by

much

for large crowding,

crowd

whole

crowd

to minutes

wait

for

more

of

crowd

between

7:45

two

short-line

the

people

It

"

and

last

To arrange Cedar

piling, into

street,

car.

It

there

must

ten someone

.it

nears,

only

to

seems

later

into

By

school

car.

a

to,

room.

least

at

be

wants

if

as

minutes

squeezed

isn't

hind be-

After

As

it

the

left

waiting,"

reaches

but

the

time

is

8:40

it

late.

have

a

from

7:45

Line

can't

conditions,

improve to

car.

all

jerk

car-load

minutes

ten

next

Fifteen

there

times some-

and

some

finally

are

falls--

nobody

8:30

the

but

squeeze be must

the

cars.

bump

may

this

and

time

distance.

short-line

a

They

minutes

car,

to

the

on

St.

this

"watchful

into

steps

discover

the

the

in

car

a

the

cases,

24th

jamming,

manages

most

In

car.

ride

thirteen

wait

car

a

spies

to

St.

Lake

to

who

High

107

students

hundred

four

Blank

have

"before

the

about

are

BUSINESS

IN

few

extra

to

cars

8:20

in

you

the

on

the

morning? Respectfully, (A Student)

IX

March

You

have

Of

having Secretary

1919.

dreamed a

Haven't

you?

We

dreamed

have

5,

people's

large

secretaries being business or private of

firm? but

we

must

have

for for

some

the

ex-


108

PROJECT

BOOK

BUSINESS

IN

"before

perience reality.

this

Will

ENGLISH "become

can

give

you

a

the

us

experience? When

you

want

attractive, the us give

an

written, let

show

that

you

few

things.

1.

We

We

letters

wrote

to

the

to a

alumni

for

get-together.

a

2.

the

pieces list below is just we are really doing

The

together.

raw

fit

and

shape

us

letter snappy material and

advertised Hood

"Robin

successfully the

and

Three

Kings."

for the canvassing Headquarters. Suffrage

3.

We

did

4.

We

conducted

search

a

forms

the

for

Woman's

business

for

typewriting

department. this

Besides miscellaneous to

out

When

the

actual

is

selling asking

our

seek

to

sure

We

now.

material

demand

all

their

We

aren't

are

just that

so

to

experience reasonable salary

a

they

actual

put

enough

have

gone

what

for

work.

their

real

sold

be

work

for

numerous

have

that

know

are

into

to

that

to

going

efforts

may

letters

people.

they

money,

written

classes

cooking

make

have

we

we

be

able

when

we

jobs. Make Let

your us

be

The

dream

your

come

true-.

secretary.

Business

Service

Class.


CORRESPONDENCE

IN

BUSINESS

109

EXERCISES

Find

actual

examples of:

letter that collected money. 2. The shortest letter that said the most. 1. A

3.

A

4.

A

5. A

form

letter that sold

goods. letter with the personal touch. letter that

was

destined

to go

High

School

immediately to

the

wastebasket.

Correspondence of

The

Before writingany

a

Student

of the

followingletters determine the appropriateform, tone, length. Study carefullythe Form of the business letter in Appendix A. Consider,also,before the following: writingany of the letters, Don't! 1.

Don't

typewritea signature.

2.

Don't

omit

3.

Don't

misspellthe

a

first name

or

an

initialin the

of the person

name

heading. you'rewriting

to. 4.

Don't

unless abbreviate,

you

are

sure

tion abbrevia-

your

is correct. 5.

Don't Use to

6.

end your

sentence.

a

hear

from

you

construction. participial Example: Don't write,"Hoping soon," but rather, "I hope to

hear, etc." Don't capitalize more "Yours

7. Don't 8.

letter with

Don't

"beg

than

a

the firstword

truly" is correct,not

of the closing:

Yours

Truly.

acknowledge;" don't beg at all. confuse "kindly" with "please,"just because to

it is the fashion. 9.

Don't

use

"same."

surgeon,

the 10.

Don't

same

say

"Dear

"Your

Madam,"

dog's ears

are

wrote now

be called for at any time." "herewith"; it is a legalphrase. can

a

inary veter-

well and


BOOK

PROJECT

110

omit

Don't

11.

IN

the small words

reply would

ENGLISH

such

J, a, the,etc.

as

goods was delivered and inelegant.

state

9," is curt

of June

BUSINESS

as

per

"In order

"state"; just"say"; "state" is overworked. time saying "Your Don't letter is at hand." waste The fact that you are replyingis evidence of the fact. Refer to the receiptof the letter more fully skillletter of as, "I like the proposal in your Don't

12. 13.

26."

November Don't

14.

"I"

stress

in

a

letter;emphasize "you."

Do! 1. Make

sentence

every

telescope those

count;

long

3.

into one, one sentences rambling sentences, two into a phrase, a phrase into a word. sentence into step" with the person "Get are writing to; you his point of view; then make a personal appeal. see Be tactful rather than antagonistic.

4.

Create

5.

Keep

2.

a

feelingof goodwill. of

out

for Practice

to Write

Letters Make

the

1. A

rut.

a

factsfityour

letter to your school a month

that you extends over

Assume

late.

which

A letter to

3.

A

a

letter to

teacher

a

street

askingfor

a

railway company

students, perhaps

4.

A

a

the

mer sum-

first

letter of recommendation.

legitimatecomplaint concerning as

have

enter

of the term.

2.

for

nearlyas possible.

principalasking permission to

employment month

as

experience

own

on

such

making street

car

some

service

specialoccasions

football game.

letter

concerningsome prevent your

agreement

livingup

to.

which It may

stances circumbe to


for

pay

garment;

a

in which

to

be to a school it may difficultiesin meeting your

or

societyexplainingyour time.

on subscription

organizationfor information regarding topicon which you are to write a report. to a school paper or a city paper in the

letter to any

A

some

6.

111

clothingstore asking for longer time

a

5.

BUSINESS

IN

CORRESPONDENCE

letter

A

of

nature

7. A

an

communication.

open

who

letter to students

form

but

Annual

have

it

claimed

not

subscribed for

have

paid

or

an

for it.

Urge prompt settlement. 8.

report of proceedingsin any

A

specialschool performances. reporter or apology to class or

newspaper 9.

An

of your classes Assume are you

or a

secretary.

a

teacher

to

for

slight

some

offense. 10.

An

letter to the school board

open

of

view

recent

some

explaininga

action.

It may be of Christmas vacation

change in dates upsets the plans of those students that

some

dent's stu-

work

who

ing dur-

holidays. 11.

An

letter for your recent act of a group open

football celebration

bulletin board of students. a

few

some protesting

Perhaps

students

at

some

disgracedthe

school. 12.

mate A letter introducing to an old schoola friend of yours school that the former who attends the same

expects to attend. office of

13.

A

from resignation organization.

14.

A

letter

15.

A

acknowledging the receiptof expressingsatisfaction.

letter of

A

ordering class pins for

your

letter

*

16.

some

letter from to

a

a

to

a

school

class. the

pins and

literarysocietychallengingits rival

publicdebate;

another

some

or

from

match. spelling

one

class

challenging


PROJECT

112

BOOK

IN

17. A letter of thanks

to

secured for you a the A letter from

18.

ENGLISH

teacher whose

a

recommendation

satisfactory position. secretary of

school

society society. It

some

with a rival adjustingsome difficulty be regardinga member whom both claim to may have initiated againstthe rules of the school. letter invitingthe alumni of your school literary societyto a specialmeeting.

19.

A

20.

Write any

other type of business

called upon Dictate teacher

BUSINESS

to

as

high school

a

classmate

a

of

any

letter you

to write.

student above

the

letters your the items down

doing so, jot orderly plan. Then phrase Before

assign.

may

according to some extemporaneously. and Criticize the appropriateness

letter

the

effect of the

Indicate all errors

letters written by students.

been

have

following

that you

find.

A. Sir:

Dear

I

I

The

day.

every

in

winter

cold

hardship Central

their

of

take

the

half

block.

On

great

a

to

school.

stop

car

and

entrance,

on

is

block the

has

stops

entrance it

find

school

from

the

of I

school

High

front

middle

walk

and I

School.

High

school

our

mornings to

to

which

car

the

Wayne

ride

while

corner,

situated

at

to

occasion

have

the

student

a

am

in

can't

why

we?

truly,

Yours

B. Sir:

Dear

Have on

a

bitter

minutes

have, it

for I

isn't Now

about of

you cold

whom

a

sixteen take

and

so,

will

agree

or

to

wait

ten

I

presume with me

you

that

pleasant.

Wayne

High

hundred the

occasion five

some

If

you

exactly the

day

car?

sure

am

the

had

ever

street

School

students car

to

accommodates the

majority

and

from


PROJECT

114

The

BOOK

BUSINESS

IN

of Application

Letter

While other kinds of letters have and responsibility shown

has

marked

a

that

day had

became

been assuming increased

in business,the letter of application

power

decline

at first by the many

blanks

ENGLISH

forms as

necessary

be considered,it is

in

importance. Supplanted standard application

of

hundreds

of applicants

rapidlygiving way For neither the letter of applito the personalinterview. cation the nor carefullycategorized applicationblank accomplishes for the employer all that is desired. In an conducted by R. W. Kelley for the "Industrial investigation that not more than half Management," it was maintained a

to

of the firms interviewed

of their efforts not that

asserted

the

standing, which

candidate

With

in

letter?

did found

Furthermore,

of the

record

to be neither the

a

waste

of academic

given

names

of

the

letter of

as

erences ref-

application

is there left in the average the skill to make his letter

importance,what a

has

person

efforts

are

not

worth

set, formal letter,"I graduated from

followingpersons

etc-,"proves

was

scholarship.

elements

two

Unless

to the

it

in his plicatio apover-estimated by

confidence,was

"personalinterview,"his you

the results

greatest factor in determining the choice

proved

these

minimized

importance

the record of

nor

those who valuable.

very

much

so

applicants.The a

the references given

up

the youthful graduate includes

with

of

looked

ever

and application,

in letters of

now

to be either

of paper

ably as exceptionalcase stillserve

but it is no

and an as

a

ink.

for

introduction an

effective

The

in 1919, I refer

testimony of

blind reliance The

while.

a

on

my

reliability,

chance

or

else

letter of application may to an interview and in the means

of

method longera satisfactory

securinga position; to be

implicitly

relied upon. It is the personalfactor in the interview that is the modern

determinant. few minutes

who Psychologists

the mental

and

are

trained to estimate in

a

physicaltraits of those inter-


CORRESPONDENCE

viewed

hours

the old tedious And

do.

to

BUSINESS

by large companies

employed

are

quickly what took

IN

115

accomplish

to

hundreds

readingof

of letters

the small employer of to-day

even

prideshimself on being something of an business psychology and usually desires applicanthe is to hire.

amateur

in

in person

the

astute to

see

EXERCISE

the following letter of

Rewrite

emphasis about

application.Change the letter,entirely subordinatingyour facts

of the

education

your

make

it

What

seem

idea

can

letter?

the

Does

an

idea

vigorous opening

and

sentence

of larger

supply

to

are

show

you

writer

himself in the letter?

anything of

to

put into the letter that will

you

purposeful? Can

more

in the

references

is given in the letter. You

than qualification the idea.

and

of

Can

a

your

the

ality person-

letter reveal write

you

a

more

compellingclosing

more

sentence?

Appendix A,

See

C.

L.

West

425

"

Crane,

of Business

"Form

on

Letter."

Co. ,

Street,

Fifth

City. Gentlemen: I

I

advertisement a

competent I

the

work

from

Company

with

School

High

as

highest

60 150

of

words words

have

this

an

in

a

minute

a

minute.

something

know I

an

Tribune

Sunday's old

years commercial

the

fourteenth

I

to

reply

for

stenographer.

am

typewrite is speed

in

you

in

saw

seventeen

graduated North

to

writing

am

worked

city.

have

average class. my and

of

my

89.7, I

can

dictation office

general with

just

at

course

about summers

and

the

Blank


116

J".

BOOK

I

you the of

T.

refer

Brown

to

and

two

of

to

summer

my

company teachers

my Florence

Miss

School,

BUSINESS

IN

PROJECT

ENGLISH Mr.

employer, just mentioned,

at

North

Knapp,

and

High Mr.

John

Warren. will

Hoping application my favorable consideration, Yours

I

followingopening application:

2.

and

in

closing sentences

Sentences

Opening 1.

am,

respectfully,

Criticize the letters of

receive

I be

Could

assistance

of any

I have

always wished

in your

office.

Do

need

you

a

that

to

day

some

stenographer or

in the

you

future?

I could

work

bookkeeper in

a

your

office? 3.

aim

My in

4.

Do

is to become

realize that

you

Maybe

office that I

I

influence

my

not, but there is a positionin

your

much

means

to

me.

type of work, and there is

therefore a

vacancy

office force.

Having learned that you desire the work of a young I take this opportunity to tender girlin your office, my

7.

bookkeeper on

an

writing to inquirewhether

am

in your 6.

have

you

interested in your

am

a

office like yours.

an

future?

5.

stenographer or

a

services.

It has occurred there

to

that in

me

might possiblybe

an a

office as demand

largeas for

yours

phers stenogra-

at all times. 8.

Last

summer

while

Shoe employed by The Progressive

Machinery Co., I shared the straps with a number who were of young working for you. women They all seemed energeticand happy that I hoped so that I

might become

one

of them

at

some

later

day.


CORRESPONDENCE The

9.

time

for

IN in most

comes

This

jobs.

of

BUSINESS lives to write and

our

is the

117

of

purpose

this

ask

letter of

application. Do

10.

feel that

you

who

is very

think

that I

use

can

you

ambitious

and

just the

am

a

stenographer

young

energetic? If

person

looking for.

are

you

I

so,

Closing Sentences 1.

Hoping

I 2.

If you

I may

that

remain,

for

an

view, inter-

comes,

I will

"

remember

can

selected

possiblybe

the time

when

me

everything needed for the position and a willingness, good personality to back energy,

be

there

me

up.

with

if this meets

3.

Please

4.

If this interview

write

5.

I would

I

hope

will be

inform

with

approval.

your

granted,

call Dial

can

you

me.

appreciate it

interview 6.

me

and

23782

"

much

very

if I could

have

an

you.

that you

will favor

me

will grant

me

with

a

reply in the

near

future. 7.

I

Letters 1.

hope

of

that you

Applicationto

Apply

for

the

the

of privilege

an

view. inter-

Write

position referred

to

in

the

following

advertisement:

Wanted! A

stenographer.

than

experience.

One

Tell

with all

common

about

letter.

Address, Mr.

D.

U.

Midland

City.

Harris,Pres., National Bank,

sense

yourself

rather in

first


PROJECT

118 2.

Apply

3.

Cut

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

for

holidaywork. of the daily paper

out

advertisement

an

interests you. Answer it. the following 4. Answer advertisement Can

that

:

fill this position? Large automobile

you

nary stenographer who is above the ordiin intelligence and abilityand who is quick and accurate. Only portionof day on stenographic ing work; remainder of the day spent in other interestwork. Hours good, working conditions pleasant. wants

concern

Give

age,

nationality, experience,if

salaryexpected. Address, 4414 Apply

5.

for

part time

a

wish to work

Looking for

was

Position

for

way

The

"

Personal

Don't.

given in The

Ladies9

a

Journal.

position,explainingthat through school.

job?

