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DESIGN WORKS OF PATRICK CLAY vol 1. JANUARY 2010-DECEMBER 2010


EXCERPT DESIGNWORKS OF PATRICK CLAY

vol .1

JANUARY 2010- DECEMBER 2010

patrick joshua clay


CONTENTS 11

BACKGROUND

12

CV

17

FIGMENT PAVILION

29

420 SQFT APARTMENT

41

URBAN INFILL

57

IMPORTANCE OF OBJECTS

79

GREEN’S SUSHI BAR

85

PHILOSOPHY OF RESTRICTION

95

MEALS NEXT DOOR

109 DIAGRAM FOR LIVING 121 SANTIAGO CALATRAVA ET AL 133 METHODOLOGY


PICOT & MOSS KITCHEN


PICOT & MOSS BATH


PICOT & MOSS LIVING SPACE


DESIGNWORKS Is a design compilation of projects and inquiry done by Patrick Clay between January 2010 and December 2010. This theoretical text employs the use of digital computation and fabrication to discover design strategies that explore a techtonic relationship between building components in order to foster a more holistic relationship between form and structure.

PATRICK CLAY Is trained as an architect, receiving his Bachelors of Architecture from Virginia Tech in 2006. Since January 2010 he has worked as a visiting professor at the School of Architecture + Design at Virginia Tech. Prior to this position he worked with SOM, KPF, and FX FOWL Architects in New York City on a wide array of project types for which he has been recognized for his intuition in resolving complex geometric forms and spaces. In 2008-2009 Patrick worked with renowned Spanish architect and engineer, Santiago Calatrava, in his New York Studio where he managed the building workshop with Richard Moss under the personal direction Mr. Calatrava. He was a member of the project team responsible for the design of Calatrava’s $2.2 billion World Trade Center Transportation Terminal in New York City until leaving the office in February 2009.

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PATRICK JOSHUA CLAY CV PUBLICATIONS

20 June 2010, published Meals next door featured on materialisus.com, plusmood.com, and one week of design

16 June 2010, published Work to be published in Harold Linton’s book Portfolio Design Volume 4

LECTURES

20 August 2009, Keynote Lecture for Real Estate 2.0: Technology techniques that make the design process more efficient. Location: Citi habitats conference room 250 Park Ave South. 5th floor. New York, New York

3 August 2009, Lecture Lecture at Columbia University: Santiago Calatrava WTC Transportation Terminal Location: Woods Auditorium Program: Columbia GSAPP Master of Science in Architecture and Urban Design 2010 Invited by Instructor Kaja Kuhl, Summer UD Coordinator, NYC Dept of Planning & student Pedro Borges 13 November 2008, Lecture Lecture at Virginia Tech on the work of Santiago Calatrava Location: Hancock Hall

PRIZES/HONORS

11 November 2008, competition juror Jury member of the Roanoke Urban Effect Design Competition

6 May 2006 Graduated with a Bachelor of Architecture BArch from the Virginia Tech School of Architecture + Design in major GPA 3.78 overall GPA 3.38

6 May 2006 5th year thesis project finished as a finalist for the Pella Prize at the School of Architecture + Design at Virginia Tech

12 May 2005-10 August 2005 Awarded summer internship/scholarship from Suzanne Lovell Inc. in Chicago, Illinois

6 January-6 May 2005 Awarded six month internship with SOM San Francisco under the direction of Brian Lee

15 August-15 December 2004 One of fifteen students at the School of Architecture + Design at Virginia Tech selected to study in Riva San Vitale, Switzerland with scholarship from Suzanne Lovell Inc.

