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FORMULA OF

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caroline peni

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FORMULA OF

caroline peni

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Introduction a

b

Microwave food, fast food, and packaged cookedfood are very easy to get and can be really cheap. It can make people tend to forget that those foods are not necessarily nutritious and healthy. Over consuming ready food such as those, can lead to obesity and unhealthy life.

To have a balance healthy life, people need to know a balance meal based on their physic (gender, height, weight, health). For example, one should consume more than the other because of the height, or one should consume less in order to meet the ideal weight. One of many ways to have control of the food they consume is to cook from scratch. But unfortunately, many people nowadays do not know how to cook.

c Cooking for some people can be very complicated. Available cooking recipes can be hard to understood because they are meant for people who normally cook at home. However, with simple observation, cooking is like learning elementary physic or mathematic. It uses simple formulas. Formulas of cooking involve 3 main aspects: materials (the food groups), tools (the cooking equipment), process (the cooking methods).

d The Formula of Cookery is a book that illustrates the healthy and basic knowledge in cooking through symbols and colour. It aimed to change the perspective of cooking from a solid instruction manual on creating dishes to an adjustable formula in order to fulfil the need of daily nutrition with available ingredients and tools.

1 5 main food groups

2 Triangle of food

3 Eating Timetable

4 Groups of cooking equipment

5 Easy measuring

6 Measuring by hand

7 Emergency food formulas

8 Carbs

9 Cooking methods

10 Storing

11 Nutrition as battery

12 Number of calories needed in a day


5 main food groups

There are 5 main food groups: Protein, Carbs, Vegetables & Fruit, Dairy products, and Fat (including oil and simple sugar). The diagram below compares the portion of each food groups that should be consumed in a day. Keeping this portion of food in mind will fulfil daily nutrition.

35% Protein

20% Carbs

20% Vegetables / Fruit

15% Dairy Product

10% Fat


1 Meal includes Triangle of Food

Ideal meal should always contain protein, vegetables, and carbs

1 a day 8 glasses x water


3

2

1


Eating Timetable

1 Breakfast

Ideally we eat 3 big meals a day and 3 small meals (in between or after) to keep the blood sugar at a stable level and to avoid hunger.

C

P +

D +

2 Fr

Snack

3 C

Lunch

P +

V +

4 Fr

Snack

F /

5 C

Dinner

P +

V +

6

4

Fr

Snack

F /

V /

5

6


Groups of cooking equipment

To put it simply, there are 3 stages of cooking in the kitchen: Preparing, Processing, and Containing. Tools listed below are essential in order to start cooking.

1 Preparing »»knife »»cutting board »»strainer »»mug / bowl »»table spoon

2 Processing »»frying pan »»boiling pan »»spatula »»ladle

3 Containing »»plate »»fork »»spoon »»bowl »»mug


Easy measuring 1 cup = 236 ml 1 cup = 16 table spoons Measuring could be done with simple equipment such as mug, tablespoon, and teaspoon.

=16x 1 table spoon = 3 tea spoons

=3x


basic

Ideal Portion

MEASURING BY HAND

Illustrations below show how hand can be use to estimate the amount of each food group one can have in his/her meal.

1

Male

3

Male

Female

Female

2 x 1 x

entire thumb of

2 x 1 x

cup of

F

Fr

D

C

2

Male

4

Male

Female

Female

2 x 1 x

palm of

2 x 1 x

fist of

P

V


Spaghetti measuring

Hand can also be use to measure dry spaghetti to avoid over cooking. Index finger and thumb can be used to measure dry spaghetti for up to 3 people as illustrated below.

3

2

2

1

Dried spaghetti for 2 people

1

Dried spaghetti for 1 person

3

Dried spaghetti for 3 people


C

Fr

C

+

V +

e.g. porridge + (banana + apple)

P +

F +

S +

e.g. bread + arugula + salmon slice + butter + pepper

Emergency food formulas

These examples of emergency food formulas help to creatively combine different food groups to easily make something eatable.

1 2 3 4

C

V +

P +

F +

e.g. warp + lettuce + egg + avocado

D

C +

S +

e.g. cheese + oat cookie + pepper


P

S

C

+

e.g. boiled egg + salt and pepper

01;00

F +

D +

C +

P +

W +

+

e.g. noodle + napa cabbage + bean sprouts + boiled in water

5 6 7

P

V +

+

e.g. raw egg + melt butter + milk + small slices of bread + 1 min heat


Carbs

The next couple of pages show basic guides to cook various types of carb with a cup as the measuring tool.

