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business Architecture DAO Regd. No.: 243/067/068

an architectural construction magazine (monthly) ISSN 2091-072X

VOL. 1, NO.3 04 2011 NR s. 100 A PUBLICATION OF THE R ICH ARCHITE CT U R ES COM PA N Y www. re a db u s i ne ss arch i te ctu re .c o m

adaptive reuse: A new function for an old building 04.11 Business Architecture

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Editorial

ba team Advisory Team Dr. Sudarshan Raj Tiwari, Professor, IOE, TU Jayandra Dhwoj Sunuwar, BFA in Architecture, Massachusetts college

The crumbling down structures of the medieval period has become such a common sight to many of the Kathmandu dwellers that we have almost forgotten this organic form of architecture with its small detailing depicting the meaning of the very large. The dense concrete fabric of the region is already casting its shadow over the traditional built forms leading to the state of negligence of the latter. “Nepalipan” as put in by Architect Jayandra Dhwoj Sunuwar in his article is losing its grip over the new Nepali people. But wait! Do not panic. We still have projects like KU School of Music (at Bhaktapur) silently making its presence felt in our modern society. The distant sight of the school from the bridge over the Hanumante River keeps one amazed over its location. Sitting on a riverbank, next to the crematory this school is worth a close observation. The property of a private guthi, the reposeful ambience of this complex is just a perfect recipe for the students to indulge into the musical vibes. Architect Neils Gutschow seems to have been successful in reviving the entire complex and inducing a new life into it. Adaptive re-use, one of the major principles of conservation, is a correct tool for uplifting the decaying structures. Infused with new functional responsibilities many of the buildings have survived to retain their original grandeur, and Business Architecture presents you the five such admirable projects in and outside Kathmandu. These precedents could inspire many others to follow the path of re-adaptation.

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Padma Sundar Maharjan, B.Arch, IOE, TU

Editor

Sabina Tandukar, B.Arch, IOE, TU

Construction Technology

Fred C. Langworthy, Expert – Health care facilities, USA Prabin Bajracharya, M.E, PU

Eco literacy & Eco Design Sameer Bajracharya, M.Sc Energy Studies, IOE, TU

Landscape Hisila Manandhar, M.Sc in landscspe theories, Ecole Nationale Superieure Du Paysage, Versailles, France

Interiors Nayana joshi, ID, Intl polytechnic for women, New Delhi

Urban Aruna Tandukar, M.Sc Urban Development, The Netherlands Bijay Singh, B.Arch, IOE, TU

Continuing Education

Pradeep Man Shrestha, BE (Mech.), IOE, TU

Whether adapting for a commercial purpose or for more institutional ones, the works of today’s architects are sometimes getting more inclined towards the regional vernacular architecture. Amidst such a huge outburst of modern building activities, we welcome these silent endeavors and ideas that relate our present with the atmosphere of the bygone era.

Mahesh Kumar Maharjan Sagar Chitrakar Pramod Maharjan

All editorial enquiries and submissions should be sent to editorial@readbusinessarchitecture.com All advertising enquiries should be sent to marketing@readbusinessarchitecture.com FOR SUBSCRIPTIONS, ADDRESS CHANGES, ADJUSTMENTS, and or BACK ISSUE INQUIRIES: email to subscriptions@readbusinessarchitecture.com WEB SITE: readbusinessarchitecture.com ADVERTISING: advertising@readbusinessarchitecture.com. COPYRIGHT: Title ® regd. in Lalitpur, Nepal (243/067/68). Copyright © 2011 by The rich architectures company. All rights reserved. The contents of this publication may not be published in any form whatsoever, without the prior written consent of the publishers. All opinions expressed in the articles are those of the writers and do not necessarily reflect on the publisher.

Graphic design Raju Basukala Mahesh Maharjan

Photography

Marketing Department Shyam Sundar Gupta, MBA, PU Bikesh Tandukar, BBA, TU Sabita Tandukar, BBA, PU

Correspondents Bikal Chhetri Monica Bassi Shreema Rana Manish Joshi

BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE: (ISSN 2091-072X) April 2011. Vol. 1, No. 3. Published 10 times a year by the Rich Architectures Company, Lalitpur, Nepal.(+977-01-5535608), 9849716539 Printed at Format Printing Press, Hadigaon, Kathmandu (977-01-4010160)

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What more! This process not only brings structures back to life but also promotes the local craftsmen and their innate skills. Artist Rabindra Puri proudly puts in that his team includes many such talented artisans who are illiterate but are earning a dignified living. However, to adapt means not just to use it again; a thorough and serious contextual and structural study must not be overlooked.

Editor Sabina Tandukar

of

Art, Boston, USA

Data and Information have been obtained by the Rich Architectures Company from sources believed to be reliable. However, because of the possibility of human or mechanical error by our sources, the Rich Architectures Company or BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE does not guarantee the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any information and is not responsible for any errors or omissions therein or for the results to be obtained from the use of such information of for any damages resulting there from. SUBMISSIONS: Every effort will be made to return material submitted for possible publication (if accompanied by stamped, selfaddressed envelope), but business architecture will not b e responsible for any loss or damage. BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THE LOSS OF, OR FOR DAMAGE OR ANY OTHER INJURY TO, UNSOLICITED MANUSCRIPTS, UNSOLICITED ARTWORK (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, DRAWINGS, PHOTOGRAPHS, AND TRANSPARENCIES), OR ANY OTHER UNSOLICITED MATERIALS. THOSE SUBMITTING MANUSCRIPTS, PHOTOGRAPHS, ART WORK, OR OTHER MATERIALS FOR CONSIDERATION SHOULD NOT SEND ORIGINALS, UNLESS SPECIFICALLY REQUESTED TO DO SO BY BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE IN WRITING.

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april

2011 CONTENTS

12.Updates 14. Chowk, Peti, & Dalan

18. Adaptive Re-use- Introduction

a. Matan Chhen b. K.U., School of Music c. Garden of Dreams d. Ashok Hall e. Baber Mahal Revisited

68. Chair Ergonomics 70.Everyday Details

Laminate floor Installation

72. Products 54. Landscape

Flooring

Steps to the Heavenly Abode: Ghats of Kathmandu Indoor Gardening

62. Furnitures

12 Iconic Modern Chairs

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updates OutrĂŠ design reflects the chaos of Baneshwor into the fenestration design Principal Architect of Outre Design, Sanjay Lal Shrestha tries to capture the chaotic urban pattern into the built space with this triangular commercial building at Baneshwor Chowk, next to Hotel Everest. The building design has tried to exaggerate the triangular shape of the site. The building surfaces seem to confluence to a point forming a paper thin edge line forming an acute angled interior space. The fenestration with chamfered rectangular shapes sculpted out of Aluminium Composite Panels (ACP) overlap and seems to slide over eachother in the glass wall surface. The glass surfaces and rectangular solid blocks juxtapose to give an overall visual balance. These blocks are the planter boxes with the capacity of one cubic meter of soil. According to the architect, the boxes shall include medium sized trees which shall provide visual relief in the otherwise sleek finish of glass and ACP.

Restoration Project underway at Machhindra bahal after a quarter of century

The locals from Lalitpur have once again come forward to recreate the grandeur of the temple of Karunamaya (Rato Machhindranath) at Ta-bahal, Lalitpur. The project is mostly funded by Indian embassy and partly by the locals at total cost of 45 lakh Nepali rupees. The conservation project includes the re-construction of entry gate flanked by two storey sattal dedicated to bhajan mandali and the surrounding garden. The entry gate is of the monumental scale giving distinct identity to the whole temple complex. The activity of carrying the god from the chariot to the temple complex required the taller gate opening and accordingly it is being restored to its original stature.

The headquarter of Bank of Kathmandu (BOK) to become a new Green building of the metropolitan city

The entry was lately in a very dilapidated condition with little remains of the sattals. The garden and the Jahru were also almost in state of earthly remains and a little delay to this conservation project would have surely claimed many of the original monuments and the artefacts. The temple almost at the centre of the large courtyard and surrounded by row houses in all its directions was in recent decade being under many thefts and misuses, which had led to the erection of high iron bars all around the temple - an eye sore to all the enthusiasts.

The proposal presented by Shah Consult international was awarded as the winner in a design competition called by the bank. The design of the Bank of Kathmandu at Kamaladi comprises of nine storey structure to be constructed behind the Bank’s existing building and renovation of the existing structure to create a unified whole.

The project presently in full swing is targeted to be completed before the Rato-Machhindranath jatra, a month long chariot festival celebrated in the lunar month of Baisakh. The festival is observed by the Hindu-Buddhist Newars of Lalitpur with huge celebrations and feasts.

Principal Architect Poonam Shah has based the design on green building concepts which are reflected in its planning, use of materials, utilization of natural renewable energy, energy conservation and water management. Efficiency is achieved in the design through proper vertical and horizontal zoning, which segregates various departments based on public flow and ensures effective traffic segregation and parking management in the limited space available. A landscaped terrace garden with water fountain gives a welcoming ambience to the complex, reduces heat gain in the lower floors and aerates the harvested rain water. The building utilizes innovative structural concepts such as transfer girders and diagonal bracing to optimize the use of the limited available space.

New Progressive Designers are shaping a new outlook for Thamel A new commercial/ office building is coming up in Jyatha, Thamel. The five crore project with the total of 14400 sq. ft built up area is designed by New Progressive Designers with Dr. Prakash Bir Singh Tuladhar as the lead architect and the construction contractor is Rasuwa construction company. Named Shrestha Plaza, this upcoming structure features simple and formal geometric arrangement. Targeted for high end commercial use, the architect has tried to interplay with the mass-void relationship giving, this five storey building a more generous outlook.