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10 May-10 August 2004 Summer internship McCall Design Group wins AIA SF Merit. Project: Paradox Planning

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PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

2010-PRESENT VIRGINIA TECH COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE + DESIGN Visiting Professor Direction: 2nd year design studio fall 2010-spring 2011 Direction: 4th year design studio spring 2010 Lecture: Computer modeling and rendering spring 2010-present 2009 TO 2010, PATRICK CLAY DESIGN STUDIO: All projects worked on independently by Patrick Joshua Clay

Meals next door restaurant 1,200 sqft Client: Meals next door llc. Location: Blacksburg,VA Concept Status: Unbuilt

Green’s sushi bar and grill 1,400 sqft Client- Green’s Location: Blacksburg, VA Concept Status: Unbuilt

Truth for Youth Community Center, 3,600sqft Client- Truth for Youth.Org Location: Pensacola, Florida Facade concept and schematic design Status: Unbuilt Picot & Moss Residence Client- Picot&Moss Location: Johannesburg, South Africa Concept, design strategy, design documentation Status: Unbuilt

2008 TO 2009, SANTIAGO CALATRAVA, DESIGNER Project: World Trade Center Transportation terminal Description: Worked directly with Mr. Calatrava on digital and physical models of all scales and complexity, as a member of the project team responsible for the design ofCalatrava’s $2.2 billion World Trade Center Transportation Terminal in New York City. Responsibility: Analysis of complex architectural form, and coordination between structural and architectural systems 2008 FX FOWLE, INDEPENDENT DESIGN CONSULTANT Description: Worked in the Urban Planning Department with John Loughran AIA, PP, AICP, LEED Responsibility: Massing, FAR calculation, computer + analogue model building

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2007 TO 2008, SPAN, DESIGNER Projects: 24 West 11th Street Townhouse 33 Charlton Street Townhouse 41 West 74th Street Townhouse Description: Restoration/renovation of three townhouses in Manhattan 4,500sqft-9,000sqft Responsibility: Drafting plans, exterior details, and interior elevations. Structural, mechanical, and architectural coordination of construction document sets.

2006 TO 2007, KPF, JUNIOR ARCHITECT Projects: MGM Atlantic City Description: Proposal for MGM Grand Resort in Atlantic City member of the design team lead byTrent Tesch Responsibility: Analogue and digital model building

EDUCATION

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VIRGINIA TECH, SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE + DESIGN Bachelor of Science in Architecture, class of 2006 In major GPA 3.79 Overall GPA 3.38

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FIGMENT PAVILION

How does a pavilion acknowledge the past and look toward the future while framing

experiences in the present? The pavilion is a particularly interesting building type because it’s an object that is based on framing simultaneous experiences within a small venue. That experience can have the ability to be both intimate and extrinsic. And the duality of that simultaneous experience changes as the context around the pavilion changes.

The typical plinth condition of a pavilion creates a non discriptive experience of place.

The space below the plinth becomes a volume that can hold any function or activity, it becomes an environment for anything and as such it is nothing.

The deconstruction of the plinth frames the point of interaction and defines the structure

as an event space. The individual has an opportunity to transition through the structure to reach a place where context, structure, and event can be experienced simultaneously.

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the pavilion fosters an atmo

permanent an fleeting mome

“IT IS IMPOSSIBLE ATMOSPHERE. THINGS ARE BETTE AND THEN ABAND ALDO ROSSI emulation of the past will xperience for our future 20

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osphere that is filled with

ents.

TO RECREATE AN

ER EXPERIENCED DONED...� create an inauthentic patrick joshua clay

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sectional deconstruction of plinth 1

sectional deconstruction of plinth 2

primary structural system secondary structural system union of primary and secondary system

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forces


material

Thin shell precast concrete components poured in Virginia and assembled on site in New York. Once the pavilion is deconstructed all materials will be reused.

event space created by overlap of system 1 and 2 1.

1. casted glass block 2. raised lawn-kentucky blue grass 3. bearing 6" below grade 4. concrete shell 5. glass partition beyond 6. rebar

4.

7. 6.

5. 2.

7. primary/secondary union 8. wood_flooring on 6� slab

8.

3.

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FIGMENT PAVILION EVENT SPACE

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FIGMENT PAVILION CONTEXT

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wood floor 2,594 sqft 44% of transportation box(x)4 floor price=$6,459 transportation box price=$14,392

system 1+2= rebar#3 120 components complete structure 120x4=$2,155 rebar tied off on base of transportation box concrete poured and enclosed in transportation box system 1+2=700 cubic feet of concrete complete structure 700x4=2,800 cubic feet=$7,784

components enclosed in bamboo box

box pulleys onto 18 wheeler bed

x2

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300 gallon18 wheeler tank= 5.5 miles a gallon diesel $2.76 per gallon 410 miles=74.5 gallons of diesel=$205 diesel fuel for two 18 wheelers=$410

rebar $2,155 flooring $14,392 concrete $7,784 diesel fuel $410 raised lawn kentucky blue grass $260 glass partition $1,968 cost =$26,969 18 wheeler rental not included in estimate

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420 SQFT APARTMENT

CUBIC FEET OF STORAGE 291 cubic feet of storage VIDEO SYSTEM area defined in following diagram

What defines an efficient living space in contemporary culture?

