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The rate at which technology is evolving, some of the details contained in this compilation will be irrelevant in a few months. The purpose however, is to help you get basic diagnostics done on your computer or computerized equipment before calling the big guns (experts). This booklet is NOT meant to be a replacement for the manufacturer’s manual for your product. Seeing that there are over 1 billion computers and computerized devices all over the world as at the time of this writing, unless otherwise stated, we speak in generic terms when referring to devices. Lastly, this booklet is intended to arouse your curiosity and serve as a launchpad as you delve the world of those who would rather “Do It Themselves�. Happy Reading, and fixing too. PCFix Team November 2011


ABOUT PCFIX PCFix Nigeria was founded in January 2011 by a group of computer professionals. Our Vision To help individuals and organizations get the best out of their computers and computerized devices. Our Mission To help individuals and organizations get optimal performance from their computers and computerized devices via maintenance of their devices, consulting for them, and training the personnel. Objectives * To be the foremost Computer Maintenance Organization in Nigeria * To be a leading IT Consulting Company in Nigeria * To be the leading IT show presenters in Nigeria * To build a conducive environment for the expression of IT talents in Nigeria CORE Values * Professionalism * Excellence * Accountability * Competence * Entrepreneurship


MEET THE TEAM Akin Ibitoye a.k.a SPIRIT started his foray into the computer world back in 2001. He specializes in Software Maintenance because that is the Spirit of the Computer. He loves teaching and currently features on a number of radio shows in Lagos Nigeria talking and fixing computer problems on air. He believes anything is possible in IT.

Bolaji Salawe is a computer geek with over 20 years experience in the hardware industry. He has worked at the famous silicon valley with popular IT firms in creating the computers we make use of today. With various certifications under his belt, he is a walking computer encyclopedia. He focuses on computer hardware and networking.

Isaac Awesanya is a hardware specialist with over 10 years of handson experience at the popular Computer village in Lagos, SouthWestern Nigeria. He has some unique ideas on how to combine various computer parts to make even the most unbelievable computer setup burst to life. He is very lively and full of energy.

Kelly Eyiaromi is a multi-talented individual with 8 years experience in the Capital Market, a motivational speaker, script writer, strategic marketing expert and a team player. He is popularly known on the PCFix Radio show as the go-to guy for anything you need. He is an advanced computer diagnostician and lots more.




























































COMPUTER HARDWARE PARTS COMPUTER HARDWARE PARTS HARD DISK - This is the storage point in a computer, its where all the software is installed, and your documents, pictures, movies also. MEMORY - This is the temporary storage where the computer runs its software operations. All the parts of the software do not run at the same time, so, the current one is run on the memory. PROCESSOR - This is the brain of the computer where all the communications take place. This is where they are converted from electronic signals into digital data. MOTHERBOARD - This is the electronic board on which all the components of the computer sit on or are connected to. The processor usually sits in the middle of it. The motherboard has different irremovable parts that cater to different functions of the computer. GRAPHICS PROCESSOR - This is the part of the computer that handles the visual output of the computer, either to the screen or a projector. BATTERY - This is the alternative power source for the computer in the event of power failure and when you are on the road. SCREEN - This is the component that makes you see what is going on in the computer. Software and hardware combined. OPTICAL DRIVE - This is the drive that allows the computer to read CDs, DVDs and sometimes write or burn to them as well. AC ADAPTER - This is also known as the charger of the laptop because it charges the battery and also powers the computer in the absence of a battery. KEYBOARD - This is the major input component in a computer, it allows you to communicate directly and control your computer. You can control your computer with the keyboard alone and get work done. MOUSE/TOUCHPAD - This is the second major input component in a computer, it works within the context of an operating system and recently, some BIOS software have added support for the mouse and other pointing devices. 1