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Monument at Stake!!! Hari Shankar temple at Balima, is a three storey tiered temple dedicated to lord Vishnu and Shiva. The temple was restored by archaeological department few years ago, and has since revived to become a jewel of the whole community. But the recently ongoing construction project of the proposed three storey structure in place of the original sattal dedicated to the temple has caught our attention. The width to height ratio, disproportionate with the traditional structures and the use of modern materials and technology seems irrelevant with the surrounding context. The concerned authority has given its approval to start the project and the locals have got together to construct this structure for community use. But such high end construction without relating to the traditional aspects and also in such close proximity to the temple structure can hamper the innate dignity and beauty of the whole community. Such temples have always been the social and religious centres in the traditional Newar communities.

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Chowk, Peti, & Dalan Street side pocket space, the chowk, acts as transition space between street and the traditional row houses. View of old houses at Swotha ,Patan

Text: Jayandra Dhwoj Sunuwar

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ocumentary on Louis Kahn, ‘My Architect’ by his son Nathaniel Kahn is indeed a meaningful viewing experience as it features many of Kahn’s important works from South Asia. As the documentary approaches the end, the mood becomes more spiritual; a westerner’s journey to the east in quest of a spiritual truth and liberation, and it seems as if Kahn as well as his son does seem to have understood the architect and the person that Kahn was. But there is one instance where we get to see a still image, a tight shot of Kahn with his friend standing in a Chowk next to Peti (raised plinth) and Dalan behind. Image last in the screen for not more than a second but was instantaneously recognizable as Nepal! This is interesting considering the length we go to explain what Nepalipan is.

Relegated to the dark corner of storehouse of history; traditional way of building, a part of our proud cultural heritage is full of illustrations and hints that could sustain modernity. Reasons for discontinuity at least could not have been because of its irrelevance to actual need of the people and the environment. Fact that we talk so much about national pride could be because of incidence like these, where we have dropped our way of life in an attempt to look better than those of our fellow beings who are less literate and less well off. Here have arisen a strong need to reevaluate the choices we have made in the past but still continue to be oblivious about it. More than vanity,

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national pride should steam from selfrespect. We cannot hope to be betteroff by rejecting what is common within us. In the race to look better than our fellow-beings we are moving towards the environment that is ultimately ugly to look at, uncomfortable to live in, and unsustainable. I have mentioned in my earlier writing how major surface area of Kathmandu valley is covered with building type that could be termed as 4 Anna Bungalow! I am to the opinion that we should try to address the issue of urban development and architectural style with the ‘row housing’, of which we are not new as row houses are a major constituent of the built environment of old Kathmandu valley. It is in this context that reevaluation and reinterpretation of traditional building type, mainly housing; is worth a discourse. Majority of these 4 Anna Bungalows receives very little architectural attention, as big and better architects and design firm are more interested in the mansion. Commoner rather than planners and designers are responsible for urban development and architectural style of Kathmandu. ‘Unseen hand of the market’ and outrageous land price has perverted the idea of scale, space, and ownership. Topped with lack of expert’s attention and vanishing law and order; dwellings of the valley is quickly becoming impossible to dwell. Time like this calls for every possible packet of energy that lies reserved in the dark corner of history, to make a jump to the future.

At this point it would be significant to dwell upon significance of the Newari houses of Kathmandu valley. In its course of development Newari houses of Kathmandu; having achieved a level efficient system, are repeated endlessly to form an organism that is the city of Kathmandu. Three-storied Newari houses of Kathmandu embody the wisdom of time and place. The density of the city and primacy of the city center pushed living vertically unlike the cities found in Indian plain that are laterally more significant. Vertically a Newari house is organized in three floors and attic viz. Chhidi, Matan (bedrooms), Chotan (living) , and Baiga (cooking, eating, and puja) respectively. Here I shall limit myself and dwell on the base of the house and ground. Closely-knit row houses line up the street and squares while forming courtyard of various sizes. Dwelling consists of private houses and Bahals. These dwellings are accessed either directly from the street or through the courtyard. Houses sit on a plinth that is raised up to 80 cm (varies) from the street level or Chowk. Width of the Peti is little less than the overhang of the roof and is often edged with stone. Raised plinth is accessed through small stone steps (often few boulders are organized to form a step) leading to Dalan. Dalan is the covered open space behind the rows of twin wooden columns that are carved and ornate. Enclosed space around the Dalan is used as entrance with staircase and storage space or shop front.

Sometimes the entrance leads to the Chowk that is surrounded by Dalan with access to many different housing blocks. At the end of the Chowk is Chhidi, the base of the house; that sits on the pedestal of the Peti. The mass of the base (Chhidi) is balanced with the opening of Agan with rows of twin columns consequently making the house welcoming and approachable. Chowk, Peti, and Dalan together form the public zone of the house with varying level of privacy making the transition to the house smooth and addressing many practical and functional aspects of living and environment. This diagram of the base of the house is still very relevant and together with the brick, wood and stone should bring Nepalipan naturally. Chowk are accessed in many different ways, directly from the street, from the Agan etc. Chowk is usually not a back yard. It is in most case a front yard that is shared by many other houses surrounding it. Chowk is the residential element of the city and public element of a residence. It acts as a possibility to enter the house not directly through the street. Many interesting instances of the Chowk surrounded by boundary wall and placed between the street and the house is not uncommon in the city, though more common for the house in the suburb of well to do families. A small door opens to the Chowk paved with Telia tiles, flower box and wooden sitting bench lining

up the boundary wall. A spiritual plant of Tulsi and Inar (water well) in the Chowk are other common sight though not common in the Chowk of the city center. This diagram of space in-between the house and the street is capable of bringing calmness and allows to experience the open space in contrast to the density of the streets. The feet and heart begins to slow down as one enters the Chowk. At the sight of the stone steps, Peti, Dalan and then the whole house; one takes a sigh of relief and proceeds with the sense of belonging and having arrived. Some shared and small Chowks have met terrible end as they are turned into Rachhan (garbage dump). In this context, a strong criticism of Newari house has to be mentioned; that is of hygiene. For various reason it didn’t allow for the toilet to be built within or even in a close proximity. Toilet and bathroom are uses that should be incorporated in the house of the present. Should it be inside the house is another matter. Our sense of purity and scientific reality of hygiene have to be evaluated and a balanced architectural solution should be worked out. We have often experienced disaster that is - attached bath in a faulty construction and plumbing system, scarcity of water, load shedding etc. 

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Memory of the Dalan of my old house is still strong on me. Carving of the twin wooden columns and the texture of weathered wood are still fresh in my memory. Back then, I could even touch the capital of the column! I even mAnnaged to get my head stuck in-between the twin columns once. My father would park his old Russian motorbike in Dalan in the evening. Running to the Dalan for the cover in a downpour and watching the rain from Dalan and so many private and collective memories are tied with Dalan. This open and common space of the house was lived and enjoyed by all. Importance of the Dalan to a house is practical as well as aesthetic. This is the mark of the traditional way of building. It is convenient to build for the craftsman and comfortable for the people to live in and is; may be homogeneous but, beautiful to look at.

Coming back to the diagram of the ground floor of a Newari house, a small but significant instance occurs in between the Chowk and Peti. Couple of boulders arranged to form a step connecting the Chowk and Peti could remind one of Katsura Imperial Villas. This type of attitude towards the element of architecture does evoke durability, a love and respect for nature, frugality, eye for aesthetics of found object or beauty in object of commonplace etc.

Still image of Kahn with his friend in a Chowk, somewhere in Nepal in that documentary could have trigger opened the memory of Dalan as a small boy and revealed the emotional response which led me into thinking; in fact how little effort it requires to become Nepali and being Nepali is so beautiful. Reminds me of the Chinese folk story of the Monkey, where a monkey makes a long journey and endures innumerable hardships to bring the Dharma (Buddhism) to China, where as it fails to identify the essence of Dharma at the very beginning of it all until it comes across a woodcutter in the forest who has been taking care of his old parent with his days labor in the jungle. Once in Japan when I asked a recent acquaintance, why doesn’t he come to visit USA since he is making enough money, he answered stoically that one can never find the thing that is not in your home country! g

Relegated to the dark corner of storehouse of history; traditional way of building, a part of our proud cultural heritage is full of illustrations and hints that could sustain modernity.

In a densely built area, ground floor becomes less attractive for the residential living and more appropriate for commerce and other public or collective activities. This sense of preference in the present day is translated to rented ground floor space in so many of 4 Anna Bungalow. Raised plinth is still relevant as it facilitates the outdoor living and proper care of the house in case of rain and flood. Peti gives the look of solidity and stability to the house. A house is made to feel important and unique by placing it on the Peti. As an object of art a house is elevated and placed in the ground above for proper viewing. Addressing the transition from ground to the structure is not an uncommon phenomenon in architecture but the Nepali solution is probably the most appropriate for us here in Nepal.

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Adaptive reuse: A new function for an old building

“Adaptive reuse is fundamentally sustainable development and offers a tremendous opportunity to enrich the present by engaging the past.”

Matan Chhen

Panauti, Kavre

The myth and the magic, Artist Rabindra Puri sculpts a cozy dwelling out of a ruined haunted house.

Text: Bikal Chhetri

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daptive reuse is the process of adapting old structures for new purposes. This process recognizes the excellence in design and inspires a new and different use(s) for an existing building. It gives opportunity to change the primary function of the structure, while often retaining some of the existing architectural details that make the building unique. The historic materials and fabric of a property are often retained and used as a prime element in the design of the project. Adaptive reuse projects can provide tremendous benefit to the community, particularly if the building is a key community landmark. A community’s psychology can be positively affected if a long-vacant building is adapted for a new use, indicating an investment in the community for the long term. For example, the Garden of Dreams at Kaiser Mahal was re-adapted to be used as a public garden. Today this place is a center of public and tourist attraction and acts a little oasis in the middle of the vast urban jungle.

he value of history, even an undistinguished history, should not be underestimated. In many situations, it is the opportunity to interweave the past and present that makes adaptive reuse projects so rich and exciting. Before Rabindra Puri’s ‘Namuna Ghar’ arrived in Bhaktapur there was little talk about readapting or re-building Newari architectural dwellings into modern day housing unit. Then came the project of Matan Chhen at Panauti, a city 35 km southeast from Kathmandu, which insights more into the adaptive process.