"Looking advice

a

your

any,

you

Interview

This Try offeringone." Home Journal,September,

who go job-huntingwithout luckless ones 1917,to the many waits for those who definite plan. Business can a prove, either by letter or interview,that their talents play into the purpose

of the

employer. chance

"Is there any average

"What

of

gettinga job?" timidlyasks

the

applicant. kind of

"Anything

at

a

job?"

all."

And

another

futile interview

ends

discouragedapplicantas she utters these tell-tale "not much For "Anything at all" usually means words. in particular." article of a college The story is told in the same girlwho York. house in New When asked what went to a publishing kind of a job she wanted, she said,"Anything at all,particularly for the

if it is literary. I know had

some

^rview

some

literarytraining." Her vague to an

abruptclose.

French

and

I have

replybrought

the


CORRESPONDENCE After that

she would

particular.She what

she decided discouragingapplications like to work for one publishinghouse in spent days studying its catalogues.She

the

aimed

firm

talents supported that aim.

might help her

give her

work

to a

job;

do

to

She

and

best

just where

saw

how

to

up

how

and

qualifyher

this department

in

didn't

would

of French

knowledge

119

more

many

learned

BUSINESS

IN

to work

her

her little

rapher stenog-

as

her

literarytraining department. "They

that

she took it."

This definiteness should

be the firstaim

of the interview.

the offensive with a applicantmust at all times assume thorough and confident knowledge of the services he has to sell if he would get the positionhe wants, and not merely The

for any fall into the first positionthat yawns happens along. It is futile to relysolelyupon to

What

school

students or

such questionsas intelligently

answer

do

are more

you

a

than

that firm,this reference

positivein

And

graduate of?" answer or

yes

that

"How

or

one's old

ability are you?

yet how name

no;

that

person

many

this school

telephone number.

There

such

simpleanswering. If any consideration is given such blank interviews at all, it is because there is a shortage of applicantsand the positionis either will be a temporary one. An employer inferior one or an is nothing

usuallystarts askingquestionsnot because he wishes to carry but because he hopes thus to start the burden of catechist, The employer may the applicantto talkingabout himself. in order to draw talk about business or religionor politics the

applicantout.

he wishes

them

may

There

to establish and vary,

his aims

certain well-known

are

while his methods

usuallythe

are

or indirectly, later,directly you

1. Your

willingnessand

must

of

same.

facts that

ascertaining Sooner

disclose to him:

eagerness

2.

Your

3.

Your

.knowledgeor capacity to initiative and activity.

4.

Your

ambition

5.

Your

to work.

learn.

improve and rise. under disagreeable conditions. disposition to

or


PROJECT

120

BOOK

6.

Your

stability.

7.

Your

past experienceand

8.

Your

likes and

9.

Your

personalpower

He him be and

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

IN

abilityto profitby it. their significance.

your

dislikes and and

magnetism.

life only as they give is interested in the facts of your To knowledge of these qualitiesor variations of them.

content, then, with your

interview

experience is

rehearsal

bare

a

to miss

of your

education

the opportunitiesthat your

affords.

EXERCISES 1.

Blackford

Read

the Boss." and your

2.

Newcomb's

and

the principlesof

Note

try

practisethem

to

in person, in teacher will arrange, like to

in

well

the

as

arranged

in

Let

the

mission.

5.

Make

in school

interview not

a

the teacher

so

whole

tions attrac-

that

she

favorable

more

an

easy,

nor deferential,

go

to

actual positionafter

make

too

interview

your

by

be

personal

your

gettingan

introduction of yourselfand

4.

upon

aim

your

else whom

one

assist you,

better

pleasingentrance, bold.

any

record

your

recommendation, graduation. an

or

Let

get to assist her, with as

In

way

a

applying for.

impress the teacher

3.

small

a

staged interview which your for a positionthat you would filland that your actual qualifications would

justifyyou

may

in

Job, the Man, character analysis

friends.

Apply

may

"The

no

farther

the statement manner

natural, yet too than

the

of your

speak;

your

carriage,gestures,tone, expression. Accept a refusal of a positionso gracefullythat the employer is moved to reconsider in your favor. Overcome by winning argument some prejudice of of the employer, your lack for example. experience,


BOOK

PROJECT

122

Merely the aims suggested. Students The

BUSINESS

IN

to be

pursued

and

teacher may

ENGLISH

in the interviews

supply the

have been

situations.

Letter

Personal

Personal

The

Touch

of the

"Consideration

daily mail, frequentlyburdened as it is with business circulars,follow-up'letters and smart devices that in time tend to defeat themselves, has suggested i

limitation

a

Comfortable

is strong to

proportionto

the

plicatin stenographers,du-

to work

easy

it.

overwork

the solicitor of

prolixityand

to

dence.' correspon-

The

useless

penditure. ex-

that the temptation

returns

are

not

in

expenditure. regretsthat the personal letter writingof

sometimes

One

'business

devices tempt

other

and

by letter and circular The machinery is so

business

of

numerous offices,

machines

"

volume

the

of

days has gone hard, unattractive

out of vogue

other

succeeded

by

writing. To these much old personalletters we owe delightfulliterature and portance, bits of knowledge that have proved to be of historical im-

a

while

"The

in

in the

to turn

will be The

no

friendlypen

story of a

in the

a

on

in hours

to a

of leisure and

of

moment

and

and

WaJpole, Carlylemake

more

many

a

disappointment noteworthy persons

sorrow

or

matter

of

personal letter writing

one.

frequent use

more

the

who, in

urged by

thrown

predicament.

same

"Conservation

been

Johnson, of Horace

of Emerson

finding that other

been

lighthas

be obscure.

finds distraction for

reader

a

shaft of

and Fitzgerald,

delightfulbooks

as

machine-made

collected letters of Dr.

of Edward

have

a

many

otherwise

would

what

and

has been

and

seems,

of in

a

fact,most

which

newspaper

vehicle

had

a

so

easy

and

desirable. valued

pleasant There

is

correspondent

and told the editor sat down writing his article/ personalletter,crisp,sparklingand to the point,what after

'


CORRESPONDENCE

the

for

(To The

2.

Letter

3.

Famous

4.

The

5.

Letters

of:

Robert

Louis

be

to

be

of

art

threw

writer

of

stilted

the

and

letter

new

professional;

valuable

and

1,

worth 1918.

Writing

investigation)

for

writing.

letter the

18th

century.

given

impetus

letter

writing

by

the

war.

on

a

Stevenson.

Lamb.

Letters

to

1.

A

letter

2.

A

letter

write

to

the

to

an

class

after

vacation.

acquaintance

you

made

train. A

4.

A

had

letters.

Charles

3.

the

away

January

Letter

on

123

editor

really

assigned

of

writing

BUSINESS

Tribune,

Topics

Theme

1.

The

Minneapolis

"

lost

letter.

something

produced The

reading."

The

forgotten

moment

he

hence

the

printed

and

article

about.

writing

been

had

he

IN

letter letter

introducing home.

one

friend

to

another

friend.

railroad


CHAPTER ADVERTISING

A

variety of

AND

activities. critics

art

SALESMANSHIP

talents has

new

through the rapid extension and

VI

of

been

brought into business

advertisinginto

Bill

dubbed boards, once G. Lowes Dickenson, are

as

by such

menace

a

phases

new

exhibitingthe

now

Parrish, George Montgomery pictures of Maxfield Flagg, other recognized artists. Art has invaded and business through advertising. Business

scorned

once

liberal education

a

their

Shakespeare,searching the twistingtheir smatterings of French

brushing up

on

of synonyms,

into

who

men

are

dictionaries and

Latin

re-reading Scott and Plutarch for new advertisingsuggestions. The American Telephone and Telegraph Company the hero of Scott's "Lady of uses the

advertisingnames,

in its

Lake"

Roderick

Dhu

to

advertisement

our

this whistled

Manville

The

allusion

army

Asbestos

Company

Clark

to

for

Equipment

axles represents the

old

Roman

an

uses was

the

picture

flung into the

advertisement

Company

and

power-controlled power charioteer

find

Literature

have

invaded 124

of its

in its advertisements

business.

by

mastering

Olive Cleopatra advertising Palm and Hercules,smokeless gun powder. Omar, cigarettes, We

mons sum-

mander to-day by which the comalso gather his warriors may

unburned

withdrawn

of Clark

horses.

by

of

Charlemagne's magic table cloth which

asbestos.

Summons."

Highland warriors

compares

summons

chief of

Johns

fire and

an

his

summon

Instant

the instant.

together on of

to

the electric and

The

advertisement, "The

used

whistling. The

and

his

soap,

tory His-


ADVERTISING

AND

SALESMANSHIP

125

significant broadening of business through Luring the advertisinghas been felt during the war. public into the market by art and wit has always been An

even

more

POWER-CONTROLLED

POWER

bolt and livesin every shaft, Their' gear of Clark Axles.

"

masterful stamina laughsat road shocks and the brutal sidethrustsof sharpcorners. But

common.

teaching by poster has been comparatively

recent. A

concerted has

national effort to teach public welfare by picture

invited

business

to

enter

the field of propaganda

advertising also. Business has helped teach thrift,diet, health, charity,sanitation, and patriotism by poster. At the same time that it has advertised new products it has of slogans and spread these lessons by means pictures.


PROJECT

126

Thrift

BOOK

linked

was

with

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

IN

margarine, sanitation

nut

with

Benetol, patriotismwith hard coal.

Through advertising we have introduced into Business and the the artistic, the literary, the philosophic the historic, domestic.

And

demonstrated

and

more a

business

has this

more

man's

need

fertile

a

In

imagination and a range other phase of business is

no

wit and

in

imaginationas

of of

there

new a

field of business

vocabulary,

wide

literarybackground. such a challenge to

advertising.

EXERCISES 1.

See

"Who's

whether

Who"

concerning the three Is "Who's 2.

gives mentioned

men

Who"

a

information

any

in the first paragraph.

useful reference

book?

by "liberal education in paragraph 2; "propaganda" in paragraph 3; by philosophic in paragraph 4. Bring to class examples of the following: (a) Teaching thrift by poster. (b) Teaching sanitation by poster. (c) Teaching patriotism by poster. (d) Teaching health by poster. Are these examples government, state, or community propaganda; or are they commercial advertising What

is meant

"

"

3.

4.

adopting the is your

methods?

same

opinion

5.

What

6.

advertising? Bring to class examples

of this method

of

of

commercial

:

(a) A literarycharacter

or

allusion in

an

ment. advertise-

(b) A poster of artisticas well as advertisingmerit. (c) A philosophicdiscussion in an advertisement. The A

Psychology Los

of

Advertising

Angeles club

woman

sent questionnaire

out

who

responded

by the woman's

to

an

tising adver-

advertisingclub


ADVERTISING of that

citymade

a

SALESMANSHIP

AND

answer significant

127

to the query,

"Do

you

Boards?"

"Yes, in spiteof myself," was her answer. (The Poster,December, 1918.) Two soldiers were digging trenches. One asked the other

read

the

whether

Poster

the

he remembered

"Enlist and

big poster back

home

saying:

the World."

see

"Yes," repliedhis companion. "Why?" "Well, I didn't know we had to dig clear through it to the other side to see it." (The Poster,December, 1918.) These

two

stories illustrate

graphicallywhat

by the psychologyof advertising.The in the first story tells the tale.

"in

It is the

is meant

spite of herself"

objectof

the advertiser

just that; to interest the public in spite of to appeal subconsciously itself, day after day until his appeal A tactless salesthe public mind. has fastened itself upon man to do

is regarded

as

nuisance.

common

a

Advertising is

a

without offense. give his message The second story makes plainhow the soldier happened to who coined that expression "Enlist and enlist. The man the world" knew what appeal would make see men join the silent salesman

army.

The

what

He

who

knew

may

how

human

nature

reacted

to certain suggestions.

stand Psychology of Advertising is the abilityto underTo know the effect of displayupon the public mind. will appeal in spite of peoples'wills to the contrary;

to understand

this is the

how

to make

folks act in spiteof themselves, of

advertising. Psychology is the science of the mind; the psychology of advertisingis the science of the public'smind

psychological aspect

Repetition in Advertising knows how repetitionaffects advertisingpsychologist the publicmind. "Constant repetitionteaches a school boy his multiplication it to his dying day, without table so that he remembers having to brush up on it at any time.

The


PROJECT

128

It teaches hum

the

melody of thinking.

it without

habits to which

It forms

there

And

have

you

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

IN

BOOK

popular song

a

all humans the

people

subject.

are

of

secret

that

so

poster advertising.

Day after day crowds pass a certain spot and each time they pass they see a poster displaywith its brief message. glance suffices. Often times they read the message mechanically as the school boy recites his lesson. But just he wants to solve a probas this boy thinks of his table when lem, and so do these people think of that oft repeated message it when they need a product of the kind advertised. act upon For repetition It has a way of making carries conviction. A

a

believe that he

man

the value

alreadyknows

of

product

a

before he buys it.

even

that's what

And want

a

who

letter of introduction

have

bought

never

of those who

You

seeking in advertising. You for your product to the people

are

you

You

home

to

to hold

also wish

terest the in-

have.

to hammer

want

it.

as

people as possible

many

that your

product is the best they can buy. The process is like driving a nail. The first blow starts it,but it is repeated blows that put it snugly home. Poster advertisingdelivers these blows upon the sense of is brief,but is shown in everybody every day. Its message colors that and

attract

the

And

eye.

it repeats and

repeats

repeats."

Advertising Appeals There There

is

a

to

Walker

instincts

in

the

human

racial habit of curiosityin all animals. desires to solve

Consequently we

a

mystery and

find advertisers

tendency and using it

for their

These

are

obvious

ends.

own

baits to

settle

taking hold

with the mystery poster,the much mark.

Co., Detroit.

"

Instincts

our

deep rooted

are

by

"Broduire"

From

"

our

We

being. Man

a

stinctiv in-

dispute.

of this human are

over-worked

all familiar

question

curiosity.There

are


PROJECT

130

BOOK

2.

Effective repetitionin

3.

Clever

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

IN

advertising.

4.

premiums offered as inducements. Clever rhymes or ballads in advertising.

5.

A

clever mystery

6.

An

advertisement

As

long

that

have

men

as

in ballad.

adventures

advertisement. uses

talked And

as

story to hold attention.

a

at

all,they have

long

their experiencesat all,they have tell by the

to

them

woven

firelight.Deep seated

is love of rhyme

and

the tale.

What

in the

is

into stories modern

man

natural

more

advertiser's efforts to lure the public than

related

have

men

as

their

sung

hark

to

in

an

back

to

traditional love of song and story? The bill-boards try to do justthat; to tell us a story, or sing us a rhyme that we our

catch after

can

It

reading. is the intricate applicationof these old truths about

ourselves the

one

that the advertiser understands

well and

so

labels

"Psychology of Advertising."

Coinage of Words One

of the

very

persistentcontributors

to

our

ever

panding ex-

tising English vocabulary is Advertising. Every adveris literally a word factory which takes words agency from any other language,dead or alive,and compounds them with skill. It puts them together with the hope that they of those who

will cling to the memory time.

Often

taken

into

we

the

read

find that these advertisinglabels

English language.

Kodak

trade name. once was a mere example. Kodak in the English dictionary,we find such words

barometer,camera, tuxedo, product. But they were "

language.