Efficiency is a question of space, resource, and technology. This apartment utilizes those

three aspects to create a 420sqft home with a steam room, master bed, and two bath rooms. The space is constructed of recycled materials, containing 291 cubic feet of storage, and a central multi-touch work station wired to flat screen monitors. A dinner space for 12 is assembled by wooden components embed in the wall and a lounge space for 8 can be set up by moving the sofas from the storage space into the living room.

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BASE PLAN open floor condition of the plan

LOUNGE / DINNING SPACE

GUEST BEDROOM

BATHROOM

GUEST BEDROOM

KITCHEN

OFFICE

MASTER BEDROOM

STORAGE

BATHROOM

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STEAMROOM


DINING PLAN instillation of dinning table

LOUNGE / DINNING SPACE

GUEST BEDROOM

BATHROOM

GUEST BEDROOM

KITCHEN

OFFICE

MASTER BEDROOM

STORAGE

BATHROOM

STEAMROOM

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KITCHEN SYSTEM CLOSED

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KITCHEN SYSTEM OPEN

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LOUNGE PLAN lounge

LOUNGE / DINNING SPACE

GUEST BEDROOM

BATHROOM

GUEST BEDROOM

KITCHEN

OFFICE

MASTER BEDROOM

STORAGE

BATHROOM

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STEAMROOM


DINING PLAN steam room

LOUNGE / DINNING SPACE

GUEST BEDROOM

BATHROOM

GUEST BEDROOM

KITCHEN

OFFICE

MASTER BEDROOM

STORAGE

BATHROOM

STEAMROOM

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DIAGRAM OF STORAGE

CUBIC FEET OF STORAGE 291 cubic feet of storage

VIDEO SYSTEM area defined in following diagram

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DIAGRAM OF TECH SYSTEM

1. MASTER DISPLAY tv broadcasted to master display via blue tooth 2. TV connected to display monitor via hdmi cable 3. DISPLAY MONITOR connected to projector via hdmi cable

4. MULTI-TOUCH SURFACE projection of lap top onto 1/2� plexiglass surface 5. PROJECTOR connected to notebook via hdmi cable 6. HDMI connects hardrive to projector and multi-touch surface 7. NOTEBOOK hardrive for multi touch surface

2. 3.

4. 1. 5. 6.

7.

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MULTI TOUCH WORK STATION The image from the notebook, hardrive, installed with multi-touch software is projected onto a ½” piece of acrylic lined with LED’s. The image from the hardrive is projected onto the bottom surface of the acrylic. Once the surface is touched the infrared light from the LED’s refracted displacing the projection. The displacement is reflected to a web camera connected to the hardrive, and that image is carried to a flat screen monitor via HDMI.

MULTI-TOUCH SURFACE projection of lap top onto 1/2” plexiglass surface

LED LIGHTS refract projection

PROJECTOR

connected to notebook via hdmi cable

NOTEBOOK

hardrive for multi touch surface

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URBAN BANK INFILL

Fostering the connecting between Fargo and Moorhead.

How can a structure develop a meaningful connection between two urban areas sepa-

rated by a river?

To accomplish this, the assembly of the program must become more than just an iconic

building. It has to create an iconic place within the urban fabric of the city that establishes community and encourages social interaction. The current urban bank block in Fargo provides for social interaction but exist as a hard landscape void of program.

The integration of the program within the block is done in a way that enhances the town

square personality currently present on the site by turning the hard landscape into an urban park which is hugged on the north and west end of the site with retail, housing, office, and parking. The park creates a place for civic interaction for the community and forms a multipurpose setting for the city to hold concerts, wine tastings, and meetings.