“The sensitive adaptation of heritage buildings, when combined with contemporary design, can create vibrant and visually exciting spaces that people want to live, work or play in today.” Hon G.M (John) Castrilli MLA; “Adaptive reuse - a new future for our past”

Origin Matan Chhen was originally two houses owned by two different businessmen on the LayakuDurbarmarg, who later left the house

“Adaptive Reuse is a process by which older and/or historic buildings are developed for their cultural value while receiving economically, socially, culturally viable new uses of a sustainable nature. This sensible and creative reuse of buildings is an activity advocated by “progressive preservationists” and particularly professionals in the urban development field. While in the last fifty years or so most developing countries have applied this principle primarily for cultural purposes, it is now becoming evident and clear that within a market economy, cultural/urban heritage could be considered as a financial asset. We therefore find ourselves with new solutions of reuse to both building functions and operations, alongside economic gains with the private sector and a good number of benefits for the public sector, particularly local governments, and the improvement of municipal services.”

empty seeking better opportunities outside of the settlement. The property had originally only four floors but later they took out the tiled roof and made four and half stories with a tin roof. These houses built in 1934 AD, derives its form from both Newari and Rana architecture (European neoclassical and Victorian styles). Program Matan chhen was conceived as a building to be used as an apartment housing families at different levels in an old Newari settlement derived from its initial function being a dwelling unit for two families. The shift of program brings forth new approaches at looking the present housing scenario that is rapidly changing according to the urban

(Ref: Paper II by Sylvio Mutal)

The adaptive reuse of existing buildings saves energy and resources. The reuse of an existing structure reduces the need to manufacture and construct the building with new materials thus reducing the need for additional natural resources and the energy required to make them. Depending on the integrity of the building to be reused, economic savings may also be achieved in masonry, site work, concrete and carpentry. (Ref: Creating Sustainable Communities- A Guide for Developers and Communities)

The adaptive reuse of buildings can help to anchor a neighborhood and community leading to a social and economic revitalization. We can assert that the initiation of Adaptive Reuse projects can be an extra stimulus for economic revitalization, not only for the centre in question, but also to the region and to the city as such. g

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floor plans after 1

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First Floor 1. Living Room 2. Kitchen cum Dining 3. Master Bed Room 4. Attached Bath Room 5. Shop 6. Store 7. Lobby

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1. The low lying interior space with the colonnaded central spine supporting the roof plane 2. The telia tiled floor plane, the brass basins give a distinctive image creating an amalgam of traditional with the modern. 3. telia tile, two seater diner and the low sill window, detail out to create a minimalist dining area.

Ground Floor

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transformation. As we look inside this approach, the program formulation becomes clearer, as the criteria of program was more reduced and targeted towards the foreigners as single users who stay in Nepal for various works. At the local level, what is seen is just the aesthetic transformation rather than reorganization of urban sprawl in the broader context. And if we talk about the economic aspect to it as an investor, the return of the investment is rather deem without proper marketing and foreign link an investor can gather. The house name is derived from the word “Matan” meaning first floor in Newari language. The tag line for the house sounds ethnical, these are the basic tools for targeting foreigners who stay around in Kathmandu for various kinds of work, and it is this local translation that acts as pictograph in promoting the traditional cultural scene in both form and function.

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The area of the project is 82 square meters. On acquisition of the whole property by the artist and entrepreneur Rabindra Puri in 2005-06, the construction work began in 2007 AD and with his skilled workers, the construction of Matan Chhen was completed in 2008. Solution The underlying essence of the adaptive process shows the clients/designers motives in maintaining the traditional architectural method of building a house while using modern amenities without destroying its traditional appearance and value. Under Rabindra Puri and his artisan’s direction the Matan Chhen displays meticulous detail in both the exterior and interior transforming the total built environment of vertically stacked apartment houses in the dense Newari settlement. The approach treats one family as one unit and assumes two units living in two houses and converting it into a four 04.11 Business Architecture

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units of apartment configuration with higher economic value. So how about seeing a solution inside this approach only instead of seeing aesthetic transformation? To be clearer, in contrast to the initial planning of Newari settlement into compact row housing, this approach stacks the housing units vertically creating higher number of dwellings without disturbing its contextual street pattern. The functional usage being the apartment house, every floor has a living room, kitchen/dining room and a bedroom with attached bathroom.

4. Indoor living area in the second floor, 5. The artisans craft collection

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“All the usable materials were reused and when the materials had to be replaced, most of them were replaced from my collections.” Rabindra Puri “…The pillars of the 2nd floor were replaced by old pillars from his collection. The roof was covered by CGI sheets ruining its original character, which was later replaced by old tiles. The partition walls between the two houses were partly removed on every floor creating a more spacious built environment. All the floors were of mud and were converted to terracotta floors to make them more practical and durable. The use of terracotta tiles doesn’t end here. Its use can be seen

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East Elevation

North Elevation

North Elevation (Before)

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all around the interiors from kitchen counters to counter tops on toilet. As a trademark to his design, brass basins are used in both kitchen and bathroom. Even the shower box has brass basin as a soak pit. Weak parts of the walls were demolished part by part and restored. Wood work, masonry and roof work were all done by skilled artisans using traditional methods. The shutters, interior partitions and furniture are all detailed out using Salla (pinewood) which gives a light yellow texture. The façade is brick exposed for more authentic style and colored in light orange same as that of the Surkhi mortar used. The exterior is decorated with floral pilasters and dark brown decorative windows...” The further detail goes like this; ”…the entry with brass house name template on a raised plinth, the slate flooring on the ground floor, the damp ground floor wall, the chic staircase adapted in a very tight space but still extenuating the vertical form, the loft water tank at the end of the vertical circulation…“ Commentary Detailed, with Newari architecture and modern facilities, Matan Chhen seems poised for authentic example of adaptive reuse in days to come. Looking at his insightful ways of thinking it’s no surprise how Rabindra Puri gets a standing ovation for his works but to no avail are people following this path of readaptation. People should look at the world around them and see the things they overlooked before and to re-see them. Time without consequences! g

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Rabindra Puri with a degree in law, fine arts, history and management is one of the pioneer in conservation work in Nepal.

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19 century temple complex to a Music School th

Architect Neils Gutschow creates a serene environment for learning musical lessons within a century old temple complex.

Text: Sabina Tandukar

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hen a grant was provided by German government to Nepal, the condition was that no new construction and property acquisition was allowed except to restore any of the ailing buildings and establish a music school. The objective was also to preserve open spaces, traditional and natural beauty, and critical environmental areas. The extensive search followed the order and the find was a gift in itself; the Harsanarayan Shivalaya complex, the property of a private Guthi owned by Dhaubadel family. Located at Jagati, Bhaktapur; the complex stands adjacent to the hanumante river, with a crematory in its neighbourhood.

As the family story goes, the complex was built by Harsanarayan Dhaubadel who was a very religious person. It is said that he had won a contract to build four silver doors for Pashupatinath temple, the famous Hindu temple on the banks of holy Bagmati at Gaushala, and with a little money he earned as profit he decided to dedicate it to Lord Shiva. This story also tells that there was a man who built a Shiva temple to the north of this complex granted Dhaubadel with a tract of land where the Shivalaya stands today. The Shiva temple was built maintaining the axial configuration with the temple to its north. The other buildings in the complex were built in the traditional Newari Style. The huge tracts of land surrounding the temple and buildings were dedicated as garden area. There was even a pond

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in its southern part overlooked by the guest house which has unfortunately dried up. Located on the bank of the river, this place is still being used by the family to perform rituals like “Shradha”, and other traditional performances. Program The temple complex spread in 9 ropani land area was persistently being used for different purposes besides religious activities. Originally intended as a place for religious conglomeration of the whole family, this complex was used as the first boarding school of Nepal in 1974. After few years, this building again went unused and continued to subsist in a state of negligence when later different religious preaching and prophesy brought few people into the complex. In 1995, when the building was chosen for restoration and re-use, the complex was only used for religious activities and had already undergone long years of obsolescence. The garden areas were used by local farmers for farming and the buildings were in a state of dilapidation with falling roof structures, cracking wall surfaces and vegetative outgrowth. Also the river water flooding in during monsoon had created mayhem in the otherwise serene environment of builtscapes and landscapes. As the terms and conditions had directed, the primary objective was to restore the falling building into the state of its initial grandeur and to make it more viable for adaptive re-use as a music school.

The return of the timeravaged structure to a workable condition and that also to a music school is a welcome addition to a neighborhood whose traditional artefacts are gradually falling apart to become the ruins of mud and dense vegetative growth.

Architect, Conservationist and a Scholar Neils Gutschow as the prime co-ordinater of the project with his students from Germany studied the entire complex, its challenges and opportunities and set to restore the project with as little intervention as possible. There was also a requirement of not intervening with the sacred spaces within the complex and keeping it as intact as possible for the Dhaubadel family to carry on with their religious functions. Such spaces included the main shrine or temple structure built in terracotta with ghantakar roof structure, the raised podium in the entry courtyard and the single storey temple structure dedicated to Astamatrika, the eight mother goddesses. Further there was a challenge of including the functions of a music school in the traditional built spaces which are often not spacious enough.