Such

them

words

as

all names

is

the first

a

-

If as

finally

are

familiar we

look

aluminum,

devised to advertise

eventually admitted

into

a

the

crisco,jello,karo, nabisco,oho,

antiskid are other names pebeco,thermos,sapolio,prestolite, for products coined by advertisers although not yet "

admitted

into the rank

of real words.


AND

ADVERTISING

SALESMANSHIP

PA-KQ THIS GOOD

IS

SIGN

PHOTO

YOUR

GUIDE

FINISHING

TO

SERVICE

Photographic AppliancesCorp'n 116

AN

EXAMPLE

So.

Fourth

OF

Sfc

A

HUMOROUS

it

Minneapolis

ADVERTISEMENT

131


PROJECT

132

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

A deal of ingenuityis put into the ransack

Men

the dictionaries of all

of syllables, new

sounds

ENGLISH

coiningof trade languagesfor new that

names. binations com-

will please or

cinate fas-

by rhythmic excellence. There is no limitation to and means Nabisco was employed by advertisers. ways formed by taking the first part of each of the three words Actional Biscuit Company. method of coiningwords is that common Perhaps a more of

combining the

words

of

sentence

a

or

phrase into

word.

Such

a

single trade

Uneeda, Takhoma,Serv-u$are cases in point. Sometimes names

as

it is the

of the

name

inventor which identiTm

such

Diamond

Eqo

Cabhmb

fies

the

product,

"

Goodyear tires,and the Edison lights. Sometimes the trade name gives away the secret of the invention as in the Diamond partments Egg Carrier. The diamond-shaped comas

protect the egg

by diverting the pressure from the egg. Sometimes the trade name is a figureof speech, a comparison, a description as in Catspaw heels. There "

almost

are

as

many

together for trade

methods names

as

of

linkingideas

there

are

trade

and

names

sounds

selves. them-

EXERCISES 1. Think

up

good

a

name

for your

its class,advertising

abilityto do business any one

2.

The A cry.

itate writing for the school. Imof the methods suggested above or invent

of your

own.

Suggest a picturesquename belong to.

for any

school

club you

Slogan slogan originallymeant a call used in battle,a rallying felt very deeply the stimulating During the war we


ADVERTISING

AND

Riprinltd

SALESMANSHIP

bu jHrariuun

of Thi

133

Fi*k

Bubbtr

Co.


BOOK

PROJECT

134

IN

effect of the slogan, the "Give But

before the

commerce

war

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

had

"Do

share"

your

your

bit."

adopted the slogan as

a

Feather "rallying cry" also. It had its "Let Hartman Nest," "Eventually, why not now," "Say it with your almost immediately the product We all recognize Flowers."

contented

cows," "It Floats,""His Master's Voice," "A Skin You Love to Touch," and "Time Such expressivephrases are almost equivalent to Retire."

advertised by "From

to

trade

names.

EXERCISES 1. Find 2.

other expressiveslogans from

Try this experiment: What trade names

name

first occurs

Trade

pictureor to

you

when

literature. trade mark you

read

or

the

of the followingarticles?

Oatmeal

Tobacco

Soap

Condensed

Chocolate

Underwear

Bread

Collars

Satin

Hosiery

Powder milk

Salad

dressing


What 3.

Write

experiment teach

this

does a

SALESMANSHIP

AND

ADVERTISING

theme

any

on

of the

about

135

Advertising?

following:

(a) An advertisement that sold me goods. (b) An article that lives up to its advertisement. (c) A slogan that brings trade. that sticks in the memory. (d) A trade name Facts about

Advertisingworth

Finding

Out

I. Cost-

does

1. What

a

for

full page

magazines cost

number

one

the advertisers:

of the following the Cosmopolitan,

the Saturday Evening Post, the Atlantic Monthly, American

the North Note.

Review?

Write to the advertising departmentfor information.

"

Explain the 2.

What

3.

What

4.

What

5.

Find

differences in cost.

are

the advertisingrates

dailypaper?

is the space rate of your street car bill-board rates in your city? are out

how

certain

much

funds

II. Returns

of your

in

a

advertising?

companies

vertisin allot to ad-

year.

of Advertising:

1. What

are

advertisements See

Calkens

chapter

by which

the methods

on

and

checked

are

from

returns up

ous vari-

by advertisers?

Holden, "Modern

"Mathematics

of

Advertising" Advertising" for

suggestions. 2.

3.

tising examples of great profitsfollowingan advercampaign. retailer as to results Get the experience of some achieved by some advertisingdevice. For example, displayused by your grocer. a window

Find

impression does gathered make upon you? What

regarding the

scope,

the

information

What

you

conclusions

importance, power,

have

do you

expense

just draw

of advertising?


136

PROJECT

BOOK

IN

PROBLEMS the

Teaching

Student

BUSINESS

IN

ENGLISH

ADVERTISING

Public

The

followingsuggestionsoffer opportunitiesfor effective propaganda advertisingwithin your high school or community.

Within

your

high school:

clean-up week.

1. A

Better

2.

A

3.

Join

4.

Read

5.

A

the

English Crusade. Boy Scouts!

more!

campaign against class

Suggestionfor 6: Write

a

story modeled

Parallel the idea of

"Faust." Within

your

dishonesty.

room

one's selling

after the story of soul.

community: of vacant

lots and

alleys.

1.

Cleaning up

2.

Keeping crossingsclean. Removing unsightly bill-boards. Getting waste paper cans placed in residence districts. Keeping walks, fences,and buildingsfree from chalk writingand pictures. lawns, pulling against walking across Campaign

3. 4. 5.

6.

flowers,writingon walks. 7. Protection of private property againstdamage. in the yards for birds and 8. Keeping fresh water

during the

dogs

summer.

Suggestions 1.

Recall and any

put in outline form

the specialfeatures in

of the followingadvertisingcampaigns:

(a) The war chest campaign. (6) A Liberty Loan Drive. (c) Better Health Crusade. (d) Red Cross Campaign.


ENGLISH

BUSINESS

IN

BOOK

PROJECT

138

Gift Thoughts A dainty blouse made able

silk

pure

blended

charmingly

beautiful

A

is

a

of

"

flounce

colorings. of

wonderful

silk jersey in suit shades.

What one

of

myriad

petticoat whose

pair of pettibockers

heavy

a

colors.

riot of gorgeous

A

in

crepe

indestruct-

from

be

could

these

welcome

more

practicalgifts

at

than

mas Christ-

time.

Our

selection

Petticoats

is

now

assortment

of

Gift

Blouses

complete and awaits

your

Prices

$4.95

to

$20

and a

derful won-

tion. inspec-


AND

ADVERTISING

KEWSY

NOTES

THESE gILVER

SALESMANSHIP

Tinsel, like spun

139

ABOUT

DRESSES

frost, is lovely with

delicate -Net

and

DATtO*

9rt

Tulle

frills"

Frock

A

effectivefor afternoon, very not a bit like anything your

floor.

and

new

friends

provocative little fluffy ner of elegance for dinaffair A gown

have

A

"

"

evening?

or

number

of

You'll

becoming

ones

find any at each

price. Rich of fabric and tone, sumptuous

adornment, lie cloths shown

at

or

are

in fur

brilliantin touches of metalthe lovelynew

Dinner

Hats

Donaldson's!

for the

charming,the youthfulHats equally Danse, with theirbewitching feceor

maKne

brims,theircrowns

And

ancibandingsof

theirartistic adornment. metalliccloths,


BOOK

PROJECT

140

RICH

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

IN

NEW

SILKS

i.

An inspirationfor designers are. these, new silks now being offered' in this. "ale. Noydty weaves and artistic coloringsplay a most prominent psAi,. From the glittering lengths of fancy silks,to the"afl"chiffon velvets,the lovelyprinted plete georgette crepes,the gleaming satins .and tailored wool poplins,here is comindex to Fashion's Silks for WinteJ*.

THE

latest

very

dress hats"

afternoon

for

and

small and medium innovation for the woman

cojne

"and are the finest

restaurant

sized"

are

wear

signed those de-

who

weldances a

by filmymaline,and interpreted

of metalliclaces and cloth of gold. that rolls sweepinglvfrom under to its satin crown

brim A maline face is attached gayest of orange

bows,

the the

$25*

Taupe Maline and gold lace 'have conspired one's turban tnai reveals to produce a fetching' coiffure rose

ptfi"dtlyrA

is set at

a

wonderful

French

blue,

daring angle, $27.50.

A group of fur and metallic cloth hats is also include the saucer These becoming shown. fying brim, tam and turban shapes that are wind-deand so "ver youthful in appearance.

Prices range tupwards from THE

HAT

SHOP"

$25.

SECOND

FLOOR

QUESTIONS 1.

Analyze the

effectiveness of the

Pick out those words

that:

(a) suggest vivid pictures (6) make a figureof speech (c) stir the senses.

underlined

words.


ADVERTISING No.

.2. In

what

does

Is it a

good

3

here?

SALESMANSHIP

AND "

"

provocative

word

mean

used

as

to use?

3.

What

verbs in these advertisements

4.

How

would

descriptive?

are

the

characterize

you

141

choice

of words

in

4?

No.

EXERCISES 1. Visit

fabric department

a

think

then

a

up

in any to be

sentence

describingvividly the beauty

purposes

satins etc. of velvets,chiffons,

possible. Make adjectivesand adverbs where

2.

out

Diamond 142 3.

Crystal

and

Use

Salt

well

as

assist you in advertisements Note

and

worth

figuresof speech

verbs

your

of newspapers, effective choice of words.

Cut

drygoods store and used for advertising

the

as

your

describing. that illustrate diction of the

advertisements

on

pages

143.

descriptive sentences advertisingany of the In each following kinds of merchandise. case appeal to the imagination. Emphasize significant

Write

details

concerning the article,the convenience, comfort, luxury,beauty, etc. Be concrete.

(/) stationery (g) toys (6) house paint (c) fresh vegetables (h) camping outfits (i) sporting goods (d) furniture (j) home baking (e) hats (a) tools

Note.

Every

Choose

"

now

of the season,

and or

any

then

singlearticle

under

there appears

at times

at

appropriate times

propitiousfor the business of the

specialadvertisingof followingheadline illustrates this concern,

some

idea.

"SLIPPERS" For

the class named.

All

the

Family

single article.

The


142

PKOJECT

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS


ADVERTISING

PICTURESQUE

AND

DICTION

SALESMANSHIP

IN

ADVERTISING

143


144

PROJECT

This reason were

wrote

advertisement

BUSINESS

IN

BOOK of

I

ENGLISH

j

effective for the very of the family of its unity. Slippersfor every member described in detail. The writer of the advertisement was slippers

veritable littleessay

a

"The

on

Comfort

of

i '

Slippers."

EXERCISES 1.

Taking this idea,write a the slipper department visit to

a

of

shoe

a

those who 2.

Try

a

of

advertisement

shoe store.

some

store will remind

slippersthere each

Describe

Christmas

are one

for men,

for

Perhaps

of the varieties

you

and children.

women,

making specialappeal

to

be interested.

would

similar method

of

advertising:

(a) Rubbers for the whole family. (6) Flowers for all occasions. (c)Bedding for all the family. (d) Candy for gifts. (e) Stationeryfor all occasions. atmospherewhich for similar advertisingin newspapers; Note.

copy.

"

Create

an

is

appropriate. Look imitate

but

do

not

Be concrete.

Winning by stoiy The

following advertisement

Digestof December

occurred

in

the

Literary

1, 1917.

Is the titlealluring? Is the

openingnarrative interesting?

Is the end of the advertisement

Imitate

this method

effective?

of advertisingin any

of the assignments

that follow.

A We

V-

Suggestion

to

Congress

sittingin the smoking compartment engine that was hitched to a broken-down were

of

a

man, Pull-

jerkingits

,


PROJECT

146

BOOK

IN

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

Padraic

Colum, Alexander Harvey, Lafcadio Hearn, I explained that the etc.,were alone worth the sixtycents. Modern been pubLibrary included books that had never lished in this country before,such as "Married and "A Miracle of St. Antony"; that it bought from other publishers the right to reprint such worth while books of contemporaneous as

men

"

Wells'

several times

as

"War

in the

Air," Chesterton's "The Man Who Was Thursday," Schnitzler's play, etc. "Best Sellers don't mean entree to the Modern Library," I said, "though the 'Best Russian Stories,''Way of All Mesh,' 'Dorian Gray' and several others have been reprinted interest

in this series."

said Preston, "that those fellows are realize," doing something big? Only one or two foreignpublishers have attempted anything as fine as that Modern Library." of the Smart "That's Set, Kerfoot just what Mencken of Life,and all the other critics are saying," I answered. "Clarence Day says, in this month's Metropolitan: 'They not only books ought to have, but books you are you to have.' want People are learning that these books, by "Do

you

greatest thinkers

writers

and

of

time, are delightfuland engrossingreading than the junk they the

read.

There

isn't

a

book

in

our

the

Modern

more

narily ordi-

Library

pretension to culture and education In fact,the New York Mail not be interested in. would said that in these times people are sick of cheap stuff and that there is no book in the Modern Library that a civilized man would not be proud to have in his library. Then, too, that and stamping, limp croftleather binding, with gold monogram I artistic bindings have ever is one of the most seen. gifts. I am advising all The books are ideal for Christmas that

my

a

man

any

friends to send their orders at once." "Great

Modern on

with

the "Well

Preston

exclaimed, "I'm Library fan myself,but they ought to have heavens,

man,"

a

you

payroll." to

tell you

the truth,they have," I

replied,with


ADVERTISING somewhat

of

I wouldn't

it.

hadn't

if you

SALESMANSHIP "In

sheepish grin.

a

publishersof

AND

wound

me

have

fact, I'm

started

of

one

the

talkingabout

you'll have

so

up,

147

to

excuse

it

me,

and"" "Excuse

There

nothing! Congress obligingeveryone you,

And

I'll call it square

and

have

breakfast

(The

morning."

to

if you

the

at

list

ought

read

give me Parker

be

to

the

Modern

of your House with

of

act

an

Library.

one

lists

new

in the

me

tisement.) appended in the originaladver-

was

EXERCISES

this method

Imitate

of

advertisingin

choice of the

your

following:

(a) Advertising Night School. in Millinery. (6) A course (c) A recipe book. (d) An electric apparatus. The

might

followingopening sentences

offer

helpful suggestions.

(a). Yesterday she was one of New York's thousands of working girls caught in the dailygrind of a monotonous job. To-day she is an independent business woman, happy For

and

"

prosperous.

For

(6). Mary

put

"

jerk,made

off to work, with

a

groan.

other folks,"she muttered For

(c).

For

strong odor

A

davenport.

(d). "

"Blue

Andrews, "Just look Fables

in

"I don't

see

why

toque with

glassand

a

went

I can't look like

to herself.

bit of blue

A

"

velvet

worn

face at her image in the

sour

a

her

on

gingham lay prostrate of burnt

Monday's

sugar

here

at that basket

filled the

on

the

room.

again," sighed Mrs.

of clothes."

