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Editorial

Are of importance for parents to know children and when they suffer from psychological disorders, many of them d realize ignore the symptoms, since they a clear and more in children, when it com hyperactivity disorders and attention de because it is very normal for a child to be inappropriately but not on all occasions. as parents have a duty to educate an desarrolarles his attention at an early ag that reason we will present you here t disorder and its causes poibles.

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Is your child hyperactive?

Many children are labelled as 'hyperactive' but the disorder is rarely explained fully. Psychotherapist Frances Campbell takes us through some of the symptoms and treatments of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder in pre-teen children Spotting the signs We often hear children described as hyperactive, but what exactly does this mean? Most happy, normal children have a lot of energy, so how do you distinguish between an excited child and someone suffering from ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder)? The answer is that it can be difficult. This disorder can vary in intensity and most children will express some of the symptoms some of the time. Unfortunately, there are no specific tests for ADHD, so a diagnosis is based on the child's behaviour. Below are some of the symptoms exhibited by children suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder. It should be stressed though, that the condition is revealed differently in each child. 4


Lack of concentration The name of this disorder gives us an obvious clue as to one of the major symptoms. Children suffering from an Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder find it difficult to concentrate and tend to be extremely restless. They won't be able to stay seated for long and can't settle down to tasks or play. Of course, anyone who's worked with pre-teens would rightly say that this description covers a lot of the kids they deal with, so how else can we spot something is wrong? Unusually aggressive One of the best ways to tell if a child is hyperactive is to watch how he or she behaves with contemporaries. Children with ADHD find it difficult to relate accurately to those around them. For example, if they come up against one of the normal frustrations in playing a game, they can become unduly irritable or aggressive with their playmates. So fighting often, for little apparent reason, would be a possible indication of ADHD. 5


Dopamine is believed to play a major role in the manifestation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which affects 3-6% of school-age children and shows evidence of familiarity. The dopamine D4 receptor, which is preferentially distributed in cortical and limbic regions of the brain, is currently of major interest because of the high degree of functionally relevant variability in its gene (DRD4), and the association of this gene with Novelty Seeking behavior. We examined the variability in the length of a region of DRD4 that contains a 48-bp repeat sequence in children with ADHD and controls matched for ethnicity.ADHD children differed from controls in that the 7-fold repeat form of DRD4 occurred significantly more frequently than in the control sample. This form of the receptor has previously been shown to mediate a blunted intracellular response to dopamine. Although ADHD is likely to be multifactorial in its etiology and its heritability is likely to be polygenetic, the present findings suggest that polymorphic variation in the gene encoding the D4 dopamine receptor may be a contributing factor in the expression of symptoms associated with ADHD. 6


The Hyperactive Children's Support Group (HCSG) is an organisation with over 70 branches in Britain devoted to helping such children and their families. We have carried out a detailed survey of the characteristics of many of our children and their families and have studied the literature in detail. We have come to the conclusion that many of these children have a deficiency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) either because they cannot metabolise linoleic acid normally, or because they cannot absorb EFAs normall from the gut, or because their EFA requirements are higher than normal. The main pieces of evidence are: 1. Most of the food constituents which cause trouble in these children are weak inhibitors of the conversion of EFAs to prostaglandins (PGs). 2. Boys are much more commonly affected than girls and males are known to have much higher requirements for EFAs than females. 3. A high proportion of our children have abnormal thirst and thirst is one of the cardinal signs of EFA deficiency. 4. Many of our children have allergies and asthma which some reports suggest can be alleviated by EFAs. 5. Many of our children are deficient in zinc which is required for conversion of EFAs to PGs. 6. Some of our children are badly affected by wheat and milk which are known to give rise to exorphins in the gut which can block conversion of7 EFAs to PGEl. A preliminary study of EFA supplementation in a number of our children has


Parents may blame themselves when a child is diagnosed with ADHD, but the causes likely have more to do with inherited traits than parenting choices. At the same time, certain environmental factors may contribute to or worsen a child's behavior. Although there's still a lot that isn't known about ADHD, several factors may cause it:

Altered brain function and anatomy: While the exact cause of ADHD remains a mystery, brain scans have revealed important differences in the structure and brain activity of people with ADHD. For example, there appears to be less activity in the areas of the brain that control activity levels and attention. 8


Heredity: ADHD tends to run in families. Several genes that may be associated with ADHD are currently being studied.

Maternal smoking, drug use and exposure to toxins: Pregnant women who smoke are at increased risk of having children with ADHD. Alcohol or drug abuse during pregnancy may reduce activity of the nerve cells (neurons) that produce neurotransmitters. Pregnant women who are exposed to environmental poisons also may be more likely to have children with symptoms of ADHD.

Childhood exposure to environmental toxins: Preschool children exposed to certain toxins are at increased risk of developmental and behavioral problems. Exposure to lead, which is found mainly in paint and pipes in older buildings, has been linked to disruptive and even violent behavior and to a short attention span.

Food additives: Substances added to food, such as artificial coloring or food preservatives, may contribute to hyperactive behavior. Although sugar is a popular suspect in causing hyperactivity, there's no reliable proof of this.

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http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/adhd/ds00275/dsection=causes

http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder/completeindex.shtml

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0306987781900141

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Child Psicology  

Revista de hiperactividad

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