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BROADWAY FARGO

MAIN AVE.

direct routes connecting fargo and moorhead

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river

urban bank block

moorhead’s access to fargo


MOORHEAD

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office

us_bank

housing

retail

parking

Elements of program

Existing bank on site

Movement of parking to the south end of the site, repositioning the green space to the north end the site

Program lifted from the site to allow for pedestrian access from the green space on the north end through the site.

Elevation of green space to expand the park

Breakdown of green space to develop the park

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Existing building removed, re scaled, and repositioned

Elements of program placed in site

Repositioning of program

Re configuring of program placed on site maintaining continuous pedestrian access through the park plaza

Movement through infrastructure and site

Integration of infrastructure on site patrick joshua clay

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circulation through complex core

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1.

3.

2.

1. Floors 1-4 2. Floors 4-6 3. Floors 8-12

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OBJECTS

In the study and development of objects at various scales we learn proportion and tectonics.

I have always felt that the training of a sculptor is more important to the architect than the training of the two dimensional artist because the sculptor works in the third deminision and it is the third dimension that we use to experience and develop space. In the professionalization of architectural practice the recognition of space is sometimes lost because the objective of the profession has been completing buildings rather than the study of architectural conditions. Digital models begin to enhance our understanding of space but unless there is a scale to the study and a tectonic quality to the model that begins to address the genuine nature of the object being created, it to will not provide enough atmosphere to be beneficial to a designer. Once again the professional demands of the designer are beginning to establish limits on the effectiveness of three dimensional thinking.

Parametric software comes equipped with default curtain walls, ceiling heights, and aper-

tures. These components that collectively contribute to the generation of space are now autonomous elements that are pasted to a digital frame and shipped to contractors. Technique has replaced thought and the thinkers have been replaced by machines. To reinstitute thought in the making of digital and physical objects one cannot consider default conditions. A composition must be established and the components of the objects designed must generate a copasetic system that in the end develops a cohesive form.

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M.s.1 BANGLE Componet and arrangment of bangle around 3” circular extrusion

eliptical extrusion

3” base circule

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3” base circule extruded 3”

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90 degree rotation of component

mirror or component around axis

3” extrusion broken into 15 equal bounding boxes holding the geomentry of the component

geometry of component pushed to the limits of the bounding box

bounding boxes holding the geomentry of the component arrayed around extrusion


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PRODUCTS

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H-LAMPS TALL

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H-LAMPS SHORT

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CORNE DESK

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COS-PENDANT

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CORNE DESK The corne desk began with a study of limits and tectonics. In the transformation of plutonic shapes the piece becomes a place to write, think, or work. The spine system that connects the components allows the desk to hold books rather than be buried or hidden by them. birch 7’ x 4’ x 2’8”

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H-LAMPS Similar to the Corne desk. The Hlamps began with a study of limits and tectonics. Both the small and the large objects are generated by the revolution of a woman’s contour around a series of circles creating a volume to hold light and occupy space. birch 7’ x 4’ x 2’8” birch 1’x1’x1’8”

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COS-PENDANT The Cos Pendant creates a place for light by using a similar joint as the one designed for the Corne Desk. The joint of the corne desk creates a bridge. In the Cos Pendant the joint creates a tower. The form is generated by the manipulation of an orb. The 1’ diamerter orb is sectioned into 1/4” segmemts rotated and spaced at the dimension of the sectioned material. birch 1’-1’-1’6”

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STRUCT This is a chair broken down to its finite elements. birch 2’6”x1’3”x3’

4’x8’ birch plywood

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COMPOSITE Composite is a series of components connected by a system of joints birch 1’6”x1’6”x2’

4’x8’ birch plywood

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GREEN’S SUSHI BAR

The formal nature of the restaurant holds conditions similar to the techtonic objects. The

objects have a fluid nature to them and remind me of elements that have a buoyant nature, the walls of the restaurant are designed with a similar method. However, in the case of the restaurant it is a three dimensional topography and not an object that is sectioned.

