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TUNSTALL ENTERPRISE PALACE [THE RE_BUILDING OF STOKE-ON-TRENT’S ECONOMY]

P. A. WESTWELL Thesis Porolio Bachelor of Architecture Manchester School of Architecture 2011 | 2012


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Contents

05_Introducon 07_Context 13_Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive 69_Infrastructural Urbanism 89_Tunstall Enterprise Palace 141_Drawings


Introducon

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Introducon

Introducon In the introducon to the Re_Map College, of the 2010|2011 Bachelor of Architecture at the Manchester School of Architecture, the 5th and 6th year students were presented with the [Re_Map] ICU Reader. This contained an extensive extracts from books and arcles relang to the theme of the Re_Map College:

“Re_Map constantly move between data and the physical ‘real’ urban landscape. We use our mapping and datascaping to reveal things about the real world so the things we find out can then bear actual approaches for transforming and affecng change in urban condions. The data will not provide the answer alone, we need to interpret it and extrapolate ideas in relaon to it to evolve master-plans, programmac strategy, architectural envelopes, surface definion etc...” [Brook, R. & Dunn, N. 2011]

The reader focussed on issues such as Mapping the Urban Landscape, Technological Opmism, Networked Responses, and Beyond Architecture. These topics, along with addional reading, and individual interests and invesgaons, formed the background to the following thesis project.


Context

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Context

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Context The area of study for this project is Stoke-on-Trent. Also known as The Poeries, Stoke-on-Trent is a unique city in England that is comprised of the following six district towns: Tunstall, Burslem, Hanley, Stoke, Fenton and Longton. Situated in Staffordshire in the West Midlands, this polynucleic formaon of towns is located along the River Trent and, according to 2007 esmates, has a populaon of around 239,700. Stoke-on-Trent’s wealth grew dramacally from the 17th Century onwards due to the success of many industrial-scale poery manufacturing companies such as Royal Doulton, Dudson Ltd, Spode, and Wedgewood. The local abundance of coal and clay suitable for earthenware producon led to the early (inially limited) development of the poery industry. In 1769 Wedgwood himself built one of Britain’s first large factories, in Etruria, the village he established on the outskirts of Burslem, his birthplace. The construcon of the Trent and Mersey Canal enabled the import of china clay from Cornwall together with other materials and facilitated the producon of creamware and bone china.

Since the last half of the 20th century, almost all of the boleshaped kilns that framed the skyline have been taken down, due to regulaons from the Clean Air Act. Stoke-on-Trent had an esmated 4,000 bole kilns in the heyday of the poery industry, today reduced to a mere 46. However, Stoke-on-Trent is sll the centre of the Brish ceramic industry, and is the largest clayware producer in the world, other local industries include chemical works, rubber works and tyre manufacturing (Mitchelin Tyre Co.), engineering plants, paper mills, texle processing, and electronics. The demographics in the 2001 census idenfy Stoke-on-Trent’s gender distribuon ad 51.3% female. With regard to ethnicity, the composion is 94.8% white, 2.6% Asian Brish Pakistani, 0.5% Asian Brish Indian and 0.3% Black Afro Caribbean. Chrisanity accounts for 74% of the populaon, 3.2% are Muslim and 13.4% have no religion, and the average age of residents is 38½. Stoke-on-Trent is geographically located in the centre of the UK, and is in close proximity (50 miles) to Derby, Manchester, Birmingham, Sheffield and Liverpool.


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STOKE-ON-TRENT 1_Tunstall 2_Burslem 3_Hanley 4_Stoke 5_Fenton 6_Longton


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Context

Tunstall

Hanley

Fenton

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Context

Burslem

Stoke

Longton


DATA DEFINITION WITHIN THE DERIVE


Data Definion Within The Derive Brief

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“Of all the affairs we parcipate in, with or without interest, the groping search for a new way of life is the only aspect sll impassioning. Aesthec and other disciplines have proved blatantly inadequate in this regard and merit the greatest detachment. We should therefore delineate some provisional terrains of observaon, including the observaon of certain processes of chance and predictability.” [Guy Debord, Introducon to a Crique of Urban Geography]

Brief In September 2011, the following brief was issued to students:

“You will invesgate the architectural ramificaons of ‘wondering’ in the city. Whereas Debord and the Situaonist Internaonal were content to simply execute these experiments, we are interested in their concepon, their record and most specifically, their translaon into form that has geo-spaal context. The element of chance is important but not paramount as it was to the SI and the surrealists before them. We are interested in the convergence of mapping, GPS, data and sensaon in three-dimensional and locaonal space.” [Richard Brook and Nick Dunn. 2011]


Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Response

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Response Aer receiving the brief, students formed into groups of YR5 and YR6 student. Ulising the reader as a catalyst, invesgaon was carried out into the methods employed by groups or individuals who idenfy themselves with psychogeography.

This methodology then resulted in a set of data that was translated into a wide range of diering and complementary datascapes. These datascapes were then analysed for trends and paerns that provided an informed conclusion.

These methods were then tested and adapted, idenfying useful aspects that would be suitable for the type of invesgaon carried out in the designated research area, in this case Tunstall.

This process of method, pracce, record and translaon ulmately led to individual trajectories that allowed exploraon of personal ideas and interests.


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Data Definion Within The Derive Theorecal Text Book_Situaonistas: arte, polica, urbanismo

Cover artwork

Cover artwork

The reader distributed contained thirteen texts all of which were presented to the studio. This is a review of the presentaon analysing the book: Situaonistas: art, polica, urbanismo.

Dutch painter and experimental arst Constant as documentaon of his visionary New Babylon urban project.

Overview The book is in Spanish and English and was published in 1996. The chapter that the text is extracted from is wrien by Thomas Y. Levin. He was part of the curatorial collecve responsible for the first exhibion on the Situaonist Internaonal at the Centre Pompidou, ICA London and the ICA Boston in 1989. He is currently working on two books, one on the recording of narrave cinema in terms of surveillance, and the other on the film-theorecal cinema of Guy Debord. The text is an interesng and informave study of the works of the Situaonist Internaonal. Focused on the utopian theories of urbanism propounded by members of the Situaonist Internaonal, an influenal European arsts’ collecve founded in 1957 by French writer and avant-garde filmmaker Guy Debord, this catalogue illustrates a diverse array of works dang from the 1950s and 60s that include painngs, posters and photocollages by such arsts as Asger Jorn and Pinot Gallizio as well as numerous sculptural assemblages, drawings, architectural models and other pieces produced by

History The SI was an avant-garde collecve and polical body that officially inaugurated on July 28, 1957 and auto-dissolved in 1972. The body undertook a sustained interrogaon of the role of cultural producon in post-war western consumer culture. They relentlessly examined art and society through tracts, posters, books, films, etc. The SI had its peak in its influence on the uprisings of May 1968 in France. At the SI’s founding conference in Cosio D’Aroscia in 1957, the group’s theorecal motor, Guy Debord presented a carefully wrien programmac ‘Report on the Construcon of Situaon and on the condions of organizaon and Acon of the Internaonal Situaonist Tendency’ which conveys the urgency, the intensity and the militancy of the fledging collecve revoluonary project. In this report, Debord manifest that the world needs a liberang transformaon possible of both society and of the life that man found themselves incarcerated. The SI’s founding document concerned with the antagonism between new desires and the retardave effect of an oppressive economic structure that precludes the use of these affecve resources. The death of

“The full ensemble of the arts and “The SI not only wanted to build, technologies are compeng means they wanted to build cies” to realise a holisc composion of a milieu”


Data Definion Within The Derive Theorecal Text

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Cedric Price_Fun Palace

the exploitaon of mankind must also bring about the abolion of the passions, compensaons and the habits generated by the exploitaon. Therefore, Debord clarified that it is a must to construct new ambiance’s that are simultaneously the product and the instrument of new modes of behaviour. Unitary Urbanism Unitary Urbanism is the rejecon of the standard Euclidean and wholly funconal approach to urban Architectural design. It is the rejecon of the compartmentalizaon of art, and its detachment from its surroundings. The Utopian ideal of the SI consists of an idea that man’s metropolitan surroundings and the urban environment are at so much of a blend that the idenficaon of where funconality ends and play begins cannot be even be disnguished. It is an ideal for the whole world where funconality is sll catered for but done so in an atmosphere of connual exploraon and leisure, both of which aim to smulate. The synthesis of Unitary Urbanism should fully incorporate arts and technologies, allowing a new milieu (environment) which is so encompassing that the myopic and tradional arts and architecture are overtaken. Unitary Urbanism is less the concrete fabricaon of quodian (daily) space rather the construcon of an enre atmosphere and a style of life. The Situaon / Derive / Dri / Psychogeography / Detournement / Industrial Painng /

Recuperaon / Revoluon / The Society of the Spectacle have all involved from the SI. Gesamtkunstwerk Gesamtkunstwerk is translated from German as “total work of art” “ideal artwork” “universal artwork” or “synthesis of the arts”. This all-encompassing word was used by Guy Debord and the Situaonalists as the descripon for their utopian ideal, a new polical form and urban environment. Ivan Chtchegloff and the Leerist Internaonal If one were to trace the genealogy of Situaonist urbanism, the most proximate context would be the work of the Leerist Internaonal and the Visionary 1953 essay “Formulary for a new Urbanism” by Ivan Chtchegloff. Chtchegloff called for a new architecture that will be both a means of knowledge and a means of acon, a modifiable, malleable architecture that will change parally and even totally depending upon the desires of its inhabitants. “Everyone will live in their own personal cathedral so to speak”. The Leerist Internaon was created by Guy Debord, a kind of dra version of the SI. Based In Paris, they were a collecve of radical arsts and polical theorists, took up Chtchegloff’s call for a thorough exploraon of the relaons between space, me

“If you take the idea of change – mobility and interchangeability of parts, why not interchangeability of place?”

Archigram_Walking City


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Data Definion Within The Derive Theorecal Text

Constant_New Babylon 1963

and the passions. They undertook with great fervour the affecve urban mapping, which they called Psychogeography. Psychogeography I Should building be FIX? The first, born of the aempt to avoid any sort of urban ‘fixity’, is a vision of the city in permanent temporal and physical transformaon, a sort of nomadic metabolism that ancipates in very general terms the ‘Walking City’ project developed by Ron Herron and Brian Harrey of Archigram, 1965. Based on the largely unexamined assumpon that a city conceived in its enrely as one massive process of dri would as such provide the ideal environment for the derive, the SI imagined a nomadic metropolis engaged in a connual and acve process of construcve and decay. Psychogeography II – Ludic Megastructures The inial ideas of Psychogeography and nomadic walking cies although engaging were more of an experiment. The SI had plans for the realisaon of urban construcon in what they termed “Ludic Megastructuralism”. They embraced the idea of the megastructure as a huge support which would offer individuals the framework to resolve their own ideals and create environments. This was the SI seeming to resolve the conflict between design and the derive. The new construcon materials

and technologies on the 1950’s and 60’s seemed to make these structures possible. A building in New York in 1955 was cited by Debord as manifesng signs allowing an internal derive via the flexibility of moving internal walls. With such mega spaces and open infrastructure allowing nomadic living, Guy Debord said that the SI not only wanted to build, but they wanted to build cies. New Babylon Both Leerist and Situaonists produced various sorts of graphic and textual artefacts that refunconed older maps as well as surveillance images, aerial photographs and sociological graphs as a means to trace effecve vectors in relaon to built space. Although the Situaonists, according to Debord, did not have me to build because they had to devote their energies to changing the world instead of merely the cityscape, there was at least one early aempt, albeit quickly aborted, to actually work out the technical, structural and soci-polical contours of a built SI urban environment: the “New Babylon” [top opposite] project of the Dutch architect, and Situaonist, Constant Nieuwenhuys. Located in the context of a crisis of urban space, the drawings and models produced by Constant re-examine and redefine the very noon of the architect who will no longer be the builder of forms alone, but rather the builder of complete ambiances.

“Thorough exploraon of the relaons between space, me and passion”

Constant_New Babylon 1958


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Data Definion Within The Derive Theorecal Text

Constant_The Covered City

Covered City The Covered City was a dynamic and flexible space, conducive to nomadism. It was a model by Constant, made in 1956, of a permanent yet highly fluid campsite for gypsies in Alba Italy. It was a connuous spaal construcon elevated from the ground and incorporang both housing structures and public spaces (which can be modified for different purposes according to the needs of the moment). The city employed giant space frames that were structural innovaons of the French pavilion at the Brussels Expo ’58, designed by French engineer Rene Sarger. The structure incorporated suspended spaces for sleeping, pleasure, producon and distribuon, alleviang the ground free for traffic and public meengs.

“One day we will construct cies made from the derive”


Data Definion Within The Derive Method

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Influences of the Derive

Entries from My Tunstall blog

Method Aer taking influence from the work of the Situaonists, and their way of mapping and recording a derive, the following dra methodology was tested out on an area of Hulme, Manchester. Inial desktop research into the designated Stoke-on-Trent town of Tunstall had revealed a local blog entled ‘MyTunstall’ [hp:// mytunstall.co.uk/]. This source was interesng as it contained local views and comments of specific incidents and acvies by local residents.

Dra methodology

As there was no blog for the Humle area, a series of topics that occurred frequently in the MyTunstall blog, along other local data were used as a set of criteria to start mapping exercises in Hulme. The diagram below outlines how the criteria can be broken down into 4 areas of: land-use, social record, control, and crime.


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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Pracce Hulme, Manchester

Centre of Hulme

Hulme is an inner city area and electoral ward of Manchester, England. It is located immediately south of Manchester city centre, it is an area with signiďŹ cant industrial heritage. This area was chosen as a pracce site due to its varied programme (residenal, retail and green space), and its close proximity to the university. This allowed swi analysis of data collected and the opportunity for addional tesng if required. Smart Phones and notes on paper were used to record the derive as they were mobile and quick to use. Some of the mapping applicaons within the Smart Phones used provided interesng results. The process and ďŹ ndings are shown on the following pages. Residenal area in Hulme

View of Beetham Tower from Hulme Park


Data Definion Within The Derive Pracce

Context_Site idenfied that contained varied programme and realisc ‘wandering‘ distances

Grid_Grid applied to allow for comparison

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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Pracce

Actual Derive_Route taken to map site

GPS Derive_Route recorded by Smart Phone at conict with the Actual Derive

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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Pracce

Green Space_Desktop analysis of percentage of green space in each grid square, and overall percentage of green space

Crime Data_Desktop analysis ulising police.co.uk gave informaon of types and locaons of crimes. No. of crimes per grid square

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Data Definion Within The Derive Pracce

Surveillance_Physically recording posioning of surveillance equipment

An-Social Behaviour_Manually idenfied locaons and rangs of instances of graffi/vandalism and street rubbish

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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Pracce

Planning Applicaons_Number of planning applicaons made since 2009, per grid square

House Prices_Houses sold over the last 5 years and average house price per grid square

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Data Definion Within The Derive Pracce

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3D Data Layering

Conclusion Discussions aer the collecon and translaon of the above data concluded that some methods were more subjecve than others. Although, in detail, the gridding structure is very presumptuous (i.e. it is unfair to value an area that is 100m x 100m by informaon that is recorded in only 10m x 10m of that square), with the data types of crime data, planning applicaons and house prices it proves useful as these cannot be visibly recorded. Also green space can be valued by a grid square as it can be calculated from easily available aerial photographs.

Surveillance and ASB were more subjecve as it is difficult to value their severity in the case of ASB , or visual splay in surveillance. For the future data collecon it was agreed there needed to be two types of derive: a desktop derive that records invisible data i.e. stascs online; and a physical derive that maps and located and valued specific data types on the ground in-situ.


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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Tunstall Research Desktop_Context

Tunstall Town Centre

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Context Having pracced and analysed a methodology for recording a derive in Hulme, the town of Tunstall, in Stoke-on-Trent, was idenied as the research area. The town centre, and surrounding areas, were overlaid with a 250m x 250m grid derived from the OS map. This allowed for geographic comparave datasets.

Tunstall is the most northern, and fourth largest town of the Poeries. It is situated in the very north west of the city borough, with its north and west boundaries being the city limit. It stands on a ridge of land between Fowlea Brook to the west and Scoa Brook to the east, surrounded by old le making and brick making sites, some of which date back to the Middle Ages.


Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Tunstall Research

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Desktop_My Tunstall

My Tunstall The MyTustall social networking blog had, presumably, been setup to share ideas and feelings of the area, but had basically become a portal through which residents were venng their frustraon of crime and an-social behaviour in Tunstall, naming speciďŹ c locaons and incidents.