Advertising

product may be advertised by fable. The followingfable entitled "Values," by Walt Mason, appeared in the trade magazine, The Forge,February, 1919. The

merit of

a


PROJECT

148

BOOK

BUSINESS

IN

ENGLISH

Values Old Hiram

Hucksmith

wheels; and

makes

and

sells green

with

wagons

red

stringof bells in his old age he feels. For all the countrysidehis wagons have their fame, and Hiram over pride,the prestigeof his name. sees, with wholesome He always tells his men: "By jings,my output must be goodV Don't dishonest things steel or wood; use ever use no wormy nothing but the choicest oak, use silver mounted tacks,and every merry

as

a

"

hub

and

every

who

buy

my

spoke carts

be

must

to advertise them

the hearts of folks to whom The

farmers

cannot

them bust

as

wax.

well; I do

I want not

the

men

wish to break

I sell."

bought those

red,and worked said: "You

sound

as

up

or

wagons

and

green,

down,

them

wear

with

I ween,

wheels of sparkling and

of them

often

out, and if you'd break their

holt,you'd have to have a waterspout or full-sized thunderbolt. The way they hang together'sstrange, they ought to break but won't; most earthly things decay or change, but these blamed don't."

wagons

Old

Hiram's

heart

with

to hear that rapture thrilled,

sort

of

but couldn't build his wagons fast stuff;he worked and worked he lives on Easy Street,most honored of all enough. And now who toddle down our men villagestreet,and then back up again. with pink spokes, blue wagons Old Jabez Jenkingslong has made the farmer folks. With he had a goodly trade among and once pride his bosom did not swell;he knew not to aspire; to get up that would

wagons

sell

"

that

was

his

one

desire. And

so

he made

pine,where rosewood should have been, and counted to hide the faults within. the paintingfine, on this sad old top was And often when tomer toilingin his shed, a cushis head. Wherever would seek his shop and deftlypunch went, disaster with them flew; the tires came Jenkings' wagons You'd the see off,the axles bent, the kingboltsbroke in two. farmers standing guard above their ruined loads,and stringing language by the yard that fairlyscorched the roads. his business is decayed; is old and worn; This Jenkings now o'er dizzy breaks he made. Old and he can only sit and mourn who climb Trade's rugged hill. Hiram's plan should suit all men his wheels

Give

of

value for the shining coin you put into your till. The Forge Magazine, February, 1919, Walt Mason. "


SALESMANSHIP

AND

ADVERTISING

149

EXERCISE

this method

Imitate

(a) Two (6) Two (c) Any

Choose

1.

kinds

of

kinds

of soap.

other

products

baking powder. think

you

of.

or

followingsuggestionsand

of the

one

might be used

play which

method

on

Advertising

Dramatic

act

originalfable

an

followingarticles :

of the

any

advertisingin

of

to introduce

write

to the

a

one

public the

article named.

Jane

to

goes

the attic to

dress that she is to dress smells it out

so

to air.

wind

sudden

Advertise

a

mother's

at her

wear

The

wedding wedding. The

own

balls that she

stronglyof moth

and

ruined for the

get her

is blown

dress

fallsinto

a

from

the

hangs line by

It is apparently

puddle.

approaching occasion.

dry cleaning method.

Make

particularuse

of

details. 2.

precious time trying to figure correctly. Her employer one day calls for a statement which is not ready. He has just expressed of the Dalton indignation,as a salesman Adding

Miss

Brown

machine

enters.

Adding machine.

Advertise the 3.

Take

a

simple plot

articles cartoon

wastes

or

devices

to

and

advertisement

advertise work to

be

well-known

some

it into used

an

on

animated the

movie

screen,

4.

Using for

picturesof well-known advertisements write a simple play on the title, illustrations, cut-out

Model Pays to Advertise." your that title the play by already written. "It

The what

following playlet written students

can

by

do^ Perhaps you

a

have

senior a

play after illustrates

dramatic class


BOOK

PROJECT

150

BUSINESS

IN

ENGLISH

in your school that will present one of your best plays before This one the school. was produced by such a class. Note the different ways in which Nervine is suggested throughout Criticize the play in any way that will assist the play. better plotsand effect cleverer advertising. you to construct SHE

.

HANGS

THEREBY

FORGOT;

A One-Act

Ak TALE

Play

AdvertisingDr. Miles' Nervine Cast Mrs.

Smith.

Mrs.

Brown,

The A

Reverend

Mr. the

Druggist, Directions

Scene

I. In

frontof the

neighbor.

a

Jones. villain.

Stage

for

curtain.

Living-roomin the Smith home. One halfof the room is in order and the other halfis in great confusion. A white chalk stands a ladder line separates the two parts. At one side of the room a picture. Cleaning apparatus, dust cloths, against the wall near Scene

etc.

On

II.

the top of the ladder is

lies sleeping on scene

while Mrs.

a

couch. Smith

A

a

bottleof Nervine.

second Mrs.

No. I continues

Scene

(Enter Mrs. stage.They Mrs.

the

Smith

and

meet in center and

Smith.

Mrs.

to

does the

Smith

No.

I

actingin the

sleep.

I

Brown

from oppositesides of the Both have

converse.

How-do-you-do,

Smith

Mrs.

Mrs.

Brown.

packages.)

numerous

How

are

you

and

family?

And you? Very well,thank you. I'm justworn Mrs. Smith. to a frazzle, honestly,Mrs. Brown. I'm house cleaning and what do you think? Reverend Jones called to-day and asked me to make a chicken pie for the church supper next Friday. I was right in the midst of cleaningwhen he came. I had a towel around my head and I looked justdreadful. I don't Mrs.

Brown.


ADVERTISING I'll do.

what

know

chicken

when

I

SALESMANSHIP

AND butcher

The

think

didn't

151

he

would

have

a

stopped there just now

(sigfis wearily). How do I'm having just an get along with your sugar allowance? you awful time, I declare to goodness I am. I have got my last two pounds for the month and here it is only the twentieth. I suppose if I get an extra two pounds the Red Cross will get after me. Oh, dear,it's enough to drive a person insane. I worry so much that I can't sleep. And if I do, I have the most terrible dreams. Mrs. Brown. What so? makes Why Mrs. Smith! worry you You need a tonic of some kind to steady your nerves. Why don't bottle of Dr.

you

try

been

greatlyhelped by I lose sleep. Take

a

it. a

I

Nervine.

dose

Smith

Mrs.

(turningaround

It's just what take it.

Mrs.

I

seem

I'm

so

Brown.

it's a

she walks

as

Now

I get

sure

upset

minded.

as

for

cure

have ever when-

or

have

you

nightmare.

away). I'lltry a bottle.

the next Come

thing is to remember to see me some time,

Good-by. Scene

(Mrs. Smith and

tried it and

to-nightand you'llrest

to need.

absent

I have

it whenever

use

rested before (starts to go). And

never

to

Miles'

No.

2 enters

II

afternoondress

wearing an living-room

carryinga knittingbag. She draws

a

dust cloth outf also

a

bottle

offurniturepolishand starts to dust the furniture.She attempts to the white line. but cannot get across get to the dirtyside of the room to hold her back every time she attempts it.) Something seems Mrs. Smith to herself.Oh, dear. I can't seem to get this cleaning done. (She attempts to cross the line,gets dizzy when her foot touches the line, wrings her hands.) I wonder why I can't get across into that dirt.

(A knock He

walks

What

crosses

the

dirtyside of the Smith.) on

Jones.

Rev.

heard

of

would

donate

Nervine.

see

annual a

The

room,

are

very

busy. I

don't

think

sure

to

get

he a

would

pie made

have

have

you

if you

to ask you

came

Will

Jones, I

sits down

I suppose

for the supper.

wasn't

try

preacher.

apparent dismay of Mrs.

to the

chicken-piesupper.

I will

lets in the

much

Oh, Reverend

to-day,but

should come?

perfect ease, and

that you

butcher

one

the line with

bottle of Nervine

Smith.

Mrs.

asked

our

I

some

She goes to the door and

is heard.

into the room

if

What

shall I do?

you? I

any

can

when

for the supper.

get I


PROJECT

152

BOOK

Jones.

Rev.

Thank

Smith,

Mrs.

you,

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

IN

I know

we

depend

can

you.

upon

(He lakes his hat from Mrs.

backward.

bag puis

a

on

Smith

round

a

on

leaves the

the ladder and

room

puis the cleaning articles into her knitting

pair of rubbers and leaves the room.)

(ReenterMrs. Smith, with

she hides under

which

bottleof Nervine

a

chair.)

a

Smith.

Mrs.

last I have

I've been

it.

butcher

to every

in

for the pie. (Just as she is all sold out. Now they were leave for the kitchen,a largepoliceman with a red cross on Mrs. Smith glancesnervously at the Nervine under enters.

town

but

about

to

his

At

arm

the table.) Mrs.

Policeman. overdrawn

your

all

Smith

Give

for

that Nervine

me

have

You

Cross.

or

go

to

glaresat her.)

(pleadingly). Oh

town

over

and

arms

the Red

from

am

allowance.

sugar

jail. (Folds his Mrs.

Smith, I

I

it.

need

it for

it.

take

don't

the

chicken

been

have

I

pie.

Please

leave it.

Give

Policeman. the month

for the

I stillhave

church

supper

wipes the

(Mrs. Smith a

church one

so

and

he sent

may

a on

lower

after their

Enter

needed

a

a

shall I do

druggist with for the

chicken

thought your butcher wouldn't have give you this. (He puts it upon the top

there

up

and

say

a

for

poem

me

and

climbing the ladder). (nervously tonic I should shelves.

own

Think

If Nervine

think you would have to of making your customers

purchases. (She clingsdesperatelyto

Upstairs,downstairs,in I met

a

I took him

by

threw

him

And

lame

man

my

who

ladies' chamber, wouldn't

the left leg

down

the stairs.

say

is such

keep

his prayers

it

climb

the ladder

she recites.)

There

you

it.

splendidnerve the

What

to go.

eyes.

said you

beforehanding

she dusts

you

here to

me

Smith

Mrs.

Jones

that

of the ladder.) Climb have

tears

Reverend

supper

more

from her in his hand.)

bottle of Nervine Druggist.

which

days (exitpoliceman). ten

of

twentieth

is the

Nervine.

more

any

(givinghim the Nervine

him). But

This

Nervine!

can't have

you

Smith

Mrs. it to

and

that

me

as


PROJECT

154

BOOK

busy

Hello!

signal.

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

IN

Blank

High

Alumni?

'19

Class

June

The

Thief!"

"Stop 8th

May Tickets?

the

present Thursday

on

9th

and

Yes, at

will

at

at

now

Cable

8:15

the

comedy

and

Friday,

P.M.

Blank

High Co.; all

Piano

School

or

seats

reserved.

5(V

much?

How

it's

Sure,

35^.

and

good! Well,

Advertising

long,

so

you

Blank

School. High 14, 1919

Manager.

May Ma

deah

Peculiah:

Honey, Friday

dey's night,

De

ode1

night

de

roof

ma1

death. An

folkes

I

ole

mah

haft

off

dat

Dixie

sat me

pass black

an

fishin1

heah

I

a

nail.

I

saw

fluttah

an

niggahs

nonsense

from

de

away. face

ob

yourn

was

a

an

you

you'll clean

mosf

I

made

a

ya'ns

stage.

off.

make spun me

de on strumming coon lullabys.

should

Show

to

sho1

it

suh,

you

reckon

I

as

nuff

were

Peculiah, swappin

Ah

ma

Minstrel

dem

dem

Minstrel

to

fallin

An

out

off

fixin

was

show.

der

dem

I

was

croonin1

dat

heah

me." "save cried, for nigga's hide,

I

melodies

a

da, nigga's

say

to

nail

flittah, Yes spike. to

banjos,

on

go

homesick

dose

dat

down

when

and

dis

save

practicin1

a

Dose

school

slip Lawd,"

caught

on

doins

big

23d.

after

done

den jes1 swinging

And

the

foot

Lawd

be

gonna

ftLawd,

de

later.

See

You sho1

laugh

hea'd as come

dey wid

will

dat

ole


ADVERTISING

spinnin1

me

aroun1

listened

to

de

"by de

a

was

I windmill, scandal a nigga out in de alley ea1 whispa yo1 an

me

I'll

an

can,

wind

dar

ob

meet

155

Dutch

a

lot

you

gahbage

dat

like

mosf

Jes

told.

eber

SALESMANSHIP

while

Peculiah,

oh,

And

AND

full.

Chuck

de

"s

prayed my

on

nail

kep1 good

de

feet

in

do

can

sofs dat

to

honey

feet

his

shuffled but

remembah

all

yo1

Doz

de

niggah

de

audito'um?

a

rippin1

Lawd

to

no

ma

me

down

live

to

show.

by to-night, honey, go heah dis to niggah.

I

Oh

thru

let

could real

dar

what Lawd,

jiggin.1!

som

I

po'tah

I

easy take mah

like

whistle

I'll don

an

You's

trousas

yo1

as

dare

say

inte'nally, Rastus.

S.

P.

Friday

I

mos1

ob

between

now

niggah

I'se

Tickets fo'got. so's yo'll week,

dis

dis.

ole

Rastus

hangin1

seen

and ovah

ah

sale

on

hab

to

dat

useless

yo1

choose

back

fence.

The

AdvertisingLetter Appliedto

Outside

Reading

followingletters were written by students as letters urging their classmates to read the book they had read for outside reading. Criticize each followingmatters: The

1. Its

abilityto

secure

and

Its power

3.

Its applicationof business

last

one

of inducing you of the books

in

which on

the

hold attention.

2.

Choose

tising adver-

to read the book.

principles. the bibliographygiven in

chapter of this text and imitate for reading. a good book

this method

the

of advertising


ENGLISH

BUSINESS

IN

BOOK

PROJECT

156

February Ruth:

Dear

what

"Know

Get S.

1919

7,

"How

why

reasons

It

1.

200

"PUT

YOUR

Advertisement"

an

will.

you

you

like

clear

are

it.

print. type appeal

this

of

pages

by

There

will

large,

has

Does

taking."

are you Write

and

Hall,

Ronald

three

to

to

you?

Now

much

how

See

PERSONALITY

it

easier

"understand,

you

INTO

I

why

TISEMENT." ADVER-

THE

to

is

chose

read? Hall's

LIr.

book.

so

It

The

Best

Have

you

the

get

one

to

Way tried

ever

the See

than

combine

how

it

convey easier

much

the

it

.phrasing*, in in

is

Out.

words

and

eye

from

meaning

Plies

Keep

to

catch

spacing

Best

The

Out

quickly?

first

the

to

will,

they

illustrated:

Way

Plies

meaning to,

well

is

Keep

that

the is

2.

sebond

the

.

It

3.

Supposing for

shorter

words

.'"horse

high, .Did

That

more

bull

that

know

the

the

is

advertisement

farmers

think

of

than

these, -'-;/. strong"?

human

can,...

eye

than

vertically?. words important

all

reason

tisement adver-

an

that

so

you force

tight,

pig

write

Can

horizontally

more

see

fence

with

ideas.

new

to

had

it.

buy

you

.,

of

you wire

a

to

want

would

full

is

should

be

written

in

; ..

.

in

an

-two

lines. Do

for

a

you

three

the

know

big

essentiials

advertisement?

good ReM

"How

To

Write

an

Advertisement".,

.

"if

you

want

to

find

out. Your

'"

friend,

-::"

"" :

"^

;

:;

\ *

""-"


ADVERTISING

AND

SALESMANSHIP

157

II Feb.

