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‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ ‪٢....................................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﭽﻪ ‪٣.................................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ‪٥............................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻭ ﭘﺮﺍﻛﻨﺶ ‪٧..................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ‪٨......................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺭﻭﻣﻲ‪٨........................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻛﻮﻟﻮﮊﻳﻜﻲ‪١٢...................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ‪١٤....................................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺖ ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ‪١٩..................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ‪٢٠..................................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ‪٢٢...................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ‪٢٣ ...........................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺑﻬﺪﺍﺷﺘﻲ ﻭ ﺁﺭﺍﻳﺸﻲ‪٢٥.......................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ‪٢٧.........................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﻨﻊ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ‪٢٨ .....................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺓ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ‪٢٩........................................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ‪٣٠................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﻚ ﺣﻼﻝ ‪٣١.................................................................................................‬‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺘﺰ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ‪٣٣.......................................................................................................................‬‬


‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‪:‬‬

‫ﻫﻤـﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺑـﺎ ﭘـﻴﺪﺍﻳﺶ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻤـﺪﻥ ﺍﻗﻮﺍﻡ ﻗﺪﻳﻤﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭ‪ ،‬ﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﭘﺎﻙ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﻧﮓ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﻳﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺑﺸﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻗﻄﺮﻩﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘـﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻗـﻴﺎﻧﻮﺱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺷﺎﻳﺪ ﺟﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﺌﻮﺍﻝ ﻛﻪ ﭼﺮﺍ ﻛﺒﺪ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎﻳﻲ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻟﻜـﻮﻝﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺩﻓﻊ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺒﺪ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺰﺍﺭﺍﻥ ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﭘـﻴﺶ ﺑـﻪ ﺧﺎﻃـﺮ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻏﺬﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻃﻴﻒ ﻭﺳﻴﻌﻲ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺁﺷﻨﺎ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧـﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﻛﻴـﺒﺎﺕ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﺎﻥ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺘﺰ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﻳﺎ ﻏﻴﺮﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻗـﺮﻥ ‪ ١٨‬ﻭ ﺍﻭﺍﻳـﻞ ﻗـﺮﻥ ‪ ١٩‬ﻣﺤﻘﻘـﺎﻥ ﭘﻴﺸـﺮﻓﺖ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﻟﺺ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳـﺎﻳﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴـﺒﺎﺕ ﺷـﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻮﺟـﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﮔـﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺷـﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺍﺩﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺰﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻢ ﺷﻴﻤﻲ ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺖ ﭼﺸﻤﮕﻴﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺁﻣـﺪﻥ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺗﻔﻜـﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤـﻴﻂﻫـﺎﻱ ﻋﻠﻤـﻲ ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﻨﺘﺰ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺼﻮﺹ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﺩﺍﺭﻭ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﻤﺎﺭﻱﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺣﻞ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﻥ ﺑﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﻧﻲ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻓﺮﺍﻣﻮﺷﻲ ﺳﭙﺮﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺗﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﮔﻲ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻙ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﭼـﻨﺪ ﻧﺴـﻞ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻓﻜﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻓﻨﺎﻭﺭﻳﻬﺎﻱ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺨﺮﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻓـﺘﺎﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑـﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻳﻜـﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻲ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﺯ ‪ ٧‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬

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‫ﮔﺬﺷـﺖ‪ .‬ﺑـﺎ ﺗﻮﺟـﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ‪ ،‬ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻜﺪﻩ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸـﻬﺎﻱ ﻋﻠﻤـﻲ ﻭ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻲ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ (٤) .‬ﻭ )‪(٥‬‬ ‫ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﻳﻜـﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺮ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬‫ﺗﺮﻳـﻦ ﮔـﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳـﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﻭﭘـﺎ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﻭﺭﻣﻴﺎﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﺁﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎﻱ ﺷﻤﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﻴﺎ ﻭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺁﻓﺮﻳﻘﺎﻳـﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻤﺪﺗﹰﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺁﻥ ﻛﺸﺖ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑـﺎ ﺗﻮﺟـﻪ ﺑـﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺑـﺮﺩ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﺩﺍﺭﻭ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﺁﺭﺍﻳﺸﻲ ﻭ ﺑﻬﺪﺍﺷﺘﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻭ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﭼﺎﺷﻨﻲﻫﺎﻱ ﻏﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺑـﺮ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺩﻫﻪ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻭﻳﮋﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﻱ‬‫ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎﻳـﻲ ﺗﺤﻘـﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﭘﻴﺮﺍﻣﻮﻥ ﺟﻨﺒﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻧﮋﺍﺩﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻫﻤﻪ ﺳﺎﻟﻪ ﺷﺎﻫﺪ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﻫﺴﺘﻴﻢ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺳﻴﻊ ﺍﺯ ‪ ٢٠‬ﺳﺎﻝ ﭘﻴﺶ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻩ ﻏﺮﺑﻲ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺣـﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿـﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼـﺮﻑ ﺳﺎﻻﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ )ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺭﻭﻣﻲ( ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪٤‬‬ ‫ﻫـﺰﺍﺭ ﺗﻦ ﮔﻞ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻤﺪﺗﹰﺎ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺠﺎﺭﺳﺘﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﺳﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺁﺭﮊﺍﻧﺘﻴﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﭼﻚ ﺍﺳﻠﻮﺍﻛﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻨﻼﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺮ ﺍﺧﻴﺮﹰﺍ ﻫﻨﺪ ﺗﺄﻣﻴﻦ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺧﻮﺩﺭﻭ ﺭﺷﺪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﭼﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﻛﺸﺖ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪(٢) .‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﭽﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﭽـﻪ ﮔـﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﮔـﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳـﻲ ﺑـﺎ ﺧﺮﺍﻓﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺁﺩﺍﺏ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻣﺼﺮﻱﻫﺎ ﻭ ﭼﻴﻨﻲﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺍﻗﻮﺍﻣﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ ٢٧٠٠‬ﺳﺎﻝ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴﻼﺩ ﻣﺴﻴﺢ ﺍﺯ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲﻛﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺗﺌﻮﻓﺮﺍﺳﺖ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺎﮔﺮﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﺭﺳﻄﻮ ﺑﻨﻴﺎﻧﮕﺬﺍﺭ ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﻳﻮﺳﻜﻮﺭﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻗـﺮﻥ ﺍﻭﻝ ﻣـﻴﻼﺩﻱ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋـﻪﺍﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﺑﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ‪ ٦٠٠‬ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﻭﻥ ﺑﻌﺪ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻗـﺮﻥﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﺸﺘﻢ ﺗﺎ ﺩﻫﻢ ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻱ ﺑﻮﻋﻠﻲ ﺳﻴﻨﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺯﻛﺮﻳﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﺯﻱ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﻥ ﺳﻴﺰﺩﻫﻢ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﻴﻄﺎﺭ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ ١٤٠٠‬ﮔﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺮﻥ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫﻢ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺴـﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻫـﺎﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﭙﺲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﻗﺮﻥ ﺑﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻀﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺭﻭﻳﻜﺮﺩ ﺩﻭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻤﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﺷﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻳﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺭﻧﺴﺎﻧﺲ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﺎ ﻗﺮﻥ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫﻢ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺴـﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﻳـﻲ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﻓﺘﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻗـﺮﻥ ﻧﻮﺯﺩﻫـﻢ ﺁﻏـﺎﺯ ﮔـﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﻻﻳـﻞ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﻭ ﺧﺎﻟﺺ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻻﺳﻴﻮﻥﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ ‐١‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺕ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ ‐٢‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ ‐٣‬ﻋﺪﻡ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻭ ﺗﺠﻮﻳﺰ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻴﻤﺎﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻪ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ‬‫ﮔـﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ‪ ،‬ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﺩﻭﻳﻪﺍﻱ‪ ،‬ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﻋﻄﺮﻱ ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻠـﻲ ﮔـﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﺍﻃﻼﻕ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﻡ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺣﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺻﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳـﻦ ﺑـﺎ ﺁﻥ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﻣﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺑﺮﮔﻬﺎﻱ ﮔﺮﺩﻭ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻛﻞ ﺫﺭﺕ ﻭ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣـﻴﻮﻩ ﻟﻮﺑﻴﺎ ﺣﺎﻭﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﻱ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣـﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣـﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻧﻤﻲﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﻣﺤﺴﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪(١).‬‬

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‫‐ﮔـﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳـﻲ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﻭﻣﻲ ‪Chamamelum‬‬ ‫‪ nobile l.‬ﺑــﺎ ﻧــﺎﻡ ﻗﺪﻳﻤــﻲ ‪ Antemis nobilis‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧــﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧــﻲ ‪Matricaria‬‬ ‫‪ recutita‬ﻛﺸـﺖ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ (١٠).‬ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻳﻮﻧﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ���ﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‐ ﭘﻠﻨـﻴﻮﺱ ﻣـﻮﺭﺥ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺭﺍ ‪ Chamaelon‬ﻧﺎﻣﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﺎﺗﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﻁ‪ ،‬ﺩﻳﻮﺳﻜﻮﺭﻳﺪ ﻭ ﮔﺎﻟﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧـﺎﻡ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﮔـﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻛﻠﻤﻪ ﻳﻮﻧﺎﻧﻲ ‪ Chamos‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻭ ‪ melos‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﻖ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻨﺪﻱ ﺭﺷﺪ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻮﻱ ﺳﻴﺐ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺗﺎﺯﻩ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﻜﻠﻪ ﭘﻴﺎﺩ ﺩﻭ ﻗﺮﻥ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴﻼﺩ ﻣﺴﻴﺢ ﺩﻡ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻜﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺑﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﻳﻮﺳﻜﻮﺭﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻗـﺮﻥ ﺍﻭﻝ ﻣـﻴﻼﺩﻱ ﺩﻡ ﻛـﺮﺩﻩ ﺳﻪ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺃﻣﹰﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﺁﻭﺭ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺻـﻔﺮﺍ ﺑﻜﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺟﺎﻟﻴﻨﻮﺱ ﺣﻜﻴﻢ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺩﺭﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺴـﺎﺱ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﮕـﻲ ﻭ ﺭﻓـﻊ ﺗﺐ ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺻﹰﺎ ﺗﺐﻫﺎﻱ ﺻﻔﺮﺍﺩﻱ ﺑﻜﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﻗﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻄﻲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻲ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﻩ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‬