Reviewing a few of the entries, MyTunstall paints the picture that Tunstall and the surrounding area is not on eof the most desirable areas in which to live or work, and that there is a lot of an-social behaviour, vandalism and crime. However, site visits showed Tunstall to be a busy lile market town that seemed pleasant.

The website allows residents and companies to adverse things, but the most acvity seems to take place in the blog. It currently contains 10,150 entries and is separated into 38 forums.

The Word Cloud below, of the ďŹ rst few pages of the forum, illustrates the reoccurring themes.

My Tunstall Word Cloud


Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Tunstall Research Desktop_Crime Data

Crime Data Having used the police.co.uk website to get an accurate locaon of crimes and category in Hulme, this source also provides an interesng overview of Stoke-on-Trent and Tunstall. The interacve map on the website allows for street by street informaon on types of crime and volume. At a larger scale, in comparing it with other post-industrial towns, Stoke-on-Trent is shown to have the smallest number of crimes per populaon, and per person. Of the crimes that are commied, the majority are ASB related. Breaking down the crimes into the six towns and looking at the types of crimes, Tunstall is about equal with Burslem, Fenton and Longton. Finally looking at the six categories of Robbery, Vehicle Crime, ASB, Burglary, Violent Crimes, and Other Crimes, Tunstall is prodiminantly aected by ASB and Other Crimes.

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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Tunstall Research

Police.co.uk crime data for Tunstall

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Data Definion Within The Derive Tunstall Research Physical_Interview with PC Clarke

“not fiddling the crime if you like, but being invenve”

“it’s probably about half a dozen individuals at any one me who are comming 80-90% of all the crime”

“20 years ago there would be about 6 to 7 burglaries a day in Tunstall... Whereas now we probably get 1 burglary every 2 to 3 days in the whole of Stoke-on-Trent”

Interview with PC Clarke One parcular site visit led to an interview with local PC Sergeant Paul Clarke, a member of the Neighbourhood Policing Team. PC Clarke was able to provide detailed locaons of problemac areas with regards to crime and ASB, as well as areas that were most desirable to live in. This gave an overall insight into the layout, acvies and demographics of the town. This insight was used as the locaon for the group’s methodology. PC Clarke also discussed how crime, compared to twenty years ago, had reduced dramacally. He highlighted that the problems that do remain involve mainly an-social behaviour, burglary, and vehicle crime and how they are located around the town. Also discussed was the slow turnaround of police data and recording of incidents, to officers on the beat. In a technology age where the police are able to have informaon on police.co.uk, it sll takes them over 24hrs to report informaon back to officers. Within all this there is no real strong link with the public. In the conclusion of the interview, PC Clarke did highlight how it was only really a handful of people actually causing the trouble.

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Data Definion Within The Derive Tunstall Research

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Map Findings Most Crime_worst first [RED] • D3 • D4 • H4 • G4 • F7 Also Williamson Street is located. This is the street the Crime Data located as the most crime-ridden street in Tunstall.

Most ASB_worst first [GREEN] • E5 • Town Centre area • Memorial Garden • Tunstall Park area

Most Desirable_most first [BLUE] • F4 • F5 • G3


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Data Definion Within The Derive Tunstall Research Physical_Interview with PC Clarke

Fear + Space front cover

Process Again the map would be gridded into 250m x 250m square that allow for fair comparison.

Desktop Data Collecon •

Levels of detail would vary due to me and resources. It is unrealisc to visit and record every street in the town. Scales of invesgaon would be applied. The areas that PC Clarke had idenfied as the: Most Crime [D3], Most An-Social [E5], and Most Desirable [F5], along with a Town Centre would be mapped in a similar way to that of the Hulme derive. Using a similar analysis to how recording is carried out in the book Fear & Space, a map will be able to be drawn of how crime-ridden, or not, an area is. Two types of data collecon were to be used: desktop and physical recording. Due to me and manpower restricons it was unrealisc to aempt to carry out a physical analysis of the whole town, so, similarly to Hulme, Tunstall was divided into grid squares.

Collecng views of MyTunstall bloggers, idenfying areas and issues, assigning those to grid squares Crime stascs on the police website, assigning those to grid squares

Physical Data Collecon • • • • • • • • •

Derive, route walked Regulated boundaries Private barriers ATM fear space Blind zones Street lights Vandalism Rubbish Surveillance

Extract from Fear + Space


Data Definion Within The Derive Tunstall Research Queson

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RESEARCH QUESTION_ HOW SERIOUS IS CRIME IN TUNSTALL?

Having produced a research overview of the area of Tunstall, a methodology had to be devised to allow physical recording to take place and a conclusion to be drawn. MyTunstall described almost as a warzone with young yobs running wild. The Crime Data highlighted that Stoke-on-Trent, and Tunstall in parcular, were average if not less than average when it came to having issues with crime. PC Clarke idenfied there are problems in the area and that these issues are ongoing, but it isn’t as bad as it used to be.

These three sources gave differing views on the percepon of crime within Tunstall. All can be seen to be subjecve in their own right, so an overall comparison of the three data sets would be the most accurate. That is what would be invesgated: HOW SERIOUS IS CRIME IN TUNSTALL? The process and findings are shown on the following pages.


Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Record Town Centre

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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Record

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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Record D3_Most Crime

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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Record

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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Record E5_Most An-Social Behaviour

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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Record

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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Record F4_Most Desirable

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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Record

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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Translaon

Crimescapes Having collected all the data from the three areas of: MyTunstall, Crime Data, and PC Clarke, crimescapes could now be constructed to observe the results and drawing comparisons.

The following four pages display three dierent datasets: 1. 2. 3.

Town Centre Crimescape_ Frequency Layer Diagram_ Crime Data by Sheet Town Centre Crimescape_ Frequency Layer Diagram_ Site Survey Data Tunstall Crimescape


Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Translaon Frequency Layer Diagram_Crime Data by Sheet

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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Translaon Frequency Layer Diagram_Site Survey Data

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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Translaon Tunstall Crimescape

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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Translaon

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Data Definion Within The Derive Configure

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Conclusion Town Centre Crimescape_Frequency Layer Diagram_Crime Data by Sheet This crimescape illustrates the types of crimes that happen on various streets within the town centre. The most acve areas are along Scoa Road and around Tower Square. Scoa Road is alongside a large shopping complex so there is an argument that these figures relate to acvies within the shopping complex. Tower Square is in front of the Market Hall and is where PC Clarke reported the largest amount of ASB. Town Centre Crimescape_Frequency Layer Diagram_Site Survey Data This crimescape illustrates the control elements on various streets within the town centre. The most acve areas are along Scoa Road the roundabout to the north of the centre and along the A50. The high amount of street lights is to be expected due to the roads. The surveillance equipment used in this area is large CCTV cameras that are used to monitor traffic as well as pedestrian acvity. PC Clarke informed students that these cameras are operated by a control room in Hanley by the council, and not the police. The next most acve area in terms of these elements is around Tower Square.

Tunstall Crimescape All the data that was collected was compiled in to a spreadsheet that allowed informaon for every grid square to be overlaid on top of one another. Before being compiled into the final ‘Combined Stats’, the three areas of research: ‘Crime Stats’, ’PC Clarke Stats’, and ‘MyTunstall Stats’, were anaylsed. ‘Crime Stats’ showed high areas of crime along Williamson Street [F7,F8] to the south east of the Town Centre. This is an interesng area as there are a variety of different programmes to the north and south of the road. To the north is the shopping complex and open car park, and to the south there is mixed industrial units and parks, with residenal areas in between. The grid square of D3 stands out dramacally as well. This is also a slightly mixed programme area with industrial land [used and vacant] dispersed among housing. This area was idenfied by PC Clarke as a High Crime grid square because of alcoholism, burglary and, at one point, murder. There is also slight amount of acvity in the Town Centre which could be expected due to the retail aspect and high fooall.


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Data Definion Within The Derive Configure

Summary ’PC Clarke Stats’ illustrate the large map of Tunstall shown a few pages prior to this. The main areas of crime are D3,D4 [residenal and some vacant industrial], and H4 [Tunstall Park]. ‘MyTunstall Stats’ differ slightly from the previous two datasets, in that D2 and D3 are prominent, but also the adjacent grid squares of C2 and C3 are elevated. This dataset is gathered from the comments in the MyTunstall forums so it is very direct in some instances and can be considered very subjecve. Unlike the other two crimescapes all grid points have some sort of value. This is due to some comments not being specific about an exact locaon. In that instance every grid square acquires a value. ‘Combined Stats’ compiles all three datascapes to produce an overall picture of the high crime areas in Tunstall. With only a slight prominence of acvity within the Town Centre, there is a the overriding presence of D3 looming above the other peaks. This proves conclusive that D3 is definitely an area for further invesgaon.

In answer to the queson ‘How serious is crime in Tunstall?’, is that it isn’t that serious. Stoke-on-Trent itself features very low compared to other contemporary, post-industrial towns and cies with regards a problemac crime situaon. Within that low crime value, Tunstall sits on average if not one of the lowest in terms of crime issues. At a more inmate level, mainly through the evidence of PC Clarke, the MY Tunstall forums, and site visits, it is noceable that there is a tension in the area of D3. The following first image depicts the percepon of Tunstall through the eyes of someone observing the comments of the MyTunstall bloggers, whereas the second image is the reality of Tunstall: an average town with some areas of an-social behaviour, drunks and vehicle crime, just like any other town. As well as the occasional youth whizzing around on a mini moto and some broken glass from a Lambrini bole on the play park.


Data Definion Within The Derive Configure My Tunstall’s Percepon of Tunstall


Data Definion Within The Derive Configure The Reality of Tunstall


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Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Installaon QR Barcodes

QR Barcode applicaons


Data Definion Within The Derive Installaon

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QR Barcodes

QR Barcode installaon

Smart Phone App As part of the Data Definion brief, students were required to work towards an installaon that records and presents findings of the exploraons in an abstract way that has geo-spaal associaon and locaonal characteriscs.

Members of the public would find these QR Barcodes around Tunstall and, upon scanning them, would be linked to a webpage that would display their locaon. They would then choose one of two opons: ’an-derive game’ or the ‘variable route finder’.

QR Barcodes were chosen as a medium through which to present the data already collected.

The ‘variable route finder’ allows users to view the crime stats of the street they are on, choose an end point on the map, then select a set of criteria that would guide them to the end point via the highest or lowest aributes chosen. They would then scan QR codes they came across along the way to ensure they are heading in the right direcon.

History and Technology QR Barcode is abbreviated from Quick Response code. It is a type of matrix barcode (two dimensional code) that was first introduced in the automove industry to track vehicles during the manufacturing process. It was designed to be decoded at high speed and is created on a 31x31 grid using only black pixels on a white background. One great advantage of using QR Barcodes is their ability to store large amounts of elctronic data. QR barcodes are being used more and more in everyday life as adversing and sharing informaon. All Smart Phones can download applicaons that allow them to decode the code. The codes then to link to websites or simply reveal a word. The group wanted to take this a step further by using this technology in a feedback loop with police, so the public would be able to record, and be aware of, crime. Methodology The datasets already collected were in were in two formats: 1. Per grid square; 2. Per street. Both contained informaon about crime, surveillance, rubbish, vandalism, and fear spaces about these 250m x 250m grids, or streets. This data was compiled from MyTunstall anaylsis, Crime Data on the police.co.uk website, and the PC Clarke interview. As a methodology for an installaon, the group proposed an applicaon for Smart Phones.

The ’an-derive game’ works in a similar way to the ‘variable route finder’, apart from it is at a gridded scale rather than a street scale. Whereas the ‘variable route finder’ selects appropriate streets to traverse depending on the users criteria, the ’an-derive game’ allows a lot more freedom, hence ‘derive’. Upon selecng and valuing your desired criteria, the user would only given the direcon of the next square and have to find the next QR code. As part of a feedback loop, users are able to post comments or report crimes that have happened, geo-tagging them as they go to build up a dataset of local informaon. There would be some subjecvity in the feedback given, and a certain amount of monitoring would be required to ensure the system is being used correctly, but ulmately this Smart Phone App allows users to view live crime stats of the area they are in. This would allow people to get home via the safest route possible but also allow users to explore a town as a digitally enabled Situaonist. Manufacture & Installaon As an installaon, QR Barcodes were screen printed onto ceramic les and then aached to points in the centre of these grid squares or on street signs.


Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Installaon Manufacture

60


[re_map]_tunstall variable route finder


[re_map]_tunstall anti-derive game


Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Installaon

66


Data DeďŹ nion Within The Derive Installaon

67


INFRASTRUCTURAL URBANISM


Infrastructural Urbanism Brief

70

“Infrastructural work recognises the collecve nature of the city and allows for the parcipaon of mulple authors. Infrastructures give direcon to future work in the city not by the establishment of rules or codes (top-down), but by fixing points of service, access, and structure (boomup). Infrastructure creates a directed field where different architects and designers can contribute, but it sets technical and instrumental limits to their work. Infrastructure itself works strategically, but it encourages taccal improvisaon.”

[Stan Allen, Infrastructural Urbanism]

Brief In November 2011, the following brief was issued to students:

“Following on from Data Derive, you should now have a plaorm of inial research and contextual data upon which you can begin to develop themac inquiry. Using the data you will discover and record along with addional contextual research and datasets you will be in a posion to iniate concepts, themes and strategies, leading to a thesis proposal for the re_programming of landscape and a clear definion of your theorecal posion.”

[Richard Brook and Nick Dunn. 2011]


71

Infrastructural Urbanism Response

Response The conclusion of the previous secon was that Tunstall suers from an average or low amount of crime in comparison to the other towns in Stoke-on-Trent. This secon will analyse Stokeon-Trent from the wider perspecve of economics and transport infrastructure at a naonal and global level. By reviewing the work of Cedric Price’s Poeries Thinkbelt and ulising current government economic models, this secon will conclude by proposing a masterplan from which an architectural intervenon, improving Stoke-on-Trent’s urban infrastructure can be developed.


72

Infrastructural Urbanism Transport Transport Following a site visit to some of the developing staons involved in London’s Crossrail project, a study into the effects a similar large scale infrastructure project, High Speed Rail, would have on Stoke-on-Trent was carried out. High Speed Rail Building on the success of High Speed 1, which provides highspeed internaonal and domesc rail services between the Channel Tunnel and London St Pancras, there is a compelling case for developing a naonal HSR network to serve all of Britain. Mainline Europe currently boasts 3,480 miles of high-speed railway lines with a further 2,160 miles under construcon and 5,280 more miles planned for the future. Britain, meanwhile, has just 68 miles of high-speed lines in operaon.

High Speed Rail Logo

The UK’s infrastructure is the driver for its economic prosperity. “One third of the UK’s populaon live in cies and many millions more commute into them every day” “London and the cies involved in HSR:UK generate 55 % of naonal wealth” High Speed 1 was the first phase in Britain’s contemporary rail system. The second phase, HS2, to be completed in 2026, is the route from London Euston to Birmingham. There are also HS3, HR4, and HS5 planned to reach Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield, Newcastle, Glasgow and Edinburgh. One of two addional stops between Birmingham and Manchester is Stokeon-Trent. This connecon with London will have a significant impact on Stoke-on-Trent.

The diagram to the immediate right shows how it can currently take up to 3hrs 18mins to get from a house in Tunstall to an office in London Euston aiming to get to work for 9:00am [which isn’t currently possible]. At its quickest, the journey can take 1hr 50mins, but this is unlikely to increase anymore due to the capacity of the current train infrastructure. With HSR, Tunstall is now comparable to commuter towns such as Eastleigh, Whilesford, Mistley, Southminster, Snodland, and

Current mes

Stoke-on-Trent to London / London to Stoke-on-Trent With the introducon of the High Speed network in Britain many cies are brought closer together. London Euston Staon is now only a 1hr 30mins commute from Tunstall. Reversely Tunstall is only 1hr 30mins from London Euston and even closer to major northern cies.

High Speed Rail proposed routes and journey mes

Proposed mes

Benefits Some of the benefits that will be realised by the biggest change the UK railways have seen in 60 years are that it will free up exisng west coast lines for more freight and local services and allowing travellers to reach their desnaons more efficiently and swily. This will allow people to give up their cars on long distance travels, resulng in 3.8 million fewer vehicle journeys. The dramacally cut journey mes, and the provision of vital connecvity, will boost Britain’s economic compeveness and shrink the northsouth divide. The new railway would travel at speeds of up to 200 mph, along 1,500 miles of rail, and passengers would be able to get from Glasgow to London in just 2hr 16 minutes, while also serving Manchester and Birmingham.