"

Students:

Dear

all

You

picture.

a

see

thought our picture new adding The library

collections.

to

transferred

being

to

going

other

motion

a

how

ever

you motion

continually

are

old

enjoy

Have

like

much We

1919/

6,

very

library

is?

books

to

books

are

the

all

libraries

the

time.

Students, venture

think

don't

room

with

some

time

an

endless

or

other

or

number we

to

how

read.

much

library to

have

we as

books

of

may

never

are

book

a

the

of

we

we

realize

we

think

We

missing.

are

rule,

a

unless

our

a

I

as

library, topic special

near

assigned

know

you

a

which read

for

English. Just to

book as

of

out

by

"Advertising be

book the

to

the

the

of

the

book

title.

I

the

a

library wanted,

was

took

I

It

seemed

one

on

the

shelf.

book

has

to

say

for

from

the

Central

interesting what

assigned

were

to

to choose happened Pictures." Moving

because most

Listen

I

we

hurried

do, again.

book

The

day

I

found

us

hurried

the

other and

read

most

and

the

tc

itself. "I and

placed

can

tell

have

to

on

something

are

being how

shelf

a

much I

can

goods.

about

used

for

it

of

clever

many you advertise

you and

taken

was

how

tell

your

Library.

ways I

business

your

can

you

to

men

tell

also

Stars

purposes

advertise

this

I

favorite

advertising

costs

Library

in

by such

an

tures. pic-


PROJECT

158

interesting way through without soon going back up

read

and

IN

BOOK

BUSINESS

will

you

read

missing to

right

me

word.

one

I

library

own

my

ENGLISH

am

hurry

so

me.M Yours

truly,

very

III

February Dear

10,

1919

Students: Did

member of the kitchen?

your family You sapolio haps pernever $1,000 a thought that at least that small cake. day is spent in advertising It's true. don't Mr. Now laugh. Morgan discovered the formation dent. sapolio by accihim His the and name physician gave into then he launched an paign camadvertising ever

any in

resulted

which Now use

or

you

use

a

keen

yet. through the

dull

asked would

Mr.

Razor"? dollars out

its

give

William

G. "We

you Bell

And While

your will we

Did

Kampfe the it

ever you cut nearly

world's is

by

an

means

only accomplished If advertising. if advertising paid similar

answer

of

Boston,

'Yes1

a

pocket no

of

people

answer

'Does

was

medium

these

of and

edge

This

fortune.

neat

a

shaving?

about

how

"Star

million

with

in

Mass.,

to

that

you

they Mr.

gave:

question pay?' on advertising word to say." to

the

advertising

keep have

a

sapolio or "Star advertising interested little a' aren't you in these of dozens cases There are stories? in form in story similar told to these, all in Advertising." "Fortunes a book Made on turned that It's were of ideas just full into cash. I

Razors";

am

not

but

4 "i


world

The

not

to

go

is

into

get a glimpse Advertising."

Perhaps

neat

a

1.

too,

you,

Why period

Made

in

may

ble stum-

and

fortune.

truly,

Yours

Personal

vacant

"Fortunes

the

159

ideas.

for

asking some library

the

over

SALESMANSHIP

AND

ADVERTISING

Advertising

Give

four minute

a

advertisingspeech announcing the

of Football

opening

Tournament,

or

season,

Baseball

other

any

Tennis

games,

school

activitywhich

needs the support of the school. 2.

Make

solicitingaddress

a

annual 3.

or

Advertise

in

as

for

subscriptionsto school

school paper.

personal announcement stenographer or musician

card

a

about

your

vices ser-

the school.

AdvertisingSpecialties Collect

for imitative

use

any

special advertisingdevices

that you can, for example, bookmarks, leaflets, clever letters and so forth. The followingsuggestionswill assist you. What

is the value

specialties? Could

of such

in any of its activities imitate its advertising?

One

I'll

Two

I'll give,

Three Four

the bookmark,

your

in the leaflet,

give,

I give, I say, I

give with

all my

heart,

Five I'll give today.

At

BRING

least

IT

one

TO

Book

from

SCHOOL

every

boy

THIS

or

school

girl.

WEEK


PROJECT

160

BOOK

IN

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

Salesmanship salesman

The well.

We

bored

by

is

have

all been

In

tricked

layman's

a

of fashion

sort

tell what

we

all know

by the clever salesman, compelled by the honest have

we

way,

principlesof salesmanship; there some

whom

person

dull salesman, and

the

salesman.

everyday

an

all

few

are

he thinks

analyzed the could

who

good

or

not

bad

in

manship sales-

is. There

is

inherent

no

difference between

advertisingand salesmanship. What of advertisingapplies in varying One

ways

best get at these simple facts about

can

sortinghis

Write

observed

topicsthe

about

teacher

may

any

of

the

I

met.

ever

2.

A

neat

3.

An

4.

A

abrupt exit that created suspicion. graceful"get-a-way."

5.

A

human

6.

The

entrance

sort

by

a

salesman.

of salesman.

memorized

8.

speech. Tricks I have seen through. that was Enthusiasm contagious.

9.

Pests

7.

following

assign:

cleverest salesman

1. The

Salesmen

personal impressionson

your

salesmanship. salesmanship by

to

observations.

own

I have

What

has

of principles already been said

the

of the

Public

(the sort

of salesman

who

public nuisance). 10.

Salesmen

11.

The

who

believe in themselves.

13.

handicaps of house-to-house soliciting. The discourtesyof the public seen by a salesman. that gained attention. Clever sentences

14.

The

15.

"Selling" oneself every day. Salesmanship depends on the littlecourtesies.

12.

16. 17. 18.

sort

of clerks I like.

Taking rebuffs gracefully. The traveling salesman; a type?

is

a


PROJECT

162

BOOK

first time.

the

for

make

sale

your

and less of 3. Don't

a

ENGLISH introduction

an

of

more

actual

an

may-

encounter

stiffrecitation. the front seat.

clingto

in the

Tear room

from yourself away and give yourself a

to be self-reliant.

chance

Forget that on

are

Such

seem

all the furniture

4.

BUSINESS

IN

a

in

are

you

class

a

front porch, at that

anywhere

back

a

be

might

you

Imagine

room.

door, in were

you

office,

an

actually

you

the selling

If necessary, article you have chosen. write on the board before you start a few "stage directions,, for the benefit of the class. And let

the atmosphere thus talk.

your 5.

Call the class by

as

6.

imaginativelycreated,affect Either address individuals

name.

some

by their name or, if you individual, give it some

an

Don't

"tackle" minds

the them

of

from

the

their

class

Don't

crash

into

unexpectedly; approach

point

own

class

name.

customers.

your

treatingthe

are

of

view.

Talk

with

Refer to something that has them, not at them. just happened in the class; get them to converse with you. Don't s'tart rightin selling. 7.

Don't

imitate the "salesman"

that has

justpreceded

you.

recall clever methods

8. Try to

of salesman

you

have

known. 9.

Sell to

of students, or

groups

think the class

as

a

whole

Sell to the boys, to the members 10.

of

some

sell? neat

is not

to girls,

a

a

good

Miss

if you

customer.

Jones

or

to

juststop speakingwith Know

what

you

aim

to

promises,to and bring it to a down. of sitting

Is it to convince, to get

definite purpose conclusion before you think Have

individuals

club etc.

Finish your recitation;don't a grunt of embarrassment.

accomplish.

to


CHAPTER BUSINESS

THE

great

Yet

haven't

convinced

biographiesof

of the

read."

to

to reckon

to

read."

with

the

and

More who

man

heard

are

truth,however,

the more

takes

of

some

our

influence

tremendous men

In all

in competition with

"not

READING

busy business

often time

man

time

be

to

men

books.

time

STUDENT'S

has only to look into the

One

"I

VII

educated

to an

say,

tious ambihasn't

man

the average time to read as

of

man

has

he takes

to exercise. in every

"Men

of Yale

Hadley

of

practicaldepartment University, "men

manufacturing,

have

told

dent life,"said Presi-

in commerce,

that

me

portation, trans-

what

they

of usingbooks the selective power of knowing and using books efficiently."It is this power

wanted

was

who

men

have

important to acquire.

that is so

EXERCISES 1. Look

in the

up

biographiesof

such

men

Lincoln, Franklin, Roosevelt, what of the influence of books 2.

9-12 3.

Read

report 4.

In

Gladstone,

these

men

tell

their lives.

by O. S. Marden, Chapters the importance of reading. on "If I were Maxwell's Twenty-one Again" and "Self

Read

on

as

an

Investment"

to the class what

oral theme

he thinks

about

reading.

expand the ideas suggested in the

followingquotations: "Read

and

heed.

Learn

Real power with your own. The Poster,December, 1918.

harness other

people'sideas along is attained by combining forces."

to

"

163


BOOK

PROJECT

164 "

Some

peoplespend so books that they have none

vast

ENGLISH of energy

amount

an

left to read them. to read

well is better than

book

rate

BUSINESS

IN

first-ratebook

a

"

"

then

and

one

amusing;

it is healthier."

"Read!

I

2.

The

3.

Reading

4.

The

5.

Enjoying

6.

Continued

8.

Books

9.

Book

books

day

I do

may

or

enjoy. like.

not

pet abomination,or, Waiting

late to read.

too

I recommend. I have

Reviews

read

I have

Books

11.

Authors

12.

Books

I would

13.

Books

that

14.

Magazines

15.

Criticize the

I have

read. than

more

to

come

like to

have every

know.

own.

influenced should

one

following list

students'

once.

own

me.

know. of

magazines compiled

statements

they habituallyread: periodicals "

be enlarged

installment.

next

10.

Note.

of

read.

to

I most

stories,my

never

from

more

car.

of the

of books

for the

It is

only

bit of

in bed.

kind

7.

a

Topics

the street

best time

Bennett.

Bennett.

(Writtenor oral; suggestionsoffered condensed at teacher's discretion.) on

badly."

21."

were

Theme

Reading

second-

with-and-against-the deep thinkers

Maxwell, "If

1.

a

to read

varied diet is not

A

Arnold

"

to think

Learn

the world!""

"

bit of the other.

a

Arnold

simultaneously

books

It is well to read two

read

To

choosing

on

Stars indicate decided

Magazine*

1.

The

American

2.

The

Ladies1 Home

3.

The

Pictorial Review.

Journal.

popularity.

regarding

the


STUDENT'S

BUSINESS

THE 4.

The

PhotoplayMagazine.***

5.

The

Red

6.

The

Literary Digest

7.

Scribner'8 Magazine.

8.

Popular Mechanics.

9.

The

16.

Outlook.

The

18. A

the average

magazines ought

Moulders

student modern

public opinion to-day;

of

to know?

authors

represent a nation,a state,a city,a party

who 17.

165

Book*

other

What

READING

etc.

the passionatebrowser. systematic reader versus books do you con"culture list" of books; What sider

in the

"Hundred

Library as:

Hamilton

Mabie's

Wright

Books

etc.

How

of

the standard

to

up

measure

list (ofHarvard) may

such

Best

Novels,"

Great

World/' "Ten

Consult

know?

should

one

every

in the

do

reading set?

list; President

be found

lists

you

See

Elliott's

in Marden's

"Self-

Investment." 19.

Making the

most

(a) Classified Collect

lists to such

Verse," or many

publiclibrary:

of the

be

found

leaflets

as

others to be found

Housewife"

at any

(b) Tracing a topic in the reference (c) Exploring the technical room. lay mind. (d) Using the reading

Library.

of Modern

"Books

for the

"Books

the

at

and

largelibrary.

room.

Interest

for

the

"

to

room

while

away

odd

moments.

.

20.

Reading a

over

book

one's head;

that is too haunt

deep for

the

Types who

22.

Characterization of the

23.

A

in the children's

grown-up

any

who

woman

a

hurt to tackle

you.

library.

21.

24i ^Paging at

It doesn't

A -

at the reference desk. room.

public library. Personal experience of

have

done

it

during:tbeisummer

vacation.


PROJECT

166

Assume

Assertions

BUSINESS of View

ENGLISH

toward

the

Following

:

1. You

are

is

otherwise

busy"

"too

never

Beading

2.

Point

Positive

a

IN

BOOK

to read.

habit that should

a

may

you

be cultivated

the age

pass

and

be too

young;

old to

learn. take the place of generalreading?

3.

Movies

4.

Business

students

5.

Business

men

6.

Broad

may

do not

haven't

need

time

to read much.

read; they do, instead.

to

generalreadinghelps one

as

a:

salesman

stenographer companion home-maker student 7.

The

more

8.

Tell

me

you

what

read, the read

you

more

and

you

succeed.

I will tell you

what

you

are.

Reading

9.

"I

10.

makes

the

good

conversationalist.

too active to sit stilland

am

read."

EXERCISES

Plan

1 .

or

in your

(a)

"

a

Read

More

"

propaganda campaign in your class

school according to the

Think

up

followingsuggestions:

appropriateslogansfor

your

librarybulletin

boards.

(6)

Invent

a

specialcolumn

for your school paper to be during the campaign and write

for this purpose the necessary articles,

used

(c) From

some

teacher

of the books you have read and those your recommends, take an interestingincident,

conversation,saying, etc., and create a mystery interest in the being to arouse poster, the purpose reading of the book.


(d)

STUDENT'S

BUSINESS

THE Devise

a

contest

of

some

sort

reading. revive (e) By clever advertising, in any

READING

or

167

for the stimulation

awaken

of the prescribedlistof books

of

interest

more

in your

school's

Englishclasses. (J) 2.

the librarya

Make

In the front of your

popularplacethrough advertising. text

or

note

book, paste a

form

like

following.With the aid of class discussion and your credit students should teacher's suggestionestimate what side receive for a good record in outside reading. Should outreading be voluntaryor compulsory? the

Read!

Read! "Six

each

hours

between

difference and

a

of

week a

$25-a-month

reading

Read! may

$20,000-a-year clerk.

mean tive execu-

the


BOOK

PROJECT

168

My

signature above report.

attests

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

IN

to

of

accuracy

the

Signature fE Note:

"

= ,

=

Editorial

Back

Page.

Page

P

Do

You

Keep

up with

the Newest

Books?

thinkers of to-day who Intelligent from the press, thought as it comes newspapers

are

watch

for the firstpublic comments

Publishers send to all magazines which within

interested in modern the magazines and on

the latest books.

include such comments

their pages free copies of their recent advertisements and solicit comments

books and

as

vance ad-

opinions


PROJECT

170

BOOK

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

chapters deal with the last

first two

The

IN

including January, 1918. The first contains the Kaiser's pronouncement: "Davis, America Her be punished for her actions!" must actions,of course, in reminded that furnishingmunitions to the Allies! But when to Russia,the Kaiser replied:"When we helped Germany sold arms were Russia againstJapan, we helpinga white against the yellow Don't ever race. forget that." America, he said,was "acting in supplying munitions. motives" from purely mercenary Dr. Davis regards the Kaiser as having a sort of dual personality. He found him trustful in his conversation even beyond the bounds of discretion, decidedlyappreciativeof humor, and himself often and affable,generally quite his own witty, usually courteous of talent and master, brave under adversity,magnetic, a man is imperious,grandiose,selfcharm. On the other hand, Wilhelm of his judgment, by opinionated,and certain of the infallibility turns and niggardly,ever posing until he has become generous Dr.