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‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺑـﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ‪ Matricaria Chamonail.‬ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻴﺮﻩ ﻛﺎﺳﻨﻲ )ﻣﺮﻛﺒﺎﻥ( ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗـﻴﺮﻩ ﻓﺮﻋـﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ )‪ (Radiae‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ ٣٠‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٧٠‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺍﻧﺸﻌﺎﺏﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﭘﻴﺘﻮﻝﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻄﺮ ‪٥‬‬ ‫‪ ١‐٢/‬ﺳـﺎﻧﺘﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﮔﻠﭽﻪ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻪﺍﻱ ﻭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻱ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻧـﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧـﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺳـﺎﻗﻪ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﮔﻠﭽﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﻱ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻪﺍﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺳﻔﻴﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻌـﺪﺍﺩ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻭ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ ١٢‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ١٨‬ﻋﺪﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﮔﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻠﭽﻪﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺟﻨﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﮔﻠﭽﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﻧﻬﻨﺞ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺯﺭﺩ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻠﭽﻪﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﺟﻨﺴﻲ ﻧﺮ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ) ﺩﻭ ﺟﻨﺴﻲ( ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻛﻪ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺷﺪﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻮﺍﻧﻪﺍﻱ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﮔـﻞ ﺁﺫﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻛﺎﭘﻴﺘﻮﻝ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻧﻬﻨﺞ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻴﻤﻜﺮﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﮔﻠﺪﻫﻲ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺨﺮﻭﻁ ﺗﻮ ﺧﺎﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻲﺁﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﻗﻄﺮ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﻭ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ ١/٥‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٣‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜـﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺸﺨﺼـﺎﺕ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺟﻨﺲﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺸـﺎﺑﻪ ﻣﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ ﻣﻲﺳﺎﺯﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻓﻀﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﮔﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺍﮔﺮ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻـﻮﺭﺕ ﻃﻮﻟـﻲ ﺑﺮﺵ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻓﻀﺎﻳﻲ ﺧﺎﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﻀﺎ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﺟﻨﺲﻫﺎ ﻫﻤﭽﻮﻥ ‪ Tripleurospermum‬ﻭ ‪Pyrethum‬‬ ‫ﻭ ‪ Chrysanthemum‬ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺿﻤﻦ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻭ ﻧﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺨﺮﻭﻃﻲ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﻧﻤﻮﻱ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻪ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻒ( ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﺷﺪﻥ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ )ﮔﻠﭽﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻱ ﻫﻨﻮﺯ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺏ( ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪﺍﻱ ﻛﻪ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ ١٣‬ﻭ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ ٣٤‬ﮔﻠﭽﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻱ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺝ( ﻣـﺮﺣﻠﻪﺍﻱ ﻛﻪ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﺮ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ ٣٤‬ﮔﻠﭽﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻱ ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪(٣).‬‬ ‫ﺭﻳﺸﻪ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺨﺮﻭﻃﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻭ ﻛﻢ ﻭ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺳﻄﺤﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﮔﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺪﮔﻲ ﺑﺎﺭﻳﻚ ﻭ ﺩﺭﺍﺯ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺳﻮﺯﻧﻲ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﮔﻬﺎ ﺻﺎﻑ ﻭ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﻛﺮﻙ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﺏ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‪(٦).‬‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻮﻩ ﻓﻨﺪﻗﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﻝ ‪ ١‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ١/٥‬ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺧﺎﻛﺴﺘﺮﻱ ﻳﺎ ﺯﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻣﻴﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﻗﺴـﻤﺖ ﺗﺸـﻜﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﺬﺭ ﻛﻪ ‪ ٢٠‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٢٥‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻣﻴﻮﻩ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﺸـﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﮔﻠﭽﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻱ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﻳﻚ ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ‪ %٢‬ﺗﺎ ‪ %٣‬ﮔﺮﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ‪(٤).‬ﻭ )‪(٥‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﻩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻤﺪﺗﹰﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺗﺤﺘﺎﻧﻲ ﮔﻠﭽﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺭﻳﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺭﺷﺪﻱ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ %٥‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ١/٥‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ‪ :‬ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ )ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‪ :‬ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ‪،‬‬

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‫ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﭘﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﻛﺴﻴﺪ ‪ A‬ﻭ ‪ ،B‬ﻓﺎﺭﻧﺴﻦ(‪ .‬ﻓﻼﻭﻧﻮﺋﻴﻬﺎ )ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‪ :‬ﺁﭘﻲ ﮊﻧﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺁﭘﻲ‬ ‫ﮊﺗﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﺁﭘﻲ ﮊﻧﻴﻦ ﮔﻠﻴﮕﻮﺯﺑﺪ( ﻭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻭﺍﺭﻳـﺘﻪﻫـﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﭙﻠﻮﺋـﻴﺪ ‪ ٢n=١٨‬ﻭ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﭘﻠﻮﺋﻴﺪ ‪ ٢n=٣٦‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺭﻳﺘﻪﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﭙﻠﻮﺋـﻴﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺭﺷـﺪ ﻛﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﺗﺮ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺑﻮﺗﻪ ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻱ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺍﺭﻳﺘﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﭘﻠﻮﺋﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﭘﻠﻮﺋﻴﺪ ﭘﺮﻭﺭﺷﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺤﺮﻛﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪).‬‬ ‫‪(٣‬‬

‫ﺭﺩﻩ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺭﺩﻩ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﺟﺰﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﻪ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﮔﻠﺪﺍﺭ ﻧﻬﺎﻧﺪﺍﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭ ﻟﭙﻪ ﻭ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﮔﻠﺒﺮﮒ ﻭ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﺮﻩ ﻛﺎﺳﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺗﻴﺮﻩ ﻓﺮﻋﻲ ﺍﺭ ﺩﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺟﻨﺲ ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﻜﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ‪(٣).‬‬

‫ﺧﺎﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﻭ ﭘﺮﺍﻛﻨﺶ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺍﺯ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺑﻮﻣﻲ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺘﺮﺍﻧﻪ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭﻟﻲ ﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺳﻴﺎﻱ ﺻﻐﻴﺮ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ‬ ‫ﻛـﺮﺩﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﭘﺮﺍﻛﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﻭﺳﻴﻌﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎ‪ ،‬ﺁﺳﻴﺎﻱ ﻏﺮﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﺁﻓﺮﻳﻘﺎﻱ ﺷﻤﺎﻟﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎﻱ ﺷﻤﺎﻟﻲ ﻭ ﺟﻨﻮﺑﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﻟﻴﺎ ﭘﻴﺪﺍ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺟﻨﺲ ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﻜﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﺭﺷﺪ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻲ ﺟﻨﺲ ﻭ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﻜﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﻛﺎﻣﻮﻣﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ ﻏﺮﺏ ﻟﺮﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﺮﻡ ﺁﺑﺎﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻭﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎﻝ ﻏﺮﺑﻲ ﺍﻧﺪﻳﻤﺸﻚ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺧﻮﺯﺳﺘﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﻟﺢ ﺁﺑﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻫﻔﺖ ﮔﻞ‪ ،‬ﺷﻮﺷﺘﺮ‪،‬ﺷﻴﺮﺍﺯ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻧﺸﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺪﺗﹰﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻥﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺻﻔﻬﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻛﻬﻜﻴﻠﻮﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺑﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﺣﻤﺪ‪ ،‬ﮔﻠﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻫﻤﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﮔﻮﻧﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﻜﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﻭ ﭘﺮﺍﻛﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ : M.aurea‐١‬ﺍﻳـﻦ ﮔـﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺩﺑـﺎﺭ‪،‬ﺧﺮﻣﺸﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﺮﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺟﻨﻮﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻮﺷﻬﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻮﻧﻚ )ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺯﻓﻮﻝ ﻭ ﺷﻮﺷﺘﺮ(ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎﺕ ‪ ٤٠٠‬ﻣﺘﺮﻱ ﻗﺼﺮ ﺷﻴﺮﻳﻦ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ : M.lasicarp‐٢‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﻠﻮﭼﺴـﺘﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﻩ ﺣﺮﻱ ﺭﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺧﻮﺩﺭﻭ ﺭﺷﺪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻡﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺤﻠﻲ ﭘﻴﻦ ﻓﻮﻟﻲ ﻭ ﭘﻴﻮﻥ ﻓﻮﻟﻲ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ : M.Chamomil‐٣‬ﻛﻪ ﭘﺮﺍﻛﻨﺶ ﺁﻥ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ : M.Praecox‐٤‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﻬـﺮﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗـﺒﺮﻳﺰ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﻗﻢ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺍﻙ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻦ ﺧﻮﻱ ﻭ ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺰ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺷﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﺎﺋﻴﻪ ﻭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻫﻮﺍﺯ ﻭ ﺷﻮﺷﺘﺮ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ : M.Corgmbifera‐٥‬ﺩﺭ ﻛﺮﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﺯ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺍﻙ ﻭ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻥ ﻛﻮﻩ‪ ،‬ﺭﺿﺎﺋﻴﻪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺮﻳﺰ ﺭﺷﺪ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ : M.Decipiens‐٦‬ﺩﺭ ﺁﺫﺭﺑﺎﻳﺠﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﻣﺤﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺑﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﻛﻮﻩ ﺷﺮﻱ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ : M.Microcaplaium ‐٧‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻛﺮﻣﺎﻧﺸﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻴﺴﺘﻮﻥ ﻭ ﻛﺮﺩﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ : M. Melanophglla‐٨‬ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺮﺩﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ : M. Oleades‐٩‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﻮﺍﺣﻲ ﺳﻬﻨﺪ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﻳﺪ‪ (٢) .‬ﻭ )‪(٣‬‬

‫ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑـﺎ ﺗﻮﺟـﻪ ﺑـﻪ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳـﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻼﻣﺖ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼـﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﻮﻟـﻴﺪ ﺁﻥ ) ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﻫﺮ ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﮔﺮﻡ ﮔﻞ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪٣٠‬‬ ‫ﻫـﺰﺍﺭ ﺭﻳـﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭﻫـﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ‪ ٢٠‬ﻣﺎﺭﻙ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ(‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﺪ ﺗﻼﺵ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺟﻬـﺖ ﺗﻮﺳـﻌﻪ ﻛﺸﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﭼﺮﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺻﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺁﻥ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺯ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪(٢).‬‬

‫ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺗﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﻭﻣﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧـﻲ ﺑـﺎ ﻧـﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻤـﻲ ‪ Matricaria Chamomil‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴـﻦ ﺑـﻪ ﻧﺎﻣﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫‪ Matricaria ecutita‬ﻭ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎﻳـﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﻣﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﺣﺸﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﺳـﺖ‪ .‬ﮔﻴﺎﻫـﻲ ﻋﻠﻔـﻲ‪ ،‬ﺳـﺎﻻﻧﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺸﻌﺐ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﮔﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﻘﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷـﺘﻪ ﻭ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺃﺱ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﻲ ﻧﻬﻴﺞ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻱ ﻭ ﺯﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻧـﮓ ﻭ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﻛﻨﺎﺭﻱ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻪﺍﻱ ﻭ ﺳﻔﻴﺪ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﮔﻠﻮﻫﻲ ﺍﺭﺩﻳﺒﻬﺸﺖ – ﺍﻭﺍﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﺩﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺍﺭﺩﻳﺒﻬﺸﺖ – ﺧﺮﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺭﻭﻣـﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ‪ Chamaemalum nobile.‬ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻗﺪﻳﻤﻲ ‪Antemis‬‬ ‫‪ nobilisl.‬ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

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‫ﮔﻴﺎﻫـﻲ ﻋﻠﻔـﻲ ﻭ ﺩﭘﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺎﻗﻪﺍﻱ ﻗﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﮔﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﺏ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻳﺪﮔـﻲ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻋﻤـﻴﻖ ﺍﺳـﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﻫﺎ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺩﺍﺭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻱ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧـﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻓﻘﻂ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ﺩﺍﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﮔﻠﻮﻫـﻲ ﺗـﻴﺮ ﻣـﺎﻩ – ﻣﺮﺩﺍﺩ ﻣﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺗﻴ��� ﻣﺎﻩ – ﺍﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺧﺮﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺨﺘﻲ ﺑﺎ ﮊﻧﻮﺗﻴﭗ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﻭﻣﻲ ﻭ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﻭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺟﻨﺲ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﹰﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻲﺍﻓﺘﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻗﺪﻳﻤﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪(٥) .‬‬