73

Infrastructural Urbanism Transport

1hr 30 minute commute from London

Hollingbourne. Although the distances are dramacally different, Tunstall is over twice as far away from London as Eastliegh is, the travel mes are exactly the same. This opens up the more affordable housing market of Stokeon-Trent to City commuters. The average house price of the six exisng London commuter towns is £252,785, compare this to the £115,545 of Tunstall, this is a difference of £137,240. This infrastructural introducon gives a new presence to Stoke in the fact that it is now well connected to the north as well the south. Already located in the centre of Britain, HSR allows Stoke-on-Trent to achieve the benefits of being incredibly well connected by road and rail. Poeries Loop Line The Poeries Loop Line was a railway line that served several towns in Stoke-on-Trent. It was built by the North Staffordshire Railway off its main line (nowadays referred to as the Manchester branch of the West Coast Main Line via Stoke). It was opened in many short secons due to the cost of railway construcon during the 1870s and connued to serve the populaon of Stoke-on-Trent up unl the 1920s, when the line began to fall vicm to road compeon. The Poeries Loop Line was a very short line, which assumed great importance with increasing local developments. Schemes for the Loop Line were influenced and affected by the plans of other companies in the world outside Staffordshire who wished to gain access to the industrial riches of the Poeries. Nowadays the enre track has been exhumed, old staons have been built over and in some cases the old route has been intersected with the construcon of industrial units. The majority of the Loop Line route is sll open, and there is definite potenal to revitalise this route to create direct links between the 6 major towns. A current line would have to use the road at points but it is suitable for a Light Rapid Transport system.

1902 Loop Line Route


74

Infrastructural Urbanism Transport Stoke-on-Trent Connecvity caldon canal mersey canal

With Stoke-on-Trent becoming a High Speed Rail staon between Manchester and Birmingham, revitalising the Poeries Loop Line and extending the PLL along exisng embankments of the current rail line, the area is now directly connected to London in Journey mes that are comparable with major commuter towns in the South East. This infrastructural connecvity couple with low house prices and building rates makes Stoke-on-Trent very appealing to investors.

trent and mersey canal

Canals national cycle network

Staordshire [Stoke-on-Trent]

Cycling

Boundary

tunstall

burslem

hanley

stoke fenton

longton

Poeries Loop Line

6 Towns a50

m6

a500

m6

a50

a500

m6

Poeries Loop Line extension

Roads crewe

alsager

kidsgrove

longport

stoke -ontrent

stoke -ontrent

longton

blythe bridge

wedgewood

Rail

High Speed Rail


75

Infrastructural Urbanism Transport

  











    


76

Infrastructural Urbanism Transport

crewe

high speed rail stoke-on-trent boundary towns rail rail station road canals national cycle route loop line loop line extension loop line station

alsager


77

Infrastructural Urbanism Transport

kidsgrove

tunstall

burslem longport

hanley

stoke

fenton

longton

blythe bridge

wedgewood


78

Infrastructural Urbanism Economy

BRIC Economies

Economy Having established that Stoke-on-Trent has the potenal to be well connected from an infrastructural perspecve, its current economic situaon, and the UK as a whole, is currently on the decline rendering it an area of low interest for investment. Following the banking crisis of 2008 the UK’s economy is such that: • • • • • • •

Large numbers of unemployed high-skilled people Deprived neighbourhoods Companies are unwilling and unable to invest Government debt at record of £1tn High Street casuales: Peacocks, Thorntons, and HMV UK inflaon rate falls to 4.2% Rising prices: food and drink, housing and services, public transport

The once prosperous industrial economy of the UK has a falling GDP, and the emerging markets of Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) are rapidly dominang the producon of manufactured goods around the globe.

“UK economic acvity shrank by 0.2% in the last three months of 2011” [ONS]


79

Infrastructural Urbanism Economy

Derelict industrial buildings

Local Negaves At a more regional level, policies indicate that Stoke-on-Trent has the following underlying negave connotaons that are resulng in a lack of interest and investment by companies and families. • • • • • • • •

Out migraon and commung outside the area Large number of high-skilled unemployed Aging populaon (55% are either <20, <60, or a parent and unemployed) Poor life expectancy Low or falling GPD Poor producvity Low levels of investment Low levels of educaon

“In the Poeries we are well acquainted with high street problems: we have them, but mulplied by six” “Compared with the rest of the UK, the plan area, the City of Stoke-on-Trent in parcular, lags behind on almost every economic indicator” [Adopted Core Spaal Strategy 2009]


80

Infrastructural Urbanism Economy

Employment incenves

Challenges Policies such as the Adopted Core Spaal Strategy 2009 have set out a number of challenges to focus on with the aim of creang a more desirable locaon. • • • •

Increase employment in higher value jobs Aract new investors Enjoyable desnaon Revitalise the economy

“new development in locaons easily accessible by healthy modes of transport, creang aracve and sustainable places in which to live and work” “Economic prosperity has a direct bearing on our quality of life” [Adopted Core Spaal Strategy 2009]


81

Infrastructural Urbanism Economy

“Stoke-On-Trent is the most cost-compeve place to set up a new UK Business” [KPMG]

Contemporary bespoke and mass-produced ceramics

Aractors

Summary

Stoke-on-Trent currently has many exisng aractors that local councils are looking to capitalise on to bring in outside investment. • The Poeries_Sll the centre of the Brish ceramic industry, largest clay producer in the world • Natural recreaonal surroundings_The Peak District and Naonal Cycle Networks • Tourism_canals_10,000 boats a year • Rich historic landscape including_250 listed buildings 23 conservaon areas, and 5 historic parks and gardens • Affordable housing • Geographically well connected • Centre for distribuon • Two universies (one with a medical school and science park) • Compeve labour and land costs

Currently there are many issues with the area that are leading it to be characterless and deprived. This is a far cry from the hustle and bustle of the once world renowned centre of ceramics. There are many policy documents that strive to get Stoke-on-Trent and the surrounding areas to be a more desirable locaon for companies and families to move to. The exisng aractors offer a rich surrounding to this post-industrial city. This thesis will now look to strategies and iniaves at a naonal level to help develop the economy.


82

Infrastructural Urbanism Economy

Local Enterprise Partnerships

Local Enterprise Partnerships

Enterprise Zones

By abolishing Regional Development Agencies and replacing them with Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEP), the Government has embarked on a radical reform programme that allows these LEPs to act decisively and increase prosperity.

Enterprise Zone overview: • Public/private iniave • Increasing employment • Improving economic performance in an area • Commitment to localism • Discount rates and TAX increment financing for businesses • Fast-stream planning via Local evelopment Orders • Superfast broadband

Local enterprise partnerships are led by local authories and businesses across natural economic areas. They provide the vision, knowledge and strategic leadership needed to drive sustainable private sector growth and job creaon in their area. The budget 2011 announced that Government would establish 21 new Enterprise Zones in LEP areas. The core offer for businesses in the Zone is around simplified planning and business rates discounts, with Zones having the potenal to develop innovave soluons to address the specific local economic challenges.


Infrastructural Urbanism Economy

83

Stoke-on-Trent + Staffordshire Proposed Enterprise Zone Sites

Stoke-on-Trent + Staffordshire Enterprise Zone The North Staffordshire Enterprise Zone (NSEZ) is at the heart of the LEP’s drive to aract new business to invest, encourage new business formaon and to smulate workforce skills and aspiraons. The NSEZ will boost local economic growth through: Delivering highly targeted, sector-specific investor support •

• • • •

Catering for the full range of business needs, from micro-businesses to large logiscs operaons on easily accessible sites all close to the M6 Motorway and the heart of the UK economy Potenally creang 9386 jobs by April 2015 Providing packages of investment incenves Linking directly to the naonal job creaon drive

“The Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP) is dedicated to transforming the local economy by creang a dynamic entrepreneurial culture and removing barriers to job creaon.” [LEP]


84

Infrastructural Urbanism Economy

View from Poeries rail line

Adaptable units

Poeries Thinkbelt_Gantry cranes in acon

Poeries Thinkbelt_Cedric Price The Poeries Thinkbelt was a seriously considered project by Cedric Price in the 1970s for revitalizing the educaonal and industrial infrastructure of northern Staffordshire. By the 1960s the Poeries had fallen into ruin and rust, the vicm of rising costs and foreign compeon. Price’s Poeries Thinkbelt was a plan to convert a region of Britain’s once-thriving industrial heartland into a one hundred square mile think-tank, recuperang derelict industrial sites and railways as the basic infrastructure for a new “educaonal industry”, in part to stem the de of the “Brain Drain”. Like many industries in England, the coal and ceramics industries of North Staffordshire had fallen on hard mes aer the Second World War, and by the 1960s, the Poeries was a ruined industrial landscape. These condions were repeated in scores of industrial centres throughout Britain. Price sought to re-establish the North Staffordshire Poeries as a centre of science and emerging technologies, much as it had been during the Industrial Revoluon. He envisioned his Poeries Thinkbelt as a wholesale conversion of England’s rusng industrial infrastructure into a new “industry” of technical educaon and scienfic research, focusing on praccal applicaons.

Despite the promises of post-war educaonal reform by both the Labour and Conservave governments, Brish higher educaon in the post-war years was sll largely associated with presge, high social status, and the classics, lagging far behind Western Europe and the United States in research opportunies and technical training. Price coined the neologism “Thinkbelt” to describe the educaonal orientaon as well as the regional scale of his project, describing it as ‘… a kind of cross between Berkeley in California and a College of Advanced Technology’, for twenty thousand students. He hoped that his Poeries Thinkbelt would help to break down the tradional wall between “pure” and “applied” science and technology, lure sciensts and technologists back to Britain, and help to put the naon at the forefront of advanced technologies. His plan for the Poeries Thinkbelt was to ulize the abandoned rail network of the Poeries as the infrastructure of his new think tank. Using the technologies of prefabricaon and containerized shipping, he designed mobile, rail-mounted classrooms, computer, and data storage modules, laboratories, lecture, and demonstraon halls, which would shunt constantly from place to place along the refurbished railway lines.


85

Infrastructural Urbanism Economy

Poeries Thinkbelt Proposion

There were three large “transfer areas” in the Poeries Thinkbelt. In addion to providing residenal “Accommodaon Towers”, social spaces, teaching facilies, and administrave areas, large gantry and radial cranes would handle the rearrangement of variable funcon mobile units in the “Faculty Zone” from and to the adjacent rail lines. In all, there were to be thirty two thousand living units. Like the mobile teaching units, the housing modules could be moved around and rearranged by cranes and rail as the program changed over me. Students could leave their homes in the morning, board the mobile classrooms, and learn while their classroom moved along the PTB rail circuit, from a demonstraon laboratory, to a model factory, to an experimental staon, returning back to their modular homes at the end of the day. In the Poeries Thinkbelt, Price enlarged on the improvisaonal, adaptable model of architecture he had first explored in the Fun Palace to create a landscape of constant change and acvity, more like an electronic circuit than a stac building. His redeployment of the ruined industrial landscape of the Poeries was a microcosm of his vision for architecture and for the future of Britain (a radical departure from the stolid monuments of

tradional universies or the new “Redbrick” schools), offering new models of economic, educaonal, and social development within an acve architectural matrix far more extensive than that of the Fun Palace. Like the Fun Palace, the Poeries Thinkbelt was never realized. Price had never idenfied a client for the “Thinkbelt” and his proposal failed to aract much more than bemused interest.

Fun Palace


86

Infrastructural Urbanism Masterplan

New Proposed Enterprise Zone_Linear formaon conneceted by the redeveloped Loop Line

Masterplan

New Proposed Enterprise Zone

This thesis suggests that the current Enterprise Zone proposal for Stoke-on-Trent does not embed itself into the community enough. The Date Definion Within The Derive secon highlighted that the urban areas are where the problems of crime and ansocial behaviour are. This thesis sees the development of EZ sites within current urban areas, on derelict industrial sites, as a way of bringing up the community and economic reputaon of Stokeon-Trent.

The current case for an Enterprise Zone in Stoke-on-Trent proposes three sites for development. This masterplan distributes this same amount of area to sites that are closure to urban areas and focussed around the proposed Loop Line Light Rapid Transport rail line. This will allow seamless integraon for all towns to be connected to naonal infrastructure when High Speed Rail is completed.

Having idenfied that Stoke-on-Trent is one of the most cost effecve places to set up a UK business, ulising the Government’s EZ iniave and centring and linking areas around redeveloped infrastructure, similar to the Poeries Thinkbelt, the following masterplan is proposed.

The criteria for an Enterprise Zone are to provide between 50 – 150 hectares of development on either green or brownfield land. The new proposal provides 82.1 hectares of development on solely brownfield locaons. The current proposal centres its case around a three pronged approach to economic development: Knowledge + Intelligence, Manufacturing + Development, and Industrial + Logiscal. These disciplines will be allocated to sites that suit the required space, access, and potenal expansion aributes. This thesis will now proceed to develop one of these sites with the aim of producing an architectural intervenon to that will be a catalyst for the re_building of Stoke-on-Trent economy.


87

Infrastructural Urbanism Masterplan

Tunstall

Burslem

Hanley

Knowledge Based Enterprise, Intelligence Synergies and Skill

Enterprise Zone

General Manufacturing and Industrial Development

Stoke

General Industrial and Logis c Uses

Fenton

Longton

New proposed Enterprise Zone programme split betweeen the 6 towns

Tunstall

0.7 hectares

Burslem

2.7 hectares

Hanley

4.5 hectares

Stoke

55 hectares

Fenton

13.8 hectares

Longton

5.4 hectares


TUNSTALL ENTERPRISE PALACE


90

Tunstall Enterprise Palace Descripon/SIte Selecon Descripon Tunstall Enterprise Palace is the knowledge base and skill centre for Stoke-on-Trent. Ulising the Governments current Enterprise Zone iniave, that allows areas with real potenal to create the new business and jobs they need, The Tunstall Enterprise Palace incorporates a flexible and expandable office layout that can accommodate all types of start-up and current small-scale businesses, whilst providing a venue for local producons and performances. The palace is designed as a system that can be picked up and played out anywhere. This is similar to the concept of Archigram’s Walking City, where massive mobile roboc structures, with their own intelligence, could freely roam the world, responding to wherever their resources or manufacturing abilies were needed. The Palace is comprised of contextual and non-contextual/generic elements. In this case the contextual element is the auditorium, and the generic element is the office space. The office space would incorporate an adaptable layout much like the flexible internal arrangement of the Pompidou Centre. The spaces can be arranged to suit the changing needs of its occupants.

Archigram_Walking City. 1964

Renzo Piano + Richard Rogers_Pompidou Centre. 1977

Site Selcon Site_01

Due to previous invesgaon and analysis of the area, Tunstall has been chosen as the location for a proposed intervention. As the masterplan previously illustrated, the Tunstall site will be one of two centres for Knowledge Based Enterprise and Intelligence Synergies + Skills, the other site in Burslem.

Site_02

Four sites were inially considered for development in Tunstall. Site_01 is open park land between residenal selements and a small industrial estate. It is not close to the town centre and is relavely difficult to access. Site_02 is located on the periphery of grid square D3, idenfied as the most crime-ridden area in Tunstall. Similarly to the previous site, it is surrounded by industry and housings. It is also not directly adjacent to the loop line meaning connecons would have to be built addional. Site_03 is at the juncon of what were two rail lines in between residenal areas. Although it is directly next to/on top of the loop line, it lacks direct connecons to main arterial routes and the town centre. Site_04 was deemed the most appropriate locaon for development because of its central locaon within the town, access links to infrastructure, and the mixed-use programme that surrounds the site.

Site_03

Site_04

Considered sites in Tunstall

Development sketches_Working with topography


91

Tunstall Enterprise Palace SIte Inial Programme Organisaon

Buildings

The surrounding neighbourhood programme is such that the building is a bridge between a residenal area and the large retail area of the town, as well as a staon for the Loop Line. By separang the building into 4 primary spaces, and all accessible to a service core, the building is able to have an area for start-up businesses separate from the public realm and the funcons of the LRT staon.