COMPUTER HARDWARE PARTS MICROPHONE/SPEAKERS - These controls the input and output of audio sounds/signal into/from the computer. WEBCAM - This allows you to take pictures, record video and make video calls over the internet on your computer. PERIPHERALS SCANNER - This device allows you to convert physical documents and pictures into digital format. Instead of recreating a document, you could just scan it and just like that, you have the digital copy. PRINTER - This converts digital documents/pictures into physical copies by transferring/drawing ink or toner onto a medium (paper, nylon, wood and other compatible materials). PROJECTOR - This is another type of display that projects the image from the computer onto a screen or a wall, it is usually a large display and can serve a large number of people at once. FLASH DISK - This is a portable storage device that requires little or no power but plugs into the USB port of a computer. MEMORY CARD - This are tiny storage chips that are used mainly in mobile phones, tablets, cameras, and other multimedia devices. PORTABLE HARD DISK - This is an hard drive that is used for storage and has a high capacity. It can be magnetic or solid state. PORTS RJ 11, RJ 45 - Communications; VGA, HDMI, COMPOSITE VIDEO - Display Ports USB, Firewire, E-SATA, MEMORY CARD READER - Storage Ports CHARGING Port. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DESKTOP AND LAPTOP PARTS There are physical differences in the hard disk, memory, processor. ALTERNATIVE HARDWARE PARTS In case of an hardware failure, make use of recommended hardware replacement spare parts. See manufacturer’s website first. 2



HARDWARE MAINTENANCE LOCATE AND ACCESS YOUR HARDWARE > BATTERY - Access to batteries are almost always located underneath the laptop; in some cases, the access is from behind the screen and depending on the manufacturer, could be accessed from the front, sides or the back of the computer. There is always a latch or two located on or off but close to the battery that dislodges the battery from the computer. > HARD DISK - To locate the hard disk on your computer, it is generally located under the keyboard. You will see a set of discs etched beside the screws that access the hard drive compartment. In some other cases, the hard disk is harder to access because it is embedded within the computer where you have to do a lot more disassembling in order to get to it. Manufacturers have learnt that due to the heat generation of the computer parts, they need to shield each part from the other. Hence the foil material you find inside the computer. IDENTIFY YOUR HARDWARE > BATTERY - Flip the battery over and you should see electrical information, such as the voltage, current and power rating printed on the manufacturer’s sticker. Pay close attention to the power rating in relation to your computer’s requirements. > HARD DISK - To identify the type of hard disk you have, it is either IDE (Integrated Design Environment), or SATA (Serial ATA) interface. However, there is a defunct classification called SCSI (Small Computer System Interface). MAPPING? During disassembly, you would want to map each screw and component to remind you where they go when you want to re-couple it. There are different ways of mapping, one is by using a blank sheet of paper, folded over in six places, and ripping through the fold. Another is by having 12 little containers and putting each set of screws in each labeled.


HARDWARE MAINTENANCE MAINTENANCE > BATTERY - Contrary to popular beliefs, you can actually kill your computer battery faster by always keeping it plugged in to AC power outlet. The original idea of the battery is to charge and discharge, so, the best practice is to allow the battery to discharge and then recharge it. Once the battery is fully charged, unplug it and allow the battery to perform its duty. Most computer batteries have a life span of about 1,000 charges. You know your battery is going out when it doesn’t retain charges for longer periods like it should. > HARD DISK - Whatever you do, desist from formatting your hard drive at the slightest sign of trouble, there is always a way out of critical system errors, if you research well. A good rule of thumb is to keep your computer in a cool working environment because the hard drive generates heat during operation (because of the high-speed rotation of the disks inside); the heat needs to be dissipated otherwise it could crash the hard drive and cause data loss. LAYOUT This is the positioning of each component in relation to one another according to the manufacturer’s specifications. REPLACEMENT AND REPAIR This has to do with after having removed the faulty component, replacing with manufacturer’s specified spare parts. It is important to use the recommended parts for your computer to prevent damage to your computer. CURRENTS, VOLTS, AMPS, & ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS All these have to do with the AC adapter (charger) and the battery; this is the single most important aspect of your computer, without it, your computer cannot power on. Using a non-recommended AC adapter for your computer will most likely short your computer motherboard.