Solution The architects made as few visual interventions as possible - in part to focus attention on the complex’s innate dignity but also to ensure that the project will receive the fund allocated, needed for financing the whole restoration. All the exterior works comply with the original pattern of detailing. The walls were restored, openings repaired and re-located in its original position; and the falling roof planes were reconstructed in the traditional style. A very noticeable addition is the glazing projected as a dormer window in the main building which could be as per the functional requirement of the daylight into the indoors to make the classroom sessions easy. Another building standing adjacent to the Astamatrika temple is the two storey structure originally intended as a vacation house for the sick members of the family who could come here for healing in the serene environment (as the river was  04.11 Business Architecture

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clean then). The lower level has colonnaded space and a stone staircase leading upstairs into a single bay room which houses the music class. The obligation was to restore the lower colonnaded falcha in its eastern part and let the guthi continue to use it for preparing feast during their sacred offerings known as “Bhog Puja”. The major change and addition was done to the present canteen area, where initially a pati stood with a lean-to-wall roof structure, which was later extended and new spaces added to create a more functional whole. To let this complex operate as a music school there were still many requirements to fulfil and new facilities to be included, then was added a new wing in the south-western corner. This structure is L-shaped with a raised floor and a colonnaded space overlooking the green area which once was a pond filled with crystal clear water. Another addition was a performance pavilion, particularly designed by Austrian Architect Götz Hagmuller. This pavilion standing in a raised podium on the north-western part of the complex has a four way sloped roof in double layer. What interests us here is the openness and the feeling of being connected to the outer natural air while being much inside in the protection of the large sloping roof externally finished in jhingati tiles . The use of bamboo as internal roof finish gives more acoustical benefits during performances according to the college manager Raju Hyaumikha. The architects had more freedom in the interior, where at the attic of the main building the horizontal wooden tie bars has been cut to provide freer space to be used as music and recording classes. The pattern of opening has been slightly modified with inclusion of glass

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3 1. Various ethnical musical instruments from around the world decorate this small space. 2. Attic space, where horizontal wooden tie bars were cut down to create usable space, now housing a recording studio. 3. Students taking musical classes

This renovation sensitively preserves an important landmark while invigorating it with a new use.

(Clockwise) 4. The raised podium, on the foreground where rituals like “Sradha” are still performed, with temple complex in the background 5. The main entry building has been completely renovated to its original stature, 6. Frame within a frame, view of freestanding temples with ghantakar roofs framed by moon gate. This gate was a later addition inspired from the one at Garden of Dreams.

panes. According to the manager, the northern part of this building had a double storey sattal accessible from the river bank. This was to facilitate the pilgrims during the month long fasting of Swasthani Brata (which fall on the lunar month of Magh). Devotees used to take a holy bath in the river and change their clothes and make fire in the sattal to make oneself warm and comfortable. Unfortunately with the degrading situation of river water which has almost turned to become a soil waste drainage, today no devotees come here for daily ablutions. Thus discarding this discontinued tradition the architect closed the first floor of the sattal and introduced a piano learning space in it. This seems to have been a wise intervention on part of the architects working on the project.  04.11 Business Architecture

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7. The performance pavilion amidst the greenery, 8. Central courtyard paved with telia tiles, 9. the reposeful ambience inspires students to create soulful music 10. The entire stretch of river bank with music school and adjoining ruined temple structures.

Commentary The restoration and reuse of the entire temple complex to a music school clearly demonstrates how a relic from our medieval heyday can be reimagined for use in today’s diverse economy. This restoration project is a welcome change for a neighbourhood whose traditional artefacts are gradually falling apart to become the ruins of mud and dense vegetative growth.

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And in the case of this Shivalaya, each of the element has been worked out to its detail and integrated to form a unified whole. Still today, the college management is regularly renovating the building and temple structures. The ghantakar roof of the main shrine has been reconstructed and also the roof membrane of Astamatrika temple has been recently renovated. The architects have been successful in infusing traditional architecture with the spiritual vibes of the music created in such a reposeful ambience. This renovation sensitively preserves an important landmark while invigorating it with a new use.g

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GARDEN OF DREAMS Kaiser Mahal, Kathmandu

Architect Gotz Hagmuller creates an oasis of peace and tranquility amidst the hustle bustle of a busy metropolitan city.

Text: Monica Bassi

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he Garden of Dreams, a magnificent neo-classical garden situated in the midst of Kathmandu’s urban bustle, adjacent to Kaiser Mahal (now the Ministry of Education), was renounced as the garden of six seasons and was created by late field Marshall Kaiser Shumsher Rana in early 1920’s. It is learnt that he was an impassioned traveler especially to European Countries and the Garden of Dreams was an inspiration he received from the gardens in Europe. Considered one of the most sophisticated private garden of that time, the garden was designed and supervised by Kishor Narsingh, along with Kaiser Shumsher’s extreme refinement and personal adaptations of the landscape and architecture; turning it into one of the great and unique landscaping monuments of South Asia deserving of preservation and further study.

The garden originally included an exquisite ensemble of six impressive freestanding pavilions dedicated to each of the six seasons of Nepal along with other accessories like fountains, garden furniture, verandah, pergolas, balustrades, urns, birdhouses, paved perimeter paths punctuated by trellises and a sunken flower garden with a large duck pond at its center. The formal and axial arrangement of the gardens architectural features stand in contrast to its more informal and natural planting- a juxtaposition consistent with that of the garden created in England during that time. Program After the demise of Kaiser Shumsher, his family bequeathed some

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portion of the Kaiser Mahal including his dream garden and Kaiser library to the government after which the garden remained in dilapidated form for several decades. The Kaiser library, the Palace and the Pavilions were used as government offices and store area. The private garden and pavilions which was a favorite pass time for the Rana family, where Kaiser Shumsher used to write diaries and enjoy the nature completely lost its essence. Its structural disfigurement caught the sight of some of the national and international environmentalists, and heritage conservationists during the Visit Nepal Year 1998. Then the restoration of this once-neglected legacy and its adaptive re-use by expansion as a public and tourist resource was initiated as a million dollar project funded by Austrian Government in cooperation with the Ministry of Education & Sports and executed by Eco Himal. Solution The garden restoration project started the same year with hundreds of trucks of rubbish being removed. Under project manager- Architect Gotz Hagmuller, the team prepared a master plan and carried out a gradual work strategy. A number of elements were added by utilizing latent resources of its existing layout.

A reflection of the white distinct image of the pavilion visible in the central water pond provides a distinct image of history playing with nature.

An amphitheater was created for open-air cultural programs and relaxations. The central steps at the amphitheatre originally existed and the curved stepped bands were then sculptured at a higher level and the water moat in between- later added. 04.11 Business Architecture

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Source: information brochure Garden of dreams, keshar mahal, Kathmandu

Sketch of the proposed reconstruction of the Shishir pavilion. The proposed Himalayan aviary to the right of the pavilion (not built). Grishma Pavilion Rotunda Open Air Theatre Asade char Bagh

Office and gallery Keshar mahal/ Kaiser Library

Toilets

The lost garden area is shown in gray and includes the Sharad, Hemanta, and Shishir pavilions.

LEGEND 1 Basanta 2 Grishma 3 Barkha 4 Sharad 5 Hemanta 6 Shishir

Spring Early Summer Summer Monsoon Early Autumn Late Autumn Winter

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Entrances were made from the Thamel Street, the car park area, the Palace and one behind the Barkha pavilion. The Sharad, Hemanta and Shishir pavilion no longer existed and the Basanta, Grishma and Barkha pavilion were at the east, south and the south west respectively. A three storey palace demarcated the west end of the present garden boundary. Barkha pavilion was an open palladial hall later glazed and had a cellar which had a music machine. Basanta pavilion was raised half a meter, with sunken surrounding landscape. The furniture and benches now found in the garden are an exact copy of the original ones, and even the rhomboidal style of the stone platform fountain at Asade Char Bagh are designed similar to the older ones found at the lateral axis of the main gate.

Multi-story ministry building constructed in the 1980s Project office in later wing built by kaiser shumsher Proposed reconstruction of the Shishir pavilion for the six seasons restaurant Proposed aviary (not built) Guard Building Service area for Kaiser Cafe

1. Looking east from the lost portion of the garden, ca. 1940, the three pavilions in the background survive, a building constructed in the 1980s has replaced the area in the foreground. 2. The focal fountain pool, like the rest of the garden, had become overgrown with weeds. 3. The lost Shishir pavilion, early 1920s

Photo Courtesy: Lok Bhakta SJB Rana

The raised surface at the amphitheatre and rotunda was also a later addition.

The compound wall, originally being two-third of the present height, was raised as a good acoustical buffering from the street and the outside world. The peaceful entrance forecourt with the sound of falling water brings a semi-conscious transition from the noise outside. The two walls standing side by side behind the Grishma pavilion is an interesting nook later re-designed as a falling water steps, creating a perspective illusion to the observer. The most sensitive intervention in the whole restoration project was to recreate the rotunda, which was initially in the rearmost part of the original landscape. The rotunda was assorted at this point to give the central axis a 

The original rotunda pavilion has been demolished and lost to the urban expansion of Thamel. During the gardens restoration it was reconstructed (right) with the help of an old photograph (above)

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1. The rearmost area with telia tiled flooring and wrought iron furniture overlooking the late 19th century garden area. 2. Typical Austrian coffee chair in Kaiser Café. 3. Dining hall of the Six Season’s restaurant. 4. Seating arrangements with high walls finished in white lime plaster and decorated with wall reliefs.

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(Left) the outdoor eating sheltered under the trellis covered with creepers and climbers create a soothing ambience. (Below) Kaiser Shumsher in the Basanta Pavilion; the classical bust in the background was typical of the elegant touches incorporated in the garden .

4 formal endpoint. “The idea of rotunda was to create an axis to the older pavilion, as the central axis created by the Hemanta pavilion existed no longer”, Hagmuller mentioned. Two of the historical pavilions were converted to serve as a garden café and lounge bar. The upper and outer projections of the Café were later additions. The Viennese style Kaiser Café, the six season’s restaurant/ lounge bar and the entrance ticket supports income generation. The garden also provides space for special events and activities such as receptions and cultural programs. The Kaiser Café was originally the guardhouse of the garden.