Town Centre Contours Primary Roads Secondary Roads Loop Line Site

Programme Tunstall

Burslem

Hanley

Knowledge Based Enterprise, Intelligence Synergies and Skill

Enterprise Zone

General Manufacturing and Industrial Development

Stoke

General Industrial and Logisc Uses

Fenton

0m

N

100

200 Longton

Physical Site Analysis

P T

Shower

Kiosk

Retail

WC

Informaon / Recepon

Lounge Area

Parking

Staff Room

Cafe / Resturant

Cycle Storage

Control Room

Waing Room

Taxi Rank

Security

Training / Meeng / Interview Room

Bus Stop

Storage

Conference Centre

Escalator

Wireless

Gallery / Exhibion

P

T

P

T

Community Facilies

Auditorium

P

Start-up Business Centre

Tram Plaorm

Green Space

Library

Li

Prinng

Office Space

Stairs

Workshop

Start-up Units

P

Key

Community facilies

T T

Loop Line Staon

Auditorium

Office units

Light Rapid Transport staon

Auditorium Start-Up Units Community Facilies Loop Line Staon Service Core Loop Line

Schemac diagram_Ground floor

Schemac diagram_First floor

Relaonship diagram


92

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BDACC

BDACC_01

BDACC_02a

Building Design + Climate Change SITE ANALYSIS Liverpool

Longditude_53.1o

Latude_-2.2o

Macro + Meso Scale Programme Following the banking crisis of 2008 the UK is in a situaon of economic struggle. There are large numbers of unemployed highskilled people, deprived neighbourhoods, and companies are unwilling and unable invest. One of the ways the current Government is addressing these issues, and trying to secure economic growth, is to increase the collaboraon between private businesses, the public sector and communies. Enterprise Zones (EZ) run by Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEP) area the medium through which this economic change will occur. The Stoke-onTrent EZ is spread over 6 sites within the county. Each site contains economic acvies that are speci cally suited to their surroundings and aimed at developing the local economy whilst increasing employment. These 6 sites are linked by the Loop Line Light Rapid Transport.

Birmingham

Solar Analysis_Summer Solsce

Annual Wind Frequency

Solar Winter Solsce

Solar Analysis_Equinox

History

A50

Stoke-on-Trent, also known as The Poeries, is a unique city in England that is comprised of the following six district towns: Tunstall, Burslem, Hanley, Stoke, Fenton and Longton. Situated in Staffordshire in the West midlands, this polynuclaic formaon of towns is located along the River Trent and, according to 2007 esmates, has a populaon of around 239,700. Stoke-on-Trent’s wealth grew dramacally from the 17th Century onwards due to the success of many industrial-scale poery manufacturing companies such as Royal Doulton, Dudson Ltd, Spode, and Wedgewood. The local abundance of coal and clay suitable for earthenware producon led to the early (inially limited) development of the poery industry.

Hanley

M6 A50

Longton

The main idea behind AME is to re-create a small world where different companies can develop themselves and get bigger, on the periphery of the city for the next 20 years.

Burslem

Hanley

The building enables many companies, each with their own singularity and size, to work outside all year long in a friendly environment. For a monthly subscripon, AME allows its occupants to share services such as printroom, kitchen, meengs room and recepon.

Knowledge Based Enterprise, Intelligence Synergies and Skill

Enterprise Zone

General Manufacturing and Industrial Development

Stoke

The inside space is split into a common space and a forest. The common spaces carve the greenhouse in order to create signal from the outside. AME is all about wrapping plenty of enes into a bioclimac greenhouse.

General Industrial and Logisc Uses

Fenton

Macro Site Analysis









Community Facilies

Auditorium



Start-up Business Centre



Start-up Units



%"&'()& )*( "

Stoke-on-Trent is posioned in the centre on the UK. Its geographic locaon, and elevaon above sea level, results in a climate affected by a south-westerly wind and sun angle varying from 14o in the winter, to 61o in the summer. The historical emergence of the poery industry has resulted in a linear formaon to the 6 main towns and the rail and canal infrastructures echo this shape. With the increase in car usage, roads have formed their own connecons and moved away from this pattern. Although the A50 follows the north south axis, the A500 provides a connecon to the M6. With High Speed Rail proposed for compleon around 2026, and the reintroducon of the Poeries Loop Line (abandoned tram railway), the six towns are now directly connected by a Light Rapid Transport system that is efficient, sustainable and reliable.

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Loop Line Staon

Environmental 01_New Art Exchange

Ground Floor Plan

The New Art Exchange is a regional inner city arts centre devoted solely to the promoon of Black and Asian arts. The programme of the building includes; mixed-use art space; gallery; workshop; rehearsal facilies and cafe. This re ects the vibrant and culture driven atmosphere of the surrounding neighbourhoods. The building contains a naturally venlated gallery. The buildings fabric ulises a well insulated external skin constructed of brickwork punctured ulising an array of randomly located operable windows, enabling venlaon of the interior spaces. The building is able to be closed off and secured so that only certain areas can be accessed at certain mes. This allows evening entertainment in the gallery space to not interfere with the cafe.

1. Entrance 2. Cafe 3. Kitchen

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Staffordshire [Stoke-on-Trent]

Loop Line

03

Buildings

Retail

Town Centre

Industrial

Community Facilies

Auditorium

Environmental Consideraon_ Noise control required, Heang through winter, Maximising natural day light, Natural venlaon

Environmental Consideraon_ Occupants producing moisture, control, Natural venlaon

Ergonomics_ Speci c acousc requirements, Serviceable and accessible independently from rest of building

Key

First Floor

 

Loop Line

Start-Up Units

Loop Line Staon

Environmental Consideraon_ Independent thermal control, Computaonal equipment within produces heat, lighng requirements

Environmental Consideraon_ Internal / external space cold bridge

Ergonomics_ Flexible desk arrangement to suit occupants needs, Comfortable to work in

Ergonomics_ Able to operate independently from rest of building, Able to accommodate large volumes of passengers boarding and embarking the LRT Trams

Auditorium

Shower

Kiosk

Retail

WC

Informaon / Recepon

Lounge Area

Parking

Staff Room

Cafe / Resturant

Start-Up Units Public

Contours Primary Roads

04

Heang

Ergonomics_ Large, open and able to facilitate are range of community acvies

Secondary Roads

09

Served Community Facilies

Servant Private

Service Core

Served

Cycle Storage

Control Room

Waing Room

Taxi Rank

Security

Training / Meeng / Interview Room

Bus Stop

Storage

Conference Centre

Escalator

Wireless

Gallery / Exhibion

Tram Plaorm

Green Space

Library

Li

Prinng

Office Space

Loop Line Staon

Site

Loop Line

Ground Floor

Site Boundery

01

Public

10 Tunstall [Site] 08

Served Served

Public Public

Servant

Land Use_Retail + Industrial

Meso Site Analysis

Served

Residenal

At the Meso scale context, Tunstall is the most northern town of Stoke-on-Trent. There is a steady slope to the town, from North West to South East, high to low. There is a high volume of retail in the town centre and an extensive retail park. Many of the industrial poery factories remain, although most have been converted to a different use or le derelict. The residenal areas of the town are mainly located to the north. Beyond that, on all sides, is green space.

Stairs

02

• • • •

Mixed use programme Security Naturally venlated Mul-purpose rooms

Technical/Structural 01_Akademie Mont Ceris

-# $(.

High Speed Rail Proposal

Inside / outside Sustainable strategy Natural light Shared services Flexible / expandable units

Summary 4. Lobby 5. Recepon 6. Gallery

+*!$(,

Naonal Cycle Network

Stoke-on-Trent [Tunstall]

Summary • • • • •

Longton

Canals

Rail

Roads

Poly-Nuclaic Town Arrangment

Environmental 01_AME

Tunstall Start-Up Business Centre Tunstall

The Tunstall Start-Up Business Centre is the northern most EZ site and is speci cally tailored to knowledge based enterprise, intelligence synergies and skills. The surrounding neighbourhood programme is such that the building is a bridge between a residenal area and the large retail area of the town, as well as a staon for the Loop Line. The building therefore promotes both work and leisure elements. By separang the building into 4 primary spaces, and all accessible to a service core, the building is able to have an area for start-up businesses separate from the public realm and the funcons of the LRT staon.

Tunstall Burslem

Environmental 01_AME_Angers. France_Architect: WESH Environmental 02_ New Art Exchange_Nongham. UK_ Architect: Hawkins Brown Technical/Structural 01_Akademie Mont Ceris_Herne. German Technical/Structural 02_ The Sharp Project_Manchester. UK

Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Stoke-on-Trent Enterprise Zone Plan

Micro Scale Programme

A500

Stoke Fenton

Building Design + Climate Change PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Elevaon_160m a.m.s.l.

Manchester

Staffordshire [Stoke-on-Trent]

BDACC_02b

Building Design + Climate Change PROGRAMME ANALYSIS

Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Workshop

Relaonship Diagram

Vacant Site

Akademie Mont-Cenis is a training academy within the Mont-Cenis energy park and the design seamlessly combines both innovave architecture and modern solar technology. The 175x72m building has a glass roof, 12,000 square metres, that creates a “micro-climate” for the building’s interior. The roof also features integrated solar cells that produce about 700,000 kWh of energy per year. The building’s clever design means that the cells not only generate electricity but also act as a shading system. 56 spruce trunks and other rectangular wooden secons (a total of 3,475 m² of wood) form the framework for the micro-climate capsule. They are linked to one another by steel cables and nodes. Thanks to the protected climate in the hall, the wood did not have to be treated.

Summary • Roof PVs • Timber construcon • Natural climate control • Uniform grid • Truss system

Technical/Structural 02_The Sharp Project The Sharp Project is a media and studio development in, Manchester. It aims to offer affordable office space for indie media companies, digital entrepreneurs and producon companies. There are a number of places and office spaces to work within The Sharp Project which have all been created speci cally to make life easier for digital businesses to operate. They are design led and built to a high speci caon but praccal, funconal and ulmately affordable. A total of 26 shipping containers, 12 double and 14 single, have been converted into affordable glazed office units. Placed in two terrace rows they create a high street feel. They’re perfect for start-ups and SMEs who require a short term lease.

Summary • • • •

Use of container as work space Module arrangement and connecon Communal facilies High quality digital technology

Green Space

05

06

Micro Site Analysis Context_ The site is located 300m to the east of Tunstall town centre and is 7615 m2. It sits on brown eld land, previously Loop Line railway track, on the edge of terraced housing and the retail area of the town.

N

07 0m

Physical Site Analysis

100

200

Land Use_Residenal, Vacant + Green Space

Access_ There is a primary road to the north and exisng car parking that could be used to the south. The site is the nal stop for the proposed Stoke-on-Trent LRT, with the line entering the site from the south. The plaorm is yet to be designed. There are exisng walkways dividing the site, these routes will have to be considered as pedestrian access will be heavily promoted in the sustainable agenda.

N

Topography_ Slightly sloping up from south to west, the main disturbance on the site is an ally tunnel that leads under the road to the north. Surrounding Massing

View of site from south Wind + Solar + Noise_ The site is only slightly exposed to the south by a car park. To the north and east is residenal, and to the west is newly constructed healthcare and office complex. The surrounding buildings are predominantly two stories and set back from the site ensuring there is minimal over shadowing. The main noise concern is the road to the north but this is shielded by a row of trees. Material Study and Views_ Views from the site include Tunstall Roman Catholic Church to the east and the health centre to the south west. The surrounding buildings are primarily composed of locally sourced brick and the retail units are portal steel sheds.

01

06 Surrounding Materiality Study and Views

02

03

04

05

07

08

09

10 Site Access_Pedestrain + Vehicle

BDACC_03

BDACC_04

BDACC_05

Building Design + Climate Change BUILDING CASE STUDY

Building Design + Climate Change BUILDING DESCRIPTION

Building Design + Climate Change STRUCTURAL & MATERIAL CHOICE

Steve Drew, Nasar Ishfaq, Daniel Stock, Paul A Westwell Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Building Descripon Coventry University Student Enterprise Building Hawkins Brown Architects The Student Enterprise Building (SEB) is a new statement building designed to form the heart of the campus, and become fully integrated into the students daily roune ex¬perience. The SEB contains a variety of programme which consolidates the currently dispersed student support funcons, providing a ‘one-stop-shop’ for students to visit for social and informal learning needs.

8 7

Footprint

Extrude

Orientaon

Eroding

Voids

Structural Strategy

The building is primarily a start-up business centre that provides space for entrepreneurs to begin, or connue, business ventures in an environment where discussion and the sharing of skills and ideas are promoted. The building also funcons as a community hub, where local residences can socialise, learn about the emerging businesses of the community and get involved from an early age in developing their own creave skills. From an infrastructural perspecve, the building operates as an end-of-line staon for the Loop Light LRT that connects the 6 mains towns of Stoke-on-Trent: Tunstall, Burslem, Hanley, Stoke, Fenton and Longton.

9

As the units used to house the start-ups are funded by the Governments Regional Growth Fund, legacies, and rates from previously successful businesses born from the centre, there is a responsibility from entrepreneurs and businesses to feedback and showcase their ideas and successes to benefactors and the community. This takes place in the auditorium, which can also be operated independently from the rest of the building and be used as a performance venue.

Roofscape

Foundaons The foundaons of the building are a combinaon of pad and strip. Pad foundaons are used to support the individual points load taken by the structural columns of the primary structure. They are a block and stepped to spread the load from the column. Strip foundaons are used to support the service core and auditorium as these act independently from the primary structure.

A

Staon Community Facilies

Service Core

Primary Structure The primary structural system in the building is spruce trunk truss framework that allows slender members to support the cast roof that is topped with PV panels. As well as supporng the roof, this structure also provides a hanging point for start-up container units.

Auditorium

PV Roof

Staffordshire [Stoke-on-Trent]

Floor Slabs The oor slabs proposed are reinforced factory oor standard for the ground oor. The rest of the oor slabs within the service core are precast planks.

B

B

Envelope The building envelope is a glazed faced that has openings at top and boom to aid natural venlaon.

Features

Construcon and Sustainability Issues To address the issues of technical sustainability, Hawkins Brown incorporated sustainable strategic elements which culminated in achieving a BREEAM ‘excellent’ rang. The SEB ulises passive design measures to minimise the energy requirements using the inherent aributes of the building, negang the requirement for mechanical cooling, heang and venlaon. The SEB is largely naturally venlated with automated and manual window openings, reducing the peak internal temperature in summer without compromising daylight or using widespread mechanical cooling. The core concrete construcon of the building is internally exposed throughout providing thermal mass. The design does not rely on passive solar gain to reduce heang loads. The paern of intensive occupaon during the day differs from residenal paerns where passive solar heang can be more useful.

into the design strategy of the façade, allowing for future exibility within the building, providing a more sustainable and long-term design. Construcon Internal Walls_The internal facade consists of: insulaon; cavity; insulaon; acousc insulaon on sheathing board; cavity; and metal stud & lining. External Walls_The building envelope consists of a unized, ush glazed curtain walling on an anodised aluminium frame mechanically xed to the concrete slab edge. Floor Plates_Internal oors consist of in situ concrete slabs. Primary Structure_Floor slabs are supported by in situ concrete columns. Foundaons_In-Situ concrete.

Materials The facade is a key feature of the building with the principle cladding material—a unized ush glazed curtain walling system—wrapped around the building like a taut skin or hard shell. The design of the building’s façade plays a key role, not just aesthecally, but in the environmental performance of the building. The fring to the insulated panels, on the façade treatment, controls the overheang of the building through solar heat gain. Future maintenance and replacement of key components was incorporated

Security and Segregaon The building can operate independently as a LRT staon at all hours due to the posioning of the programme. The entrance and lobby acts as a buffer between the staon and the public realm. Similarly, the auditorium is able to operate as a venue for evening funcons while the rest of the building is closed. The service core is located centrally so as to serve all areas of the building. This keeps all service piping, ducng and venlaon in one locaon. The workshops are also located here.

Skin

Service Core A

Start-Up Units

Glazing Skin Ground Floor Plan

First Floor Plan

Building Line and Green Space The building sits back from the surrounding building line to draw people in and to connue the green corridor between Memorial Square and Tunstall Park. This corridor is also connued into the building, echoing the greenery of the site before development.

Internal Walls

Proposed

Future Expansion The building is programmed so that over a period of me the structural bays containing the Start-Up units and the service core can expand to the south of the site. The buildings that currently occupy these sites will be moved into the business centre or relocated. Over a 15 – 20 period the building will eventually become and business factory for the whole of Stokeon-Trent.