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‫ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻛﻮﻟﻮﮊﻳﻜﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﺯ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻣﻌﺘﺪﻟﻪ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺗﻲ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺟﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺯﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻣـﺎﻱ ‪ ٦‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٧‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻲ ﮔﺮﺍﺩ ﺁﻏﺎﺯ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ ﺍﭘﺘﻴﻢ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺯﻧﻲ ‪ ٢٠‬ﺗﺎ‬ ‫‪ ٢٥‬ﺩﺭﺟـﻪ ﺳـﺎﻧﺘﻲ ﮔﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺭﺷﺪ ﻣﻴﺎﻧﮕﻴﻦ ‪ ١٩‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٢٠‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ ‪ ٢٥‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻲ ﮔﺮﺍﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺯ ﻭ‬ ‫‪ ١٥‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻲ ﮔﺮﺍﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺐ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻲ ﺩﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻛﻮﻟﻮﮊﻳﻜﻲ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﺮ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﻮﻟﻮﮊﻳﻜﻲ ﻭ ﺑﻴﻮ‐‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺩﻣﺎ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺗﻚ ﮔﻞ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺭﻭﺯﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺯﻧﻲ ﺗﺎ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﮔﻞ ﺭﺍ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﭘﻲ ﮊﻧﻴﻦ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺩﻣﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻱ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻧﻪ ﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻱ ﺑﻬﺎﺭﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺿﺨﻴﻢ ﺷﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺁﺳﻴﺐ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺭﺷﺪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﮔﻞ ﺭﺍ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺣﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺳﺒﺰ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺑﺬﺭ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﻧﻮﺭ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧـﻴﺎﺯ ﻧﻮﺭﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻲ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻧﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓـﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﺩﻟﻦ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻳﺎﻓﺖ‪ .‬ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻛـﻪ ﻫﻤﺒﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﻣﺜﺒﺘﻲ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻓـﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻃـﻮﻝ ﺭﻭﺷـﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺯ ‪ ١٤‬ﺳـﺎﻋﺖ ﺑﻪ ‪ ١٨‬ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﻭ ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻫﺎ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻧﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻃـﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺭﺷـﺪ ﺳـﺒﺐ ﻛـﺎﻫﺶ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﮔﻞ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﮔـﻴﺎﻩ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺯﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺭﺷﺪ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬‫ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﻱ ﺁﺏ ﺍﺣﺘـﻴﺎﺝ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺁﺑـﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﭘﻨﺠﻪ ﺯﻧﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﮔﻞ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻬﻲ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﮔـﺮ ﭼـﻪ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻳﻚ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﮔﺬﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺳﺮﻣﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﮔﻠﻮﻫﻲ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻧـﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺣﺘﻲ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻬﺎﺭ ﻛﺸﺖ ﺷﻮﺩ ﮔﻞ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ ﻭﻟﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﮔﻞ ﺁﻥ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻛﺸـﺖﻫـﺎﻱ ﭘﺎﻳـﻴﺰﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ ﺑﻬﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑـﺬﻭﺭ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭ ﺷﺪﻩ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻭ ﺗﺎ ﺳﻪ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺯﻧﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳﺖ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺬﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻛـﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﻙ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺧﻮﺍﺏ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ ١٠‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ١٥‬ﺳﺎﻝ ﻛﻮﻩ ﻧﺎﻣﻴﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺣﻔـﻆ ﻣـﻲﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺬﻭﺭ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﹰﺎ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﻣﻲﺯﻧﻨﺪ ) ﻃﻲ ‪ ٦‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٨‬ﺭﻭﺯ(‪ .‬ﺭﺷﺪ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳـﺖ ﻭ ﺭﺯﺕ ﻛﻮﭼـﻚ ﺩﺭ ﻧـﻴﻤﻪ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺭﻭﻳـﺶ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻬﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺷـﺮﻭﻉ ﺑـﻪ ﺩﺷـﺪ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺸﻌﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷـﺮﻭﻉ ﮔﻠﻮﻫﻲ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻗﻢ ﻭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺍﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺭﻭﻳﺶ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻃﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﮔﻠﻮﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺻـﻠﻲ ‪ ١٠‐١٦‬ﺭﻭﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺯﻭﺩﺭﺱ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﻠﻮﻫﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻭﺣﺸﻲ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﻛﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺷـﻮﺭ )ﺍﺯ ﺍﻭﺍﺧـﺮ ﺁﻭﺭﻳﻞ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻪ(‪ .‬ﺍﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﺮﺭﺱ ﺗﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﺍﻳﻞ ﻣﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻪ ﻣﻲﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﻛﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺎﺳﻪﺍﻱ ﻭ ﺳﺒﻚ ﮔﻠﻮﻫﻲ ﺯﻭﺩﺗﺮ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻲﺍﻓﺘﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﻛﻬﺎﻱ‬‫ﺳـﻨﮕﻴﻦ ‪ ٥‬ﺗـﺎ ‪ ٨‬ﺭﻭﺯ ﺩﻳﺮﺗـﺮ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻲﺍﻓﺘﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﻄﻊ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﻭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﮔﻞ‬ ‫ﻣـﻲﻧﻤـﺎﻳﺪ ) ﺍﻟﺒـﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ(‪ .‬ﻣﻴﻮﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﮔﻠﻮﻫﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺞ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻬـﻨﺞ ﺩﺭ ﻃـﻮﻝ ﺭﺳـﻴﺪﻥ ﻣﺨﺮﻭﻃـﻲ ﻣـﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﻭ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﻭﺍﺟﺪﺩﻣﮕﻞ ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺸـﺮﺩﻩ ﻣـﻲﺷـﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻥ ﻣﻴﻮﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺗﻪ ﻧﻬﻨﺞ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻣﻴﻮﻩﻫﺎ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻥ ﺭﻳﺰﺵ ﻣﻲﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺑـﻪ ﺷﻮﺭﻱ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭﻟﻲ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﻧﻤﻚ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﺗﻠﻘﻲ‬‫ﺷﻮﺩ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﻧﻤﻚ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﺭﺷﺪ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺎ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻧﻤﻚ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳـﻠﻮﻝ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺭﻳﺸـﻪ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ‪ ١٠‬ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺑﺮ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﻴﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺷـﺮﺍﻳﻄﻲ ﻛـﻪ ﺳـﺎﻳﺮ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻛﻤﺮ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺑـﻲ ﺑـﻪ ﺳﺮ ﻣﻲﺑﺮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺷﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﮔﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺧﺎﻛﻲ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﻳﺪ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺧﺎﻛﻬﺎﻱ ﺳﺒﻚ ﺷﻨﻲ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﻓﺮﺍﻭﺍﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺁﻫﻜﻲ‪،‬ﺑﺴﺘﺮ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ PH .‬ﺧﺎﻙ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ ٤/٨‬ﺗﺎ ‪٨‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﭼﻪ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﻛﻬﺎﻱ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫‪ ٩PH‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٩/٢‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ (١) .‬ﻭ )‪(٢‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﺷﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻳﻚ ﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﻛﺸﺖ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ )‪.(Cultivation of monoculture‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﻳﺸـﮕﺎﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﻃﺒﻴﻌـﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﻊ ﺷﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺧﻮﺩﺭﻭ ﺳﺒﺰ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻞ ﮔﻞ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺤﻘﻘﻴﻦ ﺷﻮﺭﻭﻱ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﻭ ﭼﻜﺴﻠﻮﺍﻛﻲ ﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﻭ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻛﺸﺖ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻃﻲ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻫﻪ ‪ ١٩٥٠‬ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻘﻴﺪﻩ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ ﺗـﺎ ﺳﻪ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺭﻳﺰﺵ ﺑﺬﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻞ ﻛﺸﺖ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺍﻣﺎ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﺮﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺟـﺎﺯﻩ ﺭﺷـﺪ ﻧﻤﻲﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻣﺸﺎﻳﻬﻲ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ‪ (١٩٦٩) kerekes‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺸﺎﺕ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﺎﺭﺳـﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺁﻣﺪ‪ .‬ﻃﺒﻖ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﺧﻴﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﺎﺭﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﺗﺎ ﭘﻨﺞ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺣﺘﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﻚ ﺗﻜﻨﻴﻚ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻲ ﻛﺸﺖ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣـﻲ ﻛـﻪ ﻳﻚ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﻫﺮﺯ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻛﺶ ﻫﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺘﻲ ﻋﻮﺽ‬ ‫ﺷـﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻚ ﻣﺰﻳﺖ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﺸﺖ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻـﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﻫﺮﺯ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺬﻭﺭ ﺭﻳﺰﺵ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﺎﻟﻬﺎ ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‐ﻳﻜـﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺷـﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺟﻬـﺖ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﺮﻏﻮﺏ ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺑﺴﺘﺮ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻳﻜﺴﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺩﻳﺴﻚ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻙ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻧﺪﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺸـﺖ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺑـﻪ ﺩﻭ ﻃـﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ )ﺧﺰﺍﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ( ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻫﺮﺯ ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻥ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻒ( ﺭﻭﺵ ﺧﺰﺍﻧﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌـﻪ ﺯﻣﻴﻨـﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑـﻪ ﺻـﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﻠﺨﺎﻧـﻪﺍﻱ ﺍﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻙ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻛﻮﺩ ﺁﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﺳﻴﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﺎﺳﻪ ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻛﻮﺩ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﻓﺴﻔﺎﺕ ﺁﻣﻮﻧﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﺻﺎﻑ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺑﺬﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺑـﻪ ﻃـﻮﺭ ﺳـﻄﺤﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺴﺘﺮ ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﮔﻠﺨﺎﻧﻪ ﻣﻲﭘﺎﺷﻴﻢ ﻭ ﻳﻚ ﻻﻳﻪ ﻧﺎﺯﻙ ﻣﺎﺳﻪ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺧـﺎﻙ ﺑﺮﮒ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻲﺭﻳﺰﻳﻢ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻱ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻤﻖ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ﺑﺬﺭﻫﺎ ‪ ١‐٢‬ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺬﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ‪ ٥٠٠،‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٨٠٠‬ﮔﺮﻡ ﺑﺬﺭ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺯﻧﻲ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﺸﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻳـﻚ ﻫﻜـﺘﺎﺭ ﺯﻣﻴـﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﺮ ‪ ٣‬ﮔﺮﻡ ﺑﺬﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺷـﺪﻩ ﻣـﻲﭘﺎﺷـﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺧﺰﺍﻧﻪ ﻫﺮ ‪ ٣‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٤‬ﺭﻭﺯ ﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﻣﺎﻱ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺍﻧـﻪ ﺯﻧﻲ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﺧﺰﺍﻧﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ‪ ١٠‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٢٠‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﺖ ﺑﻬﺎﺭﻩ ﺧﺰﺍﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﺍﺳـﻂ ﺍﺳـﻔﻨﺪ ﻣـﺎﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺩﻳﺒﻬﺸﺖ ﻧﺸﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳـﻴﺰﻩ ﺍﻭﺍﻳﻞ ﺗﺎ ﺍﻭﺍﺳﻂ ﻣﻬﺮ ﺧﺰﺍﻧﻪ ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﻭﺍﺳﻂ ﺁﺫﺭ ﻧﺸﺎﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍ‐ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ )ﮔﻞ ﺧﺸﻚ‪( Kg/ha‬‬

‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ‬

‫ﻛﺸﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺗﺎﺑﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﻳﺎ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﺰ‬ ‫‪13-16 July‬‬ ‫‪3-6 August‬‬ ‫‪24-27 August‬‬ ‫‪14-17 September‬‬ ‫‪5-8 October‬‬ ‫‪26-29 October‬‬

‫‪688‬‬ ‫‪683‬‬ ‫‪737‬‬ ‫‪730‬‬ ‫‪600‬‬ ‫‪528‬‬

‫ﻛﺸﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪29 February – 15 March‬‬ ‫‪14 March – 1 April‬‬ ‫‪28 March – 15 April‬‬ ‫‪25 April – 12 May‬‬ ‫‪9 May – 27 May‬‬