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After almost seven years of restoration procedure, the garden is all set to welcome the public. Though the garden lost half of its original size to the development of Thamel, the three neo-classical pavilions as well as its central lotus pond and most of the other architectural and sculptural elements have survived their complete restoration securing the legacy of Kaiser Shumsher's creation for future generation. An interesting inspiration achieved by the creator from his visit to England are the statues of Greek gods Apollo, Daphne and Nike (goddess of victory), the statue of Sphinx, each of them depicting power and love. An old saying “you are closer to god in a 3

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garden than anywhere else”- well relates with this garden of Kaiser Shumsher. Goddess Nike was later remodeled by English sculptor Suki to somewhat similar image of goddess Laxmi. At present, she is a hybrid and inconceivable, says Christopher, a friend of Hagmuller and a well-wisher of the garden. Finally, the 6895 sq.m. garden was revived after 7 years of extensive work, going both ways restoring the originality and introducing few modern additions. Ramps and bells provided for wheel-chaired visitors leave no solitude unwelcomed to this haven. The opening and handover was done in 2008.

Commentary To maintain the standard, the renovated garden aims to become selfsustaining though entrance fees, café, bar along with other cultural programs, corporate events, private functions, etc. To uphold the architectural beauty of the garden, it has been decided that the garden will be a non-commercial garden i.e. free from advertisements, posters and banners. Nepal Tourism Board (NTB), as a member of the garden considers that the garden will be an icon for cultivating interest in the people towards greenery and will help promote tourism activities in the valley.

Today as a superb example of adaptive re-use of historical landscape architecture and centrally located, the garden has become a prime destination for residents and tourists alike. With its towering subtropical trees, old and new ponds, exotic and indigenous plants and public benches, the garden is an accessible green heaven in the busy city center. This model project has become a sustainable historic site which was lying dormant and an example that other such historic places could be similarly restored and developed to great benefit. g

“you are closer to god in a garden than anywhere else” Architect Gotz Hag Muller with friend Christopher

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Ashok Party Palace Patan Dhoka, Lalitpur

Prajwal Hada and Associate Architects restore the essence of an aging icon of the 20th century postmodern architecture for a more viable future. Architect Prajwol Hada is a practicing architect and a faculty member of department of architecture, Pulchowk Campus.

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(From anticlockwise) 1, 2 shows the contextual location of the cinema hall (happening entertainment center) in the prior era with traditional houses in its close proximity; 3. The structure later lost its grip among the modern residents due to lack of better facilities and continued to stay neglected, 4. when later it was completely renovated with a new function of Party Palace. 2 5

Text: Monica Bassi

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he Ashok hall, located at the core area of Patan city, about 500m from Patan Dhoka, Lalitpur, was the second cinema hall in Kathmandu after the Janakalyan Company. Built in 2009-10 B.S., in the medieval town of Lalitpur, the classical-modern look of Ashok Hall had posed an influential effect over the local residents as a major entertainment center. The 8,350 square foot monolithic structure was spread over 5.6 ropani land, with roads flowing along its western and southern periphery. At that time built as a larger scale structure (as compared to low height Newari residential buildings), the building had load-bearing walls with white plaster finish and horizontal grooves for linings.

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Program After half a century of movie shows, this cinema hall with limited seats, degrading quality and facilities could no longer cater to the increasing demands of the modern society. The movie viewers were decreasing rapidly and the hall was usually almost empty when its new owner Dinker Amatya planned strategies to reimburse the expenses. And a month later, Amatya decided to amend the physical and functional set up of the building with a team headed by Architect Prajwal Hada, concentrating at renovating the building envelope rather than high design, with a few functional additions. This gave rise to the idea of Ashok party palace, a commercial space as a community center, contextually suitable and easily accessible. 04.11 Business Architecture

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4 1. entry lobby 2. main hall 3.ancillary facilities 4. exit 2

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Old Existing Plan

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This building had to perpetuate its form and space along with changing function and utility. The architect was faced with the challenge of restoring the originality and at the same time introducing the sense of modernity into the built structure. Solutions The architect was given a time limit of 6-9 months to renovate the entire structure and rejuvenate its original charm. The building was not really in a critical state because of earlier repairing and maintenance works, but it certainly lacked adequate work spaces, public interest and had poor aesthetics in and out. Architect Hada and his team started the renovation by removing the plaster finish of the front block. The gaps and unevenness between the bricks were then sealed by using wall putty. The result was a brick exposed traditional exterior appearance as a culturally pleasing public building.

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1. Multi Purpose Hall 2. Stage 3. Kitchen Area 4. Changing & Snacks 5. Dining Hall 6. Store 7. Lobby Area 8. Shops 9. Guard House 10. Office Building 11.Generator House 12. Parking

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Proposed Master Plan

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1. The large overhang sheltering the entry. 2. The main hall with balcony has been restored, 3. to its initial state but the curved bands have been painted blue and yellow to impose a festive atmosphere.

The main cinema hall, rectangular in plan, was renovated to function as a multi-purpose hall with the capacity of 500 people. “To horizontally level the raked floor surface was a difficult task; the dismantling took almost 3 months”, recalls project architect,” and the remaining constructions and modifications took some 6 months”. The floor was reshaped and split levels were created and a stage constructed at the east end with a blank wall for video projection. The balcony has been restored in its original status but the chairs were repaired and modified, and the curved bands in the interior wall were painted yellow and blue. Along with the main entry at the west, the southern secondary entry was included which could well divide the mass during large ceremonies. The front entry plaza leads to the western entry lobby connecting with the main hall. This is also the central circulatory zone connecting with the store, staircase, toilets and other service areas. The garage area on the north was developed as a dining hall with capacity for around 350 people. An easy circulatory kitchen block was added at the north-east with provisions for stores, worker’s room, and toilets along with preparation, cooking and wash areas. Moreover, accessible location of kitchen store and its connection with the dining area, main hall and the entry gate added to the functional success of the party palace. 

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As for the outer appearance, the architect has strongly introduced modern interventions in the principal façade. The two imposing cubes have been diagonally interpenetrated into the principal volume and a planar surface introduced emphasizing the recessed entry. These new additions are painted blue and red (two of the primary colours) especially to create an eye-catchy and youthful ambience. The cantilevered slab sheltering the entry has been retained using cable suspension. The jhingati tiled slope roof supported by wooden struts was a later addition, sheltering the lower terrace, and having triple gajura on the top.

(above) old section (below) Proposed Section of the Hall

For quick commencement, various technological aspects have been considered along with the use of new materials and concepts. The steel U-sections instead of reinforced concrete bands at various levels are one of the prominent steps toward the modern construction methodology, which is time effective and easily applicable. The rolled-steel trusses with translucent, curved sheet coverings in the outdoor premises are later additions initiated by the management to create more usable spaces disregarding the design and aesthetics.

The architect has been successful in artfully converting the structure into a vibrant, humming, dramatic community center.

Commentary Progression of time and urban interests demanded a replacement of the obsolete cinema hall with a happening event destination. Accordingly, the architect has been successful in artfully converting the structure into a vibrant, humming, dramatic community center. It can definitely be said that this 20 million project has generated new economy to make the project self sustaining, and helped to foster the structure into a distinctive, attractive place with a strong “sense of place”. Even the introduction of rentable commercial retail stores coming forward to the edge of the roadway has helped to increase the dialogue between the passerby and the building creating a walk-able neighborhood and at the same time has induced a financial outburst. This has certainly proved the principle of adaptive re-use worthy for the rebirth of any structure into a spectacular destination for a huge population of the city. g

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4. The entry plaza as a zone for public assimilation leading to main entry. 5. Circular white bands around the openings gestures towards informality. 6. The intervention of cubical structure into the primary volume is seen as the architect’s most conspicuous intervention.

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proposed front and side elevation

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BABER MAHAL revisited Places to find and spaces to discover; Baber Mahal Revisited elucidate a realm where past transcends into the present creating variety of spaces.

Text: Bikal Chhetri and Shreema Rana

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Origin

he notion “heritage” about Babar Mahal Revisited no longer embraces the concept of a solitary architectural masterpiece. But together with the fusion of Newari, Colonial and Indian architecture, this project brings little corner of history back to life. Six Newari Craftsmen, whose great grandfathers had built the Babar Mahal Durbar, were employed to bring this project to culmination.

“The original Baber-Mahal built in 1919 consisted of 250 rooms around four courtyards in European style and approached by tree line alley. The estate included the Nepal’s first playhouse with Billiard Room (Billiard ghar), Japanese garden hillock with a temple of Bhimsen, an English rose garden and ‘Putali Bagaicha’, a garden dedicated to Jung Bahadur’s great love, the Maharani Putali.” Baber-Mahal Revisited.

Program The plot at the west of the Baber Mahal Palace initially consisted of a stable, cowshed and a guard house that stood empty and near collapse. Gautam SJB Rana (Gitu), who owned this plot, thus decided to transform it into an accolade to his Rana ancestors with the help of architects Eric Theophile and Rohit Ranjitkar. Eric Theophile, an architect from Harvard, was also involved in restoring historic buildings and temples in the Valley since 1990. So, the idea was to transform the site into a hub that imitated the Bazaar at zero proximity from the Kathmandu core area and cross programming it into various function. This $432,000 project was started in 1996 and completed within a short duration of 18 months. Taking a cue from the Boston's Quincy Market and London's Covent Garden, they turned their "palace" into a trendy shopping and dining complex. Gitu christened the project Baber Mahal Revisited. 

1.Mulchowk , the hub for social gathering and function, shows gleaming Neoclassical façade, the green shutters, and red roof. 2. The north-eastern tower at the end of the complex 2

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In the past, those who had ideas they wished to communicate to the public had the unquestioned right to disseminate those ideas in an open marketplace and Baber-Mahal revisited is the hidden sanctuary of that past.