Floor Plates

6

5 Years

10 Years

Internal Green Space

15 Years

Glazing Supports

Cores

Independant Staon Operaon

Independant Auditorium Operaon

Green Space

Future Expansion

Environment & Energy Venlaon The building uses passive measures for cooling the spaces. Mechanical venlaon is used only where required for acousc or statutory reasons. All venlaon systems except for the commercial kitchen have heat recovery built in, to minimise winter venlaon heat loss. The Building Management System is an extension to the University’s exisng estate wide system. It operates based upon a ‘systems led by demand’ philosophy, the environment in each zone of the building is measured, and me clocks prevent the systems being le on when not needed. Heang The large glazed surfaces use a paerned frit to reduce solar gains. Fing uses a re ecve material which is laminated to the glass, increasing the insulator performance of the glass, it also ensures louvers and other systems with a high embodied energy are not needed. The surfaces maintain low U-values, the following U-Values (W/m2K) are presented for each key element; Roof 0.20, Walls 0.25, Floors 0.20, Windows and Doors 1.6, Roof lights 1.8. An open loop ground source heat pump services the retail and office spaces by opposing intermient cooling loads, this system is less CO2 intensive than a convenonal air cooled chiller. The heat pump also gives free preheat or heat to the low-temperature hotwater heang system (LTHW) when required in other

WC Seedem Roof Underground Aenuaon Tank Route of Water

5

4 Floor Plates

parts of the building. Photovoltaic solar collectors are also used, with an emphasis on serving hot water loads for the building. The electrical contribuon from PV cells is combined with the naonal grid to ensure the spaces are serviced around the year. The LTHW & PV systems are used in combinaon with gas red boilers and so the building uses a combinaon of passive and mechanical systems as and where needed. Lighng The lighng system is inherently linked to the acousc

Li Stair Core Fire Escape Route

system, perforated cylindrical steel shades surround low maintenance LED lamps to produce an even lighng system, and also reduce noise levels. The central atrium space uses hanging baffles to keep ambient noise levels bearable and light the key voids and stairs. Strip tube lights are used across the open oor plan, with mber hanging panels to channel the lighng and idenfy the work spaces. The lighng system is integrated with the building programme and oor nishes, the custom made work ‘pods’ use a ush lighng system embedded within the shell structure.

Transverse Secon_A-A Start-Up Business Units The building ulises recycled 20 shipping containers for the work spaces for the start-up businesses. There are two variables. One is the single container, ideal for individuals or a partnership. Then there is the double unit that consists of two containers welded together aer having one side of each removed. This space can accommodate 4 people comfortably.

3

Longitudinal Secon_B-B

Imposed Load on Foundaon

15 x 15m Grid Structural Grid The building is sat on a uniform15 x 15m grid. This paern is re ected in the facade of the building, with mulples of 1500 used to space the glazing panels. The square grid gives the building rigidity and allows the acvies at ground level ow freely as well as providing a light open space. Roong Composion The roof panels double up as photovoltaic cells that produce energy whilst also leng light in. They are also controlled by the building management system to respond to the heang and cooling requirements of the building.

2

Acouscs The key challenge for the acouscs system is the farefaced concrete soffit ceiling. The hard ooring surface and double glazed walling also challenge the acousc performance of the spaces. The lighng strategy aids the reducon of noise level by the use of perforated sheeng around the lamps; the so furnishings also help reduce noise level. The hard ooring is brokenup by bold coloured carpets around working and relaxing spaces.

Tunstall Loop Line LRT Staon

Ground Floor Public Realm

Socialising Outside Auditorium

Live Loads

Dead Loads

Imposed Roof Load

Loading

Auditorium & Start-Up units

Streetscape of Start-Up Units

Roo ng Structure

Single Container_1/2 Occupants

Service & Integraon Drainage & Waste Management The hub shares the service yard area with an adjacent site and allows for improved manoeuvrability for large goods vehicles and focuses all the service related acvies into one area of the site. The University speci ed 5 key areas for waste streams for recycling, due to this recycling bins are provided across the site; paper, card, plascs, boles and cans. The sedum roof enhances bio-diversity and aenuates the peak rainwater runoff from the roof. Rainwater is collected to be used for WC ushing. Surface water runoff is in line with Sustainable Urban Drainage System techniques, either in surface treatment or by discharge aenuaon.

1 All sanitary items use infrared presence detecon for acvaon, reducing potable water loss, along with dual ush WCs. Discharge drainage from the kitchen passes through a grease interceptor to prevent contaminaon of the drainage system and allow managed disposal. Legislave Framework The following regulaons relate to the requirements for the design of disposal and waste management: Building Regulaons Approved Document G – ‘Hygiene’ – the regulaons idenfy requirements for potable water used for drinking and cooking purposes, the provisions for recycled water are iden ed.

Building Regulaons Approved Document H – ‘Drainage and Waste Disposal’ – the document iden es the design and layout of foul waste drainage systems within the building. Secon H1 ‘foul water drainage’ gives speci c guidance for large developments like the Coventry Hub and H3 ‘Rainwater Drainage’ speci es the dimensions for guers and downpipes. The use of grey water is also speci ed as well as the restricons for grey water use. Fire Strategy There are 7 sets of re stair cores to be used in the event of a re. Assembly areas are located away from the building in line with these exits.

Primary Structure

Key 1 2 3 4

Exisng foundaon to wall External Flooring / bedding and levels to landscape designers Shopfront Glazing Floor trench to heang pipework and servicing

5 6 7 8 9

Glazed curtain walling system Floor trench to heang pipework and services engineer speci caon Aluminium ashing Anodized aluminium cladding to internal face of parapet Aluminium ashing coping

Double Container_4/5 Occupants

3D View of Building in Context

Foundaons


93

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BDACC

Building Design + Climate Change_BDACC The following technology report outlines ideas at an inial stage of the design process. It includes the following: • • • • • •

Site analysis Programmac breakdown Precedent invesgaons Building case study Building Descripon Structural and material choice

Note: The building is described in this document as ‘Tunstall StartUp Business Centre’. The name later changed and the building is finial known as Tunstall Enterprise Palace.


Birmingham

Manchester

Stoke-on-Trent is posioned in the centre on the UK. Its geographic locaon, and elevaon above sea level, results in a climate affected by a south-westerly wind and sun angle varying from 14o in the winter, to 61o in the summer. The historical emergence of the poery industry has resulted in a linear formaon to the 6 main towns and the rail and canal infrastructures echo this shape. With the increase in car usage, roads have formed their own connecons and moved away from this pattern. Although the A50 follows the north south axis, the A500 provides a connecon to the M6. With High Speed Rail proposed for compleon around 2026, and the reintroducon of the Poeries Loop Line (abandoned tram railway), the six towns are now directly connected by a Light Rapid Transport system that is efficient, sustainable and reliable.

Macro Site Analysis

Stoke-on-Trent, also known as The Poeries, is a unique city in England that is comprised of the following six district towns: Tunstall, Burslem, Hanley, Stoke, Fenton and Longton. Situated in Staffordshire in the West midlands, this polynuclaic formaon of towns is located along the River Trent and, according to 2007 esmates, has a populaon of around 239,700. Stoke-on-Trent’s wealth grew dramacally from the 17th Century onwards due to the success of many industrial-scale poery manufacturing companies such as Royal Doulton, Dudson Ltd, Spode, and Wedgewood. The local abundance of coal and clay suitable for earthenware producon led to the early (inially limited) development of the poery industry.

History

Staffordshire [Stoke-on-Trent]

Liverpool

Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Naonal Cycle Network

Poly-Nuclaic Town Arrangment

Longton

Stoke Fenton

Hanley

Burslem

Tunstall

Solar Analysis_Summer Solsce

Building Design + Climate Change SITE ANALYSIS

BDACC_01

High Speed Rail Proposal

Roads

M6

A500

A50

Solar Analysis_Equinox

A50

Longditude_53.1o

Loop Line

Rail

Solar Winter Solsce

Latude_-2.2o

Staffordshire [Stoke-on-Trent]

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace BDACC 94


Tunstall [Site]

Material Study and Views_ Views from the site include Tunstall Roman Catholic Church to the east and the health centre to the south west. The surrounding buildings are primarily composed of locally sourced brick and the retail units are portal steel sheds.

Wind + Solar + Noise_ The site is only slightly exposed to the south by a car park. To the north and east is residenal, and to the west is newly constructed healthcare and oďŹ&#x192;ce complex. The surrounding buildings are predominantly two stories and set back from the site ensuring there is minimal over shadowing. The main noise concern is the road to the north but this is shielded by a row of trees.

Topography_ Slightly sloping up from south to west, the main disturbance on the site is an ally tunnel that leads under the road to the north.

Access_ There is a primary road to the north and exisng car parking that could be used to the south. The site is the nal stop for the proposed Stoke-on-Trent LRT, with the line entering the site from the south. The plaorm is yet to be designed. There are exisng walkways dividing the site, these routes will have to be considered as pedestrian access will be heavily promoted in the sustainable agenda.

Context_ The site is located 300m to the east of Tunstall town centre and is 7615 m2. It sits on brown eld land, previously Loop Line railway track, on the edge of terraced housing and the retail area of the town.

Micro Site Analysis

At the Meso scale context, Tunstall is the most northern town of Stoke-on-Trent. There is a steady slope to the town, from North West to South East, high to low. There is a high volume of retail in the town centre and an extensive retail park. Many of the industrial poery factories remain, although most have been converted to a diďŹ&#x20AC;erent use or le derelict. The residenal areas of the town are mainly located to the north. Beyond that, on all sides, is green space.

Meso Site Analysis

Stoke-on-Trent [Tunstall]

01

06 Surrounding Materiality Study and Views

View of site from south

Physical Site Analysis

08

09

10

04

07

02

05 06

08

03

02

01

07

09

04

0m

03

100

N

Site

Loop Line

Secondary Roads

Primary Roads

Contours

200

Land Use_Retail + Industrial

10

05

Site Access_Pedestrain + Vehicle

Surrounding Massing

N

Land Use_Residenal, Vacant + Green Space

Green Space

Vacant Site

Residenal

Retail Industrial

Buildings Town Centre

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BDACC 95


96

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BDACC

BDACC_02a Building Design + Climate Change PROGRAMME ANALYSIS Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Macro + Meso Scale Programme Following the banking crisis of 2008 the UK is in a situaon of economic struggle. There are large numbers of unemployed highskilled people, deprived neighbourhoods, and companies are unwilling and unable invest. One of the ways the current Government is addressing these issues, and trying to secure economic growth, is to increase the collaboraon between private businesses, the public sector and communies. Enterprise Zones (EZ) run by Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEP) area the medium through which this economic change will occur. The Stoke-onTrent EZ is spread over 6 sites within the county. Each site contains economic acvies that are speci cally suited to their surroundings and aimed at developing the local economy whilst increasing employment. These 6 sites are linked by the Loop Line Light Rapid Transport.

Stoke-on-Trent Enterprise Zone Plan

Tunstall Start-Up Business Centre Tunstall

Burslem

Hanley

Knowledge Based Enterprise, Intelligence Synergies and Skill

General Manufacturing and Industrial Development

Enterprise Zone

Stoke

General Industrial and Logisc Uses

Fenton

Longton

Micro Scale Programme The Tunstall Start-Up Business Centre is the northern most EZ site and is speci cally tailored to knowledge based enterprise, intelligence synergies and skills. The surrounding neighbourhood programme is such that the building is a bridge between a residenal area and the large retail area of the town, as well as a staon for the Loop Line. The building therefore promotes both work and leisure elements. By separang the building into 4 primary spaces, and all accessible to a service core, the building is able to have an area for start-up businesses separate from the public realm and the funcons of the LRT staon.









Community Facilies

Auditorium



Start-up Business Centre



Start-up Units





Loop Line Staon

Community Facilies

Auditorium

Start-Up Units

Loop Line Staon

Environmental Consideraon_ Noise control required, Heang through winter, Maximising natural day light, Natural venlaon

Environmental Consideraon_ Occupants producing moisture, control, Natural venlaon

Environmental Consideraon_ Independent thermal control, Computaonal equipment within produces heat, lighng requirements

Environmental Consideraon_ Internal / external space cold bridge

Heang

Ergonomics_ Large, open and able to facilitate are range of community acvies

Ergonomics_ Speci c acousc requirements, Serviceable and accessible independently from rest of building

Key

First Floor Shower

Kiosk

Retail

WC

Informaon / Recepon

Lounge Area

Auditorium Start-Up Units Public

 

Parking

StaďŹ&#x20AC; Room

Served Servant

Cafe / Resturant

Private Cycle Storage

Control Room

Waing Room

Taxi Rank

Security

Training / Meeng / Interview Room

Bus Stop

Storage

Conference Centre

Escalator

Wireless

Gallery / Exhibion

Tram Plaorm

Green Space

Library

Li

Prinng

OďŹ&#x192;ce Space

Stairs

Workshop

Ergonomics_ Flexible desk arrangement to suit occupants needs, Comfortable to work in

Ergonomics_ Able to operate independently from rest of building, Able to accommodate large volumes of passengers boarding and embarking the LRT Trams

Served

Community Facilies Service Core Loop Line Staon Loop Line

Ground Floor

Site Boundery Public Public Public

Served Served Servant Served

Relaonship Diagram


97

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BDACC

BDACC_02b Building Design + Climate Change PRECEDENT ANALYSIS

Environmental 01_AME_Angers. France_Architect: WESH Environmental 02_ New Art Exchange_Nongham. UK_ Architect: Hawkins Brown Technical/Structural 01_Akademie Mont Ceris_Herne. German Technical/Structural 02_ The Sharp Project_Manchester. UK

Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Environmental 01_AME The main idea behind AME is to re-create a small world where different companies can develop themselves and get bigger, on the periphery of the city for the next 20 years. The building enables many companies, each with their own singularity and size, to work outside all year long in a friendly environment. For a monthly subscripon, AME allows its occupants to share services such as printroom, kitchen, meengs room and recepon. The inside space is split into a common space and a forest. The common spaces carve the greenhouse in order to create signal from the outside. AME is all about wrapping plenty of enes into a bioclimac greenhouse.

Summary • • • • •

Environmental 01_New Art Exchange

Ground Floor Plan

The New Art Exchange is a regional inner city arts centre devoted solely to the promoon of Black and Asian arts. The programme of the building includes; mixed-use art space; gallery; workshop; rehearsal facilies and cafe. This re ects the vibrant and culture driven atmosphere of the surrounding neighbourhoods. The building contains a naturally venlated gallery. The buildings fabric ulises a well insulated external skin constructed of brickwork punctured ulising an array of randomly located operable windows, enabling venlaon of the interior spaces. The building is able to be closed off and secured so that only certain areas can be accessed at certain mes. This allows evening entertainment in the gallery space to not interfere with the cafe.

1. Entrance 2. Cafe 3. Kitchen

Inside / outside Sustainable strategy Natural light Shared services Flexible / expandable units

Summary 4. Lobby 5. Recepon 6. Gallery

• • • •

Mixed use programme Security Naturally venlated Mul-purpose rooms

Technical/Structural 01_Akademie Mont Ceris Akademie Mont-Cenis is a training academy within the Mont-Cenis energy park and the design seamlessly combines both innovave architecture and modern solar technology. The 175x72m building has a glass roof, 12,000 square metres, that creates a “micro-climate” for the building’s interior. The roof also features integrated solar cells that produce about 700,000 kWh of energy per year. The building’s clever design means that the cells not only generate electricity but also act as a shading system. 56 spruce trunks and other rectangular wooden secons (a total of 3,475 m² of wood) form the framework for the micro-climate capsule. They are linked to one another by steel cables and nodes. Thanks to the protected climate in the hall, the wood did not have to be treated.

Summary • Roof PVs • Timber construcon • Natural climate control • Uniform grid • Truss system

Technical/Structural 02_The Sharp Project The Sharp Project is a media and studio development in, Manchester. It aims to offer affordable office space for indie media companies, digital entrepreneurs and producon companies. There are a number of places and office spaces to work within The Sharp Project which have all been created speci cally to make life easier for digital businesses to operate. They are design led and built to a high speci caon but praccal, funconal and ulmately affordable. A total of 26 shipping containers, 12 double and 14 single, have been converted into affordable glazed office units. Placed in two terrace rows they create a high street feel. They’re perfect for start-ups and SMEs who require a short term lease.

Summary • • • •

Use of container as work space Module arrangement and connecon Communal facilies High quality digital technology


Extrude

Materials The facade is a key feature of the building with the principle cladding material—a unized ush glazed curtain walling system—wrapped around the building like a taut skin or hard shell. The design of the building’s façade plays a key role, not just aesthecally, but in the environmental performance of the building. The fring to the insulated panels, on the façade treatment, controls the overheang of the building through solar heat gain. Future maintenance and replacement of key components was incorporated

The SEB is largely naturally venlated with automated and manual window openings, reducing the peak internal temperature in summer without compromising daylight or using widespread mechanical cooling. The core concrete construcon of the building is internally exposed throughout providing thermal mass. The design does not rely on passive solar gain to reduce heang loads. The paern of intensive occupaon during the day differs from residenal paerns where passive solar heang can be more useful.

To address the issues of technical sustainability, Hawkins Brown incorporated sustainable strategic elements which culminated in achieving a BREEAM ‘excellent’ rang. The SEB ulises passive design measures to minimise the energy requirements using the inherent aributes of the building, negang the requirement for mechanical cooling, heang and venlaon.