This is a space about static vibrancy. It has very little to do with the act of eating, it is

more about the experience of fishing. I spent a large amount of my childhood around water. I was always captivated by the moment at which the barrier of air between the atmosphere and a body of water would be broken. I loved the sound of an object in transition from one environment to the next, and the effect that transition had on the object, the water, and the air above the water. The movement in the wall of the restaurant is about those seconds after that moment of transition. The walls of the restaurant become a topographic surface and entering the space is a transitional experience just as submerging yourself in a body of water.

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movement in plane to generate topography

metered 1”x1” supports arrayed 2” on topographic lines extrusion of metered supports defines the limits of ripples in the topography.

1”x1” sections of the topographic surface rest between the arrayed supports

surface and supports generate autonomous tectonic system

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RESTRICTION

FORM

Form discovery through the subtraction of mass. The designed negative space is re-

stricted by the limits of volumetric solid.

Restriction as a theory and technique can establish a disciplinary resource for the

development of architecture. Through restriction you can resist the impulse to do anything; and institute rules or limits that allow you to only consider what is essential to the development of a object. Restriction of material and the production technology used to develop a object establishes a physical resource that will allow for the formal nature of the project to be carefully considered by the limits and possibilities of the construction process of the project. A project develops a tectonic constructible quality once the decision of what to build with has

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been limited to the inherent characteristics of a material and the limits of the machine used to produce that material, in a project it becomes easy to see what is impossible in terms of form and the construction of that form. Once the impossible has been removed for the design equation whatever is left is possible.

Restriction as a practical resource begins to govern the tendency to be wasteful. Conservation of

finances, time, and energy begin to make a practice more efficient and allows for the coordination of practical elements of a design practice by establishing a hierarchy and recognizing that not everything can happen simultaneously. Restriction as architectural resource: i believe that all elements designed and in existence are subtracted from the limit of an pre-existing plutonic solids. Mass is carved to develop form and those forms become the places or things that we refer to as architecture or object.

Restriction and limits have a large role in the fabrication of my plaster objects. The elements needed

to actually construct the digital form physically are determined by the decision to cast the elements out of plaster. Formwork is determined by the scale and nature of the material being casted. For instance, plaster before it cures is wet and dense but porous and light. The shoring required to hold the material doesn’t need to be as thick as the shoring for concrete. At the scale of an object that is 4”x4”x8” the formwork can be made out of two ply Bristol board. Because of the high moisture content of plaster before it cures the inside of the formwork is coated with clear packaging tape, and the outside of the formwork is wrapped with duct tape because the tensile strength of this material allows for a water tight seal at the edges of the formwork.

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POURING PROCESS

PLASTER

BUCKET

FORMWORK

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excerpt from thesis on process; rationalization of intuition in architecture through the evaluation of topography, figure ground, and object to generate architectural arrangements 90

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MEALS NEXT DOOR

Can a restaurant be as sterile as an operating room? Meals next door is a space

designed to streamline the production of food in a sterile environment. The space is designed to function in a vertical and horizontal direction. The horizontal plane is used for the production and movement of food; the vertical plane is used for the fluid movement of water during the cleaning process.

3.

2.

4.

7.

1.

5.

6.

1. PICK UP/BAR 2. CUSTOMER BATHROOM 3. EMPLOYEE BATHROOM 4. EMPLOYEE CHANGING ROOM 5. STORAGE ROOM 6. KITCHEN 7. PREP AREA

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c

c

3.

2.

4.

1.

1. customer bathroom 2. employee bathroom 3. employee changing room 4. kitchen

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b

b

a

a


section aa

section bb

section cc

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DIAGRAM FOR LIVING

Can the design re-esatblish the home as the center of family interaction and the place

where the essential relationship between parent and child can be encouraged and nurtured.

The ground floor is the introduction to the living experience and the importance of that

moment is expressed with the removal of everything from the ground floor accept the living room. The living space connects directly with the primary play space for children, the front and rear yard.

The diagram of the family holding hands in the plan is a symbol that displays the uni-

fication of the personal and shared space between the members of the family. The concept is centered on the members of the family holding hands in plan. The space between the family, the intimate space, is extruded through the structure and expressed as a light well that passes through the kitchen on the second floor and the living spaces on the upper level.