‫‪477‬‬ ‫‪311‬‬ ‫‪170‬‬ ‫‪137‬‬ ‫‪59‬‬ ‫)‪Hornok (1992‬‬

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‫ﺏ( ﻛﺸﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺑﺖ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺑﺬﻭﺭ ﻳﻜﻨﻮﺍﺧﺖ ﭘﺮﺍﻛﻨﺪﻩ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺬﻭﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ‪ ١٠‬ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺧﻮﺩ��� ‫ﺑﺎ ﺧﺎﻙ ﺍﺭﻩ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺎﺳﻪ ﺑﺎﺩﻱ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﺑﺬﺭ‬ ‫ﭘـﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺬﺭﺍﻓﺸﺎﻧﻲ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻳﻚ ﻏﻠﻄﻚ ﺳﺒﻚ ﺯﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ ﺩﺭﺧﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻧﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻛﺸـﻴﺪﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﺖ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻫﻢ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺧﻄﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺧﻄﻮﻁ ‪ ٤٥‬ﺗﺎ ‪٦٥‬‬ ‫ﺳـﺎﻧﺘﻲ ﻣـﺘﺮ ﻭ ﻓﺎﺻـﻠﻪ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ‪ ٣٠‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٤٠‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺬﺭ ﺧﺎﻟﺺ ‪ ٢‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻜـﺘﺎﺭ ﻭ ﻫـﻢ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺑـﺎ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺑﺬﺭ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ ٣‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮﮔﺮﻡ ﺑﺬﺭ ﺧﺎﻟﺲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻏﺬﺍﺋﻲ‪:‬‬‫ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧـﻲ ﻳﻚ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻉ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ )‪( Eurg topic‬‬‫ﺑـﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﻛﻬﺎﻱ ﻓﻘﻴﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺭﺷﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻃﺒﻖ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟـﻴﺪ‪ ١٠٠٠ kg‬ﮔﻞ ﻭ‪ ١٣٠٠ kg‬ﭘﻴﻜﺮ ﺭﻭﻳﺸﻲ‪ ٨٥ ،‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮﮔﺮﻡ ‪ ٥٣ ، k٢o‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮﮔﺮﻡ ‪، N‬‬ ‫‪ ٢١‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﮔﺮﻡ‪ p٢ o٥‬ﺍﺯ ﺧﺎﻙ ﺟﺬﺏ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻃـﺒﻖ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺸـﺎﺕ ﺍﻧﺠـﺎﻡ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺠﺎﺭﺳﺘﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﻛﻬﺎﻱ ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦ ﻭ ﻧﻴﻤﻪ‬‫ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦ ﺣﺘﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻛﻮﺩ ﺩﻫﻲ ﻳﻜﻨﻮﺍﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑـﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻛﻢ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﮔﻞ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻲ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻛﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺩﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻲﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﻛﻬﺎﻱ ﻓﻘﻴﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ ٢٠‬ﺗﺎ‬ ‫‪ ٣٠‬ﻛـﻴﻠﻮ ﮔﺮﻡ‪ p٢ o٥‬ﻭ ‪ ٢٠‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٣٠‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﮔﺮﻡ ‪ N‬ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﭘﺘﺎﺳﻴﻢ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺻـﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺧﺎﻙ ﻛﻤﺒﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﻛﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳـﻪﺍﻱ ﻭ ﺳـﺒﻚ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺣﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺍﻭﻝ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻛﻮﺩ ﺩﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻛـﻮﺩ ﺩﻫﻲ ﻣﻨﻈﻢ ﻳﻚ ﺷﺮﻁ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﺸﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬‫ﻧـﻮﻉ ﻛﺸﺖ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻏﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﺧﺎﻙ ﻃﻲ ﺳﻪ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺗﺨﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻏﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﻓﺴﻔﺮ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻦ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻛﻤﻲ‬

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‫ﺍﺯﺕ ﻧـﻴﺰ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﻳـﻴﺰ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺭﺷﺪ ﺭﺯﺕ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻛﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺮ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﻧﻤﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﻬـﺖ ﺣﻔـﻆ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﺖ ﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﻝ ﺩﻭﻡ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﻛﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﻴﺎﻧﻪ‪ N ١٠‐٢٠ kg/ha ، k٢ o ٥٠‐٧٠ kg/ha ، p٢ o٥ ٦٠‐٧٠ kg/ha ،‬ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﻮﺩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺳﺮﻙ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ‪ ٤٠‐٦٠ kg/ha‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﻬﺎﺭ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫‐ﺳـﺮﻣﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﺮﺭﺱ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺼﻞ ﺑﻬﺎﺭ )ﻓﺮﻭﺭﺩﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺩﻳﺒﻬﺸﺖ( ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﺳﻴﺐ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﺷـﺪ ﻭ ﻧﻤﻮ ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻒ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺮﮔﻬﺎ ﺯﺭﺩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﻛﻤﻲ ﮔﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫـﺪ ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻛﻮﺩ ﺳﺮﻙ ﺍﺯﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ‪ ٣٠‐٤٠ kg/ha‬ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺑﺤﺮﺍﻧـﻲ ﺭﺷـﺪ ﺣﻔـﻆ ﺧﻮﺍﻫـﺪ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻛﻮﺩ ﺩﻫﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﭘﺎﺷﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻛﻤﻜﻲ ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺛـﺮ ﺳـﻮﺩﻣﻨﺪ ﺍﺯﺕ ﺑـﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯﺕ ﻧﻘﺶ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﺳﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺣﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺯﻱ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯﺕ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑـﻪ ﺩﻟـﻴﻞ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺗﺠﻤﻊ ﻛﺮﺑﻮﻫﻴﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﺟﻴﺒﺮ ﻟﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﻛﺴﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﺯﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺘﺰ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﻩ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻣﻬﻤﻲ ﺍﻳﻔﺎ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ ‐٢‬ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻛﻮﺩ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻝ ﭼﻬﺎﺭﻡ ﻛﺸﺖ ﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻤﻪ ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﺩ ﺧﺎﻟﺺ ﺑﻜﺎﺭ ﺭﻓﺘﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﻛﻮﺩ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ )‪(kg/ha‬‬

‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ ﮔﻞ ﺗﺎﺯﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﮔﻠﺪﻫﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ )‬ ‫‪(t/ha‬‬ ‫ﻛﻮﺩ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ ‪٥٠ kg/ha +‬‬

‫‪K2o‬‬

‫ﻛﻮﺩ ﭘﺎﻳﻪ‬

‫‪P2o5‬‬

‫‪N‬‬

‫ﺍﺯﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫‪١/٢٥‬‬

‫‪%٣٧‬‬

‫‪--‬‬

‫‪--‬‬

‫‪--‬‬

‫‪١/١٢‬‬

‫‪%٣٧‬‬

‫‪--‬‬

‫‪٣٤‬‬

‫‪--‬‬

‫‪%٨٧‬‬

‫‪%٥٠‬‬

‫_‬

‫‪٦٨‬‬

‫_‬

‫‪١/٠٠‬‬

‫‪%٣٧‬‬

‫‪٣٤‬‬

‫‪٣٤‬‬

‫‪--‬‬

‫‪١/٢٥‬‬

‫‪١/٠٠‬‬

‫‪٥١‬‬

‫‪٦٨‬‬

‫_‬

‫‪١/١٦‬‬

‫‪%٨٣‬‬

‫‪٥١‬‬

‫‪٣٤‬‬

‫_‬

‫‪٢/٢٥‬‬

‫‪١/٧٥‬‬

‫‪٧١‬‬

‫‪٧١‬‬

‫‪١٢‬‬

‫‪٢/٣٧‬‬

‫‪٢/١٢‬‬

‫‪١١٩‬‬

‫‪١١٩‬‬

‫‪٦٠‬‬

‫)‪Hornok (1992‬‬

‫ ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺧﺎﻙ‪:‬‬‫ ﻳﻜـﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺷـﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﻟـﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ ﺑﺴﺘﺮ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬‫ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻳﻜﺴﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺩﻳﺴﻚ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﺑـﻪ ﺧـﺎﻙ ﺑﺮﮔﺮﺩﺍﻧﺪﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺎﻭ ﺁﻫﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺘـﻲ ﻛـﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﻫﻮﺍﻱ ﺑﺎﺭﺍﻧﻲ ﻧﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺩﻳﺴﻚ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺧﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻧﻤـﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻛﺸﺖ ﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺑﻘﺎﻳﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑـﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻨﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺻﻲ ) ‪ (Mobile Chaffing‬ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺎ ﻗﻄﻊ ﻭ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺳﺎﻗﻪﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺭﻝ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

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‫ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﺖ ﻳﻜﺴﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ‪ ٣‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٤/٥‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮﮔﺮﻡ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ ) ﺑﺬﺭ‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ( ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﮔﻞ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ٢٠‐٢٥‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺑﺬﺭ ﻭ ‪ ٦٠‐٧٥‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺩﻳﺴﻚ ﺧﺸﻚ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﮔﻠﭽﻪﻫﺎ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻳﻜﻨﻮﺍﺧﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺬﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺯﻧﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺩﻳﻒ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ‪ ١٢‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ١٥‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ ﺧﺎﻙ ﭘﺎﺷﻴﺪﻩ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ﻭ ﻳﻜﻨﻮﺍﺧﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻙ‪ ،‬ﺷﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻦ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻃﺒﻖ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﺭﺩﻳﻒ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻏﻼﺕ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻛﺸـﺖ ﻳﻜـﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﭘـﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﻥ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻏﻠﻄﻚ ﺯﺩﻥ‪ ،‬ﺟﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺯﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠـﺎﻡ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻛﺸﺖ ﺑﺬﺭ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺗﻲ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ ﺯﺍﻳﻲ )ﺳﺒﺰ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ( ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﺳـﺖ ﻭ ﻳـﺎ ﺗـﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺧﺎﺻﻲ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻛﻤﻲ ﺑﺬﺭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻭﺍﺧﺮ ﺁﮔﻮﺳﺖ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻭﺍﻳﻞ ﺳﭙﺘﺎﻣﺒﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ (٢) .‬ﻭ )‪(١٣‬‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﻗﺒﺖ ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﻣـﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ ﺑـﺎ ﻋﻠﻔﻬـﺎﻱ ﻫﺮﺯ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻛﺶ ﻣﺎﻟﻮﺭﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ‪ ٣‬ﺗﺎ ‪٤‬‬ ‫ﻛـﻴﻠﻮﮔﺮﻡ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﭘﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻛﺶ ﺍﻭﺍﺳﻂ ﻓﺮﻭﺭﺩﻳﻦ ﻣﺎﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻛﺶ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺳﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﺮ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣـﻲﺗـﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺎ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ‪ ٢‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٣‬ﺑﺮﮔﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺩﻥ ‪ ١‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ١/٥‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻜـﺘﺎﺭ ﻧﻤﻚ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ‪ 2.4.D‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﺮﺯ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺮ ﻓﻼﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫‪ ٢‬ﻟﻴـﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺭﻭﻳﺸﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﭘﺲ ﻣﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﻧﺎ ﻣﻄﻠﻮﺏ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺳـﻢ ﺑﺴـﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺼﻮﺹ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ‪ ٢‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٣‬ﺑﺮﮔﻲ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺖ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻠﻔﻬﺎﻱ ﻫﺮﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﺖ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻛﺶ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻤﭙﺎﺷﻲ ﻗﻄﻌﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ‪ ٦‬ﻫﻔﺘﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻛﺶ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺑﺬﺭ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻫﺮﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻫﺮﺯ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﻪ ﺯﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬

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‫ ﺗﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﺭﻓﺘﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻛﺶ ﺳﻴﺲ ‪ ٦٧‬ﭘﺮﻭﭖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪/٨‬ﺍ ﺗﺎ‬‫‪ ٢‬ﻛـﻴﻠﻮ ﮔـﺮﻡ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻫﺮﺯ ﺩﻭ ﻟﭙﻪﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻛﺶ ﻛﺮﺏ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﭘﻴﺰﺍﻣـﻴﺪ ﺑـﺎ ﺍﺳـﭙﺮﻱ ‪ ٢‬ﻛـﻴﻠﻮ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻫﺮﺯ ﺗﻚ ﻟﭙﻪ ‪Bromus‬‬ ‫‪ (tectorum‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗـﺎ ﻗـﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺑـﻪ ﮔﻞ ﺭﻓﺘﻦ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻛﺶ ﺁﻓﺎﻟﻮﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ‪ ٣‐٤‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﮔﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﭼﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻛﺶ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻀﺮ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭﻟﻲ ﮔﻠﺪ ﻫﻲ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﻣﻲﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺴـﺮﻳﻊ ﺩﺭ ﺭﺷـﺪ ﻭ ﻧﻤﻮ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﮔﻞ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻛﺶ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻟﻬﺎﻱ ﻏﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‐ ﭘـﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﮔﻞ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻏﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﺩ ﺭﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﮔﻞ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﭼﻪ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻛﻢ ﻭ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻢ ﺁﺑﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻮﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺗﻲ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺎﺭﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﺮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺛﻘﻠﻲ–ﻛﺮﺗﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ ﺁﺑـﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﮔـﻴﺎﻩ ﻣﻌﻤـﻮ ﹰ‬‫ﺭﻃﻮﺑـﺖ ﺧـﺎﻙ ﺑﻴـﻦ ‪ ٦٠‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٧٠‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻲ ﮔﻠﺪﻫﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺐ ﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﮔﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺬﺭ ﺍﻓﺸﺎﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﻼﻳﻢ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺟﺎﺑﻪ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺬﺭﻫﺎ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﻭﻣﻴﻦ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺭ ﺧﺎﻙ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﻳﻲ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﻲ ‪ ٣‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٤‬ﺭﻭﺯ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻛﻞ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺭﻭﻳﺶ ﺑﻪ ‪ ٨‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ١٢‬ﺩﻭ���ﻩ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻏـﻴﺮ ﻣﺴـﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﻧﺸﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺧﺰﺍﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺯﻣﻴﻦ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻭﻝ ﻭ‬‫ﺩﻭﻡ ﺑـﺎﻳﺪ ﻧﺴـﺒﺘﹰﺎ ﺳﻨﮕﻴﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺟﺒﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﻨﺶ ﺧﺸﻜﻲ ﻧﺸﺎﻫﺎ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ (٢) .‬ﻭ )‪(٣‬‬ ‫ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ‪:‬‬‫ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷـﺖ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﮔﻠﻬـﺎ ﺣﺪﺍﻛـﺜﺮ ﻫﻤـﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺎ ‪ ٥‬ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻲ ﻣﺘﺮ ﺩﻫﮕﻞ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺭﻭﺩﺗﺮ ﻭ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﺮﺗـﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺯﻣـﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ ﻛﻪ‬

