Volume 2 / number 2 ■ November 2012
A membership newsletter of the
Activism, Unity, and the Georgia State Archives Jamil S. Zainaldin
or the past month the Georgia State Archives has been in the throes of a life and death struggle. On September 13, without any warning, Georgia secretary of state Brian P. Kemp announced his plan to close the archives to the public effective November 1, “due to budget cuts.” (The governor had called on all agency heads to make a 3 percent cut in their midyear operating budgets.) Kemp also mandated a staff reduction that would leave only three full-time employees in the building; as recently as 2002, the archives staff numbered fifty-four. In addition to managing the archives, the secretary of state’s office monitors elections, manages Georgia’s professional licensures, and oversees the registration of professionals and businesses. To protect other divisions from harm, however, Kemp placed the entirety of his midyear cut on records management.
In truth, the announceCoalition to Preserve the Support ment was the culmination Georgia Archives. Within the of five years of steady fundfive days of Kemp’s anArchives ing erosion. Kemp’s prenouncement of impendSave ing closure, the coalition decessor in office, Karen The Seven managed to secure approxiHandel, began the practice Come out to support the Georgia Archives and the seven employees who are to be terminated! mately 15,000 signatures in of cutting disproportionNoon Wednesday, Oct. 3 Georgia Capitol rotunda protest of his action. Two ately into the archives’ prominent historians, Timbudget in the name of othy Crimmins of Georgia government efficiency. In State University and James 2010, after three years in C. Cobb of the University office, she resigned her poFlier announcing rally at the Capitol. of Georgia, wrote opinion sition to run for governor, editorials for the Atlanta Journal-Conbut the practice of making deep cuts to the stitution, prompting greater media and archives continued under Kemp. Clearly, public attention inside and outside of the that the archives is under the jurisdiction state. National Public Radio, the New York of the secretary of state’s office was becomTimes, the Chronicle of Higher Education, ing the archives’ greatest liability. and the local press ran more stories, noting In a show of support and coordination, that Georgia was about to become the only Georgia’s archival, library, genealogical, state without an open archives. and academic communities formed the Sponsored by the Coalition to Preserve the Georgia Archives Kaye L. Minchew and Kenneth H. Thomas, Jr. – Co-chairmen
See ARCHIVES on page 2 u
Remembering OAH Past President Eugene D. Genovese Peter Kolchin
ugene D. Genovese, who served as president of the Organization of American Historians (OAH) in 1978–1979, died on September 26 at the age of 82. Educated at Brooklyn College Genovese and Columbia University (PhD, 1959), he was a preeminent historian of slavery for half a century. Brilliant, witty, and pugnacious, he began his career as a Marxist and ended it as a conservative Catholic. Genovese first achieved widespread notoriety in 1965, when he published a pathbreaking set of essays, The Political
Economy of Slavery: Studies in the Economy and Society of the Slave South. That year, he became embroiled in a political controversy after expressing support for a Vietcong victory in Vietnam, for which a candidate for governor of New Jersey tried to have him fired from Rutgers University. Leaving Rutgers, he taught briefly at Sir George Williams University in Montreal, before taking a position at the University of Rochester. Later he moved to Atlanta, where his wife and intellectual soul mate, Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, taught at Emory University and he was associated with a consortium of Georgia institutions. Although never formally blacklisted, he did not receive the kind of academic appointment that ordinarily would have
gone to a scholar of his distinction, and during the last two decades of his life, he appeared increasingly marginalized—and self-marginalized—within the historical profession. Deriding mainstream historical organizations (including the OAH) as too politically correct, he helped found The Historical Society as an alternative. Although the target of political attack throughout his career, Genovese always insisted on distinguishing between ideological and historical judgments, acknowledging during his radical phase the important contributions of conservative historians and criticizing fellow conservatives in his later years See GENOVESE on page 6 u
ARCHIVES, from page 1
vol. 2 / no. 2 ■ NOVEMBER 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS Activism, Unity, and the Georgia State Archives Jamil S. Z ainaldin
Remembering OAH Past President Eugene D. Genovese Peter kolchin
From the OAH Executive Director
Career Opportunities in History k atherine M. Finle y
Leaving a Legacy
From the Archivist of the United States
NARA Assumes Expanded Role in Federal Records Management David S. Ferriero
2014 OAH Annual Meeting Call for Proposals
From the OAH President
On Collaborations Al camarillo
A Call to Identify Best Employment Practices for Non-Tenure Track Faculty
OAH Lectures by Topic
OAH Outlook (ISSN 2162-5050 [print], ISSN 2162-5069 [online]) is published each February, May, August, and November by the Organization of American Historians, 112 North Bryan Avenue, Bloomington, IN 47408-4199. Telephone (812) 855-7311; Fax (812) 855-0696; E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org; http://www.oah.org/. The OAH reserves the right to reject articles, announcements, letters, advertisements, and other items that are not consonant with the goals and purposes of the organization. Copyright © 2012, Organization of American Historians. All rights reserved.