C

»» Bread »» Oat cookie »» biscuit

0minute

C +

1/2 cup Oat 1 cup of boiled water / milk

10minute

+


C +

2/4 cup or 3/4 cup Pasta

C

+

+

1 grip of Spaghetti**

boiled water

boiled water

12minute

12minute

** See spaghetti measuring page

+


C +

1/4 cup Couscous

C

+

+

1/4 cup Rice

1/3 cup Boiled water

1/2 cup Boiled water

10minute

12minute

+


C +

Potato/Sweet Potato

C

+

+

Potato/Sweet Potato

Oil

Cold Water

25minute

25minute

+


Cooking methods

There are 2 types of cooking method. Dry heat cooking uses oil, while moist heat uses mainly water or other liquid.

DRY HEAT

Tools option

Liquid option

»» Grilling & Broiling »» Roasting & Baking »» Sautéing& Pan-Frying

»» Grill »» Oven pan »» Frying pan

»» Olive oil »» Butter »» Vegetables oil


MOIST HEAT

Tools option

Liquid option

»» »» »» »»

»» Boiling pan »» Steamer »» Sauce pan

»» Water »» Milk »» Wine

Poaching Boiling & Simmering Braising & Stewing Steaming


basic

DRY HEAT

P

S +

Grilling & Broiling

C

1

V +

Roasting & Baking

P

C

V +

+

2

Oil is not necessary

Oven is required

Fire has a direct contact with the food

1

2


SautĂŠing & Pan-Frying

Deep 3 a

Fast cook in various amount of oil

Shallow P F

C +

V

S +

b

+

P C

V +

a

b

c

3

Dry c

P

S +

C

V +


basic

MOIST HEAT W

S

P +

+

Poaching

C

1

V +

C +

+

Braising & Stewing

P +

a 2

Cooking in boiling water

Slow cook in medium amount of water

S +

P +

a

1

2


P

S

P

+

Boiling & Simmering

C

3

Steaming

V +

C

4

W

Food completely covered by water

Food does not have direct contact with the water

3

4

S + V +

W


Storing

Cool storing in the fridge is used for most of food groups and left over food that need to be kept fresh. Dry storing is for unprocessed carbs, dry seasoning, oil, and other food group that doesn’t need to be kept fresh. Keep all food sealed and covered to avoid crosscontamination. Avoid placing dairy products on the door (cool storing 6 7 8 ) to make it last longer.

5

Ice cream

Frozen vegetables

Fish / Meat

4

Item to be chilled

Dairy product

Juice

Dry sweets

Eggs

8

3

Dip & Cheese

Cake

Paste / Jam

Seasoning

7

2

Butter

1

Vacuum sealed veg.

Fruit

Water

Juice

6

Deli meat

Berries

Left over

Cool Storing


Keep it sealed and covered

Bottle Plastic or Glass

Simple sugar

Bread

Vacuum sealed Warp

3

Seasoning

Banana

Oil

Dry grain

Dry Storing

Seasoning

2

Seasoning

1


Nutrition as our battery

Just like robots, human also needs energy to stay working. The energy unit is called calorie. To gain enough calories, people need to eat. However, good meal should contain not only enough calories, but also good nutrition that can be gained by consuming good portion of the 5-food groups daily. The essential nutrition are Vitamin, Mineral, Carbohydrate, Protein, Fat, and Water.

1

4

2

3

5

6

V M C P F W

cal


Number of calories needed in a day

Calories to get should be equal to calories to spend on daily activity. To count calories intake a person needs in a day, 5 aspects that need to be considered are gender, height, weight, age, and activity level.

1

BMR Basal Metabolic Rate

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is the rate of energy a person burns on their daily activity. BMR result of each person depends on their gender, weight, height, and age

W H A

Calories needed = 1

2

cal

BMR

x

2

AFL

ALF Activity Level Factor

Types of ALF

Level of activity in a week

Value

1.2 1.375 1.55 1.725 1.9

Sedentary Lightly active Moderate active Very active Extremely active

= weight (pounds) = height (inches) = age (year)

1

1

66 + ( W x 6.23 ) + ( H x 12.7 ) - ( A X 6.8 )

655 + ( W x 4.35 ) + ( H x 4.9 ) - ( A X 4.68 )

male BRM

Female BRM


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caroline peni Š2014

Special thanks to: louise bird James Smith Samuel Sulaiman hampton prints


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