BASIC DIAGNOSTICS BLURRY/NO DISPLAY Blurry display is indicative of absence of device drivers for the operating system installed. No display could be pointing at video processor or the screen backlight or the screen itself or the memory. To figure out what the problem really is, on the backlight, view the screen at an angle and you should see shadows of the images on the screen. For the video processor, you should connect an external monitor via the VGA port on the side of the computer and you should get a display and that proves your display screen needs replacement, if not, then your graphics processor needs replacement. FAULTY KEYBOARD This is evident when your computer makes continuous beep sound during start up, and when in the operating system environment, your righ-click does not work sometimes, among other anomalies. The first thing you can do is open Notepad or any other word processing software you have installed. The faulty key or keys should automatically start typing itself out continuously. If no key is stuck, you may need to replace the keyboard. FAILING HARD DRIVE Your operating system has an inbuilt system that tests the integrity of your hard drive so as to prevent data loss. Some BIOS software also have the hard disk test feature. Signs of a failing hard drive include but is not limited to Cyclic Redundancy Errors, occasional restarting of the computer, and constant warning by the operating system. DEAD BATTERY Please note that computer battery comes with a chip that regulates the power input and output of the battery. Sometimes, all your battery needs is recalibration i.e you need to reset the chip’s memory. Please download the “BATCAL” utility to do that. It will drain the power of your battery to zero and thereby reset the chip that regulates the power consumption of the battery. This has been tested and worked on some computers, worth a try.


BASIC DIAGNOSTICS BAD PROCESSOR If your computer processor is bad, you will not get any response from your computer. When you power it on, you may see the power indicators for the briefest of seconds, and then, nothing. The processor being the brain where the interpretation of the signals between the machine and the operating system is done is very critical to the operations of the computer and as such, you get nothing. Please replace your processor. Over heating can cause your processor to fail, although, there is a fail-safe switch that trips off your computer when the temperature is approaching dangerous levels. FAULTY VIDEO CARD Have you seen half display on your screen, such that only one half or two thirds or even a quarter of the screen is displaying and the screen is not broken? The video card or the video processor is the culprit. How to confirm is to j=hook up your computer to another good working monitor or projector. If you are using a dedicated graphics display computer, you may want to switch to the native video card (if available). FAULTY MEMORY If your computer turns on in BIOS and displays nothing except the lights just staying on, your memory module(s) may be faulty or the slots they sit on could be compromised. After confirming if the type of memory you have (DDR, DDR2 or DDR3) you should also check the Speed of the Memory module before replacing with just anyone simply because it fits. SELECTIVE OPTICAL DRIVE If your hard drive selects discs i.e it reads some discs and see others as blank discs, it is evident that your optical drive lens is growing weak and will soon need replacement. Whatever you do, do not touch the lens of your optical drive, it is very sensitive and the smudge from your touch would do more harm than good. Optical drives deal on the microscopic levels and dust is the main culprit in the failures of optical drives.





WHAT ARE OPERATING SYSTEMS? Operating Systems are software that allows us to communicate with computers. They serve as intermediary between the machine binary codes and the legible language that we understand. They are the bridge between the hardware and the software. They are build around a KERNEL which is a set of instructions that determines how the hardware is managed and controlled by the software. Operating systems are based on a few models that dates back to the age of BASIC programming. PUBLISHERS OF OPERATING SYSTEMS? Microsoft, Apple, RIM, Google, Canonical, HP TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS? Windows, MAC OS, Linux, Android, QNX, Symbian, iOS, BBOS, Windows Mobile, DOS, Free BSD, UNIX, MeeGo WHAT ARE UPDATES? Updates are patches released by the publisher of a software to make it perform better. This is because all OS are not finished products, different people will have different issues using the software and hackers will expose the vulnerabilities of the software. WHAT ARE UPGRADES? Occasionally, software publishers decide to create a new software by either building on the old one or starting afresh. In either case, what usually results is a new Software altogether, hence the allowance for upgrading from the current software to the latest one; and with time, the support for the old software will be terminated and users will migrate.