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DIAGRAM FOR LIVING D

C

M

C

C

C M

D C

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M

D C


DIAGRAM FOR STRUCTURE

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CLOSED FACADE

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OPEN FACADE

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ELEVATION OF OPEN AND CLOSED SYSTEM

north elevation closed facade

east elevation closed facade

north elevation open facade

east elevation open facade

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OPERATION OF FACADE

closed facade

open facade

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LIVING SPACE

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DINNING SPACE

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KITCHEN

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SUITE PLAN

SECTION

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SANTIAGO CALATRAVA ET AL

SANTIAGO CALATRAVA ET AL

The World Trade Center Transportation Terminal was studied as a large scale functional /

structural model. The building is fabricated in sectional components that can be removed, evaluated, and altered before being reinserted in the model. Once being reinserted the altered component rejoins the structural scheme. Once the model is complete the overall scheme is evaluated and additional changes are issued and in some case the entire construct must be rebuilt. During reconstruction various assembly concepts are studied and implemented and those design changes are documented and sent to draftsman.

CONCEPT BY SANTIAGO CALATRAVA ANALYSIS, DIGITAL CONSTRUCT, STUDIES, AND MODEL DIRECTED BY PATRICK CLAY STRUCTURAL EVALUATION BY RICHARD MOSS

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CONCEPT SKETCH BY SANTIAGO CALATRAVA

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METHODOLOGY

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The

samurai, and the architect.

a metaphor for architectural study

.

I feel that there is no definite definition for architecture. I don’t believe in authoritative manifestos

but I do feel it is important to try and understand the process of creation that has been my life for the past 9 years. All designers must have opinions, reasons, and feelings that guide their understanding of the world and the work that is developed by that understanding.

In search of an applicable theory to guide the generation of physical form we must look to Mush-

ashi’s definition of martial arts. The way of martial arts is an analog for the design methodology of the artist (architect). The artist is an individual that develops a construct from elements that are in opposition. The architect deals with opposing forces through the process of developing a suitable idea and even a building in its competition holds a permanent opposing relationship to the earth and elements. Aldo Rossi said. “I knew that architecture was made possible by the confrontation of a precise form with time and the elements, a confrontation which lasted until the form was destroyed in the process of this combat. Architecture was one of the ways that humanity has sought to survive; it was a way of expressing the fundamental search for happiness.” In understanding this it is right to view the architect as a warrior, for the warrior endures combat to find and establish peace which leads to happiness; and as such the way of the warrior is necessary to

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the development of architecture. In order to achieve the way of martial arts or to develop architecture one must learn the four ways in which man exist. The way of the farmer, the merchant, the gentleman warrior, and the artisan.

The way of the famer as described by Musashi, “Equipping himself with various farming tools, the

farmer watches spring and autumn come and go, tending unceasingly to the change of seasons. “ This is also the way of the architect, great patience and steady tireless work is needed to develop an idea and bring a project or creation to fruition. Like the farmer the architect is a creator and the tools of developing architecture must be acquired in order to see the fruits of one’s efforts. Time, culture, and architectural fashion will change but the architects primary tools and means of evaluation will not. In the case of the farmer the plow has evolved but the function of the tool remains the same. Similarly, in the case of the architect the method of drawing has changed but the function of the tool remains the same. The way of the farmer is the way of the architect.

The way of the merchant as described by Musashi, “The sake maker obtains the various tools of his

trade and makes a living from profit according to the quality of his sake, good or bad. In whatever business he labors, the merchant makes a living according to his place, from profit earned.” This is also the way of the architect; with the tools and the skill set acquired we create. And the quality of what is created will determine the measure of our success as a creator.” The way of the merchant is the way of the architect.

The way of the gentleman warrior as described by Musashi, “The warrior creates various weapons

and must understand the uses of each one. Without a mastery of weapons and a comprehension of the merits of each one, the warrior shows a lack of accomplishment.” The architect deals with a certain set of established tools like the farmer and the merchant, but the most powerful tools are the ones that can be created or developed. In the case of the architect that is the mind, the eyes, and the hands.

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The mind of an architect is developed and trained to conceive complexities and understand the relationship of things conceived to things in existence. The eyes of an architect must be trained to evaluate what has been conceived with the mind. The hands of an architect must be trained to have the dexterity to properly construct the things conceived by the mind and evaluated by the eye. If the tools of the architect are not well developed and the value of each tool is not understood than the work of an architect cannot be accomplished.