Construcon and Sustainability Issues

Footprint

The Student Enterprise Building (SEB) is a new statement building designed to form the heart of the campus, and become fully integrated into the students daily roune ex¬perience. The SEB contains a variety of programme which consolidates the currently dispersed student support funcons, providing a ‘one-stop-shop’ for students to visit for social and informal learning needs.

Coventry University Student Enterprise Building Hawkins Brown Architects

Steve Drew, Nasar Ishfaq, Daniel Stock, Paul A Westwell Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Eroding

Construcon Internal Walls_The internal facade consists of: insulaon; cavity; insulaon; acousc insulaon on sheathing board; cavity; and metal stud & lining. External Walls_The building envelope consists of a unized, ush glazed curtain walling on an anodised aluminium frame mechanically xed to the concrete slab edge. Floor Plates_Internal oors consist of in situ concrete slabs. Primary Structure_Floor slabs are supported by in situ concrete columns. Foundaons_In-Situ concrete.

into the design strategy of the façade, allowing for future exibility within the building, providing a more sustainable and long-term design.

Orientaon

Building Design + Climate Change BUILDING CASE STUDY

BDACC_03

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace BDACC 98


The sedum roof enhances bio-diversity and aenuates the peak rainwater runoff from the roof. Rainwater is collected to be used for WC ushing. Surface water runoff is in line with Sustainable Urban Drainage System techniques, either in surface treatment or by discharge aenuaon.

Drainage & Waste Management The hub shares the service yard area with an adjacent site and allows for improved manoeuvrability for large goods vehicles and focuses all the service related acvies into one area of the site. The University speci ed 5 key areas for waste streams for recycling, due to this recycling bins are provided across the site; paper, card, plascs, boles and cans.

Service & Integraon

WC Seedem Roof Underground Aenuaon Tank Route of Water

Heang The large glazed surfaces use a paerned frit to reduce solar gains. Fing uses a re ecve material which is laminated to the glass, increasing the insulator performance of the glass, it also ensures louvers and other systems with a high embodied energy are not needed. The surfaces maintain low U-values, the following U-Values (W/m2K) are presented for each key element; Roof 0.20, Walls 0.25, Floors 0.20, Windows and Doors 1.6, Roof lights 1.8. An open loop ground source heat pump services the retail and office spaces by opposing intermient cooling loads, this system is less CO2 intensive than a convenonal air cooled chiller. The heat pump also gives free preheat or heat to the low-temperature hotwater heang system (LTHW) when required in other

Venlaon The building uses passive measures for cooling the spaces. Mechanical venlaon is used only where required for acousc or statutory reasons. All venlaon systems except for the commercial kitchen have heat recovery built in, to minimise winter venlaon heat loss. The Building Management System is an extension to the University’s exisng estate wide system. It operates based upon a ‘systems led by demand’ philosophy, the environment in each zone of the building is measured, and me clocks prevent the systems being le on when not needed.

Environment & Energy

Legislave Framework The following regulaons relate to the requirements for the design of disposal and waste management: Building Regulaons Approved Document G – ‘Hygiene’ – the regulaons idenfy requirements for potable water used for drinking and cooking purposes, the provisions for recycled water are iden ed.

All sanitary items use infrared presence detecon for acvaon, reducing potable water loss, along with dual ush WCs. Discharge drainage from the kitchen passes through a grease interceptor to prevent contaminaon of the drainage system and allow managed disposal.

Li Stair Core Fire Escape Route

Lighng The lighng system is inherently linked to the acousc

parts of the building. Photovoltaic solar collectors are also used, with an emphasis on serving hot water loads for the building. The electrical contribuon from PV cells is combined with the naonal grid to ensure the spaces are serviced around the year. The LTHW & PV systems are used in combinaon with gas red boilers and so the building uses a combinaon of passive and mechanical systems as and where needed.

Fire Strategy There are 7 sets of re stair cores to be used in the event of a re. Assembly areas are located away from the building in line with these exits.

Building Regulaons Approved Document H – ‘Drainage and Waste Disposal’ – the document iden es the design and layout of foul waste drainage systems within the building. Secon H1 ‘foul water drainage’ gives speci c guidance for large developments like the Coventry Hub and H3 ‘Rainwater Drainage’ speci es the dimensions for guers and downpipes. The use of grey water is also speci ed as well as the restricons for grey water use.

Acouscs The key challenge for the acouscs system is the farefaced concrete soffit ceiling. The hard ooring surface and double glazed walling also challenge the acousc performance of the spaces. The lighng strategy aids the reducon of noise level by the use of perforated sheeng around the lamps; the so furnishings also help reduce noise level. The hard ooring is brokenup by bold coloured carpets around working and relaxing spaces.

system, perforated cylindrical steel shades surround low maintenance LED lamps to produce an even lighng system, and also reduce noise levels. The central atrium space uses hanging baffles to keep ambient noise levels bearable and light the key voids and stairs. Strip tube lights are used across the open oor plan, with mber hanging panels to channel the lighng and idenfy the work spaces. The lighng system is integrated with the building programme and oor nishes, the custom made work ‘pods’ use a ush lighng system embedded within the shell structure.

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace BDACC 99


Future Expansion The building is programmed so that over a period of me the structural bays containing the Start-Up units and the service core can expand to the south of the site. The buildings that currently occupy these sites will be moved into the business centre or relocated. Over a 15 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 20 period the building will eventually become and business factory for the whole of Stokeon-Trent.

Building Line and Green Space The building sits back from the surrounding building line to draw people in and to connue the green corridor between Memorial Square and Tunstall Park. This corridor is also connued into the building, echoing the greenery of the site before development.

Security and Segregaon The building can operate independently as a LRT staon at all hours due to the posioning of the programme. The entrance and lobby acts as a buďŹ&#x20AC;er between the staon and the public realm. Similarly, the auditorium is able to operate as a venue for evening funcons while the rest of the building is closed. The service core is located centrally so as to serve all areas of the building. This keeps all service piping, ducng and venlaon in one locaon. The workshops are also located here.

Features

As the units used to house the start-ups are funded by the Governments Regional Growth Fund, legacies, and rates from previously successful businesses born from the centre, there is a responsibility from entrepreneurs and businesses to feedback and showcase their ideas and successes to benefactors and the community. This takes place in the auditorium, which can also be operated independently from the rest of the building and be used as a performance venue.

The building is primarily a start-up business centre that provides space for entrepreneurs to begin, or connue, business ventures in an environment where discussion and the sharing of skills and ideas are promoted. The building also funcons as a community hub, where local residences can socialise, learn about the emerging businesses of the community and get involved from an early age in developing their own creave skills. From an infrastructural perspecve, the building operates as an end-of-line staon for the Loop Light LRT that connects the 6 mains towns of Stoke-on-Trent: Tunstall, Burslem, Hanley, Stoke, Fenton and Longton.

Building Descripon

Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Independant Staon Operaon

Ground Floor Plan

Building Design + Climate Change BUILDING DESCRIPTION

BDACC_04

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace BDACC 100


Double Container_4/5 Occupants

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Transverse Secon_A-A Start-Up Business Units The building ulises recycled 20 shipping containers for the work spaces for the start-up businesses. There are two variables. One is the single container, ideal for individuals or a partnership. Then there is the double unit that consists of two containers welded together aer having one side of each removed. This space can accommodate 4 people comfortably.

3D View of Building in Context

Tunstall Loop Line LRT Staon

Ground Floor Public Realm

Longitudinal Secon_B-B

Socialising Outside Auditorium

Streetscape of Start-Up Units

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BDACC 101


Envelope The building envelope is a glazed faced that has openings at top and boom to aid natural venlaon.

Floor Slabs The oor slabs proposed are reinforced factory oor standard for the ground oor. The rest of the oor slabs within the service core are precast planks.

Primary Structure The primary structural system in the building is spruce trunk truss framework that allows slender members to support the cast roof that is topped with PV panels. As well as supporng the roof, this structure also provides a hanging point for start-up container units.

Foundaons The foundaons of the building are a combinaon of pad and strip. Pad foundaons are used to support the individual points load taken by the structural columns of the primary structure. They are a block and stepped to spread the load from the column. Strip foundaons are used to support the service core and auditorium as these act independently from the primary structure.

Structural Strategy

Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

StaďŹ&#x20AC;ordshire [Stoke-on-Trent]

Building Design + Climate Change STRUCTURAL & MATERIAL CHOICE

BDACC_05

Glazing Supports

Glazing Skin

PV Roof

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BDACC 102


Roong Composion The roof panels double up as photovoltaic cells that produce energy whilst also leng light in. They are also controlled by the building management system to respond to the heang and cooling requirements of the building.

15 x 15m Grid Structural Grid The building is sat on a uniform15 x 15m grid. This paern is re ected in the facade of the building, with mulples of 1500 used to space the glazing panels. The square grid gives the building rigidity and allows the acvies at ground level ow freely as well as providing a light open space.

Roo ng Structure

Loading

Imposed Load on Foundaon

Live Loads

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Imposed Roof Load

Foundaons

Primary Structure

Auditorium & Start-Up units

Floor Plates

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BDACC 103


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Tunstall Enterprise Palace Office Research

Kingsdale School, London

Willis Building, Ipswich

• Colour • Geometry

• Norman Foster • First open-plan office building in UK • Series of hanger-like spaces stacked on top of each other • Swimming pool • Communal environment • Staff resturant on top fl oor • Employer recognising that life is moreimportant than just about work • Serious work and socialability

The Gherkin, London

BMW Factory, Leipzip

• Norman Foster • Iconic • Aimed at a coorporate market rather than its employees like the Willis Building

• Zaha Hadid • Iconic • Representave

Secret Life of Buildings The ‘Secret life of Buildings: Work’ presented by Tom Dyckoff, provided an interesng starng point into invesgang the nature and environments of work spaces for individuals and groups. He placed heavy emphasis on light, colour, space and comfort producing successful work environments that reciprocated a posive work output. He suggested that one of the most producve aributes a building or space could foster was the ability to offer an individual ownership over a space. To allow an occupant to either change a space to suit their requirements, Hertzberger’s Centraal Beheer, or to have a plethora of work areas to chose from depending on how you felt that day, Interpolis Tilburg.

Dyckoff concluded that one of the most successful office buildings had been Herman Hertzberger’s Centraal Beheer, which was built as a sort of selement, consisng of a larger number of spaal units, like islands strung together. Arnulf L Y Chinger has described the building as, “The basic requirements of an office building may well be simple enough in principle, but it was this need for adaptability that led to the complexity of the commission. Constant changes occur within the organizaon, thereby requiring frequent adjustments to the size of the different departments. The building must be capable of accommodang these internal forces, while the building as a whole must connue to funcon in every respect and at all mes.”


Tunstall Enterprise Palace Office Research

Interpolis, Tilburg • Different space for different types of work • Managed by trust • Decide on the day where to work

Centraal Beheer, Apeldoorn • Herman Hertzberger • Based on 3m x 3m grid • Customise own work space • Open plan • Pleasant environment

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace Research

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Innospace Innospace is Manchester Metropolitan University’s incubator for business start-ups & new enterprises, and adverses itself as ‘the perfect city centre base for new ventures to progress’. It was started four years ago as a project from the business school of MMU and is organised and run by Richard Deighton. An interview was arranged and he provided a tour around the facility. Innospace is located in an old warehouse building, where it occupies a fulllength open-plan space and a number of rooms in the basement. The space offers a variety of different work areas so people can chose where they will work, and who with, everyday. The programme of Innospace is such that occupants pay an annual rent, and can stay there as long as they want. Many companies have resulted in conversing with like-minded entrepreneurs and the facilies in the basement accommodate small expanding companies. Businesses or individuals who have worked here, and have gone on to rent space in more generic, clinical office buildings, have oen not been as successful as they were in this environment. Richard supports the laid-back atmosphere that emulates round Innospace. Occupants are free to work when and where the please but feel the hand of a professional environment to act mature and producve.

Macro + Meso Scale Programme

office manager

Macro + Meso Scale Programme

Storage lockers

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meeng room


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Tunstall Enterprise Palace Research

Macro + Meso Scale Programme

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Macro + Meso Scale Programme

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace Research Watermark A former North West Water area depot the Watermark provides business space with an urban feel, from small studios to larger oďŹ&#x192;ce suites all designed for business growth. This start-up incubator is more formal and segregated than Innospace. Businesses have their own rooms and there are no communal working areas although there are communal break out spaces. The variety of diďŹ&#x20AC;erent businesses working in one structure, in standardised rooms and furnished with ďŹ&#x201A;at-pack desks and chairs, illustrates that companies can adapt to the provided space, here is however no aracve pleasant working environment.

Converted water depot

Design company

Storage lockers

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Social markeng

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T-Shirt design

Social room


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Tunstall Enterprise Palace Office Layout

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Office Space + Service Core [red]

Office Layout Following inial designs and preliminary forms illustrated in the BDACC report, the building started to ulise a 7.5m x 7.5m structural grid that began to raonalise all of the internal spaces. The service core (red) is based around 7.5m x 7.5m modules, and the facades were spaced at 1.25m intervals. The office space was divided into a 2.5m x 2.5m grid similar to the 3m x 3m divisions in Cetraal Beheer. The diagrams opposite show how the design developed whilst taking into account fire escape distances, comfort of work environment and access to daylight. Through building a 1:100 physical model, proporons were invesgated and it was decided there could be four levels in the building. The office space is designed to expand and contract with users requirements. The opposite diagrams also show the variety of different iteraons the space can adopt. Key Yellow_Circulaon Green_Office Space Blue_Void

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace Unit Development Development Using lessons learnt from the layouts in the Centraal Beheer, Innosapce and Watermark, a variety of different opons were experimented with that showed the possibilies using of standardised furniture in a 2.5m x 2.5m grid space. Depending on the adjoining spaces, there is an infinite number of layouts that can be achieved. This system should therefore be seen as something that can operate in a pods as well as singular units.

Containers

hot desking

cluster

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Layouts

Hertzberger 3m x 3m grid breakdown

Hertzberger variaons

1:1 Study variaons

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace Unit Detail

Steel floor plate

Unit Detail Through connual iteraons, the inclusion of regulaons, and wanng to create pleasant, spacious and desirable work spaces, the office layout became a one person unit. A kit of parts consisng of adjustable paroning, changeable desk layouts, and storage opons, allows occupants to open up their space to work as groups, or enclose themselves in and operate as an individual.

Paroning

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Office bay composion

Opon_08


Tunstall Enterprise Palace Physical Model

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AutoCAD 450mm x 800mm sheets ready to be laser cut

Physical Model 1:100 A physical model was made at this point to carry out detailed studies on certain elements of the structure, building proporons and interior. The model was made from 3.6mm plywood, blue foam and 6mm dowels all arranged on a 12mm MDF base. These simple materials, and forms, allowed for ease of exploraon and composion of the model in terms of its various elements: Auditorium, Service Core, Primary Structure and Office Space. Inially designed in SketchUp, the model was exported to AutoCAD to be finished and flaened in a format recognised by the laser cuer. Once cut out of 450mm x 800mm plywood, the structural elements were separated and the roof constructed first. The roof was secured to the primary columns and glued into pre-drilled holes on the MDF base. The mber facade trusses were then aached between the roof and base, and lateral supports added. The three floors of office layout were also laser cut. The 2.4m x 2.4m squares that were cut out of these layouts in the laser cuer were glued into an early office iteraon to help populate and understand the space.

The service core, li core, stair core and auditorium were fashioned from 300mm x 300mm x 50mm blue foam blocks that were then cut using the hot-wire machine and sanded to finish.


Tunstall Enterprise Palace Physical Model Model Construcon Process

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Model of Tunstall Enterprise Palace Scale 1:100


Tunstall Enterprise Palace Physical Model Model Composion

Primary structure and two facades

Auditorium

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace Physical Model Auditorium

Auditorium peircing through north facade`

Auditorium The model was inially constructed with a smaller auditorium, able to seat 150. This was later enlarged to suit the massing of the building. Raising and piercing the auditorium through the facade creates contrasng spaces underneath and connects with the external public realm.

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace Physical Model Vercal Circulaon + Office Layout

Free-flowing vercal circulaon opon

Vercal Circulaon + Office Layout The vercal circulaon used at the me the model was constructed was arranged around enclosed fire stairs that would allow occupants at all levels to exit swily. The three progression images on the right show how this circulaon spine is blocky and cumbersome. Replacing this with a more flowing form, illustrated above, allowed the circulaon space to be more streamlined and open. The issue of fire escape strategy was overcome by placing an enclosed staircase in the service core and the posioning of another two on the periphery of the office layout. The office layout used in the model has a circulaon path such that every work staon, idenfied by a void in this case, is accessed on at least one side. Photographing the model at close range showed dark areas at the centre of the floor plates. The introducon of voids in further designs was incorporated to let more daylight into the depth of the building and provide a more pleasant working environment.