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‫ﮔﻠﭽـﻪﻫـﺎﻱ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻪﺍﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻧﻘﺤﺎ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻲﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺳﻪ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‐١‬ﻣـﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺁﻏـﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺷﺪﻥ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ) ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻱ ﻫﻨﻮﺯ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ( ‪‐٢‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪﺍﻱ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﭘـﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ ٣٠‬ﺩﺭﺻـﺪ ﻭ ﻛﻤـﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ‪ ٧٥‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻱ ﺑﺎﺯ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪‐٣ .‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪﺍﻱ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﺑﻪ ﭘﻴﺮ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ ٧٥‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﺪ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻱ ﺑﺎﺯ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‐ﺑـﻪ ﻣـﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺩﺳـﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﮔﻞ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻡ ﻧﻤـﻮﻱ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﻤﻞ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻣﺎﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﺭﺩﻳﺒﻬﺸﺖ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻬﺮﻣﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺻـﻮﺭﺕ ﻣـﻲﮔـﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻘـﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺷﺒﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﻭﺯ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫـﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﻇﻬـﺮ‪ ،‬ﮔﻠﻬـﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺯﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺑـﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺳـﺮﺩ ﻣﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺳﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫‐ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷـﺖ ﮔـﻞ ﺗﻮﺳـﻂ ﻛﺎﺭﮔـﺮ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ‬ ‫ﻣـﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﺮ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻛﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﻳﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ ﺩ ﺭﻳﻚ ﺷﻴﻔﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻩ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ‪ ١٠٠‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ١٥٠‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﮔﺮﻡ ﮔﻞ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﻣﺰﺭﻋﻪﺍﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻭﺳﻴﻊ‪ ،‬ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺰﻩ ﻛﺮﻥ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ‪ Ebert- Schubert‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺳﺒﺐ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻋﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻠﻒ ﻫﺮﺯ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻛﻤﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺁﺭﮊﺍﻧﺘﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﻲ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﺭﺳﺘﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺻﻼﺣﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻛﻤﺒﺎﻳﻦ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻏﻼﺕ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻇﺮﻓﻴﺖ ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻌﺒﻴﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺘﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﺄﺧﻴﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻣﺮ ﺳﺒﺐ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﻧﮓ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻛﻤﻴﺖ ﻭ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﻧﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﻦ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻮﻗﺘﹰﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﻪ ﭘﻬﻨﻢ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬

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‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﺱ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻚ ﺍﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺗﻮﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﻤﻴﺰ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻗﻄﺮ ﺍﻟﻚ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ‪ ٧‐١٢cm‬ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺧﺎﻟﺼﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﺭﺷﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺰﺭﻋﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﻞ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﻦ ﻫﺎ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺷﻬﺎ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺣﺸﻚ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ٣٥‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٣٨‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮﺍﺩ ﻭ ﻣﺪﺕ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ ‪ ٣٦‬ﺗﺎ‬ ‫‪ ٧٢‬ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻋﻲ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﺭﺍﻳﺸﻲ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺯﻭﺩ ﺧﺮﺩ ﻭ ﭘﻮﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻳﻜﻲ ‪ ٤٠‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٦٠‬ﺩﺭﺟﻪ ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻳﺎ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺩﺭﻭﮔﺮﺩ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺷـﻴﻨﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﺤﺮﻙ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻋﻠﻮﻓﻪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺑﺮﺵ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻃﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﻥ ﺳﺎﻗﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺒﺰ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻣﻮﺭ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻭ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺗﺤﻤﻴﻞ ﻣﻲﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ‪ %٥‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٢‬ﺗﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ ﮔﻞ ﺗﺎﺯﻩ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ‪ ١٠٠‬ﻳﺎ ‪٥٠٠‬‬ ‫ﻛـﻴﻠﻮﮔﺮﻡ ﻣﺤﺼـﻮﻝ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺰﻩ ‪ ٤٠٠‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٨٠٠‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻜـﺘﺎﺭ ﺳـﺎﻗﻪ ﮔـﻞ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺟﻬـﺖ ﺗﻮﻟـﻴﺪ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺟﻤﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﮔـﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ‬ ‫ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﻫـﻮﺍ ﻳﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺩﻭ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﮔﻞ ﻣﻲﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺷﺎﺧﺴﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻫـﺎﻱ ﮔـﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻨﻲ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺩﺭ ﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷـﺖ ﺳـﻮﻡ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻴﺴـﺮ ﻣـﻲﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺁﺏ ﻭ ﻫﻮﺍﻳﻲ ﻧﺎ ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ ﺩﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ (٢) .‬ﻭ )‪(١٣‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﻳﻜـﻲ ﺍﺯ ﭘـﺮ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺗﺮﻳـﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﺎ ﻫﻤﻪ ﻗﺪﻣﺘﻲ ﻛﻪ‬

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‫ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻗﺎﺋﻠـﻨﺪ ﺑـﻪ ﻋﻠـﺖ ﻣﺸـﺎﺑﻬﺖ ﺑـﺎ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺟﻨﺲ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﻜﺎﺭﻳﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ ﺻﺮﻓﹰﺎ ﺍﺯ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺳﻨﺘﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﺳﺎﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﺁﺭﺍﻳﺸﻲ ﻭ ﺑﻬﺪﺍﺷﺘﻲ ﻭ ﻏﺬﺍﺋﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻭﺳﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣـﻲﺷـﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸـﻮﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﺼﺎﺭﻑ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻓـﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺑـﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﺧﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺸﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﻩ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻧﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣـﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻣﻌﺮﻕ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﻮﻱ ﻣﻌﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺷﻜﻦ‪ ،‬ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺎ ﺁﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻫﻀﻢ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﻏﺬﺍ‪ ،‬ﺻﻔﺮﺍ ﺑﺮ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻋﺪﻩ ﺁﻭﺭ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻴﺎﻡ ﺩﻫـﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺛﺮ ﺿﺪ ﻋﻔﻮﻧﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﻭﻟﻲ ﻗﺎﻃﻊ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺴﻜﻦ ﺩﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺿﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺸـﻨﺞ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﭼﻮﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﺷﺢ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭼﺮﻛﻴﻦ ﻣﺨﺎﻁ ﻫﺎ ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣـﻲﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻳﺒﻮﺳﺖ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺩﻓﻌﻲ ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺻﹰﺎ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻮﻥ ﭼﭗ ﺟﻤﻊ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﺛﺮ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣـﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺳـﻮﺀ ﻫﺎﺿﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﺁﺑﺮﻳﺰﺵ ﺑﻴﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺁﺳﻢ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻳﭗ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﻗﻮﻟﻨﺞ‪ ،‬ﻣﻴﮕﺮﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺴـﺪﺍﺩ ﻛـﺒﺪﻱ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻡ ﭘﻠﻚﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻴﺮ ﻧﻮﺯﺍﺩﺍﻥ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻛﻤﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻛـﺮﺩﻩ ﻛﺎﭘﻴﺘﻮﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﻝ ﭘﻴﭽﻪ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻔﺦ ﻭ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺗﺸﻨﺠﻲ ﻛﻮﺩﻙ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﻊ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳـﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﺿﻤﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﺳﻴﻮﻥ ﻭ ﺣﻤﺎﻡ ﻓﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻗﺎﻃﻊ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻅ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺷﺘﻦ ﺯﺧﻢ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻟﻮﺩﮔﻲ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺯﺧﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﻤﻴﻖ‪ ،‬ﺯﺧﻢ ﺍﻧﮕﺸﺘﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺭﻡ ﭼﺸﻢ ﻭ ﻣﺨﺎﻁ ﺩﻫﺎﻥ‪،‬ﺣﻠﻖ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻟـﺜﻪ ﻫـﺎ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺧﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﭼﺸﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺴﻜﻴﻦ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﻤـﺎﻡ ﻓـﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﺩﺭ ﺯﺧﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﺍﺭﻳﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﮔﺰﻣﺎﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﻬﻨﻪ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﻣﺴﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺿﺪ ﺗﺸﻨﺞ‪ ،‬ﺁﺭﺍﻡ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻭ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺮﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﺯﺧﻢ‪ ،‬ﺧﺎﺭﺵ ﻭ ﮔﺰﻳﺪﮔﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﺩ‪(٥) .‬ﻭ)‪(٦‬‬

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‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺗﺴﻜﻴﻦ ﺩﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺁﺭﺍﻡ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻋﻀﻼﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺷﻬﺮﺕ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑـﻪ ﻋـﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺴﻜﻦ ﻭ ﺁﺭﺍﻡ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻱ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻋﺼﺎﺏ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻗـﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺁﺭﺍﻡ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻫﺎﺿﻤﻪ ﻭ ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻋﻀﻼﺕ ﻧﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﻴﺮ ﻋﻀﻼﺕ ﺭﺣﻢ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺖ ﺿﺪ ﺍﺳﭙﺎﺳﻢ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﺷﻬﺮﺕ ﻛﻬﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺭﺍﻡ ﻛﺮﺩﻧﻪ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﮕﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﺎﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫـﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﺩﺭﺩﻧﺎﻛﻮ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﺯﺍﻳﻤﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﺭﺱ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺟﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻋﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺎﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﻋـﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺤﺮﻳﻚ ﮔﻠﺒﻮﻝﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻔﻴﺪ ﺧﻮﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺖ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﻓﺎﻋﻲ ﺑﺪﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﻴﻤﺎﺭﻱﻫﺎ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﺮﻭﺍﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺧﺎﺻـﻴﺖ ﺿـﺪ ﺍﺳﭙﺎﺳـﻢ ﻗـﻮﻱ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴ��� ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺖ ﺿﺪ‬ ‫ﺁﻟـﺮﮊﻳﻚ ﺍﺳـﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺛﺮ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﻭ ﺁﻟﻔﺎﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎ ﭘـﮋﻭﻫﺶ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﻤﻚ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻀﻢ ﻏﺬﺍ ﺗﺄﻳﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺁﺭﺍﻡ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻫﺎﺿﻤﻪ ﺣﺘﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﭘﺎﺩﺭﻳﻦ ﻣﺸﺘﻖ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﻳﺎﻙ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﭼﻴـﻦ ﻭ ﮊﺍﭘـﻦ‪ ،‬ﮔﻠﻬـﺎﻱ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﭼﺎﻱ ﺩﻡ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺩ ﺷﻜﻦ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣـﻲﻛﻨـﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺁﻟﻤـﺎﻥ ﮔﻞ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﭼﺎﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ) ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻛـﺮﺩﻩ( ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺧﻮﺭﺍﻛﻲ ﻭ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﻏﺮﻏﺮﻩ‪ ،‬ﻛﺮﻡ ﻳﺎ ﭘﻤﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﻮﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻧﻲ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺳﻮﻧﺎ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺎﺭﻣﺎﻛﻮﭘﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻥ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺩﻡ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺁﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺘﻮﺭﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﮔـﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﮕـﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻓﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻚ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋـﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻜـﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺟـﺰﺍﻱ ﺑـﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ‪ ٩٠‬ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﺠﺎﺯ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻃﺐ‬ ‫ﺁﻟﻤـﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻲ ﻛﻮﺩﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻲ ﺍﺯ ﭼﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﺭﺍﻡ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺧﻔﻴﻒ ﻭ ﺧﻮﺍﺏ‬