Davis's escape

"the

world's most

lightis

lurid

A

he

(italmost amounted

to

two

years,

that) in

finished actor." cast

"couldn't

on

the Kaiser's ideas of international ethics

why

understand

(when Great

in

that

at

war) the United

States did not seize both Canada

the "utilizing,"

Kaiser

"

their

make

race."

to the

Kaiser is shown

That

French.

similar protest

justified by

was

the

Almost

of submarine

the

"How

foolish for America

America must

"International

pay

by Belgians and

German

was

trained.

be

have

come

the

And

as

to

into the

war.

costs of the war!

the bills." The

Kaiser

condemned

Mr.

Hearst.

is

pos apro-

such

no

would

war

all the

but admired

use

There

a

of gas

revealed in his assertion that

foolish because

to

law!

pay

to

forwarded

more."

any

conscriptscould

will have

to

sent

precaution. The Kaiser remarked,

blind side of the Kaiser

before

had

he

Poincare

The

Germans.

warfare:

English conscriptionwas

that

bullets

day President

same

thing as international law The

of dumdum

use

similar

and

serve

"disgustedwith the whole Anglois traceable directly conduct of war

against the a

Mexico"

idea of greatness! For

an

by the latter's statement

protest against the

was

was

inhuman

Saxon

and

opportunityto

country great." What

own

like these the Kaiser

reasons

a

said, "the

Britain

"Mr.

Hearst

is the

.

be

America .

.

"

Now

.

.

America

.

the American

only one

over

.

press, .

.

who


STUDENT'S

BUSINESS

THE

READING

171

told the truth about

has revealed the real conditions and

them.

"

Senators are againstus. Senator all your Stone, for instance, is taking a very strong neutral stand, and

As

to

it is

a

"Not

others:

pity there

like him."

more

reminiscences

Davis's

Dr.

not

are

the

cover

Kaiser's

Kaiser's "Colonel House"

The

was

family and

tourage. en-

the Prince of Pless.

England declared war, the Prince declared, will be over "The war by Christmas,"and five months later said, cluded, "Well, not this Christmas,but next"; at the end of 1915 he con"I don't think the Once more, thing will ever end!" fare February 2, 1917, he declared: "Our unrestricted submarine warhas just started,and we're going to bring England to her knees within three months." And again,."America won't fight in Europe." Yet he spurned the complaintsthat we furnished have supplied more munitions: "In the last twenty years we munitions to warring nations than any other four countries in the world put together." Dr. Davis speaks of the Kaiserin;the Crown Prince and Crown (of Princess; Princes Adalbert, August Wilhelm, and Joachim he makes whose flesh "wound" quite a little fun); and of the German people. Of the latter he says, apropos of the Lusitania who did not enthuse sinking: "I have failed to find a singleGerman He continues: "The that dastardlycrime." over activity of the Zeppelins in their raids on towns evoked similar open day when

the

On

"

...

demonstrations."

informing,and contains on the whole tempt moderately told tale,with only here and there a touch of conDr.

a

Davis's book

and

scorn

is most

and "

but littlebitterness. From

The

LiteraryDigest,December, 1918

EXERCISE

Imitate know

made you

Do

and

the can

about are

followingextract recommend.

the

books

sellingbooks.

this after you

Note

using books

you

the particularly

yourself comments

by the "bookstore lady." Pretend You imagine your own scene. may

have

bibliograph. suggested

read

some

of the

books

from

the


172

BOOK

IN

WOMAN

FROM

OUT-OF-TOWN

THE

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

PROJECT

BUYS

BOOKS

By Hazel Deyo Batchelor Review for April,1919) (Pictorial

"Anything good to read?" the bookstore lady who

of rows

the

on

"It

asked

the

from

woman

arranging her books

was

out-of-town in

orderly

shelves.

all

depends upon what you like,"returned the bookstore She was always interested in a possilady,lookingup interestedly. ble her She in liked to place wares buyer. intelligently; short,she loved her books, and she loved sellingthem. "This time it really doesn't matter so much what I like," laughed from "I'm other the woman out-of-town. for selecting people. Here's the first on The

bookstore

list, my

my

son, Bob.

lady smiled

took

and

likes detective stories."

He a

book

down

from

the

"

with something good," she vouchsafed, 'The Room the Tassels,' by Carolyn Wells (Doran). I'll guarantee that he shelf. "Here's

won't

skip a page."

"Well

worked

out, is it?"

"Excellently,and

not

too

improbable. People like facts these

days." right,I'lltake that. Now what have you for my husband? likes to pick up something not too heavy just before he goes bed at night." her another volume. The bookstore lady promptly handed Vorse (Boni " Liveright)," "'The Prestons,' by Mary Heaton "All

He to

read the

woman

out-of-town.

from

ordinaryAmerican family." "That's just what it is,"approved the bookstore lady, "and it to deals with the little every-day happenings that are interesting You'll Just the book to pick up in an idle moment. every one. book a You don't happen to want that in your bookcase. want for your daughter,too, do you?" from out-of-town, next," said the woman "Yes, she comes "That

sounds

like

a

book

about

an

consultingher list. per's.) (HarUp,' by Margaret Turnbull? a movingIt's a story of a girlwho unexpectedlybecame picturestar. The book givesan excellent idea of life in the studio. tt Every one is readingit.' "How

about

'The

Close


THE "I don't

BUSINESS see

And

as

you

knew

READING

she loved the "She's

out-of-town.

from

woman

how

STUDENT'S '

movies

!'"

173

laughed the

seventeen."

though that explained it all,both

women

laughed

together. "Well, the war is over," remarked the bookstore lady. I wanted for a good one "Yes, are you stillsellingwar books? is stillin France,something with a human son a friend whose appeal. Fires in France7 "'Home store (Henry Holt)," suggested the bookknow, lady. "It's by Dorothy Canfield. Short stories, you I've read them all two or three times,and I and every true. one the book." always recommend from out-of-town The riedly, woman glanced through the pages hurbeen such a and then placed it with the others. "You've help,"she said gratefully. isn't all, is it?" asked the bookstore lady. "That "Not quite,I want one for my sister. She's in business." "Business women always want to read about how other girls made good," said the bookstore lady sagely. "Here's 'A Chance It's a tale about to Live,'by Zoe Beckley (MacMillan). a little slum destiny. Do you think your girlwho fought out her own sister would

The

like that?" from

woman

out-of-town

nodded.

"You

might take

two

sister,"suggested the bookstore lady. "Here's a new in the family excepting the book that will appeal to every one children. It is called 'A Man and a Woman,' and is by Dale Drummond (Britton)." "It sounds interesting," commented the woman from out-of-town. for your

"It's of the

than

more

that; it should be

lesson it teaches.

don't think

If I

were

on

ever

every

book-shelf

inclined to be

because

jealousI

could be

again after reading that book." "All right,I'lltake it,and how about the children? Something the morning out will just round for them splendidly. What's this? (Fingeringthe books on the shelf.) O, The Boy Scouts Year Book' (Appleton); that ought to be just the thing." "That book is filled with all kinds of material besides reading, the bookstore know," commented lady. "Children are all you it. And here's another that I wish you'd take for crazy about and Prince Florinel,' tury). by Palmer Cox (Centhem, 'The Brownies I

ever

"

"

It is full of delicious nonsense."

'

'


PROJECT

174

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

"AH

from out-of-town,"and right/'said the woman she finished, all/' foldingup the pieceof paper. "Haven't forgottensomething?" you

that's

"No."

"Something for yourself?" "O, I can read all these,you see.

I don't need

a

book for

myself

alone."

"Yes, but why The

from

woman

buy

not

one

for specially

out-of-town

your

hesitated.

taste."

own

"You

haven't

'Out

of the

Silences," by Mary Waller (Little, Brown), have you?" she asked. "I love her books. They have so much to them. Some told me that this one one was especially good, that it traced the character of a boy to manhood." The bookstore lady took down a thick volume and placedit on the pileof others. "You'll like that,"she said quietly, "it's just the kind of

Suggested

a

book

for

"

1. Good

.

real mother."

Classified for

Note.

a

Bibliography

the

Business

for

Special

Student

Books of general readingshould not be

Books

for

a

Reading

neglected.

Salesman.

Atkinson, W. W., Psychologyof Salesmanship Hollingsworth, H. L.,Advertisingand Selling;Vocational Psychology Horner, W. M., Trainingfor a Life Insurance Agent Things Marden, O. S.,ExceptionalEmployee; Selling and Industrial Efficiency Munsterberg, Hugo, Psychology Human W. D., Increasing Efficiency;Influencing Scott, in Business; Theory of Advertising;Psychology of Men Advertising Seashore, C. E.,Psychologyin Daily Life Vardaman, B. R., Master Salesman Whipple, G. M., Manual of Mental and PhysicalTests

2. Books

on

Advertising. Business

of

Advertising " Holden, Modern Calkins Advertising and Selling Hollingsworth, H. L.,Advertising E. E.

Calkins, The


READING

STUDENT'S

BUSINESS

THE

175

Cherington, P. T., Advertisingas a Business Force Dbnch, E. A., Advertisingby Moving Picture Hall, S. Roland, How to Write an Advertisement How

George,

French,

to

Advertise made

in

Advertising Mahin, John Lee, Advertisingand Selling tising Scott, W. D., Theory of Advertising;Psychology of AdverLewis,

3. Books

E.

S.,How

Fortunes

Psychology and

Business

on

are

Barrett, C. R., Getting a Good K.

Blackford,

Character.

Job.

H., Analyzing Character; The

M.

Man, the Boss. Cody, Sherwin, How

to Deal

with Human

Nature

Dartnell, George, Fifteen Practical Tests used

Job, the in Business.

in Selecting

Salesmen.

Deland, L. F., Imagination in Business. Eastman, G. R., Psychology for Business Efficiency. Fowler, N. C, Beginning right; Getting a Start; How to to Get your Pay Raised Get and Keep a Job; How derlying UnPrincipleswhich Lead to Promotion. Gowin, E. B., Executive and His Control of Men. Haddock, F. C, Culture of Courage; Power of Will. Hemingway, A. T., How to Make Good. lem Hollingsworth, H. L., Vocational Psychology; its prob"

and

Methods.

Kemble, W. P., Choosing Employees by Test. to Improve the Memory. Lawrence, E. G., How Lewis, E. S.,Getting the Most out of Business. The 0. S., Everybody Ahead; Exceptional Marden, Life a Masterpiece; Progressive Employee; Making Business

Maxwell, Monroe,

Man; W.

Victorious

N., If I

were

Attitude

twenty-one

S.,Making of a Business Woman Munsterberg, Hugo, Business Psychology; Psychology and Industrial Efficiency and Page, E. D., Trade Morals, Their Origin, Growth A.

Province


176

BOOK

PROJECT

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

Side of Business Pierce, Frederick, Human A. Effective E., Speaking Phillips, Purinton, E. E., Efficient Living;P6tain,the Prepared Sadler, W. S.,Worry and Nervousness Schwab, C. M., Succeedingwith What you Have in Business Men Scott, W. D., Influencing to Give Shaw, A. W: Co., Personalityin Business: How

Personalityto Business:

Personalities that

have

Won

Success

Stockwell, H. G.,Essential Elements of Business Character Thomas, K. J.,Personal Power Whipple, G. M., Manual of Mental and PhysicalTests Woodbridge, W. W.f That Something

Wooley, 4. The

E.

Romance

M., Junior Partner of

Industry.

Allen Lane, Mrs. Martha Luther, Industries of To-day of Modern Gibson, Chas. R., Romance Manufacturing of Industryand Invention Cochrane, Robert, Romance J. How We How We are Clothed are Fed. Chamberlain, F.,

5.

Books. Inspirational

Marden, O. S.,The OptimisticLife. Every Seashore, C. E., Psychology in Daily Life Jordan, W. G., Kingship of Self-control Roosevelt, Theodore, A Square Deal Black, Hugh, Work 6.

man

a

King

Books. Efficiency

Gulick,L. H., EfficientLife Bennett, Arnold, How to live on 24 Hours Machine Efficiency.The Human O. Fit Marden, S.,Keeping Whipple, G. M., How to Study 7. Vocational

Day. Mental

Biography.

Appel, J. H., My Own Bolton, Mrs. Sarah,

L^

a

Leaders Among

Story Famous

Leaders

Women.

Famous

Among Types

Men.

ous Fam-

of Woman-


178

PROJECT

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

Earns Richardson, Anna S., The Girl Who living Stoddard, W. O.,What Shall I do? Weaver, E. W., Profitable Vocations for Girls. Parson, Frank, Choosing a Vocation Weeks, A. D., The People'sSchool

Her

Own

9. Social Ethics.

Lindsey, Ben., The Beast Simons, A. W., Social Forces in American History Riis,Jacob, How the Other Half Lives. Battle with

the

Slums

Tarbell, Ida.,Modern Business Weyl, W. E., The New Democracy Croly, H. D., The Promise of American Life Wells, H. G., New Worlds for Old Addams, Jane, Twenty Years at Hull House Barton, Clara, Story of the Red Cross ing Steiner, E. A., On the Trail of the Immigrant. Introducthe American Spirit Van Dyke, Henry, Spiritof America Roosevelt, Theodore, A Square Deal. American Ideals Wellman, F. L., A Day in Court Brewer, D. J.,American Citizenship Betts, Lillian, Leaven in a Great City Beveridge, A. J.,Work and Habits Devlin, T. C, Municipal Reform in U. S. Dunn, A. W., Community and the Citizen Bryce, James, Hindrances to Good Citizenship Abbott, Lyman, Spiritof Democracy Hadley, A. T., Standards of Public Morality Jordan, David Starr, Nation's Need of Men Shaw, Albert, Outlook for the Average Business Man Strong, Josiah, Challenge of the City Shaler, N. S.,The Citizen Howe, Frederick, Hope of Democracy Addams, Jane, The Spiritof Youth in the City Street) Tapt, William H., Civic Duty Wilcox, Delos F., The American City


BUSINESS

THE

STUDENT'S

READING

179

Cleveland, Grover, Good Citizenship Robinson, H. P., Twentieth Century American Zeublin, Chas., American Municipal Progress Books

for

Stenographers

(From list publishedby Minneapolis Public

Library,January,

1918)

Bamburgh, W. C, Talks on Business Correspondence Bell, D. M., " Wasson, D. A.,Typewritingby the Touch Method Bottome, W. B., The StenographicExpert Cahill, M. F., Office Practice Cody, Sherwin, How to .be a Private Secretary Cutler, I. M. " SoRelle, R. P., Rational Typewriting Eberhart, C. P., Course in Practical Business Writing Frank, C. L., Stenographer and Typist Fritz, R. L., " Eldridge, E. H., Expert Typewriting HoTCHKiss, G. B., " Drew, C. A., Business English Hudders, E. R., Indexing and Filing Kildufp, E. J.,Private Secretary to Become a Law Stenographer Mason, W. L., How Mills, E. C, Business Penmanship Owen, M. B., Secret of Typewriting Speed Parsons, C. C, Office Organizationand Management Typewriter Remington Co., How to become a Successful Stenographer Schulze, J. W., American Office SoRelle, R. P., Office Training for Stenographers Spencer, E. L., Efficient Secretary System Co., How to Manage an Office Van

Benthuysen,

S. D., Sentence

Watson, E. M. P., Handbook Literary Workers Business

Method

of Touch

Typewriting for Typists,Stenographers,and

Fiction

Beckley, Zoe, A Chance to Live Barton, Bruce, Making of George Groton O'Hara. Ferber, Edna, Fannie Herself. Dawn ney

and

Co.