Office layout

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace Physical Model Structure

Timber primary structure. Columns spaced to span office layout

Structure Although not hugely detailed, the model was very stable and rigid. It illustrated that the proporons of the load-bearing elements were accurate enough to support themselves. In consultaon with the structural engineer it helped idenfy the need for lateral bracing. The model also highlighted the requirement for steel fixing plates at the joints of the mber elements to migate the structure from the risk that it might buckle under stress. For the structure to support the roof and span the 30m distance over the office layout, it was suggested by the structural engineer that the mber trusses would need to be laminated and 4m deep. The distance between the trusses would also need to be minimised to one every 7.5m instead of 15m.

Trusses need to be enlarged and more frequent to support roof structure

Steel fixing joints needed where two mber elements meet


Tunstall Enterprise Palace Physical Model

Lace mber truss window structure

Timber truss over oďŹ&#x192;ce layout and escape stair core

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace Physical Model

Full building height atrium space between service core and Light Rapid Tram Staon

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace 3D Visualisaon

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace 3D Visualisaon

3D Visualisaons The following images illustrate the Tunstall Enterprise Palace in context.


Public External Realm_Day

Tunstall Enterprise Palace 3D Visualisaon

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Public External Realm_Night

Tunstall Enterprise Palace 3D Visualisaon

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Public Internal Realm

Tunstall Enterprise Palace 3D Visualisaon

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East Atrium

Tunstall Enterprise Palace 3D Visualisaon

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace 3D Visualisaon

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace 3D Visualisaon

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace BRACC

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BDACC_01 Building Design + Climate Change CONSTRUCTION + SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES

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Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

5 Sustainability

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The secon is taken here as it shows the main facade being pierced by the concrete outer skin of the auditorium. It is important to maintain the weather-proof envelope and insulaon of the building at this point. The mber truss system that assists with the lateral loading of the glazed facade is visible behind the auditorium.

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Located on an exposed brown eld site, the climac shell of the building consists of more than 9,000 square metres of glass, half of which is covered by solar panels. All areas within the interior space and inside the buildings are thus opmally illuminated and shaded. The climate of the building is pleasant through the year. In order to prevent overheang in the summer, it is possible to open roof and facade elements. A mechanical venlaon system with heat recovery is used for heang in the winter.

Site Plan

Security The main recepon is the rst point of contact for anybody entering the building. It is at this point people can request office space as well as check in to meet clients. The office area is paroned off from the public are by a transparent screen.

Roof_ Outside walkway and social space

Skin_ Timber window trusses support glazed facade

Oce Floors_ 2.4m2 grid supports adaptable workspace on four levels

Secondary Structure_ 200mmx200mm box steel structure supports office levels 1 - 3

Primary Structure_ 450mm diameter coloumns support 4 meter deep trusses

Fixed Elements_ Service Core and Auditorium sit independant of the primary and secondary structure. Two structural cores aid Office and Auditorium levlels

Foundaon_ A combinaon of pile and strip foundaons support the various load bearing elements

Building Realisaon + Climate Change ENVIRONMENT + ENERGY Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Secon and Detail Key

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General Overview Tunstall Enterprise Palace is one of 6 sites connected by the Loop LRT Line that are collecvely known as The Stoke-on-Trent Enterprise Zone. The programme of the building is such that it can be played out anywhere in the UK to improve an area’s economic situaon by combining contextual elements and a generic adaptable office system. In this situaon the auditorium and external landscaping engage with a community and the office space provides a plaorm for individuals or small groups of people looking to start and maintain their business. The office area is supported by a service core that houses meeng rooms, refreshment areas, a gym and WCs. The auditorium provides a much needed entertainment venue to the context of Tunstall whilst providing a space to showcase up-and-coming products developed by the businesses within the Palace.

BRACC_02

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Offices and rooms are lockable and most of the building has been designed to be over looked to aid security. Security guards will also patrol the building and grounds.

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The auditorium adopts an exaggerated steel truss framework, sat on steel pivot joints to allow it to support its own weight whilst canterlevering through the facade.

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Scale 1:20

3

Legislaon Building Regulaons are documents printed as a praccal guide to the building regulaons. They include mandatory requirements in green at the beginning of each secon followed by guidance. Approved Documents B (volume 2), E, F, K, M, and N are of signi cance, with B (v2) [Fire Safety] being most prevalent. As the building adapts the extreme occupancies throughout the day and year provision has been made to meet re safety by providing: enclosed stairwells, refuge points, wide walkways, and a integrated sprinkler system.

10

1_cast steel head curtain wall mullion 2_supporng cast steel head 3_wooden support 450mm dia. 4_main facade post 5_2250mm pre-cast concrete walkway 6_facade steel post holder 7_supporng cast steel foong 8_cast steel column base 9_folding seang at 650mm centres 10_steel box secon beam 750x500mm 11_steel box secon beam 300x300mm 12_mber stage 13_stage light 14_mber baton 400x125mm 15_mber beam 300x500mm 16_mber post at 1250mm centres 17_access gantry 18_steel truss 1500x300mm 19_concrete pile cap with 4x500mm dia. concrete displacement piles 20_concrete support 21_ oor detail_screed 75mm, concrete 200mm, rigid insulaon 100mm, DPM, sand 150mm, hardcore 250mm 22_tubular steel support 750mm dia. 23_cast steel pivot joint 24_equipment support truss 25_steel tension cables 26_steel tension cable connecon plate 27_sky light windows containing solar cells_ openable via BMS 28_vents 29_aluminimium guer 30_8mm steel plate 31_2x11mm coloured laminated safety glass 32_aluminium coping 33_rigid insulaon 100mm 34_steel support xed to ‘I’ beam 35_masc seal 36_DPM 37_mber beam 450x450mm 38_aluminium foong 39_steel ‘I’ beam 200x250mm 40_concrete panels, ma nish 2500x1250mm 41_sealed joint ush with concrete 42_steel es 43_ steel ‘I’ beam 300x700mm 44_projector screen 45_steel framed backstage wall 46_steel plate 47_rubber seal 48_reverberaon panels 49_steel handrail 1200mm 50_pre-cast concrete slab 150mm deep

A

B B

A

Secon A_A

Scale: 1:200 [scaled to t]

Strategy The form of the building is based around the 2.5m x 2.5m grid of an individual working space that make up the office layouts. In plan, this grid is carried from internal oor arrangements to the surrounding landscaping. This raonality allows a huge amount of mass producon and exibility between levels and sites. The building is orientated at 13 degrees along the north axis, allowing the southern facade to opmise the sun throughout the day. The east and west facades also experience high solar exposure in the morning and evening. As all facades are primarily glazed, there is a copious amount of natural day light lling the building. Where natural day light cannot support a well lit environment, electrical lighng is provided. A combinaon of clear transparent, frosted and coloured laminated glass make up the facades. These treatments re ect the internal programme as to whether a private or public space is required.

Occupancy Due to the nature of its adaptability and mix of programmes, the building can experience extremes in occupancy. The drawings opposite show how the office area can change depending on use. The box steel frame on that houses the office space is fashioned around the 2.5m x 2.5m grid and can accommodate 3 variaons in oor states: Circulaon, Void and Office. A 4-piece foldable steel plate covering allows maintenance people to change the state of the grid square by hand. When the grid requires an office, a kit of parts is assembled by hand on top. This also leads to a variety in the required temperatures throughout the building.

= Occupied workspace

Heang, Cooling & Venlaon

N

S

21

22 31

8 7 46

50% Occupancy

100% Occupancy

= Occupied workspace

11

23

4

21

0% Occupancy

6

50

Due to the deep plan of the office workspace, the building cannot be fully Heated, Cooled and Venlated by natural means. Therefore a mechanical system is also employed to assist with the loading. This combinaon of natural and mechanical systems maintains a pleasant working and social environment throughout the year.

Natural The glazed facade of the building has windows that open at low and high level. The sky light panels in the roof also open. They are all controlled by the Building Management System.

6 Detail_04

20

Mechanical The H, C+V system is divided into zones throughout the oors and supplies spaces from above using diffusers. Linked to CO2 sensors, a plate exchange heater is controlled by a Variable Air Volume Box that regulates the temperature and air ow. This is the ducted to mechanical fan extractor on the roof.

19

Energy Sources + Distribuon The main source of energy is the photovoltaic panels built into the glazed facade to the west, east and south and the panels on the roof. Due to the size of these areas this source of energy can produce a considerable amount of power. This is then stored in the plant room in the building’s basement. When the weather is not appropriate for collecng solar energy, the naonal grid is used to power the building. Whichever power source is being used, the building uses systems that are very energy efficient to reduce the need for power. Sensors are ed to all lights to ensure they are not on when not needed. The glazing is also highly isolave to avoid heat loss.

Summer Day_Excess heat is vented away, cooling coil mechanically cools air and circulates to diffusers Detail_04_Facade Meets Ground

Scale 1:20

Secon A_A [zoomed in]

Scale: 1:50 [scaled to t]

N

S

E

W

Summer Night_Night me cooling assisted by natural venlaon

N

S

Plant Room

BDACC_03

Secon B_B

Winter Day_Fan assisted fresh air is heated and circulated

N

S

Building Design + Climate Change SERVICES + INTEGRATION Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

HYDRONICS

Scale: 1:200 [scaled to t]

Day Lighng

Electric lighng

Issues of Sound transmiance & Acouscs

With the building skin being predominantly glazing, natural light is maximised. To avoid glare, the glazing system ulises Pilkington Glare Reducon Low Re ecve Glass. This reduces eye strain and visual acvity is increased and displays are easier to read. 2 voids are xed into the current iteraon to meet Building Regulaons. This allows natural light to penetrate deeper into the building.

As the building changes its occupancy, voids will open and close within the oor plate’s allowing light through. Electric lighng is supplied along the same conduit as the H, C + V to maintain an even Lux level at all office areas. The rest of the building is electrically lit where natural lighng isn’t available.

The main source of acousc disturbance internally is people working. This is dealt with by acousc absorbent panels that divide the office spaces. Externally the main cause of acousc disturbance is the LRT line that has a staon next to the building. The Service Core is posioned as a barrier to the offices to avoid this being an issue. The Auditorium has strict acousc requirements with regards reverberaon mes. The mes vary depend on the performance taking place. They can be altered by moving the adjustable reverberaon panels on the walls of the Auditorium.

Water Supply and Distribuon The main plant room is located in the service core at basement level. This is where the building receives fresh water supplied from the water mains. This is also the point at which waste water leaves the building and is connected to the sewer system. The main service riser is posioned adjacent to the plant room to minimise the distance ducng and pipe work has to travel.

Storage

All services ulise the service core, in parcular this main riser. They are then distributed throughout the building. The service core acts as a buffer between the residenal context to the east and the LRT line.

Workshop

Main Service Riser

Main Service Riser Storage

Kitchen

Plant Room_ Metering + Stopcocks

Soil and Fresh Water riser

Workshop

Drainage and Waste Management The building is surrounded by landscape to the west and east. This allows for runoff water to permeate into the ground. The site naturally slope from north to south. The landscaping to the south contains pools that act as aenuaon tanks to regulate excess water. Water from the roof travels down into these channels. Internally, all toilets, coffee shops shower facilies and kitchens are stack above each other for efficiency.

Drains from Roof

Winter Night_VAV box seng to min, reasonable temperature kept to allow for quick heang in the morning

Coffee Shop Changing Rooms WC Refuse Point Soil Out Water In

BRACC_04

Refuse waste is collected and inially stored in the basement. There is a refuse point at the south entrance for weekly waste collecon. Aenuaon Ponds

Legislave Framework The key legislaon areas for the building here are Approved Document C, D, G and H.

Drainage + Wast Management

Water Distribuon

Water Supply_Basement Level

Building Realisaon + Climate Change 3D DETAIL STUDY Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Detail Descripon

FIRE STRATEGY Means of Escape

Escape Route from Roof

Due to its size and varying occupancies, the building requires enclosed re stairs that are accessible from all levels. Two cores along the west facade provide an exit route from the auditorium and the office oors. Another enclosed core, adjacent to the main service riser, provides an exit route from all internal levels and pierces the roof to allow egress from the roof. There are assembly points to the north and south of the building.

The detail chosen has two main structural features. The rst is the canlevered auditorium that hovers above the external landscape. Supported by an exaggerated truss system, housed within the walls of the auditorium, diagonal steel ‘L’ secons pull the structure around back on itself and then securely, and elegantly, xed it to the ground. The second detail is the juncon of the concrete auditorium and the mber and glazed facade. At the point where the concrete pierces the facade, a hey mber box frame supports the glazing above it and maintains the sturdy structure of the facade. The glazing featured in the other facades of the building contains solar cells. As this facade faces north the sun does not shine directly on it, so the laminated glass is coloured or clear. The exterior concrete nish of the auditorium is clean, light and smooth. This enables imagery to be projected clearly onto it.

Service Core Auditorium Escape Circulaon

Refuge Area

Compartmentaon + Fire Equipment The building is comprised of 3 main elements: Service Core, Auditorium and Office Space. The service core is divided by concrete parons to ensure 2hr re rang thus not needing to be served by a sprinkler system. The walkway that divides the core from the office area is however open. This route is therefore protected by a sprinkler system. This is also where the main enclosed stair ends so it is important that the route from there to the external assembly point is covered. The auditorium is served by 2 spacious escape routes that lead to either an enclosed stair core or sprinkler cover exit meaning no sprinklers are required. Fixtures and ng within here are of a high re-retardant level. The open-plan nature of the office space results in a sprinkler integrated into the system distribuon ducng.The building incorporates the following re- ghng equipment: re hydrants, re exnguishers, and re blankets. In addion to these, refuge points are located in the enclosed stair cores equipped with communicaon links.

Oce Adaptability Throughout the 2.5m x 2.5m grid of the office space, there is one of three states each square can be in at any one me. They are circulaon, void, or office space. The oor panels of the steel structure are foldable so they can be converted to a void when not in use. The diagrams below show how the individual units are assembled in a bay. The storage, desk layout, and paroning can be changed to suite the user.

Escape Route from Auditorium

Office Space

Escape Route from Service Core

Legislave Framework As the building doesn’t fully meet requirements in Approved Document B (v2) with regards re escape distances, the office area is equipped with an integrated sprinkler system to ensure re protecon.

Sprinkler Fire Hydrant Fire Exnguisher

Escape Route from Office

Compartmentaon

Means of Escape_First Floor Oce Layout

Fire Equipment

SERVICES + INTEGRATION Strategic View

Extracon Fan Units

The nature of the service core is to serve the needs of the building. Stacking similar programmes and having spacious and central service risers allow for services to ow efficiently around the building. In many cases the service ducng and pipes are exposed. This is allows for ease of maintenance as well as educang users on the life-force of the building.

Venlaon Return Venlaon Supply

Office Row

Office Bay

Venlaon Supply

In addion to the main riser, there are also other risers located along the walkways of the office environment that provide space for the electrical, lighng and heang, venlaon and cooling systems. This re ects the exibility of the building and allows environments to be changed manually or via sensors depending on the use of the space.

3D Detail Study_Secon A_A

Taccal View The 3D to the right illustrates how the distribuon ducts service the workspaces with heang, venlaon + cooling, power and a sprinkler system. It is also evident the degree of exposure the services have in this building. To the rear of the image, a service riser is visible. The second image iden es the extractor ducts aached to the food producing areas of the kitchens and coffee shops located in the service core. It is evident how the system wraps elegantly round the sturdy mber trusses.

H, V + C Distribuon layout

Exposed Ducts Housed Within 2.5m x 2.5m Service Riser

Storage

Desk Layout

Steel Floor Plate

Strategic View_Service Risers

Tacal View_Oce System Distribuon

Tacal View_Heang, Venlaon + Cooling Ducng

Paroning

Auditorium Canterlever Truss

Tubular Steel Secon Meeng Concrete Base

Cast Steel Pivot Joint


131

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BRACC

Building Realisaon + Climate Change_BRACC The following report was produced to contextualise the design within a technological and environmental focus. It includes the following: • • • •

Construcon + Sustainability Issues Environment + Energy Services + Integraon 3D Detail Study


132

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BRACC

BDACC_01 Building Design + Climate Change CONSTRUCTION + SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Sustainability A

B B

N

A

Located on an exposed brown eld site, the climac shell of the building consists of more than 9,000 square metres of glass, half of which is covered by solar panels. All areas within the interior space and inside the buildings are thus opmally illuminated and shaded. The climate of the building is pleasant through the year. In order to prevent overheang in the summer, it is possible to open roof and facade elements. A mechanical venlaon system with heat recovery is used for heang in the winter.