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3. View of the site before reconstruction, now stand as Mulchowk. 4. The undulating Baber Mahal revisited complex

Solution The site now has transformed into a sanctuary, sanctuary for a quite contemplative shopping complex with an eclectic mix of stores rather than a crowded bazaar. View through the north eastern tower at the end of the complex and one can see the site as a lush sanctuary with its small courtyards one leading to the other as a labyrinth. Its red gingerbread roofing that contrast with the white summer tone undulates from one end to the other. Each court that you dwell upon has a theme that tries to imitate the past places with its objectified interpretations.

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"Authenticity is not the motive behind this building. There is no such thing as an original whether in painting or architecture," remarks Gautam SJB Rana. “The entrance is a reduced replica of Singha Durbar porch.�This porch has a human feel to it with a low ceiling height and a small lobby space. One cannot miss the axial view through the entry to the Hanuman Chowk with its layers of arched openings. The first court of the complex is a rectangular one, one that is marked by the traditional Rest-house (Pati) for the travelers. Its use is significant both

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Section Elevation Looking North

Section Elevation Looking West Bird’s Eye View

6. The circular rotunda at the Chez Caroline as a landscape element. 7. The signage used by various shops and restaurant are minimalistic in design and those around the ‘Gallis’ use wrought iron signage holders to give a chic appearance to the building.

thematically and functionally for the purpose it fills in relaxing the user who enters inside the complex. The Mugal style architecture dominates this part of the complex with its pointed arched windows and motifs. The next court is a small Hanuman Chowk marked by the idol of Hanuman (the monkey-god) at the centre. “The European palace styles of the Rana Maharajas soon trickle down to more humble town houses and shop fronts of Newari merchants and urban farmers. This and the adjacent court preserve a number of typical shop front and windows from the Patan whose classical columns, louvered grills, and diminutive size are a blend of European and Asian Sensibilities.” Baber-Mahal Revisited. The finial to this horizontal progression is the Mulchowk with its north and south wing (galli) before the entry. The north wing leads to the Baithak restaurant and the south

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wing leads towards the Siddhartha art gallery through the fifth court.

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A tour around the complex makes one step up and down frequently. The idea is to break the monotony of the ground and make the complex look like a small city in itself. The Mul Chowk, especially, was built 6 feet below ground level. Consequently, drainage could have posed a problem but ‘the tried and tested architecture of the past’ came in handy again. With the help of perforated slate tiles, the water flow was diverted internally to a pond outside the complex area. Places to find and spaces to discover; Baber Mahal Revisited elucidate a realm where past transcends into the present creating variety of spaces. 

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Each court that you dwell upon has a theme that tries to imitate the past places with its objectified interpretations.

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10-12. Vistas through the labyrinth

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8. The traditional rest-house (pati) sitting gently at the Mugal court.

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Commentary The transformations witnessed here clearly shows the changes in the infrastructure at various stages. Apart from architects ascertain to the relationship between the functional requirements of the multi use space, the spaces within are defined by the vendors themselves. The vendors who use the space within the complex not only sell their goods and services but also can reorganize their market within the complex using various events to socialize with the customers. The example of this function is Siddhartha Art gallery. The Gallery has organized book launches, poetry reading, lectures, musical concerts and fund raising events alongside its exhibitions inside the BMR Courtyard Complex. This open platform market can produce various combinations of market strategies unlike the commercial malls with its rigid market of buyers and sellers.

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Economic viability will always be the key issue in the commercial project for its sustainability and so we tend to ask how the complex has endured this with only consumers being the lower number of high class population. The Baber-Mahal Revisited is yet to gain commercial success but as an architectural piece its stands as a classic and a successful adaptive-reuse project. g 13

13. The third court with a Mediterranean feel and aesthetics.

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Steps to the Heavenly Abode: Ghats of Kathmandu Text: Hisila Manandhar and Manish Joshi

The innumerable tirthas, places of holy pilgrimage preferably located near water, on the banks and at the confluence of rivers and streams, at ponds, springs and even at seemingly mundane wells reflect the Nepalese attitude toward this sacred substance (Slusser, 1982, pp. 350). The rivers have been a source for evolution of socioeconomic and cultural patterns. The all-embracing river network covering the entire Valley of Kathmandu through the river Bagmati and its tributaries supported the traditional economic base – agriculture. In addition to this, the significance of the rivers and their network in the economic and environmental health was also reflected in cultural manifestations. This could be perceived through the construction of cultural-religious enclaves at different parts of the river networks. Although, most of the major religious rituals and festivals in the Kathmandu valley are closely linked to the river Bagmati and its tributaries, it

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(Source: The Teku Thapathali Research Group Report)

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n our religious traditions and culture, water is given the most respectable and unique status. The rivers were considered to be divine and worshipped as Goddesses in mythological descriptions and people had learnt to use water most judiciously and with greatest admiration. Even today in our society, water is the single most important tool for performing daily religious rituals or social ceremonies and a primary means for purification of body and soul. Hindus have a belief that life starts with water, and ends in water: ritual cleansing of a new-born with holy water to the cremation and immersion of the ashes in the river.

is their role in absolving from life and sins, which is most significant. Running through the paddy fields from its source above Sundarijal till its exit through Chobhar Gorge, the Bagmati River has been the center of cultural and religious lifeline of the Kathmandu Valley. One could easily point out that it has been acting as a focal point for the rituals and social customs of the Valley that are performed daily in innumerable religious centers – temples, shrines and ghats - constructed along the riverbanks, especially at the confluences. The Teku Thapathali Research group (1994, pp. 7) has identified that there are altogether six most significant sites assembled along the Bagmati River that are all dedicated to Shiva. They could be enlisted as; the Sundarijal site at the source of the Bagmati; the Gokarna Mahadev Temple complex and its associated shrines and ghats; the great temple complex and ghats of Pashupatinath, and its associated shrines at Gujeswari;

the temple complex and ghats of Sankhamul that serve Patan; the Teku-Thapathali temple complexes and ghats that serve Kathmandu; and the Jal Binayak temple and shrines that stand sentinel at the point where the Bagmati river leaves the Valley at Chobhar (Ibid). The religious shrines, temples and ghats were built as an effort at beautification as well as to gain religious benefaction. Among these, ghats were built for the purpose of cremation of dead bodies. The term ghat refers to a series of steps leading down to a water body, usually a holy river. They are broad flights of stairs delivering a safe and easy access to the water’s edge and are usually constructed of dressed stones and bricks. Ghats are useful for both mundane purposes (such as cleaning) and religious rites like ritual bathing or ablutions that are considered to be imperative before performing numerous religious practices.  04.11 Business Architecture

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Riverfronts are often seen as the principle attractions of great cities and in case of the Kathmandu Valley, ghats are the riverfronts that serve as lure for tourists as well as religious enclaves for the locals.

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Masan, that are used for cremating the dead (Slusser, 1982, pp. 154). The platforms, either made from bricks or dressed stones, not only functioned as the cremation grounds but were also effective in river-training purpose. Some of the most important cremation sites for the citizens of Kathmandu are the Bagmati, Kalmochan, Bhagwateshwar, Pachali and Teku Dobhan ghats (The Teku Thapathali Research Group, 1994, pp. 7).

a view of sankhamul ghat from the bridge with decreasing water level (Source: The Teku Thapathali Research Group Report)

The most significant role of the ghats is observed in the funeral rites. For Hindus, death is the commencement of many rituals that must be followed. Unlike many cultures, a family devotes itself to a year of respect after one dies and almost always, the person is cremated and released into a sacred river so that he or she may reach heaven. Ghats along the river Bagmati, such as the Kalmochan Ghat, Pachali Ghat, and Aryaghat near the Pashupatinath Temple etc are lined with sattals, where the sick and the dying are regularly brought, with a belief that dying at the ghats would free their soul from all sins committed during their lifetime. Even today, in traditional Nepalese death ritual, when a person dies, his body is placed on the Bramhanal (a sloped stone slab at ghats), so that their feet could touch the holy waters of the river, during their final moments. After a person dies, the deceased is bathed in the holy waters, and afterward, as ash, reintegrated through it with the cosmic stream. The descending steps of ghats are interrupted at regular intervals with large circular masonry platforms (Bhakaris), also known as

Besides being religiously important, structures associated to the storage, distribution and access to water (the riverside ghats, the reservoirs, wells and fountains) are the omnipresent elements of the cultural landscape of the Kathmandu Valley. If one examines carefully, ghats are crucial landscape elements in social as well as physical infrastructure of the Kathmandu Valley. They are the outcomes of a considerable architectural and engineering achievement. Their functions and forms were combined in such a way that they created a serene and picturesque waterfront for the cities they served. 

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(this page) The ghats of holy Bagmati at Pashupatinath is most popularly used as crematory (opposite page) the river has almost dried up degrading the early charm of riverfront atmosphere

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Over the last few decades, Kathmandu valley has seen drastic urban changes. Uncontrolled urban development brought about by rapid changes in land use and hegemonious urban management legislative has resulted in a quagmire-like situation. With the transformation of the surrounding agricultural land into dense residential/ commercial areas and the transfer of ownership of earlier guthis and its jurisdiction to the government institutions (mainly the Guthi Corporation), the temple complexes aligning the river ghats have lost their early significance and objective.

become difficult and facilities for assisting the death rituals have become rare due to the receding water levels of the river. As a result the tradition of carrying the dying to the riverbanks and providing support for them during the last rites has had to be abandoned (Ibid). There has been a negligible institutional and financial support for the maintenance of temples and ghats, causing degradation of the river-front environment. Also the dumping of garbage, raw sewage lines from the city and industrial waste to the river has caused piling up of these wastes at the riverbanks, and ghats have been affected the most.