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‫ﺁﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸـﻮﺭ ﺁﻟﻤـﺎﻥ ﺑـﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﭼﺎﭖ ﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ (٦) .‬ﻭ )‪(١١‬‬ ‫ﻃـﺮﺯ ﺗﻬـﻴﻪ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‪ ١٠ :‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ١٥‬ﮔﺮﻡ ﮔﻞ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﺕ ‪٦‐٥‬‬ ‫ﺳـﺎﻋﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ ﻛﻢ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺪﺕ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺯﻧﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻧـﻮﻉ ﺍﺯ ﻋﺼـﺎﺭﻩ ﺭﻭﻏﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺯﻳﺘﻮﻥ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺭﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪(١٢).‬‬ ‫ﻫﺮ ﭼﻨﺪ ﻳﻚ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻛﻪ ﺁﭘﻲ ﮊﻧﻴﻦ ) ﻳﻚ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ( ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﻳﺖﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﺑﻨﺰﻭﺩﻳﺎﺯﭘﻴﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﻧﺪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻳﻚ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺴﻢ ﻣﻮﻟﻜﻮﻟﻲ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ﺁﺭﺍﻡ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻋﺼﺒﻲ ﻣﺮﻛﺰﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲﺳﺎﺯﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜـﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻓـﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﮔﻞ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﺎﻣﻴﻠﻮﺯﺍﻥ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺑـﺮﺩ ﻓﺮﺍﻭﺍﻧﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻥ ‪ ١٨‬ﻓﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﺣﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺧﻮﺭﺍﻛﻲ ﻭ ﻫﻢ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻳﺮ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ )ﺧﻮﺍﺹ ﺑﻬﺪﺍﺷﺘﻲ ﻭ ﺁﺭﺍﻳﺸﻲ(‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻼﻭﻧﻮﺋﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﻞ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﺍﺛﺮ ﻣﺮﻃﻮﺏ ﻭ ﻟﻄﻴﻒ ﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺻـﻨﺎﻳﻊ ﺁﺭﺍﻳﺸـﻲ ﻭ ﺑﻬﺪﺍﺷـﺘﻲ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻓﺮﺍﻭﺍﻧـﻲ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺣﻮﻟﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﻃﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺪﺍﺷـﺘﻲ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﻣـﺪﺍﻭﺍﻱ ﺗـﻮﺭﻡ ﺍﻃـﺮﺍﻑ ﭼﺸـﻢ‪ ،‬ﻛﺮﻡ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻆ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ ﺑﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸـﮕﻴﺮﻱ ﻛﻨـﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺳـﻴﺐ ﺭﺳـﻴﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻭ ﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﺳـﺖ ﻫﺎﻳـﻲ ﻛـﻪ ﺑـﻪ ﺁﺳﺎﻧﻲ ﺗﺮﻙ ﻣﻲﺧﻮﺭﻧﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ‪ ،‬ﺷﺎﻣﭙﻮ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮﻳـﺖ ﺳﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻛﻒ ﻭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﺑﻮﻥ ﻭ ﻟﻮﺳﻴﻮﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻟﻄﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻛﻨـﻨﺪﻩ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ ﺑﺪﻥ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻭﺳﻴﻌﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﻣﺎﺳﻚ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮﻱ ﻗﺒﻞ ﻭ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺎﺳﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﮔﻔـﺘﻪ ﻣـﻲﺷـﻮﺩ ﺷﺎﻣﭙﻮ ﻭ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﻧﮓ ﻣﻮ ﺭﺍ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺗﺮ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮ ﻧﺮﻡ ﺗﺮ ﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﭘﺸﺖ ﺗﺮ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ :٣‬ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻻﺳﻴﻮﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ‬

‫ﺷﺎﻣﭙﻮ ﻣﺎﻳﻊ‬

‫ﺷﺎﻣﭙﻮ ﭘﻮﺩﺭﻱ‬

‫ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﭘﻮﺩﺭ ﺷﺪﻩ ‪%٤٠‬‬ ‫ﭘﻮﺩﺭ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ‪%١٠‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ‪%٠/٢‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﻴﺪ ﺁﻟﻲ ﺿﻌﻴﻒ ‪%٥‬‬

‫ﺭﻗﻴﻖ ﺷﺪﻩ‪ ١٠ ML‬ﺍﺯ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ‪١‬‬

‫ﺩﻡ ﻛﺮﺩﻧﻲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ‪%١٠‬‬

‫ﺳﻮﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻟﻮﺭﻳﻞ ‪ %٠/١٥‬ﺳﻮﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺳﺪﻳﻢ ﻟﻮﺭﻳﻞ ‪%٣٥‐٤٠‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻋﻄﺮ‬

‫ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺁﺏ‬

‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ‪ :٤‬ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻻﺳﻴﻮﻥ ﺭﻧﮓ ﻣﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ )ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ‪:‬ﺣﻨﺎ(‬ ‫ﺭﻧﮓ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻣﻮ‬

‫‪١:٣‬‬

‫‪١:١‬‬ ‫ﺭﻧﮓ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺭ ﻃﻼﻳﻲ‬

‫ﻗﺮﻣﺰ‬

‫ﻃﻼﻳﻲ ﻗﺮﻣﺰ‬ ‫ﻃﻼﻳﻲ‬

‫ﺑﻮﺭ‬

‫ﻣﺴﻲ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‬

‫ﻗﻬﻮﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻬﻮﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺗﻴﺮﻩ‬

‫‪٣:١‬‬

‫ﻣﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻬﻮﻩ ﺍﻱ ﻣﺴﻲ‬

‫ﻓﻨﺪﻗﻲ‬

‫ﺗﻴﺮﻩ‬

‫ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻴﺮﻩ ﺗﺮ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﺣﻨﺎ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﻴﻢ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﺭﻧﮓ ﻭ ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺖ ﻋﻄﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﭘﻮﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﺮﺟﻴﺤﹰﺎ ‪ ٢‬ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﭘﻮﺩﺭ ﮔﻞ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﺎ ‪ ١‬ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﻛﺎﺭﻟﻴﻦ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻙ ﻓﻮﻟﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺟﻮﺷﺎﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﻮ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﺩ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻣﺴﻲ‬


‫ﺍﻓـﺰﻭﺩﻥ ﺁﻟﻔﺎﭘﺴـﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺖ ﻭ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣـﻲﺭﻭﻧﺪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻭﺭﺯﺷﻜﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﻭ ﺑﻴﻤﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺑﺴﺘﺮﻱ ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻲ ﻣﺪﺕ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻴﺖ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻓﻼﻭﻧﻮﺋﻴﺪﻱ ﺭﻧﮕﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺭﻭﻣﻲ)ﺁﭘﻲ ﮊﻧﻴﻦ‐‬ ‫ﮔﻠـﻴﻜﻮﺯﻳﺪ‐ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻓﻼﻭﻧﻮﺋﻴﺪﻫﺎ( ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺍﻓﺰﻭﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ ﺁﺭﺍﻳﺸﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺪﺍﺷﺘﻲ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ (٦) .‬ﻭ )‪(١١‬‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻳـﻚ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺘﻜﻮﺗﻮﻻﻳﺪ‪ ،‬ﻧﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﻼﻭﻧﻮﺋﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﭘﻲ ﮊﻧﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺁﭘﻲ ﮊﻧﻴﻦ‐ ‪ D‐٧‬ﮔﻠﻴﻜﻮﺯﻳﺪ ﻭ ﻟﻮﺗﺌﻮﻟﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻜﻪ ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﺴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺭﻧﺴﻦ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺲ‐ﺍﻥ‐ﺍﻳﻦ‐ﺩﻱ ﺳﻴﻜﻠﻮﺍﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ ﻭ ﻓﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫‪ Kamillosan‬ﻧـﻴﺰ ﻫـﻴﭻ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﺯﺍﻳﻲ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺟﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺁﻟﺮﮊﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﺳـﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘـﻂ ﺯﻣﺎﻧـﻲ ﻇﺎﻫـﺮ ﻣـﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﭘﻮﺳﺖ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﮔﺎﻧﻴﺴـﻢ ﺷـﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺧﻄـﺮ ﺑـﺮﻭﺯ ﻭﺍﻛـﻨﺶ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻟﺮﮊﻳﻚ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﻤﺎﺭﺍﻥ ﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻮﻣـﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑـﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﻧﻮﺷﻴﺪﻥ ﭼﺎﻱ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻧﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧـﻴﺮﻱ ﺑـﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ ﻧﻮﺷﻴﺪﻥ ﭼﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﻣﻮﻣﻴﻞ ﻋﺎﺭﺽ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﺯﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧـﻨﺪ ﺁﻧـﺘﻜﻮﺗﻮﻻﻳﻮ ﻭ ﻫﺮﻳﻨﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﺟﻮﺷﺎﻧﺪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟـﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺟﺰﺀ ﭼﺮﺑﻲ ﺩﺭﺳﺖ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻱ ﺧﺎﻡ ﻭ ﻭﺭﻭﺩ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﭼﺎﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺳﺮﻃﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺟﻬﺶ ﺯﺍﻳﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘـﻴﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺭﺷﺘﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ‪ TA٩٨‬ﻭ ‪ TA١٠٠‬ﺩﺭ ﺧﺼﻮﺹ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﺧﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻮﻣـﻴﻞ‪ ،‬ﻧﺸـﺎﻥ ﺩﻫـﻨﺪﻩ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺟﻬﺶ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴـﺖ ﻛـﻪ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺟﻬﺶ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺸﮕﺎﻫﻲ ﻭ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺷﻲ ﻣﺒﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﺳﺮﻃﺎﻥ ﺯﺍﻳﻲ ﻛﺎﻣﻮﻣﻴﻞ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﻤﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻻ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧـﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺮﺍﻍ ﺁﻭﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻌﻤﻮ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻀـﻲ ﭼـﻮﻥ ﺑﺮﮒ ﮔﺮﺩﻭ ﻭ ﮔﻨﻪ ﮔﻨﻪ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻧﺎﺭﺍﺣﺘﻲ ﻗﻠﺒﻲ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺣﺎﻣﻠﮕﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻮﺿﻌﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﺸﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (٧‬ﻭ )‪(١٢‬‬

‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﻭﺩﻧﻲ ﺣﻤﺎﻡ‪ ٥٠ :‬ﮔﺮﻡ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻫﺮ ‪ ١٠‬ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺍﻍ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺸـﺎﻗﻲ‪ :‬ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺩﻡ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺩﺍﻍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﻨﻔﺴﻲ ﻓﻮﻗﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺸﺎﻕ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺿﻤﺎﺩ‪ :‬ﺧﻤﻴﺮ ﻧﻴﻤﻪ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﺣﺎﻭﻱ ‪ ٣‐١٠‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻭﺯﻧﻲ‐ﻭﺯﻧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺮ ﺷﺎﺧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﻠﺪﺍﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷﺴﺘﺸﻮ‪ :‬ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﻍ ﺁﺑﻲ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻱ ‪ ٣‐١٠‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺩﻡ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳـﺎﻧﺲ‪ :‬ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺤـﺮﻳﻜﺎﺕ ﺷﺪﻳﺪ ﭘﻮﺳﺘﻲ‪ ٥ ،‬ﻗﻄﺮﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ‪ ٢٠‬ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﻤﺎﻟﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺩﻡ ﻛـﺮﺩﻩ‪ ٣ :‬ﮔـﺮﻡ ﺩﺭ ‪ ١٥٠‬ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺁﺏ‪ ٣‐٤ ،‬ﺑﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﻓﻊ ﻧﺎﺭﺍﺣﺘﻲ ﮔﻮﺍﺭﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺼـﺮﻑ ﻣـﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﻡ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﭼﺎﻱ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﺷﻮﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﻳﺎ ﻏﺮﻏﺮﻩ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ ﻏﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎﻃﻲ ﺩﻫﺎﻥ ﻭ ﮔﻠﻮ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺭﻭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﺭﻭﺍﻥ )‪ ٣ :١ :١ (gr/ml‬ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‪ ٣‐٤ ،‬ﺑﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺯ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﻮﺭ)‪ ١٥ :١ :٥ (gr/ml‬ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ‪ ٣‐٤ ،‬ﺑﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺯ‪(١١).‬‬