Bartlett, F. 0., Wall Street Girl

Emma

McChes-


180

PROJECT

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

Nyburg, S. L.,The Conquest His Own Shoes Rowland, H. C, Filling Master Merchant Woolley, Edw. Mott, Addison Broadstreet, Private Sewell, Secretary Ford, Torchy, Glass, Montague, Potash and Perlmutter Johnson, 0. M., Making Money Kelland, C. B., Sudden Jim Lewis, S.,Job Birmingham, G. H., Gossamer Chase, D., Flood Tide Dodge, H. I.,Skinner's Big Idea. Skinner's Dress Suit. Norms, C. G., Salt Tarkington, Booth, Turmoil Cooke, M. B., The Threshold Webster, H. K., American Family O'Henry, The Four Million. The Voice of the City Norris, Frank, The Pit. A Dealer in Wheat Poole, Ernest, The Harbor Sinclair,Upton, King Coal In the Heart of a Fool White, Wm. A., A Certain Rich Man. Lorimer, George Horace, Letters of a Self-Made Merchant His

i

Son

to


APPENDIX Form

The The

form

Business

the

of

men

to be used

model

be

to as

much

as

In the

of

horizontally with

each

In

a

date

written

of

vertically, letter of

figure. Sometimes

the

first fine

space

out"

rather

between size

a

which

details

letter

a

each

The

appearance.

are

of

between

a

spacing

artistic arrangement these

"

the

"pulled

is

double

form

is coming

variety of original

a

long letter single spacing between

pleasing

the

each

between

and a

we

paragraph

There the

find

we

find

sometimes

of

by business

use

standard.

letter

Sometimes

or

in

are

writing.

form

advertising

word

longer be presented

no

deciding upon

in

spacings. the

can

forms

many

absolute

an

as

style

letter

standing that it is impossible to select

freedom

the

upon

So

and

judgment

Letter

business

of the

arbitrary fashion.

in

a

of

A

small

fines

indented.

of the

paragraphs

and

graph para-

produces

shape of the in

message

modern

the

than

paper,

large

a

business

space,

does

man

ignore.

not

However, of form next

There

two

are

all

Formerly

as

safe the

to

the A

the

eye

the to

No.

1,

"block" say

and

page

this

for

the

the

parts. forms.

style

recent

more

page

182.)

is perhaps

which

on

of

letter

ciples prin-

"slanting" style.

(See also,

form

practical

more

A

182.)

style.

that

in

the

follows

modern

in

arranged

were

which

prevalent arrangement

tendencies

new

will set forth

diagram

The

use.

letters

(See illustration

seems

in

most

illustrates the most

page

known

general suggestions

few

a

typist, will

is It

neater soon

be

preferred style. less prevalent innovation

heading and

business

man

introduction

still

sees

that

is the

of the his 181

manner

of punctuating

letter.

A

heading

and

conservative

introductions


BOOK

PROJECT

182

punctuated according

are

modern

the

But

to

eliminate

all punctuation at

be gaining.

to

seems

ENGLISH

the old rules of punctuation.

to

tendency

of lines

the ends

BUSINESS

IN

(Heading

"

2 ins. below

top)

Date.

(Introduction)

G

din.) u

O

(2 ins.)

(Salutation)

S"

4

din.) .08

5* (1 in.)

din.)

(Complimentary close)

(Signature)

Note.

"

1

Neither

heading

nor

signature run

into the

margin. 2. The

writer 1.

There

is

a

margin

at the bottom.

of (includingname, address, business and date). is from privateindividual) Slantingstyle(letter : Note

Heading

punctuation.


A

APPENDIX

Street,

Bloom

k4521

Nebraska,

^Omaha,

1920.

4,

January 2.

183

Style: punctuation omitted

Block

is preferred and

this form

used

at

ends

by

many

of

lines; leading

business houses. New

Hotel

York

and

New

City

York

December

Note.

In

"

breviations

form, punctuation is

between

and

1919

1,

this

Street

44th

Broadway

items

the

on

same

used

only afterafe-

line

as

in

above

of cityand name of month and between example, between name The and same heading might also be day of month year. written thus: New

Broadway

and

New

City

York

Dec.

3.

Hotel

York

44th

St.

1919

1,

Only the date has

Letter head.

to be

typewritten in.

Kendall-Bangs (INCORPORATED)

GRAIN

COMMISSION Minneapolis,

(Date) John

Mr. 43

West

Jones, 22nd

Street,

Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Dear

Sir:

(etc.)

Minn.


184

BOOK

PROJECT

BUSINESS

IN

heading is long make

4. If

it compact

1 is better than No.

thus No.

ENGLISH

by singlespacing;

2.

No. 1 American

The

Red

Minneapolis 601

LaSalle

Cross, Chapter, Bldg,

, #

Minneapolis December

,

Minn.

5, 1919.

No. 2 The

American

Red

Minneapolis 601

Cross, Chapter,

LaSalle

Bldg.

Minneapolis, December

Note.

It is

"

5,

,

Minn.

1919

becomingcustomary to

omit the

period after

the year. 5. Do not

separatenumber

415 Sixth

6. Do

not

by

comma

date

to

the left of the middle of

as:

(heading)

(wrong)

i

March

:

Street;not, 415, Sixth Street.

beginthe

the pages,

of house and street

4, 1920

(right) March

4, 1920


PROJECT

186

The

BOOK

IN

Accident

Oceon

59

ENGLISH

Guarantee

and

Corp.

Street,

Johns

New

BUSINESS

York

City,

Y.

N.

Gentlemen:

tion stylewithout punctuation,where specialatten-

2. Block

of

an

individual is called:

(a) Mitchell Woodbury Avenue Atlantic 560

Company

Massachusetts

Boston, Gentlemen:

(Attention

of

Mr.

Merrill)

or

(b) Co.

Mitchell Woodbury Ave. 560 Atlantic Mass.

Boston, Mr.

E.

Dear

Note.

Merrill,

W.

Sir:

"

in

The

form is first

Spacing of The

a

and

s

to write out words

more

and

New

i

preferred.Note in

2.

the

Metals York

National

City.

ference dif-

ness Busi-

full.

long introduction.

Mechanics

Gentlemen:

to be

to abbreviations in No.

due punctuation

is coming more 3.

Manager

Bank,


APPENDIX 4.

Introduction

with

Dear

In

Title

K. Henry President, Drake, Washington Bank, Ohio. Dayton,

Mr.

5.

Sir:

social letter,the address

a

187

A

be written

may

at

the

end, thus: f 4215

Sixth

St.

Dear

Miss

St., W. , Paul, Minnesota, December 20, 1919

Thomas,

Sincerely

yours,

(Signature) 3842

Ave

Kimhark

.

,

111.

Chicago,

Salutations The

by

a

It should be followed

salutation is the formal address. colon

flush with

and in an informal should be letter) (a comma the margin. Usage has established the following for the business

forms

common

1. Dear

Sir: dear

(common salutation for one man). Sir: (more informal than Dear Sir). Brown: (used where there is personal acquaintance).

2.

My

3.

Dear

4.

My

5.

Dear

Madam:

6.

Dear

Miss

Mr.

dear

Nos.

letter:

Mr.

Brown:

formal (less

(toeither Brown

3 and

4).

or

My

married dear

or

than

No.

unmarried

Miss

3). woman).

Brown, (same

as


PROJECT

188

7. Dear

BOOK

IN

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

Sirs: common

salutation for

a

firm.

8. Gentlemen:

Note

that the

"dear"

when

preceded by "My"

is not

and that "Sir" is. capitalized, The

body

of the

letter

followingillustrations of popular arrangement will suggest a basis for artistic spacing: The

1. Short

letter

on

full page.

// // // // // // // // // // // // // // U-UM.4lilU-U.il

/


A

APPENDIX

2.

Short

letter

on

half

sheet

better

of

than

paper.

189


PROJECT

190

3.

Long

BOOK

letter

single

utrittt

IN

spaced,

v

v

ft

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

rrTrrr

##########

double

TrTrrf

spaced

ft

It

If

between

graphs: para-


APPENDIX 4.

Specialform, than

A

first line of

191

paragraphs extended

rather

indented:

########## JIJLJIM.J1J1JIJIJJ.JJ.

Tr1rjrjrjrjrTr1r1r1r

The 1.

2.

Yours

4.

truly {not Yours

Proper for Truly yours, common

3.

Close

Complimentary

any

Truly) is the

most

common.

business letter.

Yours

very

truly Very truly yours

variations of No.

,

are

1.

liness friendCordially yours, imply some in relations of correspondents. Yours often used are respectfully, Respectfullyyours, to indicate respect for a person in higher authority. It is not necessary, however, to thus indicate your

Sincerely yours.

position.


192

PROJECT

The

Signature

The

use

Some

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

is of doubtful value. of the typewritten signature

business houses

typewritethe

and signthe signature

initialsor

below.

of signature

But

the

care

since the and

Women

of the

name a

of the firm in the

name

sign their

it appear own

writer, directly a degreemeasures letter is written,

letterto

with which the sincerity

does well to make

one

ENGLISH

genuine.

names,

not

the

names

of their

husbands,as: 1. 2.

The

Mary A. Jones (Miss)or (Miss)Mary Mary A. Jones (Mrs. E. W.) or Mary E. W. Jones). envelope

SlantingStyle

Attention,

Mr.

Block Style

A. Jones. A. Jones

(Mrs.


194

PROJECT

BOOK

BUSINESS

IN

(3) When

ENGLISH

the

boy laughed, the man startled; but the girl began brightly.

(4) When

looked smile

to

the

looked boy laughed, the man who had previously startled;but the girl, now appeared nervous, began to smile brightly.

(d) The

complex

clause and

(1) The

consists

sentence: one

or

(Who

with

was

with

was

principal

one

subordinate clauses.

more

who

man

of

father.

clause.) adjectival

is an

me

is my

me

(2) The

boy found his book where it. (Where he had leftit is

he had

left

adverbial

an

clause.) he (3) That (That

should he

laugh

should

clause used

as

laugh is

Common

If

errors:

the

facts about

a

the

I

bell rang,

(b) Writing a

were

The

we

these

elementary

errors.

sentences:

more

across

the

street,I'll be

left the building.

phrase or subordinate completesentence. The

room

window

very

was

clause

opened.

as

if it

Making

cold.

pictureswere

when

subordinate

a

sentence, he should

a

a

Examples: the

or

going

am

is

in ten minutes.

back The

of

his lesson.

knew

followingcommon

(a) Running togethertwo Examples:

knows

person

structure

be able to avoid

subordinate

a

subject.)

(4) The pupil proved that he (That he knew his lesson clause used as object.) 3.

impolite.

seemed

they showed

very

interesting.Especially

the troops in action.


APPENDIX 4.

Most

of

195

the compound

abuse

us

B

do not

sentence, and

employ often enough the useful complex type. We should avoid with especialcare the followingfaulty forms of compound sentences.

(a) The

relation

of ideas

Yesterday I

Bad:

I lost my

and

school,I

fountain

lost my

We

and

we

guide to

met

the

show

us

Better: When

foundry, the

office of the

foundry,

he

and

called

a

through the plant. the main called

manager

a

office of the

guide

to show

through the plant.

the manager. through the

5.

pen.

manager,

Better: In the main

Phrases

from

sentences:

entered

we

school,

going home

was

the main

entered

from

pen.

fountain

(6) Rambling compound

us

going home

was

Yesterday, while I

Better:

Bad:

exactlyexpressed:

not

office of the foundry

He

called

guide

a

to

met

we

show

us

plant.

used incorrectly

(a) Being deaf,the approachingcar the old

Looking

not

was

heard

by

man.

out

window,

of the

the fire seemed

near

at hand.

should not begin a participle it logically modifies the subject 6f A

Corrected:

seemed

(6) The

crowd

out

grew

old

man

or

sentence.

could not hear

car.

of the

near

sentence, unless

or

the clause

Being deaf, the

the approaching

Looking

clause

window,

I

thought the fire

at hand.

impatient, caused by the delay.


196

PROJECT

BOOK

(The sentence contains modify.) The

Corrected:

by

caused

which

word

no

ENGLISH

BUSINESS

IN

crowd

the

phrase can the

manifested

cally logi-

impatience

the delay.

Pronouns 1. The

word

to

refers should Bad:

(a) John

which

personal or relative pronoun always be definitely expressed. a

told his father he would

be interested

in the book.

(6) John

chewed

gum,

(c) John

asked

where

not

which

annoyed his father.

his father

was.

I could

that.

answer

(d) In

many

(e) It

tells about

schools they have in

Indians

good gymnasiums. Cooper's "Deer-

slayer. Corrected:

(a) John

said

to

his

father, "I

shall be

interested in the book."

(6) John's gum-chewing annoyed (c)John

asked

not

(d)In

many

where

his father

his father. was.

I could

that question.

answer

schools there

are

good gymnasiums,

or

Many

schools have

good gymnasiums.

(e)Cooper's"Deerslayer" tells about 2.

The

Number:

pronoun

agrees

in

number

Indians. with

its

antecedent. i

Note.

The

"

following indefinite

pronouns

are

singular:

neither,another, much, one, every one, some each,either, aught,naught, anybody, everybody,nobody,anything. These These

are are

one,

others,both,few. plural:several, some, many, sometimes singular: sometimes plural: more,

most, all,any, such.


B

APPENDIX

Right:Each

boy

have

must

boys had

Case: case

Sometimes of

a

we

protected himself.

find ourselves

pronoun.

the most

his book.

had

Nobody in the crowd 3.

his book.

his book.

had

of the

Neither

his book.

have

must

Every one Everybody

197

The

common

confused

to the

as

followingexamples

trate illus-

of confusion:

sources

case. (a) Nominative clause: John was tired as Subject of elliptical as I (notme). Compound subject:Father and I will go. fused Subject of a relative clause: The judge reto pardon the prisonerwho, he had to believe, reason was guilty of the every

crime. Predicate you

substantive: It is I; Is it

we

that

I,

were

fear?

Appositive: The guests; given presents.

John

and

(6)Objectivecase. Subject of infinitive: The to be happy. Predicate

substantive

to be me. culprit Object of the verb: Object of the verb:

:

letter declared him

father thought the

My

Whom John

do you see? is the boy whom

we

DCCi

Object of preposition:Give and

the book

to John

me.

Object

of

preposition:There

except John

and

Appositive: Our guests, John

and

is

no

here

one

me.

host me.

gave

presents

to

the


198

PROJECT

BOOK

BUSINESS

IN

ENGLISH

Adverbs

Adjectives and

such verbs

look, feel,sound, taste, smell, stand, hold, etc., it is sometimes seem, appear, difficult to determine whether to use an adjective, or If the word adverb. followingthe verb describes the subject, it should be an adjective;if it describes

1. After

as

the verb, it should

adverb.

an

looks (i.e. gentle.

Bight: He looks The

music

sounds

The

apple

tastes

The

rose

smells sweet.

The

men

seem

The

to be

sad

feels

He

be

man

a

man).

sad

is loud music). (i.e.

loud sour.

happy. good (i.e. appears

appears

good man). He stands firm. holds it She holds it steady (i.e.

so

to

be

a

that it is

steady). Right: He He

looks

about

sadly.

feels the smooth

The

music

The

man

surface gently.

loudlythrough the He tastes the sour apple slowly. The rose sweetlyperfumes the air. The actor played his part happily. He

sounds

well

appears

stands

on

the stage.

his feet.

firmlyon

in She holds it steadily(i.e.