SYSTEM SOFTWARE INSTALLING OPERATING SYSTEMS? You can install an operating system via CD/DVD Drives, Flash Drives, External Hard Drives, Network. You can also install an operating system inside an operating system by making use of a virtualization software, e.g. VMWare, Virtual Box, Virtual PC, e.t.c MULTIPLE OPERATING SYSTEMS? You can have as many operating systems on a computer at any given time, provided you have the hardware requirements to support the installations; this include hard disk space, processor type, memory size, and more. WHAT IS A FIRMWARE? A firmware is an embedded operating system on a computerized device. From a router, to your TV set, Game Console, Mobile Phone, Motherboard, Home Theater system, among others. BIOS AS AN OPERATING SYSTEM? Yes, BIOS means Basic Input and Output System; it is a primitive Operating System software that performs POST or Power-On Self-Test on your computer hardware upon start up. It scans your computer, taking stock of present and absent hardware components and peripherals. LIVE OPERATING SYSTEMS? This is an operating system that can run off a CD without being installed on the computer. Being live means that all the information is stored on the volatile memory also known as the RAM. So, whatever is not saved on an external storage device is lost when the computer is turned off. Most Linux distributions provide a live CD option, so you can test first.


SYSTEM SOFTWARE INSTALLING ADDITIONAL SOFTWARE? Most operating systems come pre-installed with some application software to get you started immediately you power-on your computer for the first time or immediately after installing the operating system. As expected, most of the application software included with the operating system are generic productivity software. Specialized software have to be installed by the end-user. Plus, the inclusion of more software would have a direct impact on the size of the operating system. MAC OS have the basic applications bundled, so does the various Linux distributions and the various iterations of Windows. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS? Different operating systems have different hardware requirements for them to install on a computer and function effectively. Microsoft Windows XP requires a minimum of 128MB of Memory and 2GB of Hard Disk space to install, Windows Vista requires 512MB and 10GB to install and run, Windows 7 requires 1GB and 10GB to install. Linux OS requires generic 256MB to run the Live CD and 512MB to install and 3GB of hard disk space. MAC OS require Apple hardware to install and other specialized OS require their respective hardware to install. DRIVERS? Drivers are little pieces of software that the Operating System software uses to interact with the computer hardware and/or peripherals. Drivers are translators or intermediary just like the operating system is an intermediary between the machine and the user. Drivers can also be called operating systems but they are not installed on the hardware, they are installed on the operating system to relate to the hardware.


SYSTEM SOFTWARE SERVICE PACKS? Service Packs are a combination of all the Updates that have been released by the publisher of an operating system over a period of time. They usually contain critical security patches, upgrades to certain software bundled with the OS and finally they are usually very bulky to download, so, you need to watch out when updating your computer software in case you are on a budget with your internet connection. FILE SYSTEMS? This is the system that an operating system uses to organize and keep track of files. File Systems are used on data storage devices such as hard disk drives, floppy disks, optical discs or flash drives to maintain the physical location of the computer files. This can be likened to the arrangement of files and folders in a cabinet of an office. Various OS have different compatible file systems and varying levels of security. Types of file system include - FAT (FAT12, FAT16, FAT32, exFAT), NTFS, HFS, HFS+, HPFS, EXT2, EXT3, EXT4, UFS, UDF, and much more. DEFRAGMENTATION? In the maintenance of file systems, defragmentation is a process that reduces the amount of fragmentation of data i.e scattered all over the storage device. It does this by physically organizing the contents of the mass storage device used to store files into fragments. This works best for magnetic drives because the heads have to seek the data like the phonograph. Defragmentation is detrimental to Solid State Drives which makes use of flash memory.




APPLICATION SOFTWARE These are Software that you install on your operating system software to perform specific tasks. Application software also have compatibility issues with different operating systems. The common application software files for Windows OS have the .exe extension (executable) and the .msi (Microsoft Installer). For MAC OS is .app (application), Linux has .deb (debian), and much more. To make it easier to sort through, application software are categorized by their functionality. These include - Antivirus, Authoring tools, CD/DVD tools, Compression tools, Desktop enhancement, File managers, Internet, Mobile Phone tools, Multimedia, Network tools, Office tools, Programming, Science/CAD, Security, System, Tweak, Widgets, and others. While the list is not exhaustive, examples of some of the above categories are as follows; Antivirus - Avast 6, Microsoft Security Essentials Browsers - Firefox, Chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari, Opera, Maxthon Converter - Free Studio, Switch, Prism, TVC Download Manager - Internet Download Manager, Free Download Manager, Download Accelerator Plus, Orbit, uTorrent, HiDownload Driver - Device Doctor Bundle, Driver Genius PRO Game - Angry Birds, Checkers, Monopoly, Scrabble Media Player - iTunes, Real Player, VLC, SongBird, DivX Media Suite Messenger - Google Talk, Nimbuzz, Skype, Windows Live, Digsby Mobile - Nokia PC Suite, Samsung PC Studio, Sony Ericsson PC Suite Office - Adobe Reader, Libre Office, Foxit PDF Reader, PDF Complete Photo Manager - Picasa, Gimp, Plugins - Flash Player, Shockwave, Silverlight, WebP Codec Utility - Partition Manager, Filezilla, JRE, Virtual Clone Drive, WinRAR, DotNet, Battery Monitor, Bandwidth Manager, Adobe AIR, VirtualBox, Data Recovery Wizard, CPU ID.




SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE > Run a PC maintenance software once a month e.g Tune Up Utilities, CCleaner, to keep your operating system running glitch-free. >Update your ant-ivirus software daily to protect against malware, spyware and virus software. > If the office suite that came with your operating system is a trial version, and your budget does not cover purchase of a license, a better option than pirated copies is Open Office published by Sun Microsystems. It is free and can open all the major document formats around today. > If you have missing plugin message in your browser when you want to view certain website, you need to update your browser and install the adequate plugins. Please check the Application Software chapter for more details. > If you cannot play a particular media file, you can convert it to a more popular media format with any of the media conversion software. > If you are frustrated by interrupted downloads due to epileptic internet connection, you should get a download manager software, it will enable you to resume your download and because it downloads from multiple sources, it actually gives a 400% faster performance than regular browser download. > Sometimes, if your computer is behaving abnormally, one of the things you can do is create a new user account, move your data (documents, pictures, videos) to the new account. Don't worry about your programs, they are installed (unless you chose the setting to install for current user only) in your program files. Then you can delete the old account which includes all the registry issues that was slowing your computer down and all the saved passwords and cookies are deleted as well. In a way you can start afresh except when the operating system has been severely compromised. In which case you have to re-install the entire operating system; ALWAYS back up your data before making major changes to your computer. If you get stuck, check the website of the manufacturer of your computer for instructions on how to proceed; or send SOS to an expert. 12

SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE > Take absolute care whenever you want to format your hard drive, DO NOT under any circumstance delete the recovery partition on your computer. As technology improved, computer manufacturers stopped shipping optical media (CD/DVD) with computers, opting instead to put the operating system image on a partition of the hard drive, usually called RECOVERY. If you are adventurous and you click open the Recovery disk, you may not find any file listed even though it reads that about 10GB of space is used up. This is because the system image is in a format that can only be accessed from the BIOS upon start up. The IMAGE cannot be accessed from within the operating system to prevent being corrupt by malware. If you delete the RECOVERY image of your computer, you can salvage the situation ONLY by getting another computer that is the same model as yours and copy the SYSTEM image onto your computer. With a little tweaking, you should be able to get it working. > Usually, all computers that come pre-loaded with the Microsoft Windows operating system have a 25-digit license key. It is usually located on the bottom panel of laptops and on the side panel or top panel of desktop computers. However, because users want the latest operating systems and do not have the budget to purchase a new license key for the operating system, they end up with pirated copies. My advice, stay with the operating system whose license you have on the bottom of your computer and you do not have to worry about genuine or not. Sometimes, some users who have formatted their recovery partition and had Windows 7 before formatting end up installing a pirated copy of Windows 7 and they wonder why since they have the license under their computer. Microsoft have different versions of their operating system; started with Windows XP (Home, Professional, Media Center), Windows Vista (Basic, Home Premium, Business, Ultimate), Windows 7 (Starter, Home Premium, Enterprise, Ultimate). Take note!