Unfortunately over the last thirty years or so the people of the Kathmandu Valley have turned their backs on the sacred rivers and their cultural significance. The Teku Thapathali Research Group in their report have identified that “the insidious removal of sand from the Bagmati River for building purposes has, over the years, caused dramatic changes to the river bed; resulting in a chain reaction for several kilometers from the main area of excavation� (1994, pp. 5). Access to the river has

Public buildings such as patis and sattals along the river banks have been neglected and deserted, leading to deterioration due to encroachment and illegal inhabitation. Temple complexes adjoining the ghats are mostly inhabited by itinerant occupants/ squatters, who have no sense of attachment or belonging to the immediate environment. Likewise, private buildings adjacent to public properties have also posed threats to these public buildings, spaces and monuments, by encroaching upon

These days, the walls of the public buildings and monuments are exploited by political parties, their supporters as well as dissidents, to praise, advertise or to vent out their anger.

built environment. These days, the walls of the public buildings and monuments are exploited by political parties, their supporters as well as dissidents, to praise, advertise or to vent out their anger. Riverfronts are often seen as the principle attractions of great cities and in case of the Kathmandu Valley, ghats are the riverfronts that serve as lure for tourists as well as religious enclaves for the locals. The descent of this sacred space into a state of chronic disrepair is mainly due to the indifference and negligence of the citizens themselves. Despite their obvious utility, ghats are almost never utilitarian alone. The socio-religious magnitude that they carry is quite imposing on the urban scale. It is of utmost importance that they should be conserved for the continuity of our culture, of the tradition of the Kathmandu Valley. g

References: Slusser, M. (1998), Nepal Mandala, A cultural study of the Kathmandu Valley, Vol. 1, New Jersey: Princeton University Press The Teku Thapathali Research Group (1994), Report - Pachali Ghats, Bagmati River, Kathmandu: Goethe Institute Websites: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghat; accessed on 26 Mar 2011 http://www.lifepositive.com/Spirit/Death/The_eternal_city32004.asp; accessed on 26 Mar 2011 http://www.spacesnepal.com/archives/jan_feb09/environmental_implications; accessed on 27 Mar 2011 http://english.ohmynews.com/articleview/article_view.asp?menu=c10400&no=312298&rel_ no=1; accessed on 27 Mar 2011

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Indoor Gardening ba report

I

ndoor gardening fascinates children as well as adults because it provides a great deal of pleasure in watching things grow. Indoor home gardening is the way of growing plants inside a home. People, who do not find enough space to grow plants, opt for indoor gardening in their balcony, or inside the home. Growing plants indoors can provide satisfying work and fresh produce for idle gardening hands. It is also a good choice for apartment dwellers who do not have access to a yard or community garden, or for elderly or disabled people who may not be able to take care of a traditional garden outside.

Advantages of Indoor Gardening • Unlike outdoor gardens, indoor gardens require much less space. Based on the location and availability of space, they can be set up easily. • An indoor garden adds natural elegance to the interior design of your home. Like outdoor gardens, it can be filled with shrubs and potted plants. • An indoor home garden, in particular, vegetable garden can turn your area into food source. • It is known that plants consume carbon dioxide and release oxygen. Growing plants indoors reduces the level of carbon dioxide from the air and adds further oxygen. This is much helpful for your health. • Indoor gardening also controls the environment of your home. A variety of substances such as carpet glue, paint, and many others contaminate the household air. Indoor plants can

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remove the chemical pollution inside the home and can regulate room temperature and humidity.

Tips for Indoor gardening

1.

Although certain plants do really well indoors, they still have the tendency to reach towards a light source. For instance, if your light source is towards the right side, all your plants would be inclined towards the right side in order to get sunlight. It’s better to rotate your plants occasionally for them to grow straight.

2.

Make sure your plants get enough sunlight. If your plants do not get their daily requirement of sunlight they might appear very thin and frail. If your home doesn’t get ample sunlight, don’t worry. You can buy plants that are appropriate for medium to low light environments. Otherwise you can try placing your plants outside during mornings for a few hours and then move them inside for the rest of the day.

3.

Don’t over-water your plants. Give just enough to dampen the soil. Most plants tend to die of improper watering than due to any other problem. Don’t use cold water. Let it be tepid or use room temperature water. Although different plants have different watering needs but you can follow one rule- too much dryness and too much wetness are both bad for your plant.

4.

Make sure your containers and your soil have proper drainage. Without proper drainage holes, the water in the soil tend to collect in the pot and damage the roots and your plant will almost certainly die.

5.

Bathe your plants occasionally. Often grime and dust tends to settle over the plant leaves and stem that is why it is important to bathe them. You can add a spray attachment to the nozzle of your hose pip and gently shower your plants.

6.

Like ample sunlight, plants require ample fresh air too. The plants tend to suffer a great deal if they are kept in smoky or stagnated air. Keep your doors and windows open and allow your plants to breathe fresh air.

7.

8.

Soil is an integral for a healthy plant. If you are growing your plants in a container, avoid using soil from the garden. It won’t yield good results. Besides, it may also risk insects, weeds and other diseases to your indoor plants. You can buy good container soil from a plant nursery.

9.

Don’t disturb new cuttings (if you wish to transplant them elsewhere) until they are well rooted. And don’t take a plant from a warm room into a cold one, as plants prefer to be in or near sunny areas. Placing plants on a mantelpiece where there is a fire or near a heater should be strictly avoided.

10.

Use stick or fork every few months to gently turn over the soil around plants in pots. This will stop the soil from becoming mouldy. g

Apply a gentle fertilizer at regular intervals because every time we water, some of the soil’s essential nutrients get flushed out of the soil. And remember that less is more in this case. Dilute your fertilizer solution a bit so your delicate indoor garden won’t become “burned” by too much of a good thing.

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12 iconic modern chairs

Tulip Chair Designer - Eero Saarinen This sexy Tulip chair is famous for the curvaceous impression it made back in 1956. Eero Saarinen made history with its pedestal base as the first one legged chair. It is a pure expression of modernism and is as popular today as it ever was.

Corona Chair

The Tulip chair looks delectable as a dining chair with minimal modern furnishings and a table that is subtle enough to let this chair do all the talking.

Designer - Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Created by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the German Pavilion at the 1929 Barcelona Exposition, the Barcelona chair features the pure compositional structure that now epitomizes Modern architecture.

Coconut Chair Designer - George Nelson Another modern classic is the Coconut Chair by George Nelson who began designing furniture for Herman Miller in the 60’s. This iconic design resembles a coconut and is super comfortable to lounge in. The Coconut chair is the perfect focal point for any room and would happily stir up conversation with anyone who feasts their eyes on it.

Corona Chair Designer - Paul Volther The Corona Chair by Paul Volther was produced in 1968 and is simply a striking piece of furniture with its seemingly floating spine. Originally crafted from solid oak, different materials were tested to find that steel was the best way to mass produce it. This chair would suit a clean modern lounge space complimented by basic furniture and ornamental accessories throughout to balance the visual weight of this chair.

Risom Lounge Chair Designer - Jens Risom The Risom Lounge Chair designed by Jens Risom in 1941 is the most casual high end lounge chair of its time! Inspired by Scandinavian design and using woven cotton webbing with wood, this design has become a classic in defining modern casual living. This lounge chair is versatile and will adapt to any personal taste or style. It can be placed in a family room, library, kid’s bedroom or lounge area for a modern contemporary touch of style.

Lounge Chair Designer - Charles and Ray Eames Designed by Charles and Ray Eames, the Eames Lounge Chair is the pinnacle of this mid-century wave of modern chairs. It was constructed in 1956 with a plywood frame and leather cushioning but now comes in the color, leather grade and base style of your choice. This museum piece is typically coupled with the ottoman and would look fantastic on a shaggy area rug in a super sleek living room surrounded by fun vintage accents.

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LC4 Chaise Lounge Designer - Le Corbusier Also known as ‘the resting machine’, the LC4 lounge chair gives you a lot to rest your eyes on. Designed by one of the great pioneers of modern architecture and furniture design, Le Corbusier really nailed the essence of relaxation with this one in 1928. This lounge chair was far beyond its time and still resembles a post modern piece of art, which coincidentally is permanently displayed at the Modern Museum of Art in New York City. Best suited for an ultra modern space, it can be softened up by a contemporary area rug situated in an office or living room next to a tall exotic plant or even a bookcase for a nice composition of color and texture.

Hangchair Designer - Studio Niels & Sven Not for hanging, it is for your jacket! “Assembley of a chair and a cloathinghanger. The new back of the chair gives the product a whole new dimension. Now the chair is perfect for your jacket.To save room you can hang it away.”

Wassily chair Designer - Marcel Breuer The most copied of all Breuer’s chairs. The frame was originally made from bent, nickelled, tubular steel. It later became chrome plated. The seat and the back are made from canvas , fabric or leather.. It was designed for Kandinsky’s quarters at the Dessau Bauhaus. It was at the time quite revolutionary in its use of tubular steel. It was inspired by an Adler bike.

Egg Chair Designer - Arne Jacobsen

Paimio Armchair Designer - Alvar Aalto

The classic Egg Chair designed by Arne Jacobsen (1902-71) was made in 1958 for the interior design of the Radisson Blu Royal Hotel in Germany. It’s steel frame, high curved back and rounded bottom gives it great volume and works well in open modern spaces with high ceilings, like a loft or a library.

The Paimio Armchair was drafted in 1931 and is one of the most established designer articles of Alvar Aaltos, who designed this “Architecture Accessories” as he called his own furniture, for the lung clinic lounges he planned, in Paimio in southwest Finland. The ergonomic and design revolutionary armchair allowed the lung clinic patients an optimal sitting posture, in which they could breathe easily and also enjoy the warming sun. Aalto’s original Model 41 Paimio armchair can be found in numerous museums including the Museum of Modern Art. The frame is laminated birch bent into a closed curve with solid birch cross-rails. The seat is moulded from one piece of birch plywood.