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‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﻩ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‐١‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻴﭙﻮﻓﻴﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴـﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻴﭙﻮﻓـﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻧﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻠﻴﺴﻴﺮﻳﻦ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ ﻭ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺤﻼﻝ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﭘﻴﻠﻦ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻴﺴﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﺮﻫﺎ‪%‬‬ ‫‪ ٨٥‬ﺍﺳـﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﺮﭘﻨﻮﺋﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺳﻴﻨﺌﻮﻝ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺴﭙﻴﺮﻭﻛﺎﺭﻭﺋﻦ ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟـﻦ ﻫـﺎ ﻫـﻨﮕﺎﻡ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺁﺏ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳـﻦ ﮔﻞ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺛﺮ ﺿﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺳ���ﺖ ﻭ ﺿﺪ ﺧﺎﺭﺵ ﮔﻞ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﻓﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺗﻬـﻴﻪ ﻣـﻲﺷـﻮﺩ ﺑـﻪ ﻋﻠـﺖ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺁﻟﻔﺎﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ‐ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﻛﺴﻴﺪﻫﺎ‐‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟـﻦ‐ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﺴـﻴﻦ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﺴﻴﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺿﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﻭ ﺿﺪ ﺧﺎﺭﺵ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺭﻭﻟﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﭙﺎﺗﻮﻟﻨﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺳﺰﻛﻮﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﭘﻦ‪ ،‬ﺁﻟﻔﺎﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﻛﺴﻴﺪ ‪ A‬ﻭ‪ B‬ﺩﺭ ﮔﻞ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻭﻟـﻦ ﻫـﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺷـﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﺍﺳـﻴﺪﻱ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻣـﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﭘﻴﻠﻦ ﮔﻠﻴﻜﻮﻝ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻭﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻠﻴﺴﻴﺮﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ ﻧﺎ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﻧـﮓ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺗﻴﺮﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﺷﻜﺴﺖ ﻭ ﭼﺮﺧﺶ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎﻧﻌـﺖ ﻣـﻲﻛـﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺣﻼﻝ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻣﺎﺳﺮﺍﺳﻴﻮﻥ‐‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻛﻼﺳﻴﻮﻥ‐ﭘﺮﻛﻼﺳﻴﻮﻥ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﮔﻞ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪‐٢‬ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻓﻴﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻌـﺪﺍﺩ ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﻛﻴـﺒﺎﺕ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺗﺎﻛﻨﻮﻥ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻑ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻧﻮﺳﺎﻥ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪،‬‬

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‫ﺩﺭ ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﻘﻴﻪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻧﻮﺳﺎﻥ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺗﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﭼﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻼﻭﻧﻮﺋﻴﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﻧـﻴﺰ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻛﻤﻲ ﻭ ﻧﻮﻉ ﻓﻼﻭﻧﻮﺋﻴﺪ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺭﺍﺑﻄـﻪ ﺑـﺎ ﻛﻮﻣﺎﺭﻳـﻦ ﻫـﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺳﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓـﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﮔـﻞ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺧﺎﻃﺮ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺿﺪ ﺍﺳﭙﺎﺳﻢ ﻭ ﺿﺪ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺵ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺳـﻴﻌﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﻧـﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺍﺛﺮ ﻓﺎﺭﻣﺎﻛﻮﻟﻮﮊﻳﻚ ﻣﺮﻫﻮﻥ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻫﻴﺪﺭﻭﻓﻴﻞ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺁﭘﻲ ﮊﻧﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﮔﻠﻴﻜﻮﺯﻳﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﻃﺮﻑ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻟﻴﭙﻮﻓﻴﻞ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﺁﻟﻔﺎﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﻛﺴﻴﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﺴﻴﻦ ﻭ ﺁﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﻫﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﮔـﺮﻭﻩ ﻓﻼﻭﻧﻮﺋﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻫﻴﭙﺮﻭﺯﻳﺪ‪،‬ﺭﻭﺗﻴﻦ‪ ،‬ﻟﻮﺗﺌﻮﻟﻴﻦ‐‪ ‐٧‬ﮔﻠﻴﻜﻮﺯﻳﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﭘﻲ ﮊﻧﻴﻦ‐‪ ‐٧‬ﮔﻠﻴﻜﻮﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫‐ﺭﻧﮓ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﭘﺮﻭﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺭﻧﮓ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺿﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ‪ ١/٧٥‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻭﺯﻥ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺗﺎﺯﻩ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﻭﻣﻲ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﻭﻣﻲ ﺩﺭ ﮔﻠﻴﺴﻴﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﹰﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﭘﻴﻠـﻦ ﮔﻠـﻴﻜﻮﻝ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﻛﺪﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻲﺁﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺣﻼﻟﻴﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ‪٧٠‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﻪ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﻪ ‪ ٦‬ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‐ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﺳﺎﺱ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺣـﻼﻝ ﺑﻴـﻦ ‪ %٢٤‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ١/٩‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺮ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻳـﻲ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﻭ ﺗﻘﻄـﻴﺮ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣـﻨﺪ ‪ ٧‬ﺍﻟﻲ ‪ ١٣‬ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﻓﺸﺎﺭ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺁﺏ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺩﺳﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

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‫ﭼﻨﺪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺭﻭﻏﻨﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺁﺏ ﮔﺮﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﻞ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻣﺨﺼﻮﺹ ﺑﺎﻻﻱ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ )‪‐%٩٥‬‬ ‫‪ ( %٩١‬ﺳﺒﺐ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻣﻮﻟﺴﻴﺪﻥ ﺷﻴﺮﻱ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﹰﺎ ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠـﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ‬ ‫ﺑـﻪ ﻋﻠﺖ ﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺮﻳﺴﺘﺎﻟﻴﺰﻩ ﺷﺪﻥ ﻭ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺭﺳﻮﺏ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻭ ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﻣﺒﺮﺩ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺵ ﺗﻘﻄـﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﻴﺖ ﻭ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﭼﻬﺎﺭ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑـﻪ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻓﺎﺭﻣﺎﻛﻮﭘـﻪ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎﻳـﻲ ﺗﻮﻟـﻴﺪ ‪ %٣٣‬ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺩﺭ ‪ ١٠٠‬ﮔﺮﻡ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣـﻲﻧﻤـﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟـﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺩﻭ ﺳﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻓﺎﺭﻣﺎﻛﻮﭘﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ)‪(DABV‬‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟـﻴﺪ ‪ %٢٩‬ﻣﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻴﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺩﺭ ‪ ١٠٠‬ﮔﺮﻡ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻃﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺑﺨﺎﺭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺻـﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻴﺸـﺘﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟـﻦ ﻭ ﻓﺎﺭﺗﺮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ‪ ٤‬ﺳﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﺳـﺎﻋﺘﻪ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ ﻭ ﺿﻤﻨﹰﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﻧﻮﺑﺖ ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ‪ ١٠٥°C‬ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳـﺎﻧﺲ ﺣﺎﺻـﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺗﻴﻠﻦ ﮔﻼﻳﻜﻮﻝ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺣﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﻞ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻣﻌﻤﻮ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ‪ ٩٥‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺧﻮﺑﻲ ﺣﻞ ﻧﻤﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﻚ ﺣﻼﻝ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋﺼـﺎﺭﻩ ﮔـﻴﺮﻱ ﺑـﻪ ﻭﺳـﻴﻠﻪ ﺣﻼﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﻚ ﺣﻼﻝﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺍﺗﺎﻧﻮﻝ‪ ،‬ﺁﺏ‪ ،‬ﮔﻠﻴﺴﻴﺮﻳﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﭘﻴﻠـﻦ ﮔﻼﻳﻜـﻮﻝ ﻭ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺁﻓﺘﺎﺑﮕﺮﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺣﻼﻝ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻗﻄﺒﻲ ﺗﺮ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸـﺘﺮﻱ ﻓﻼﻭﻧﻮﺋﻴﺪ ﮔﻠﻴﻜﻮﺯﻳﺪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺣﻼﻝ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻗﻄﺒﻴﺖ ﻛﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﺮ ﭘﻨﻲ ﻭ ﻓﻼﻭﻧﻮﺋﻴﺪ ﮔﻠﻮﻛﻮﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﺼـﺎﺭﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﭘﺮﻭﭘﻴﻠﻦ ﮔﻼﻳﻜﻮﻝ ﺑﺎ ﺧﻴﺴﺎﻧﺪﻥ ‪ ٢٠٠‬ﮔﺮﻡ ﮔﻞ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺩﺭ ‪ ١‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻡ ﺣﻼﻝ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ .‬ﺿﻤﻨﹰﺎ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻫﻀﻢ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ ﺁﻓﺘﺎﺑﮕﺮﺩﺍﻥ ) ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ‪ ٢٠٠‬ﮔﺮﻡ ﮔﻞ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺩﺭ ‪ ١‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮ ﮔﺮﻡ ﺭﻭﻏﻦ( ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﻲ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳـﺎﻧﺲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺣﻼﻝ ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺩﺍﻧﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻋﻤﻮﻣـﹰﺎ ﺑـﻪ ﺧﺎﻃـﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﺑـﻮﺩﻥ ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﺯﻳﺎﺩ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺗﻴﺮﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫‪٣١‬‬