Site Plan

35

34

5 32 14

29 30

16 33 15

25

31 1

Detail_01_Roof Corner Juncon

General Overview

Security

Tunstall Enterprise Palace is one of 6 sites connected by the Loop LRT Line that are collecvely known as The Stoke-on-Trent Enterprise Zone. The programme of the building is such that it can be played out anywhere in the UK to improve an area’s economic situaon by combining contextual elements and a generic adaptable office system. In this situaon the auditorium and external landscaping engage with a community and the office space provides a plaorm for individuals or small groups of people looking to start and maintain their business.

The main recepon is the rst point of contact for anybody entering the building. It is at this point people can request office space as well as check in to meet clients. The office area is paroned off from the public are by a transparent screen.

The office area is supported by a service core that houses meeng rooms, refreshment areas, a gym and WCs. The auditorium provides a much needed entertainment venue to the context of Tunstall whilst providing a space to showcase up-and-coming products developed by the businesses within the Palace.

Roof_ Outside walkway and social space

Skin_ Timber window trusses support glazed facade

Oce Floors_ 2.4m2 grid supports adaptable workspace on four levels

Secondary Structure_ 200mmx200mm box steel structure supports office levels 1 - 3

Primary Structure_ 450mm diameter coloumns support 4 meter deep trusses

Fixed Elements_ Service Core and Auditorium sit independant of the primary and secondary structure. Two structural cores aid Office and Auditorium levlels

Foundaon_ A combinaon of pile and strip foundaons support the various load bearing elements

Scale 1:20

26 4

42

Offices and rooms are lockable and most of the building has been designed to be over looked to aid security. Security guards will also patrol the building and grounds.

37

40

46 18 47

39

Detail_02_Facade Meets Auditorium

Scale 1:20

Structure The primary structure is mber. This supports the roof and facade. A steel secondary structure supports the adaptable office layout. The service core acts independently as a concrete enty within the skin of the building.

40

33

The auditorium adopts an exaggerated steel truss framework, sat on steel pivot joints to allow it to support its own weight whilst canterlevering through the facade.

42

Detail_03_Auditorium Wall

Scale 1:20

Legislaon Building Regulaons are documents printed as a praccal guide to the building regulaons. They include mandatory requirements in green at the beginning of each secon followed by guidance. Approved Documents B (volume 2), E, F, K, M, and N are of signi cance, with B (v2) [Fire Safety] being most prevalent. As the building adapts the extreme occupancies throughout the day and year provision has been made to meet re safety by providing: enclosed stairwells, refuge points, wide walkways, and a integrated sprinkler system.

4

31

21 7 46

Detail_04_Facade Meets Ground

6

Scale 1:20


133

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BRACC

Secon

27

29

The secon is taken here as it shows the main facade being pierced by the concrete outer skin of the auditorium. It is important to maintain the weather-proof envelope and insulaon of the building at this point. The mber truss system that assists with the lateral loading of the glazed facade is visible behind the auditorium.

49

28 5 Detail_01

Secon and Detail Key 1

25 4

18 2

Detail_02

24

48 13 17

Detail_03

44 12

3

10

1_cast steel head curtain wall mullion 2_supporng cast steel head 3_wooden support 450mm dia. 4_main facade post 5_2250mm pre-cast concrete walkway 6_facade steel post holder 7_supporng cast steel foong 8_cast steel column base 9_folding seang at 650mm centres 10_steel box secon beam 750x500mm 11_steel box secon beam 300x300mm 12_mber stage 13_stage light 14_mber baton 400x125mm 15_mber beam 300x500mm 16_mber post at 1250mm centres 17_access gantry 18_steel truss 1500x300mm 19_concrete pile cap with 4x500mm dia. concrete displacement piles 20_concrete support 21_ oor detail_screed 75mm, concrete 200mm, rigid insulaon 100mm, DPM, sand 150mm, hardcore 250mm 22_tubular steel support 750mm dia. 23_cast steel pivot joint 24_equipment support truss 25_steel tension cables 26_steel tension cable connecon plate 27_sky light windows containing solar cells_ openable via BMS 28_vents 29_aluminimium guer 30_8mm steel plate 31_2x11mm coloured laminated safety glass 32_aluminium coping 33_rigid insulaon 100mm 34_steel support xed to ‘I’ beam 35_masc seal 36_DPM 37_mber beam 450x450mm 38_aluminium foong 39_steel ‘I’ beam 200x250mm 40_concrete panels, ma nish 2500x1250mm 41_sealed joint ush with concrete 42_steel es 43_ steel ‘I’ beam 300x700mm 44_projector screen 45_steel framed backstage wall 46_steel plate 47_rubber seal 48_reverberaon panels 49_steel handrail 1200mm 50_pre-cast concrete slab 150mm deep

11

23 21

22

8

6

50

Detail_04

20 19

Secon A_A [zoomed in]

Scale: 1:50 [scaled to t]


A

B

Due to the nature of its adaptability and mix of programmes, the building can experience extremes in occupancy. The drawings opposite show how the office area can change depending on use. The box steel frame on that houses the office space is fashioned around the 2.5m x 2.5m grid and can accommodate 3 variaons in oor states: Circulaon, Void and Office. A 4-piece foldable steel plate covering allows maintenance people to change the state of the grid square by hand. When the grid requires an office, a kit of parts is assembled by hand on top. This also leads to a variety in the required temperatures throughout the building.

Occupancy

The form of the building is based around the 2.5m x 2.5m grid of an individual working space that make up the office layouts. In plan, this grid is carried from internal oor arrangements to the surrounding landscaping. This raonality allows a huge amount of mass producon and exibility between levels and sites. The building is orientated at 13 degrees along the north axis, allowing the southern facade to opmise the sun throughout the day. The east and west facades also experience high solar exposure in the morning and evening. As all facades are primarily glazed, there is a copious amount of natural day light lling the building. Where natural day light cannot support a well lit environment, electrical lighng is provided. A combinaon of clear transparent, frosted and coloured laminated glass make up the facades. These treatments re ect the internal programme as to whether a private or public space is required.

Strategy

Secon A_A

B

A

Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Building Realisaon + Climate Change ENVIRONMENT + ENERGY

BRACC_02

0% Occupancy

50% Occupancy

= Occupied workspace

100% Occupancy

= Occupied workspace

Scale: 1:200 [scaled to t]

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BRACC 134


N

N

N

N

Winter Night_VAV box seng to min, reasonable temperature kept to allow for quick heang in the morning

S

Winter Day_Fan assisted fresh air is heated and circulated

S

Summer Night_Night me cooling assisted by natural venlaon

S

Summer Day_Excess heat is vented away, cooling coil mechanically cools air and circulates to diffusers

S

Electric lighng As the building changes its occupancy, voids will open and close within the oor plate’s allowing light through. Electric lighng is supplied along the same conduit as the H, C + V to maintain an even Lux level at all office areas. The rest of the building is electrically lit where natural lighng isn’t available.

With the building skin being predominantly glazing, natural light is maximised. To avoid glare, the glazing system ulises Pilkington Glare Reducon Low Re ecve Glass. This reduces eye strain and visual acvity is increased and displays are easier to read. 2 voids are xed into the current iteraon to meet Building Regulaons. This allows natural light to penetrate deeper into the building.

Plant Room

Mechanical The H, C+V system is divided into zones throughout the oors and supplies spaces from above using diffusers. Linked to CO2 sensors, a plate exchange heater is controlled by a Variable Air Volume Box that regulates the temperature and air ow. This is the ducted to mechanical fan extractor on the roof.

Day Lighng

Secon B_B

W

Natural The glazed facade of the building has windows that open at low and high level. The sky light panels in the roof also open. They are all controlled by the Building Management System.

Due to the deep plan of the office workspace, the building cannot be fully Heated, Cooled and Venlated by natural means. Therefore a mechanical system is also employed to assist with the loading. This combinaon of natural and mechanical systems maintains a pleasant working and social environment throughout the year.

Heang, Cooling & Venlaon

The main source of acousc disturbance internally is people working. This is dealt with by acousc absorbent panels that divide the office spaces. Externally the main cause of acousc disturbance is the LRT line that has a staon next to the building. The Service Core is posioned as a barrier to the offices to avoid this being an issue. The Auditorium has strict acousc requirements with regards reverberaon mes. The mes vary depend on the performance taking place. They can be altered by moving the adjustable reverberaon panels on the walls of the Auditorium.

Issues of Sound transmiance & Acouscs

Scale: 1:200 [scaled to t]

E

Energy Sources + Distribuon The main source of energy is the photovoltaic panels built into the glazed facade to the west, east and south and the panels on the roof. Due to the size of these areas this source of energy can produce a considerable amount of power. This is then stored in the plant room in the building’s basement. When the weather is not appropriate for collecng solar energy, the naonal grid is used to power the building. Whichever power source is being used, the building uses systems that are very energy efficient to reduce the need for power. Sensors are ed to all lights to ensure they are not on when not needed. The glazing is also highly isolave to avoid heat loss.

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BRACC 135


136

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BRACC

BDACC_03 Building Design + Climate Change SERVICES + INTEGRATION Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

HYDRONICS Water Supply and Distribuon The main plant room is located in the service core at basement level. This is where the building receives fresh water supplied from the water mains. This is also the point at which waste water leaves the building and is connected to the sewer system. The main service riser is posioned adjacent to the plant room to minimise the distance ducng and pipe work has to travel.

Main Service Riser Storage Storage

All services ulise the service core, in parcular this main riser. They are then distributed throughout the building. The service core acts as a buffer between the residenal context to the east and the LRT line.

Plant Room_ Metering + Stopcocks

Workshop Workshop

Drainage and Waste Management The building is surrounded by landscape to the west and east. This allows for runoff water to permeate into the ground. The site naturally slope from north to south. The landscaping to the south contains pools that act as aenuaon tanks to regulate excess water. Water from the roof travels down into these channels. Internally, all toilets, coffee shops shower facilies and kitchens are stack above each other for efficiency.

Soil Out Water In

Refuse waste is collected and inially stored in the basement. There is a refuse point at the south entrance for weekly waste collecon.

Legislave Framework The key legislaon areas for the building here are Approved Document C, D, G and H.

Water Supply_Basement Level FIRE STRATEGY Means of Escape

Escape Route from Roof

Due to its size and varying occupancies, the building requires enclosed re stairs that are accessible from all levels. Two cores along the west facade provide an exit route from the auditorium and the office oors. Another enclosed core, adjacent to the main service riser, provides an exit route from all internal levels and pierces the roof to allow egress from the roof. There are assembly points to the north and south of the building.

Compartmentaon + Fire Equipment The building is comprised of 3 main elements: Service Core, Auditorium and Office Space. The service core is divided by concrete parons to ensure 2hr re rang thus not needing to be served by a sprinkler system. The walkway that divides the core from the office area is however open. This route is therefore protected by a sprinkler system. This is also where the main enclosed stair ends so it is important that the route from there to the external assembly point is covered. The auditorium is served by 2 spacious escape routes that lead to either an enclosed stair core or sprinkler cover exit meaning no sprinklers are required. Fixtures and ng within here are of a high re-retardant level. The open-plan nature of the office space results in a sprinkler integrated into the system distribuon ducng.The building incorporates the following re- ghng equipment: re hydrants, re exnguishers, and re blankets. In addion to these, refuge points are located in the enclosed stair cores equipped with communicaon links.

Escape Route from Auditorium Escape Route from Service Core

Legislave Framework As the building doesn’t fully meet requirements in Approved Document B (v2) with regards re escape distances, the office area is equipped with an integrated sprinkler system to ensure re protecon.

Escape Route from Office

Means of Escape_First Floor Oce Layout

SERVICES + INTEGRATION Strategic View

Extracon Fan Units

The nature of the service core is to serve the needs of the building. Stacking similar programmes and having spacious and central service risers allow for services to ow efficiently around the building. In many cases the service ducng and pipes are exposed. This is allows for ease of maintenance as well as educang users on the life-force of the building. In addion to the main riser, there are also other risers located along the walkways of the office environment that provide space for the electrical, lighng and heang, venlaon and cooling systems. This re ects the exibility of the building and allows environments to be changed manually or via sensors depending on the use of the space.

Taccal View The 3D to the right illustrates how the distribuon ducts service the workspaces with heang, venlaon + cooling, power and a sprinkler system. It is also evident the degree of exposure the services have in this building. To the rear of the image, a service riser is visible. The second image iden es the extractor ducts aached to the food producing areas of the kitchens and coffee shops located in the service core. It is evident how the system wraps elegantly round the sturdy mber trusses.

H, V + C Distribuon layout

Strategic View_Service Risers

Exposed Ducts Housed Within 2.5m x 2.5m Service Riser


137

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BRACC

Main Service Riser Kitchen Soil and Fresh Water riser

Drains from Roof

Coffee Shop Changing Rooms WC Refuse Point

Aenuaon Ponds

Water Distribuon

Drainage + Wast Management

Service Core Auditorium Escape Circulaon

Refuge Area

Office Space

Sprinkler Fire Hydrant Fire Exnguisher

Compartmentaon

Fire Equipment

Venlaon Return Venlaon Venlaon Supply Supply

Tacal View_Oce System Distribuon

Tacal View_Heang, Venlaon + Cooling Ducng


Storage

Office Bay

Steel Floor Plate

Desk Layout

Paroning

Office Row

Throughout the 2.5m x 2.5m grid of the office space, there is one of three states each square can be in at any one me. They are circulaon, void, or office space. The oor panels of the steel structure are foldable so they can be converted to a void when not in use. The diagrams below show how the individual units are assembled in a bay. The storage, desk layout, and paroning can be changed to suite the user.

Oce Adaptability

The detail chosen has two main structural features. The rst is the canlevered auditorium that hovers above the external landscape. Supported by an exaggerated truss system, housed within the walls of the auditorium, diagonal steel ‘L’ secons pull the structure around back on itself and then securely, and elegantly, xed it to the ground. The second detail is the juncon of the concrete auditorium and the mber and glazed facade. At the point where the concrete pierces the facade, a hey mber box frame supports the glazing above it and maintains the sturdy structure of the facade. The glazing featured in the other facades of the building contains solar cells. As this facade faces north the sun does not shine directly on it, so the laminated glass is coloured or clear. The exterior concrete nish of the auditorium is clean, light and smooth. This enables imagery to be projected clearly onto it.

Detail Descripon

Paul A Westwell 05087209 Manchester School of Architecture_Year 6

Building Realisaon + Climate Change 3D DETAIL STUDY

BRACC_04

Auditorium Canterlever Truss

3D Detail Study_Secon A_A

Tubular Steel Secon Meeng Concrete Base

Cast Steel Pivot Joint

Tunstall Enterprise Palace BRACC 138


Tunstall Enterprise Palace BRACC

139


Tunstall Enterprise Palace Drawings

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace Drawings

Drawings The list below specifies the following final drawings of the scheme at their printed scales. They were orginally printed at A1 but have been resized to fit in this document. SITE PLAN GROUND FLOOR BASEMENT + FIRST FLOOR LEVEL SECOND + THIRD FLOOR LEVEL FOURTH FLOOR + ROOF LEVEL SECTION A_A + B_B

1:500 1:200 1:200 1:200 1:200 1:200


A

B


Scale:

1:500 @ A1

SITE PLAN

TUNSTALL ENTERPRISE PALACE

B

A


B

A

B


Scale:

1:200 @ A1

Ground Floor

TUNSTALL ENTERPRISE PALACE

A


A

B

B

BASEMENT LEVEL

A


A

B

B

FIRST FLOOR LEVEL

A TUNSTALL ENTERPRISE PALACE BASEMENT + FIRST FLOOR LEVEL Scale:

1:200 @ A1


A

B

B

SECOND FLOOR LEVEL

A


A

B

B

THIRD FLOOR LEVEL

A TUNSTALL ENTERPRISE PALACE SECOND + THIRD FLOOR LEVEL Scale:

1:200 @ A1


A

B

B

FOURTH FLOOR LEVEL

A


A

B

B

ROOF LEVEL

A TUNSTALL ENTERPRISE PALACE FOURTH FLOOR + ROOF LEVEL Scale:

1:200 @ A1


SECTION A_A

SECTION B_B


TUNSTALL ENTERPRISE PALACE SECTION A_A + B_B Scale:

1:200 @ A1


Tunstall Enterprise Palace Sketches

Sketches The following sketches assisted with understanding the building and helped developed elements at various scales.

154


Tunstall Enterprise Palace Sketches

155


156

Tunstall Enterprise Palace

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Tunstall Enterprise Palace