FILE SHARING SITES * * * * * ONLINE STORAGE SITES * * * * * LEARNING * * * * * GAMES * * * * *

laolu ibitoye

mobile expert



MOBILE DEVICES USING YOUR PHONE AS A MODEM TETHERING - This is sharing the internet connection of an internetenabled phone with other devices, in this case, your computer. This sharing can be done over three different connections; Wireless LAN, Bluetooth and USB connection. For the purpose of this, we will be considering just the Bluetooth and USB connections only. BRIEF DESCRIPTION The objective is to make the internet subscription of your mobile to work on your computer; this allows you to get more work done, since the mobile screen is very limited. To serve for basic internet use like sending emails, viewing social networking sites and web searches, this is a fair solution. REQUIREMENTS A computer, smart phone, USB cable and Bluetooth device. CONNECTION MODE If you have a USB cable for your phone, please connect; or you are sure of the Bluetooth readiness of your devices, you can go ahead and pair them. SETTING UP THE CONNECTION STEP 1 - Install your phone’s PC suite or desktop manager to your computer and launch the program. This creates a suitable interface for your device. Ensure your computer is fully operational and do not keep your phone plugged into AC power. In the absence of a PC suite (china phones), this can be a bit problematic, but to deal with this, you must be well-versed in the configuration of communications (COM) ports. STEP 2 - On your PC suite, you have a ready button to start the tethering. Depending on the suite or manager, the button will be in different positions and forms. Blackberry puts it as Mobile Internet in its desktop manager.


MOBILE DEVICES Your PC suite should automatically recognize your service provider’s configuration and thereby should start the connection automatically. In the absence of this, you can enter manual configuration. PROPERTIES SPEED - The connection is relatively okay, but very dependent on a number of factors e.g phone sophistication, network signal strength, etc STABILITY - Receiving a call or text message during the connection will interrupt the connection. USE - The connection will work well for basic internet use, and no major downloading can be performed. FINDING YOUR PHONE Phones have evolved far beyond the monochrome (black and white) screens and the annoying bulky size they came in. Nowadays, the smaller, the better, the lighter, the more sophisticated. We want to help you make up your mind before buying a phone. * What do you want your phone to do for you? * How long do you plan to use the phone? * What’s your budget? * Why do you need another phone? Answering these questions will get you started in finding what is best suited for you instead of what you want. HARDWARE - Processor, Storage, Display, Keypad, Camera, Battery Life-span, Connection Ports. SOFTWARE - Operating system, Applications, Games, Utilities, Educationals TYPES OF USERS > BASIC USER - Uses the basic functions of a phone including calls, texts, alarm. > TECHNICAL USER - Quite adventurous users who utilizes up to 70% of their entire phone capacity. They use their phone for two or three major functions e.g camera, music and games.




TABLETS MOTOROLA XOOM Android 3.0, Nvidia Tegra 2 Dual-Core CPU, 1GB RAM, 32GB, 10.1-inch, 5MP rear-facing camera, 2MP front-facing camera, 3G, Proximity Sensor, Barometer

SAMSUNG GALAXY TAB 10.1 Android 3.0, 1GHz Dual-Core CPU, 1GB RAM, 16GB/32GB, 10.1-inch, 3MP rearfacing camera, 2MP front-facing camera, 3G

SONY TABLET S Android 3.2, 1GHz Dual-Core CPU, 1GB RAM, 16GB/32GB, 10.1-inch, 3MP rear-facing camera, 2MP front-facing camera

BLACKBERRY PLAYBOOK QNX, 1GHz Cortex A9 Dual-Core CPU, 1GB RAM, 7-inch, 5MP rear-facing camera, 3MP front-facing camera

LG OPTIMUS PAD Android 3.0, 1GHz Tegra 2 CPU, 1GB RAM, 32GB, 8.9-inch, 2x 5MP rear-facing cameras for 3D capture, 2MP front-facing camera, 3G


TABLETS TOSHIBA THRIVE Android 3.2, 1GHz Dual-Core CPU, 1GB RAM, 8GB/16GB/32GB, 10.1-inch, 5MP rear-facing camera, 2MP front-facing camera

HTC FLYER Android 2.3, 1.5GHz Single-Core Snapdragon, 1GB RAM, 32GB, 7-inch, 5MP rear-facing camera, 3MP front-facing camera, 3G

ARCHOS 101 G9 Android 3.2 Dual-Core CPU, 10.1-inch, HDMIout, Multiple storage options including 250GB HDD

EXO PC SLATE Intel Atom N450 1.66GHz CPU, 2GB RAM, 32GB/64GB, 11.6-inch, 1.3MP front-facing camera