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Platner Chair Designer - Warren Platner In the 1960s, Warren Platner transformed steel wire into a sculptural furniture collection, creating what is now considered a design icon of the modern era. Vertical steel wire rods welded to circular horizontal and edge forming rods. Moulded fibreglass shell and foam cushion in a variety of fabrics with frame in bright nickel finish with clear lacquer protection or painted bronze metallic.

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Nikon (Japan) Total Stations Cheapest Japanese high accuracy surveying instruments in Nepal

Nivo C Series -Survey Pro software on-board - Windows CE touch-screen - High Quality Nikon Optics - Fast, accurate EDM - Prism and reflector-less measurements - Easy-to-use 2nd face keypad - Hot swappable batteries - Compact, rugged and lightweight - Cable-free Bluetooth data transfer - Available in 1”, 2”, 3” and 5” accuracy

A suspended or raised timber floor is constructed as a timber platform of boards nailed to timber bridging joists on half-brick sleeper walls inside the exterior walls. The sleeper walls are either raised directly off the compacted earth, brick soling or over site concrete at a spacing of 2m apart. These walls are normally built up to minimum 125mm above concrete (at least three courses of bricks and wall plate 75mm). The walls are built honeycombed to allow the free circulation of air underneath to prevent the dampness. In this floor construction, the job cost is varied by the floor level in relation to the foundations and site concrete through its effect on the sleeper wall height. On sloping sites, stepping the over site concrete, is more economical in hardcore than concrete at one level that may result in the top of site concrete falling below the ground level.

DTM-322 Series - Legendary Nikon optics - Fast, accurate EDM - Convenient and long-lasting rechargeable AA batteries - Easy-to-use alpha-numeric keyboard - Rugged and lightweight - Cheapest Japanese Made Total Station - Available in 3” and 5” accuracy

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Chair Ergonomics What should you look for in a seat? Is it too soft? A very soft seat, like a very soft mattress, does not give enough support.

What is a good seat? A good seat should be appropriate for the task, uniformly support the body, help to maintain neutral postures, allow for easy movement and provide long-term comfort.

Does the back force the spine into exaggerated forward or backward curves?

In order to make sure you have planned your chair in an ergonomic fashion, stand in front of the chair (with the seat facing you) and adjust the height of the seat so that it is approximately at your knee level. Next, sit in the chair and make sure that the space between the front edge of the seat and the inner part of the knees snugly fits a clenched fist (you can try using a tennis ball, if trying to fit a fist is impractical).

Is it too deep? Seats should not be deeper than the length of the average thigh. Your buttocks should be at the back so that you can get support without having to slump.

Guidelines Seat Height The seat height should allow the user’s feet to be comfortably supported by the floor or a proper footrest. It should range from 15” to 22”.

The angle between the back and the seat should be close to a right angle.

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Source: The Campaign for Better Seating.

Is the seat a level surface without dips and bumps? A seat should not force you into bad posture.

Seat Depth Seat depth should be deep enough so that the region behind the knees (also referred to as the popliteal area) is not hitting the front of the seat. Two ways to prevent popliteal contact are: 1. Fixing the overall depth of the chair 2. Creating a depth adjustment Seat depth should normally range in between 15” to 18”. Adjusting the seat depth on a chair should be a natural motion that does not strain the user. Separating the armrests from the moveable seat can allow the armrests

to be used as leverage for easily changing the seat depth while seated. The controls for seat depth movement should be intuitive and easy to use, and not require excessive bending to reach. For example, a seat adjustment control like those found in automobiles could help achieve this simplicity. Seat Width The seat should be wide enough to accommodate a user’s hips and clothing, and comfortably allow use of the armrests. Normally, it should not be less than 18”.

Armrests Armrests help relieve neck, shoulder, and back stress. Armrests can provide good surface area for the arm to contact so that pressure between an arm and armrest is minimized. The armrests should be adjustable up and down, as well as in and out. This allows for more customization and better control of comfort. Normally the armrest length is kept 10.5” and armrest height could range from 6.9” to 11”. g

Backrest The seat back should conform to the contour of the person’s spine and give support to the back to alleviate stress on back muscles while seated. Generally, it should be high enough to reach the shoulder blades, wide enough to support the waist breadth, and have a lumbar support to maintain the natural lordotic curvature of the lumbar spine. At least 12.2” and normally 24” is considered an appropriate backrest height. Backrest width ranges from 14.2” to 16” and most prominent point for backrest lumber to be 5.9”-9.8” from seat pan. Chair Range of Motion The seat and backrest should allow for varied seated postures. This can be accomplished by allowing a rearward o tilt of the back. A minimum 10 o o rearward tilt (between 90 and 115 ) is preferable. Some chairs also allow the seat to tilt at the same time. This is to ensure the torso-to-thigh angle is not o less than 90 , and that the seat angle o is between 0-4 reward tilt.

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aminate flooring (also called floating wood tile in United States and Canada) is a multi-layer synthetic flooring product fused together with a lamination process. Laminate flooring is a popular option with homeowners because of its low cost and relative ease of installation. It’s an attractive alternative to hardwood floors, and can be installed by many homeowners. We examine a few of the issues with laminate flooring installations so you can make an intelligent decision while using it in your home.

Acclimation: Laminate flooring should be delivered to the job site and acclimated to the environment in which it is to be installed. Most laminate floors need to be acclimated to the installation environment for 48 to 72 hours prior to installation. Failure to acclimate may result in floor failure. The flooring material needs to be acclimated in the area of installation. This means that if the laminate is to be installed in the family room it should be acclimated in that room. When a floor is not acclimated prior to installation, it can be hard to click together chipping or damaging the edges of the laminate. A floor that is not acclimated to its environment is more likely to experience problems such as expansion, tenting, squeaking and buckling after installation. Unlevel Subfloor below Laminate: Most laminate floor manufacturers require a subfloor to be flat within 3/16”

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over a 10 foot radius. Not all laminate manufacturers have the same standard. Play it safe and check the installation instructions for the manufacturer of the floor to be installed. A subfloor that does not meet the laminate manufacturer’s installation requirements must be leveled by sanding or filled with an approved floor patching material. On a floating floor, gaps can easily develop between planks when a subfloor is not level. Door Jambs: Door jambs should always be undercut. Undercutting allows the installer to run the laminate below the door jamb. The failure to leave proper expansion space locks in the floor and can resulting in buckling or tenting of the floor and separation at the floor joints. Expansion Space around Walls and Fixed Objects: During laminate floor installation the proper expansion space must be left around all walls and vertical surfaces. Otherwise the floor may buckle and gap due to the normal expansion and contraction of the laminate floating floor. Expansion space must be left around fixed objects such as pipes, cabinets, fireplace hearths, sliding glass door tracks, floor outlets, floor vents and thresholds. The size of the required expansion space can range from 1/8” to more than 1/4” depending upon the manufacturer and product.

PORCELAIN EXPERIENCE

Interior Vapor Barrier over Concrete Subfloor: If installing over concrete or a concrete floor covered by tiles, you must first lay down a 6-mil plastic sheet vapor barrier. Sheeting should overlap at least 7-8 inches and run wall-to-wall. Secure seams with masking tape. Do not use plastic sheeting over an existing wood floor. Failing to install a proper vapor barrier will likely cause the laminate to expand resulting in problems such as cupping, tenting and gaps. g

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Slip Resistance The slip resistance test (Test Method in accordance with DIN 51130 and AS/NZS 4586-Appendix D) is also popularly known as the Ramp Test which involves an operator wearing standard footwear walking on the test surface placed on an inclinable ramp. The inclination of the ramp is then progressively increased until the operator slips. The angle at which slipping occurs is used to establish a classification ‘R’ value. The R values are expressed with a number from 9 to 13. R9 indicates the lowest slip resistance level and R13 is the maximum. R9 Entrance halls and stairways with direct access from the outside; restaurant and canteens, shop, surgery room, hospitals, schools.

R10 Communal bathrooms and showers, kitchens of small restaurants; garages and basements R11 Food manufacturing premises; medium sized restaurant kitchens; work areas soiled heavily with water and mud, workshops, laundries, hangers. R12 Premises where foods with a high fat content such as dairy products and by-products, oils and cured meats are processed, kitchens of large restaurant, industrial departments where oily or greasy substances are in use; car parks. R13 Areas where there are significant quantities of fats or greases; food processing premises.g Authorised Distributor C Plus Pvt. Ltd. +977-01-4219823 info@cplus.com.np

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Stretto Chic in every way With its elegant and slender boards, just 134 mm wide Stretto adds a touch of chic to your space and gives you a sense of freedom. Indistinguishable from a full parquet floor, Stretto opens up your space and gives you a sense of freedom. A delicate V-groove on all sides of the plank adds an extra touch of authenticity.

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enquiries and submissions +977-01-5535608, 9849716539 editorial@readbusinessarchitecture.com

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Remmers has an extensive selection of detailing solutions, which enable our floors to achieve their maximum load-bearing capacity and hygiene. Another plus point: Remmers flooring systems are waterproof, chemically resistant, jointless and therefore very

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Some examples of where weak points in a flooring system can put hygiene at risk 1. Keep liquids flowing hygienically: Improved detail solutions are required for the gullies and drains

These conditions can allow infiltration Joints are open to attack and Good conditions for bacterial Consequences of infiltration with underneath damaged old coatings. microbiological growth. growth with broken edges. spalling around the drains, which can put hygiene at risk.

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P

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Today I am considered a revolutionary. I shall confess to you that I have had only one teacher: the past; only one education: the study of the past. Everything, for a long time, and still today… It is in the past that I found the lessons of history, of the reasons for being of things. Every event and every object is “in relationship to ….” Le Corbusier. 1930-33.

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business architecture volume 3  

a publication by rich architectures company. www.facebook.com/pages/business-architecture

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