Notice

changed second 2.

that to

group

Notice

Good

and

in the

some

the first group form of to be. He

the verbs indicate

room.

a

manner

a

steady manner).

verb is

be usually can sad, etc. In the

of action.

the followingcases. well.

adjectiveand

Good an

is

adverb.

an

adjective. Well

is both

an


APPENDIX Lincoln

Examples:

Real an

and

John

did his work

see

I

up

adjective;very

an

am

you"

glad

very

is

real

a

to

is

ordinarily

to

you.

of

meaning

real,and

really. you" is ungrammatical; ((really glad to mean very glad to see you.

see

does not

and

see

man.

in the dictionarythe

glad

Some

is

(adverb).

well

adverb.

He

"Real

(adjective). good man well to-day (adjective).

is not

Real

199

a

was

John

very.

Examples:

Look

B

somewhat.

better. Wrong: John is some better. Right: John is somewhat Kind

of and

Wrong:

of should

It is kind

Righ': It 3.

sort

not

be used

of close in this

room.

(somewhat)close

is rather

adverbs.

as

in this

room.

comparison. Illogical has

higher grade than any pupil. Right: John has a higher grade than any other pupil. Wrong: John has the highestgrade of any pupil. Wrong: John

a

has the highestgrade of all pupils.

Right: John Verbs 1. In

order

to

use

the

know

tense

correctly,a

forms

principalparts

of all the

must

person

verbs

he

uses.

doubt dictionary should be consulted when arises. The following list gives the principalparts

The

of most case

of the

of these

royal road be memorized arise.

to

verbs

which

cause

trouble.

In

so-called irregularverbs, there

mastery. so

The

that perfectly

principal parts the wrong

form

the

is

no

must not can-


200

PROJECT

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH


202

PROJECT

3. An

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

infinitiveshould be in the present tense unless it marks time priorto that of the governingverb.

Wrong: It was not necessary for you Right: It was not necessary for you Wrong: I expectedto have written. Right: I expectedto write.

r

ENGLISH

to have

to

spoken.

speak.


C

APPENDIX A

DIGEST

period (.)is

The

OF

used

PUNCTUATION

:

(excepting exclamatory and sentences). interrogative

1. After

complete

a

The

Do

sentence

walked

man

(Declarative sentence.)

(Imperativesentence.)

I tellyou.

as

the street.

down

After abbreviations,as:

2.

etc., i.e.,Mrs., Dr., Pres.

questionmark

Use the 1. A

A

2.

is your

doubtful In 852

The

What

a

Stop! Comma 1. To

(?)the king died.

b.c.

(!)

mark

exclamation

phrasesand

name?

fact.

exclamation

The

after:

direct question. What

The

(?)

question mark

The

mark

is used after exclamatory words

expressingstrong

sentences

beautifullake! You

are

hurtingme.

(,) set off

a

noun

of address:

Well, Mary, how

are

you? 203

emotion.

and


BOOK

PROJECT

204

set off

To

2.

IN

ENGLISH

phrasesin apposition:

and

nouns

BUSINESS

The

next

visitor, my aunt, stayed over

We

next

went

to New

an

hour.

York, the largestcity in

the

country. the above

Exceptionto

rule:

Henry the Third.

3.

In this

the

regulartitle.

are

omitted.

set off absolute

To

all

work

My

all similar

In

is

the Third

case

the

cases

part of

a

commas

phrases:

done, I

about

set

enjoy the

to

rest of

the day. 4.

set off

To

a

word:

phrase, or parenthetical

(a) We will never, / dare say, invite him again. (6) The party, however,was a great success. Note. sentence

use

is about

before "

5.

To

the

to

tell

dash

separate coordinate clauses connected it. for,etc.,when clearness demands wore

Note.

"

A

heard

cried

as

with

Without

the

fur and

loudlyas

comma

he could for his mother"

with the

after"fur" in order that

he

a

veil"

could,for

used to relent at the sound "

trimmed

it.

is necessary

not read "trimmed

(b) He

behind

by and, but,

partiallyconcealed

veil that

a

eyes

comma

turban

little brown

a

merry

loudlyas

you

war.

fur, and

Note.

have

).

"

doubt

no

"

(

City, Missouri.

(a) She

it may

whole

separate geographical names;

To

Kansas 6.

going

am

a

is parentheticaleocpression

the

case

parentheses( ) or else the

story I

The it

In

"

it would

his mother

of his sobs.

read, "cried

as


APPENDIX set off clauses that

7. To

C

205

precede the principalclause

of

the sentence:

Right: When I 8.

Arbutus was

on, 9.

wear

To

snows

my

very

boots when

Valley,which the goal we

I

much,

was

or

provided they

are

miles further

two

set for

coordinate

in

much.

very

hike.

our

adjectivesthat modify the

separate two

boots.

my

phrases:

some

had

wear

it snows

restrictiveclauses

set off non

To

it

same

noun

thought.

(a) A kind old man. (6) A charming, gracious hostess. Note. 10.

(a),"kind" modifies"old

In

"

In

series a, b, c, d, etc.,a

a

man.9' should precede the

comma

conjunction: There

married bachelors,spinsters,

were

and

men,

widowers. Note.

the

Without

"

that "married

men

after "men"

comma

widowers"

and

in

were

it would

a

seem

specialgrouping

by themselves. 11.

To

separate the "he

said"

etc., from

the rest of

a

direct quotation.

here," he said sharply.

"Come

Misuses

Common 1.

of the Comma

Over-punctuation: Poor:

In

the

house,

I

found,

a

visitor. 2.

Before

that,how,

would would

be be

commas

used when

Poor:

clauses that within

told

They

disappointed. They disappointed.

3. Except between no

etc.

are

warned

very

themselves, a

us, how us,

that

short and

comma

we

we

have

cannot

the coordinate conjunctioni@ omitted

be


206

PROJECT

BOOK

IN

BUSINESS

ENGLISH

Right: The

boys laughed, the girlsgiggled,and the littlebabies cried in fright. Wrong: The whole house seemed gloomy, I was not I was at all sure going to enjoy livingin the room nished. assignedto me, it was so dark and severelyfur-

The

(;)

Semicolon

A semicolon is used: L

the

Between

the

when

clauses of a compound principal omitted: are conjunctions

fruitof ignorance is folly;its

The

sentence

taste is bitterin

the mouth. clauses principal

the

2. Between

when

these

When

the

us

sentence

anew.

long phrases or

clauses:

have

(a)I

sought happinessin the fieldand in the study; at home and abroad; in action and in contemplation;in empty solitude and in the crowded city;in the halls of princesand in the huts of peasants.

(b) He

that he did not intend to press the matter; that he had no furtherinterest in its assured

me

outcome; that he would and efforts, see

The

compound

pointed with commas: joicing; day dawned, we set forth on oar way rewhen but, hardly had we entered the forest,

series of

a

a

are

trouble overtook 3. Between

of

me

with my interfere that,indeed,he would be happy to not

succeed.

(:)

Colon

A colon is used: 1. Before

He

a

listof items which

is formallyannounced:

for the following attributes: his his courage, his ferocioustemper, and his strength, was

renowned

indomitable will,


APPENDIX

C

long quotation: Benjamin Franklin has

Before

2.

a

inclose

To

figuresor

letters

to mark

employed

sions, divi-

(a)(b)etc.

as

2.

"(longquotation)"

said:

()

Marks

Parentheses 1. To

207

which

inclose matter

does

not

strictly belong to

the sentence: I will set their alarm such

a

thing in the

clock

(assumingthat theyhave house)and meet you promptly

at six o'clock.

Brackets As

[] in brackets

rule the words

a

columns

reporter. In newspaper

.

the

by interpolation [Loud hurrahs

some

the

from

editor

an

to

or

a

might find,for example,

we

editor set

.

.

belong to

off in brackets.

gallery] .

.

.

Apostrophe (') The 1.

apostropheis used: To indicate the possessive case, To

hat

(singular)

(plural). pluralof letters and figures:mind

the boys'hats

and 2.

John's

indicate the

your

p's and q's. 3. The

No

To

show

Hyphen rules

can

the omission of letters: What's

a

name?

(-) be given for

should be separatedby correct

in

in individual

knowing

hyphen;

a

cases.

The

when

one

a

must

compound

word

learn what

is

dictionary will settle all

doubts.

Quotation Marks

(

"

"

)

Are used: 1. To

inclose direct

(a) Right:

quotations:

"Will

you

go with me?"

the

man

asked.


PROJECT

208

BOOK

(6) Right:

all know

We

(c) Right:

"I

of

uses

(a) To

the words

Lincoln, "You

of

take willing,"he said slowly,"to under-

am

the Minor

ENGLISH

fool all the people all the time."

cannot

2.

BUSINESS

IN

leadership."

quotation marks:

inclose titles:

Scott's "Ivanhoe." Rembrandt's Note.

In

"

"The

Man

printed titles italics are

with the Glove."

usually used

in

place

of quotationmarks.

(6) To

indicate questionableforms The

(c) To

class expected

indicate word

Note.

In

"

expressions:

"quizz."

a

phrases used merely

or

as

a

phrase:

or

The

words

of

"and"

word

is

a

conjunction.

italics

printed matter

are

frequentlyused for

this purpose.

The

(

Dash

Use

)

"

the dash: mark

1. To

I want 2.

As

to

help you

am

a

/

sick

thought.

surelyyou will

"

not

object.

sick unto

death.

substitute for parenthesesmarks: was

silent

set off He

yes,

"

it is true

4. To

in

emphasis: particular

For J

3.

change

sudden

a

had

Boston

a

"

"

you

to believe, but find it difficult

may

through the whole interview.

series of appositives: three

dogs

terrier.

"

a

setter, an

airedale,and

a


INDEX PAGE

in business

Accuracy

the classroom

and

13

Adjectives

198

Adverbs

198

Advertising appeals Advertising, books and

to

instincts

our

128

(bibliography)

on

174

salesmanship

124

dramatic

149

fables

147

in

facts about

135 of words

importance

letter in school letter

in

137

advertising outside

applied to

153

reading

155

personal

159

psychology of

126

repetitionin

127

specialties

159

Advertisement, an original (illustration) Analogy, reasoning by

Apostrophe, use of Application,letters of, to

38 61 207

write

117

Authority (in debate) Authorship, honesty Book

58

of

44

review

Books,

do

169

keep

you

up

with

the

newest?

168

of

Brackets, use

207

Brief,the

62

Business

idioms

Business

man:

90 what

would

he expect of

Business

of

going

Business

of

learning to write

Circumstantial

to

school

a

student

of business?

14 ...

1 14

evidence

58

Classroom, a place of business

15 211


212

INDEX

Code, business,for Coinage

6

classroom

the

130

of words

203

Comma, use of Comma, misuses of Complimentary close in business letter Correspondence in business Correspondence of high school student Credit and

191 90 109 4

wages

10

Salesman's

Creed, The Criticisms:

Dash,

205

you

can

definite

make

ones

49

?

208

of

use

132

carrier

(illustration) Crystal Salt (advertisement)

Diamond

egg

Diamond

142, 143

Employees, students and Employers, teachers and English: better English for the business student for better English English: outline for self-help Envelope of business letter Error slip(diagram) Error sheet (diagram) but, "They look like trifles, Errors,common;

3 2 69 73

,

192 18 18 "

86

"

58

Evidence, circumstantial Evidence, kinds of Exclamation marks, use Facts

using observed Fiction,business

56 facts

as

basis for

Heading

(diagram)

of business letter

(quotation) is a real mystery" (quotation) "Here "His Master's Voice" (illustration) "Heard

Honesty "Hours

Hyphen,

about

of of

the house"

authorship work" (quotation)

use

of

Idioms,business

".

181

193

helps

of term's work

29

imagination

179

of business letter

Grammatical

Graph

203

of

inferences

and

Facts:

Form

56

19

182 72 67

134 44 66 207

90


213

INDEX "If" (quotation)

9 26

Imagination, basis of Imagination, chance to exercise Imagination in business Imagination redeems routine

30 20 24

Imitation

43

Individualityin business Inferences,facts and Instincts: advertisingappeals to "Interiors" (illustration)

41

Introduction

of business

55 our

instincts

128 131 185

letter

Judgments, forming independent

49

Learning to write,business of Letter,business: block style body of

14

183, 186 188

complimentary close

191

envelope

192

181, 182

form

heading

182

introduction

185

salutation

187

signature

192 96

in Letter writing,originality

Letter of

114

application

Letters of applicationto write

117

Letters to write for practice

110 59

Logical inference

"Lookingfor Making

a

others

Management,

position" (quotation) see

what

problems

Observation,basis Opening sentences

you see in business

imagination of letter of application

of

118

33 17

26 116 37

in business Originality in letter writing Originality

96

reading, advertisingletter applied to Outside reading, form for record of

155

marks, use of Parliamentarylaw, discussion

207

Outside

Parenthesis

according to

167

63


INDEX

214

203

Period,use of Personal advertising Personal

159 118

interview

Personal letter

122

used Phrases,incorrectly

195

Position,looking for

118

a

46

Positive attitude of mind

"Power-controlled Power" Power

of words

Power

to convince

to

(illustration)

suggest thoughts

77 51

salesmanship

Practice in oral

125

161

Practice,letters to write for "Prometheus" (illustration)

110

Pronouns

196

22

Pronunciation

74

Proof

54

Propaganda, "Read

166

More"

Psychology: books on business psychology (bibliography) Psychology of advertising Public,teaching the student Punctuation, digestof

175 126 136 203

Question mark, use of Quotation marks, use of

203

Reading, the business student's Reading, outside; form for record of More" "Read campaign Reasoning by analogy

163

207

167 166 61 39

References,magazine Repetition in advertising

127

(quotation)

12

"Resolved"

24

Routine, imagination redeems Salesmen, good books for (bibliography) Salesmen, what I have observed about

Creed, The Salesmanship Salesmanship,practicein oral

Salesman's

Semicolon,use

of

of

fellow

10

160 161

1

going to

other

160

187

Salutation in business letter

School,business Seeingwhat the

174

sees

31 206


INDEX

Sentence,

215

of.

structure

Sentences,

better

Sentences,

closing,

Sentences,

opening,

193 82

in

of

letters

in

letters

application

of

117

application

116 '.

Shall

and

"She

Forgot"

will

advertising

(one-act

in

Signature

201

business

play)

150

letter

192 .

Slogan,

the

132

Stenographers, Story,

of,

use

in

for

books

good

advertising;

(bibliography) "

Winning

by

179

story"

144 * .

.

Students

and

employees

3

Teachers

and

employers

2

Teaching

the

student

Tense, "Time

136

(illustration)

133

in

exercises Retire"

to

public

the

Understanding

89

(in

issue

debate)

53

199

Verbs

increasing

Vocabulary,

Wages, "Woman

78,

79,

80,

81

4

and

credits out

77,

one's

of

Words,

coinage

Words,

importance

buys

town

books"

(quotation)

172 130

of

of,

in

advertising

137

A project book in business english  

This book is designed especially for high school students who expect to enter business. It does not pretend, however, to be a technical stud...

A project book in business english  

This book is designed especially for high school students who expect to enter business. It does not pretend, however, to be a technical stud...

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