VIEWSONIC VIEWPAD 7 Android 2.2, Qualcomm MSM 7227 600MHz CPU, 512MB RAM, 512MB storage, 7-inch, 3MP rear-facing camera, 3G


TABLETS HP TOUCHPAD (Discontinued) WebOS 3.0, 1.2GHz Dual-Core Snapdragon CPU, 1GB RAM, 16GB/32GB, 9.7-inch, 1.3MP front-facing camera

ACER ICONIA TAB A500 Android 3.0, Nvidia Tegra 2 Dual-Core CPU, 1GB RAM, 10.1-inch, 5MP rear-facing camera, 3G

ASUS EEE PAD MEMO Android 4.0, Dual-Core Snapdragon, 7-inch, 3D display

ASUS EEE PAD SLATE Android 3.2, Nvidia Tegra 2 Dual-Core CPU, 10.1-inch, HDMI-out, front and rear-facing camera

AMAZON KINDLE FIRE Heavily Modified Android 2.3, 512MB RAM, 1GHz Texus Instruments OMAP4 4430 CPU, 7-inch, microUSB port, 8GB, Amazon Services Bundled




ON THE WIRE > Microsoft Windows 8 for Tablets and Pcs will be released in late 2012. The developer preview was released in August for developers to test and use. > Google’s Android 4.0 code-named Ice Cream Sandwich is set to be launched on tablets shortly. The gap between Smartphones and tablets has finally been bridged with this version of the OS. > Apple’s iOS has seen another update after the major update 5.0 released a couple of months ago. > RIM’s Blackberry Os7 has debuted on a couple of devices including the Bold 5 (9900), sporting the touch and type technology with a whole new set of applications. > Hp’s WebOS which has not received widespread acceptance has finally hit the rocks. The HP Touchpad which is the first in the line of tablets to be rolled out by HP has finally been scrapped even though they had sold hundreds of thousands of units. > Linux Mint has rolled out its next iteration called Linux Mint 12 codenamed LISA. Ubuntu has released its version 11.10 version. You can now download OpenSUSE 12, Fedora 16, and Zorin OS 5.2. > Nokia’s Lumia 800 running the Windows Phone 7 OS code-named (Mango) is set for an early next year release. The smartphone which is Nokia’s response to the challenge by Apple’s iPhone, RIM’s Blackberry, and a host of Android-powered smartphone is set to be a competitor with its hardware package for which Nokia is well known, combined with the Software giant - Microsoft, it is a must buy. We’ll wait and see. > The smartphone and tablet market is heating up gradually as the lines are being blurred by the 5-inch, 7-inch screen tablets that could be mistaken for a smartphone. The good news is, the end user is the winner after all the hype has settled. Beyond all the hype, these manufacturers should provide SUPPORT to users, otherwise, they lose.



SANDY BRIDGE There is something called the Sandy Bridge in the new generation of Intel Processors; the Core i3, i5 and i7. These new breed of processors are unique because the graphics processor has been integrated into the CPU (processor); this means that your computer can handle High Definition videos and 3D graphics much better. When you watch HD videos on regular processor-powered computers, there is a significant lag in the video playback because the processor cannot keep up with the rendering or decoding of the video in real time; as such makes the video a bit sluggish or even skip every few seconds. This also happens because the graphics processor makes use of part of the cycle of the processor to process the video output of the computer. The sandy bridge is such that the graphics processor is in real time sync with the processor, hence, better performance of the Core i3, i5, and i7 processors. Due to the limitation in our environment, we have in a way adjusted and are used to Standard Definition (SD) videos. If you watch a movie or a couple in High Definition (HD), you will not want to see any movie in Standard Definition anymore. Such is the quality of the display and audio. The limitation is in the internet service, the coverage is still very low and poor, as such, premium price. Everyone is on a budget because you have a bandwidth allocation and download limit. Instead of downloading a movie in HD around 2GB, I would download the same movie in the .mkv compressed SD format at about 350MB for most TV series. My advice, choose the best provider in your area.