‫ﺍﺳـﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﺑـﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺣﻼﻝ ﺗﻴﺮﻩ ﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﭼﺴﺒﻨﺪﻩ ﺗﺮ ﻭ ﻛﺪﺭ ﺗﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺳـﺖ ﻭ ﺑﻮﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺩﻭﺍﻡ ﺗﺮ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺪ ﺗﺮ ﻭ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺗﺮﻱ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﭙﻴﺮﻭﺍﺗﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺮ ﻧﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺸﺘﻘﺎﺕ ﻛﻮﻣﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺸـﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﺟﺎﻣﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺟﺪﺍ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﮔﺬﺷﺖ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺑﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻬﻮﻩﺍﻱ ﺗﻴﺮﻩ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻲﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﺼـﺎﺭﻩ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺣﺎﺻـﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﻭ ﺁﺏ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﻣـﻲﻛﻨـﻨﺪ ﺭﻧﮓ ﺯﺭﺩ ﻳﺎ ﺳﺒﺰ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ ﻗﻠﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺁﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﻫﺎ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺁﺯﻭﻟـﻦ ﻣﻮﺟـﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺩﻭﺍﻡ ﻭ ﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﻮﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻭﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣـﻼﻝ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻘﻄﻪ ﺟﻮﺵ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺩﺭ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻧﺎﺧﺎﻟﺼﻲ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺎ ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺑﻮﻱ ﻧﺎﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﺠـﻢ ﺣﻼﻝ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﻫﺰﺍﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳـﻦ ﺣﺘـﻲ ﺩﺭﺻـﺪ ﺑﺴـﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻮﭼﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺣﻼﻝ ﺑﺎﻗﻴﻤﺎﻧﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻋﺼﺎﺭﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﻣـﺎﻱ ﺧﺸـﻚ ﺷـﺪﻥ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺩﻣﺎ ﻭ ‪ PH‬ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﺮ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻭ ﭘﺮﻭﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ‪ ٢٢‐٢٥°C‬ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﻣﻲﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﺩﻩﺍﻱ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻬﻮﻳﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣﺎﻱ‪ ٤٠‐٤٥°C‬ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﻛـﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭﭘﺮﻭﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟـﻦ )ﺣﺪﺍﻛـﺜﺮ ‪ ( %٧‬ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻧﻤﻲﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻳـﻚ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌـﻪ ﺑﻴﺸـﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻛـﺎﻫﺶ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﻩ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺎﻫـﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺩﻣـﺎﻱ‪ ‐٦°C‬ﺗـﺎ ‪ ‐٢٥‬ﺩﺭ ﺭﻃﻮﺑﺖ ‪ ٥٥‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٩٠‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﺸـﻚ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﺎﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺮﺍﺗﺐ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻟﻲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺧﺸﻚ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻮﺍﻱ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻧﺪ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴـﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﻭﻣﻲ ﺗﺮﭘﻨﻬﻴﺮﻭﻛﺮﺑﻮﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺗﺮﭘﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻛﺴﻴﮋﻧﻪ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﻠـﻴﻚ ﻭ ﺗﻴﮕﻠـﻴﻚ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﻭﻣﻲ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺳـﺎﻧﺲ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺳﻴﺪ ﺍﻧﺠﻠﻴﻚ ﻭ ﺗﻴﮕﻠﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﺣـﺪﻭﺩ ‪ ٨٥‬ﺩﺭﺻـﺪ ﺍﺳـﺎﻧﺲ ﺭﺍ ﺷـﺎﻣﻞ ﻣـﻲﺷـﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﭘﻨﻮﺋـﻴﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ١‬ﻭ ‪ ٨‬ﺳﻴﻨﺌﻮﻝ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺍﻧﺴـﭙﻴﺮﻭﻛﺎﺯﻭﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﺍﺯ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳـﻂ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻲﺁﻳﺪ ﻭ ﻣﻘ���ﺍﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﻭ ﺳﻦ‬ ‫ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﺍﻧﺒﺎﺭﻱ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻲﻳﺎﺑﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﮔﺰﺍﺵ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻛﻪ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﺩ ﻳﺎ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ )ﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎﻳﻲ(‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺁﻟﻔﺎ ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ )ﻣﻨﺸﺄ ﭘﺮﺗﻐﺎﻟﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﭙﺎﻧﻴﺎﻳﻲ( ﺑﺎ ﺁﻟﻔﺎ ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻛﺴﺎﻳﺪ ‪) A‬ﺍﺭﻭﭘﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺑﻠﻐﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﻪ ﺍﻱ (‪ .‬ﺑﺎ ﺁﻟﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻛﺴﺎﻳﺪ‪) B‬ﺁﺭﮊﺍﻧﺘﻴﻨﻲ(‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻼﻭﻩ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺗﻬﺎﻱ ﮊﻧﺘﻴﻜﻲ ‪ ١١‬ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺸﺎﺕ ﻛﻤﻲ ﻭ ﻛﻴﻔﻲ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺛﺎﺑﺖ ﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻨﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﻓﻼﻭﻧﻮﺋﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﻛﻮﻣﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﻴﺪﻓﻨﻠﻴﻚ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻛﻮﭼﻜﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﻦ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻴﭗ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ ﻭ ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻛﺴﺎﻳﺪ ‪ A‬ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻱ ﻇﺎﻫﺮ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﭼﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺭﺷﺪ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻣﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﮊﻧﺘﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺳـﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ‪ ، en-gn-dicgcloether‬ﺗﺮﭘﻨﻮﺋﻴﺪﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺁﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻼﻭﻧﻮﺋﻴﺪﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﻭﻣﻲ ﺁﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺗﻘﻄﻴﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺣﺪ ﻭﺍﺳﻄﻬﺎﻱ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻣﻲﺁﻳﺪ‪(٨).‬‬

‫ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺘﺮ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻼﺷﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺟﻬﺖ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻦ ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺘﺰ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭ ) ﺭﺍﺩﻳﻮ ﺍﻛﺘﻴﻮ( ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺮﺑﻦ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻬﻨﺞ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﺩﻭ ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻛﺮﺑﻦ ﺭﺍﺩﻳﻮ‬ ‫‪٣٣‬‬


‫ﺍﻛﺘﻴﻮ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﻫﺎ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﭼﻨﺪ ﺭﻭﺯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺰﺭﻳﻖ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺕ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻓﺖ ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﻛﺮﺑﻦ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‪ en-gn-dicgcloether‬ﻭ ﻳﻚ ﻗﻄﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﺷﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﭼـﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﻋﺖ ﭘﺲ ﺍﺯ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺮﺑﻦ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴـﺐ ﻭ ﺗـﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﻚ ﺍﺳﻴﺪ ﻭ ﻟﺌﻮﺳﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﺋﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻪ ﺗﻴﭗ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲﺭﺳﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﻠﻴﻚ ﻭ ﺍﻳﺰﻭﺗﻴﺮﻳﻚ ﻭ ﻣﺘﺎﻛﺮﺍﻳﻠﻴﻚ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺭﻭﻣﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫‪ Oxidative dogradation‬ﺍﺯ ﺁﻣﻴﻨﻮ ﺍﺳﻴﺪ ﻫﺎ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺁﻟﻔﺎ ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺁﻟﻔﺎ ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻛﺴﺎﻳﺪ‪ A‬ﻭ ﺳﭙﺲ ﺁﻟﻔﺎ ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻧﺪﻛﺴﺎﻳﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ‪ .‬ﺁﻟﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻛﺴﺎﻳﺪ‪ B‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻟﻔﺎ ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷـﺎﻳﻠﭽﺮ ﻣﻌـﺘﻘﺪ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﻛـﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺰﻛﻮﺋﻲ ﺗﺮﭘﻦ ﮔﻠﻴﻜﻮﺯﺍﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻏﺸﺎﺀ ﺯﻧﺪﻩ ﺳﻴﺘﻮﭘﻼﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺮﺷﺤﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺑﻴﻮﺳﻨﺘﺰ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺷﺮﻛﺖ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘـﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﻌﻴﻨـﻲ ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﺴﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎﺕ ﺷﻴﻤﻲ‐ﺳﻠﻮﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺮﺷﺤﻲ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺯﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻭ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻪﺍﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺗﺤﻘـﻴﻖ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﻟﻮﻟﻪﺍﻱ ‪ ٦٧‬ﺗﺎ ‪ ٧٠‬ﺩﺭﺻﺪ ﻭﺯﻥ ﮔﻠﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺷـﺎﻣﻞ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ )‪ (%١/١٤‬ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻪﺍﻱ )‬ ‫‪ (%٠/٧٦‬ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﮔـﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻛﻪ ﻧﻬﻨﺞ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﺩﻭ ﺗﺎ ﺳﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻫﺮ ﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﮔﻠﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺯﺑﺎﻧـﻪﺍﻱ ﻭ ﻟﻮـﻟﻪﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ .‬ﻧﻬﻨﺞ ﻫﺎ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﻓﺎﺭﺗﺮﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻮﺭﻧﺌﻮﻝ‪en-‬‬ ‫‪ gn-dicgcloether‬ﻭ ﺁﻟﻔﺎ ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻛﺴﺎﻳﺪ ‪ A‬ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﺧﺼﻮﺹ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺻﺒﺢ ﺟﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺷـﺪﻩ ﺑﺎﺷـﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻳﻚ ﺭﻳﺘﻢ ﺷﺒﺎﻧﻪ ﺭﻭﺯﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻏﻠﻈﺖ ﺁﻟﻔﺎﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ ﻭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﺰﻛﻮﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﭘـﻦ ﻫﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﺁﻟﻤﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻣﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﻜﻞ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ‪ ،en-gn-dicgcloether‬ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ ﻭ ﻛﺎﻣﺎﺯﻭﻟﻦ ﺩﺭ ﺻﺒﺢ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﺐ ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻣﻲﺍﻓﺘﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﻓﺎﺭﺗﺮﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻛﺴﻴﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻴﺴﺎﺑﻮﻟﻮﻝ ﺩﺭ ﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺷﺐ ﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﻧﺸﺪ‪(٣).‬ﻭ )‪(٩‬‬

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‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‐١‬ﺍﻣـﻴﺮ ﺑﻴﮕﻲ‪ ،‬ﺭﺿﺎ‪.‬ﺭﻫﻴﺎﻓﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭ ﻓﺮﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻜﺮ ﺭﻭﺯ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .١٣٧٤‬ﺟﻠﺪ ﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫‪‐٢‬ﺣﺎﺝ ﺳﻴﺪ ﻫﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻤﺪﺭﺿﺎ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﻛﺎﺷﺖ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺭﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻧﻤـﻮ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻠﻜـﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻣﻘـﺪﺍﺭ ﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﻩ ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ‪ .‬ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﺭﺷﺪ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻜﺪﻩ ﻛﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﻱ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‐٣‬ﺭﺣﻴﻤﻲ ﻛﻼﻣﺮﻭﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﺡ‪ .‬ﮔﻴﺎﻩ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺸﺖ ﮔﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﭙﻠﻮﺗﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺗﺘﺮﺍﭘﻠﻮﺋﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳـﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴـﺐ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺩﻛﺘﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻭﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﻜﺪﻩ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﭘﺰﺷﻜﻲ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﺻﻔﻬﺎﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‐٤‬ﺯﺭﮔﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪ . ١٣٦٨ .‬ﺟﻠﺪ ﺳﻮﻡ‬ ‫‪‐٥‬ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﻋﺪ )ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ(‪ .‬ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﻘﻨﻮﺱ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‐٦‬ﺩﮊﻧﺎﺑـﺎﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻳـﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺁﺏ ﺧﺎﻛﻬﺎﻱ ﺷﻮﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺟﺬﺏ ﻣﻲﻛﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ‪ :‬ﺗﺎﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻛﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﻱ ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﺭﺷﻨﺎﺱ ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺖ ﻭ ﺍﺻﻼﺡ ﻧﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ ﺍﺑﻮﺭﻳﺤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ‪١٣٨٠ .‬‬ ‫‪‐٧‬ﺩﻳﺎﻧﺘـﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﻔﺸﻪ ﻭ ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﺍﻥ )ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ(‪ .‬ﻋﻮﺍﺭﺽ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ ﺁﺏ‪١٣٨٠ .‬‬ ‫‪‐٨‬ﻓﻘﻴﻪ ﻧﺼﻴﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺯﻳﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭ ﻓﺮﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧﻪ‪ .‬ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ‪ :‬ﺯﻳﺘﻮﻥ‬ ‫‪‐٩‬ﻣﺴـﻌﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻـﺮ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻭ ﻛﻤﻴﺖ ﺍﺳﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫ﮔـﻴﺎﻩ ﺑﺎﺑﻮﻧـﻪ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺧـﻲ ﺟﻨـﺒﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩﻱ ﺁﻥ‪ .‬ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﺭﺷﺪ ﺑﺎﻏﺒﺎﻧﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺣﺪ ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ ﺷﻤﺎﻝ‪١٣٧٢.‬‬ ‫‪‐١٠‬ﻣﻈﻔﺮﻳﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻲﺍ… ‪ .‬ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻨﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻱ ﺍﻳﺮﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮ‪١٣٧٥ .‬‬ ‫‪‐١١‬ﻣﻴﺮﺣـﻴﺪﺭ‪ ،‬ﺡ‪ .‬ﻣﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻴﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺩﺭﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻴﻤﺎﺭﻳﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻧﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﺍﺳﻼﻣﻲ‪١٣٧٥ .‬‬ ‫‪‐١٢‬ﻳﺎﻭﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻧﺴﺮﻳﻦ )ﻣﺘﺮﺟﻢ(‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻤﻲ ﻭ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ‪١٣٦٣ .‬‬

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‫‪‐١٣‬ﻳﺰﺩﺍﻧــﻲ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﺭﺍﺏ ﻭ ﻫﻤﻜــﺎﺭﺍﻥ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﺷــﺖ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺷــﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷــﺖ ﮔــﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳــﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﮋﻭﻫﺸﻜﺪﻩ ﮔﻴﺎﻫﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻭﻳﻲ ﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻫﻲ‪١٣٨٣ .‬‬

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