The way of the artisan, carpenter, as described by Musashi, “The way of the carpenter entails skillfully

crafting tools of all sorts, knowing how to use each one skillfully, making proper measurements with the carpenter’s square and ruler according to plans, and making a living by performing his work well. “ The way of the carpenter is the summation of the aforementioned ways of being, and Musashi states that the way of the carpenter is the way of martial arts. Therefore the summation of the four ways of being is the way of architecture because the way of the warrior is martial arts and the way to develop architecture is the way of the warrior.

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The

master warrior, carpenter. code of moral conduct and

construction.

The master warrior and carpenter operate in different provinces and the rules of conduct in each land

are different from the next. The architect like the master warrior and the carpenter must know the rules of a foreign towns, counties, and countries he chooses to design and build in. These rules are understood by the warrior and determine the direction of his actions, as an architect designs a place in a foreign land the rules of that land begin to determine the actions the architect takes in the process of design. Like the warrior the architect is a servant to the land he provides his service to, and working for the people of that place is the way of the warrior and the architect. In the 1600’s in Japan the master carpenter is responsible for building with an appropriate material scale and dimension determined by the geographic and safety concerns of the inhabitants of the region.

“When the master carpenter employs workers, he knows their level of ability and assigns tasks ac-

cordingly; flooring; doors and screens; thresholds, lintels, and ceilings, and so on…When the master carpenter employs workers according to skills assessment, the work progresses smoothly. Seeing that work progresses efficiently and smoothly, exercising judgment in all things, understanding what is important, discerning levels of morale, boosting confidence, understanding limitations-these are the concerns of the master carpenter. The principle of martial arts is likewise.” (Musashi 20-21)

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The architect must learn the responsibilities of the ancient master carpenter and the way of martial

arts. The practice of both will foster the creation of meaningful efficient work. There is a series of paradoxical conditions that present a barrier to the way of martial arts for the modern architect. The first paradox and the primary barrier to accomplishing this goal has been the growth of international economy which has lead to the increase in the size of buildings, and the condensing of the design and construction phase of a project. This progression and demand for more buildings constructed at a faster pace has forced the architect to specialize and forsake physical efficiency for digital proficiency. The tool has shifted from those of the master warrior; the mind, hand, and eye to the tools of the computer. Here lies the paradox. Our freedom exists in the same tool that restrains us. If we use our mind to design and conceptualize a system of development that employs the modern tool, the computer we will be able to meet the demands of a growing architectural demand with the way of the carpenter. The power of the computer has yet to be fully realized and in this modern time it is the only tool that can allow the way of the architect to become the way of the carpenter; Thus becoming the way of martial arts.

To be a proficient architect the collections of tools must be continuously refined . The intellect and

the devices used to execute a project must remain sharp like the tools the master carpenter uses to create physical form. Consider the actions of the architect as the actions of a master warrior before and during battle. The stillness and focus before conflict and the inspection of weaponry is no different than the mental focus before and during a project and the evaluation of the elements needed to complete that project.

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two swords

The two swords of the warrior are the tachi and the katana. The tachi is the short sword and the

katana is the long sword. Although the warrior has a mermaid of weapons these are the chosen weapons that one always carries with them. This is the way of the ancient gentleman warrior. The two swords of the modern architect are his mind and computer. The katana is his mind and the tachi is his computer. Just as the long and short sword of the warrior both tools function better when they are used congruently. However the simultaneous use of both requires training in process, balance, and precision. To establish a fluid dialogue between both weapons, physical action training is required. That training for an architect comes in the form of the design studio. The objective of the studio isn’t just to make digital elements but to develop physical constructs of those elements. Once the digital study has become physical the scale, texture, proportion, and true nature of the study can be analyzed and refined by the mind, hands, and eyes of the architect. The use of the tools in this process of evaluation begin to refine and develop the ability to use these tools.

The long sword and the mind are both used to execute action in the beginning of engagement. The

long sword is used by the warrior in larger spaces where the length of the sword is more appropriate for the distance of its operation. The mind of the architect absorbs conditions that exist in the world and has an opportunity to explore infinite possibilities, thus the field of possible analysis is open and that is why the mind is the katana.