LINUX AS AN ALTERNATIVE OS A fail-safe approach to keep your data safe in the event of a system crash or hardware failure. We advice that you have two operating system software on your computer at any given time, or better still have a live operating system handy. This will come in handy when your computer will not start due to an error in your operating system (something that is bound to happen without warning). The most popular operating system in this part of the world is the Microsoft Windows Operating System, depending on the version you have, from Windows 3x, 95, 98, Me, 2000, NT, Vista, 7 and the latest as at the time of this writing 8. This means that for every 100 computers, 98 of them have a version of Windows installed. The hassle arises when your computer won’t start or keeps restarting itself due to the dreaded blue screen. We propose you install a version of Linux operating system, it is easy to install and uninstall with minimum invasive installation with the Windows-Based Ubuntu Installer or ‘wubi’, you can have the Linux OS installed on your computer in 15 minutes or less (depending on your hardware). You do not require any technical skill to install this version “Linux Mint” on your computer. Armed with the installation DVD or the flash disk with the OS on it, you can choose to either install the Linux OS inside Windows, alongside Windows or as the only OS on your computer. With Linux OS on your PC, you have access to all your files and folders in Windows. This is especially useful if your Windows is not starting up.











MEDIA CAMPAIGN We are currently hosting a weekly technology-based radio program on Radio Continental 102.3FM on Fridays by 11am called PCFix on Radio. Also, in partnership with Eko 89.75FM, IT World on Wednesdays by 10:30AM. We are currently planning on starting a series of technology-based weekly programs to be called - “PCFix on Radio� on the following radio stations in Lagos: * Wazobia 95.1FM * Inspiration 92.3FM * City 105.1FM * Nigeriainfo 99.3FM * Beat 99.9FM * Top Radio 90.9FM Our plans to break into the media houses outside of Lagos is also in the pipeline, this became necessary because majority of our listeners are from outside Lagos state and we could reach a greater percentage of folks living in the outskirts of Lagos. The distance in geography has been bridged by technology, hence what we offer (Simple Solutions to Computer Problems) is very relevant to our listeners within and outside Lagos, Nigeria. Having been on air for over 14 months, we have received enormous calls for training within and outside Lagos; however, we will make our plans evident once we kick off the radio shows in the other parts of the country. IT training institutes who want to expand their reach should contact us as well. We hereby call for individuals and corporate organizations who would like to partner with us to make this dream a reality to get in touch with us as soon as possible.



QUIZ 1. What is Defragmentation? 2. What is a Partition? 3. What is Formatting? 4. What is CD Burning? 5. What is BIOS? 6. What is Safe Mode? 7. What is a Processor? 8. What is POST? 9. What is an expansion slot? 10. What is a port? 11. What is Wireless a/b/g/n? 12. What is hibernation? 13. What is virtualization? 14. What is stand-by? 15. What is a firewall? 16. What is a Modem? 17. What is a router? 18. What is a blue screen? 19. What is Task Manager? 20. What is a Mouse? 21. What is a Cooling Fan? 22. What is Hard Disk? 23. What is a Flash Disk? 24. What is a Monitor? 25. What is a Touch Pad? 26. What is a Touch Screen? 27. What is a Stylus? 28. What is a Firmware? 29. What is an Update? 30. What is a cookie? 31. What is a setup? 32. What is a driver? 33. What is a spyware?


1. List 10 Audio Formats 2. List 10 Video Formats 3. List 10 Web Browsers 4. List 10 Anti-virus Software 5. List 10 Image Formats 6. List 10 Download Managers 7. List 10 File Extensions 8. List 10 Software in Windows 9. List 10 Folders in Windows 10. List 10 Operating Systems 11. List 10 Application Software 12. List 10 Mobile Phone Makers 13. List 10 Social Media Sites 14. List 10 components in a PC 15. List 10 Computer peripherals 16. List 10 Linux Distributions 17. List 10 Windows versions 18. List 10 Programming Language 19. List 10 Web-coding Languages 20. List 10 Processor types 21. List 10 Hardware Makers 22. List 10 e-mail providers 23. List 10 Tablet Computers 24. List 10 Media Players 25. List 10 Chat Software 26. List 10 Microsoft Products 27. List 10 OS apart from Windows 28. List 10 USB devices 29. List 10 keyboard keys 30. List 10 Software publishers 31. List 10 Computerized devices 32. List 10 Storage devices 33. List 10 Output devices

PCFix Workshop 2.0 Handbook