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The short sword (tachi) of the warrior is used in intimate settings and is best to carve an opponent with precision. The secondary tool of the architect, the computer, is used in a similar way. It lays the precision and refines or changes the nature of the open concept conceived with the mind.

In the way of martial arts the length of the short and the long sword is never prescribed because its

length is dependent upon the warrior to define. In the execution of architecture the duration of time spent using the long or short sword of the architect must remain un-prescribed as well. The process and modus of each designer is different and the use of each tool depends completely on the ability and knowledge of the individual. As the individual uses each tool the skills required to use each tool efficiently becomes refined and as those tools become more refined the duration of each tool changes with the growth of the architect. I believe Aldo Rossi understood the meaning of the katana and the tachi in architecture when he stated, “In the use of every material there must be an anticipation of the construction of a place and its transformation.�

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Conventions

of architecture and swordsmanship

Mushashi writes “one who mastered the long sword (katana) has come to be called in our world

heihosha, a martial artist.” The translation of the word heihosha to the world of the architect would be one that has mastered the mind for it is the long sword of the architect. Once an architect has mastered the katana he is known to the world as an architect. An architect not by profession but by practice and execution.

Although the master warrior has many tools the definition of a martial artist is withheld to one that

has mastered the art of the katana. This is because of the samurai belief that “both governing the world and governing the self are accomplished by the virtue and dignity of the long sword.” Therefore, making the katana the cornerstone of martial arts. All the tools of an architect are lost without control of the mind and it grants the ability to govern the world and the self, making the cornerstone of architecture the intellectual aptitude of the architect. It grants the ability to combine parti and thesis and without it there cannot be architecture, only structure. The modernist and empty minded formalist creating structures void of architecture fail because they fail to understand what the martial artist know to be true; there is only one long sword.

The spear, bow, and taci are valid tools to understand but only mastering the katana can be the way

of the architect. In this sense fewer and fewer architects can be found in the current established system of architectural education. A stronger relationship to

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architecture can be found through the design thinking of the industrial designer, or the inquiry of the sculpture who melds concept and physical from through questions that begin in the mind. Their work is a true manifestation of thought and not the manipulation of algorithms.

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The

mind

The mind is the driving force of all human action. To the master warrior the mind must function in the

opposite condition of the context the warrior finds himself in. In chaos the mind must be at peace and in peace the mind must be active. The office of Santiago Calatrava calls this “festina lente” and holds this concept of mental agility and equanimity as the way the mind of an architect must function. The English translation for the Latin words “festina lente” is, make haste slowly. While working for Mr. Calatrava this was described to me as thinking slowly in chaos and creating feverously in tranquil moments. This describes a transition in the way one’s mind operates to create architecture it is not a change in the frame of mind of an architect. The frame of mind never changes, it is always focused on elements that generate form and develop experiences. Although, the way the mind is used to develop those experiences and generate architect does change as the context the designer is operating in changes. The concept is to be able to focus the mind in any condition so that one can design in any condition just as the warrior must focus his mind to do battle in any condition. In order to achieve festina lente an architect must continuously be focused on the elements that generate architecture. For architecture is a result of the actions that led to its creation, Rossi refers to it as the culmination of study and experiences.

This is way the process to developing architecture is longer for those that have a shallow life experi-

ence. Or those that have an inability to learn and reference the life experience they have had. Once again the inquiry in reference to self and the world that one lives

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in becomes important. We must always ask a more meaningful intellectual question that is rooted in feeling and experience. This is why I have always seen the katana of the mind to be more valuable than the tachi of the computer. The computer as a machine executes a series of default commands programmed by an individual; there for in some since the use of this device as the primary element for generating architecture produces result that have been foreseen by a programmer. By unsheathing the mind you have the opportunity to break the default outcome and use the computer to generate form and architecture that has been foreseen by no one, not even yourself. The computer must be controlled by the user and the generation of work as a result of the mind being the primary tool allows restraints and conditions to be referenced by the residue of the subconscious emotions and remembered experiences. The mind establishes the concept for creation. With no conception there can be no orginal design only copies of already construced products and buildings.

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