2 • November 2012 • OAH Outlook
Coincidentally, prior to Kemp’s announcement, Gov. Nathan Deal designated October as Georgia Archives Month and already had scheduled his public signing of the resolution for September 19. Coalition members used the occasion to personally deliver their signed petition to the governor. To their surprise, Deal said he would keep the archives open, but he offered few details about how and when this rescinding, if that is what it was, would take effect. With the November 1 closing date fast approaching and with much still up in the air, protests continued into the first week of October with a rally in the capitol just outside the secretary of state’s office. Letters from Georgia residents and from around the country continued arriving in the governor’s office daily. The OAH, and other members of the National Coaltion for History, sent letters to the Georgia governor as well. (See http://www.oah.org/news/20120919_gsa.html) Surprised by the volume of complaints and widespread negative media coverage, on October 15 Secretary Kemp announced he, too, was now in favor of keeping the archives open and accessible through the end of the fiscal year, July 1, 2013. However, he did not rescind the personnel cuts. In the meantime, public use of the archives was to be limited to advance appointments and only on Saturdays, with a cap of 228 persons served per month until the Georgia General Assembly acted. Then, on October 18, in response to the outcry, the governor and the secretary of state issued a joint announcement: $125,000 would be provided to retain two more archivists and, pending the approval of the General Assembly, the archives would be transferred out of the secretary of state’s office and into the University of Georgia system. “The Georgia’s Archives are a showcase of our state’s rich history and a source of great pride,” said the governor, and he added that he was seeking to “find a solution.” His statements are being received positively by archives supporters who view higher education’s mission, capacity, and expertise as great advantages in preserving the archives. In the meantime, unresolved budgetary questions remain, and any final determination must await the General Assembly’s action, still months away. What will happen to the archives’ professional staff in the interim? Five people will be able to keep the archives open on its current restricted schedule, but those with technical document preservation and curation expertise will be terminated. The Friends of Georgia Archives and History (http://www.fogah.org/), on behalf of the Coalition to Preserve the Georgia Archives, has retained a lobbyist to sort out these details and to prepare for the legislative session that commences in January 2013. There are still open questions, but a great deal has transpired since the announcement of the closing just six weeks ago, some of it very positive. What are we learning? First, state archives and cultural institutions everywhere are at risk in the current budget-cutting climate. Second, unity is important. A rapid response from a broad cross section of state and national constituents not only reversed a disastrous decision but could also help lay the groundwork for a long-term solution to the state’s archival problems. Only time will tell. Third, e-mail listservs, blogs, and the Internet are invaluable. The secretary of state was not prepared for the breadth and depth of support for the archives, and he probably did not grasp the symbolic significance of cutting off—or nearly cutting off—the people’s access to the records of their government. Members of the Tea Party movement in Georgia were just as upset as genealogists, attorneys, academics, and librarians. Former congressman Bob Barr, a member of the Liberty party who spoke at the rally organized by the coalition, condemned the secretary of state’s decision to close the archives. Fourth, in matters such as the archives closure, it is important for professional historians and archivists to be seen and heard. They bring a gravitas to the conversation that media respects, as well as an expertise that the public trusts. James Cobb shared the stage with Bob Barr at the capitol rally. Finally, we live in an era of difficult choices. Though moving at last in the right direction, with a more satisfactory home for the archives in the offing, we are still some distance from a final settlement. Lawmakers not only recognize when there is broad public support for a decision but they also pay close attention when a large citizen coalition decries a decision they see as having a negative impact on the state. Lawmakers need and want informed opinion from those most impacted by change. In an election year, they also recognize a voter when they see one. ■ Jamil S. Zainaldin is president of the Georgia Humanities Council and is secretary of the Friends of Georgia Archives and History.
Leaving a Legacy From the OAH Executive Director Katherine M. Finley
Career Opportunities in History
n the 1960s and earlier, the natural career path for someone with a history PhD was to start out as an assistant professor of history at a college or university and then work up to the position of professor. According to the American Historical Association’s (AHA) History as a Career (1964), “Instructors in the universities spend, on average, five years in the rank technically known as ‘instructorship,’ five more years as an ‘assistant professor’ and six years an ‘associate professor’ before reaching full rank as ‘professor’ at an average age of forty-three.” Although this AHA career booklet went on to say that “it is generally agreed that college professors are not paid salaries as high as their professional training entitles them to expect,” it also notes that university professors are rewarded with tenure-track positions, earn pay for doing what they love, and receive royalties from books, consulting projects, and lectures. How times have changed! Obtaining a tenure-track position in history has never been easy, and today the market is tighter than ever before. In fact, a recent study by the Coalition on the Academic Workforce has shown that universities and colleges are relying on teaching from adjunct instructors and part-time faculty at a higher rate than ever before. In the past, a position as an adjunct or part-time faculty might have been a good way to obtain necessary professional experience and eventually move into a tenuretrack position, but that scenario is no longer the case, especially given the decrease in the number of tenure-track positions. Even so, a history degree remains valuable, and may open doors that normally would be closed to those with only a bachelor’s or master’s degree. Moreover, there are good history jobs available, but many of them are not in the academy. Many OAH members work in the federal government, museums, archives, libraries, policy centers, high schools, and nonprofit organizations. The OAH is very concerned about the job market for American historians, and we are making a concerted effort to help our younger members belong to and receive value from the organization. (See OAH President Al Camarillo’s article, “The OAH and the Big Tent,” in the August 2012 issue of OAH Outlook.) We are pleased to announce the availability of the Versatile PhD (VPhD) Web site (http://VersatilePhD.com) as a benefit to OAH members. The mission of the Versatile PhD is “to help humanities and social science graduate students, ABDs and PhDs identify, prepare for and excel in nonacademic careers.” The “premium content” on this site is now available to you as part of your membership. We have joined the American Historical Association in partnering with VPhD to allow OAH members to access material on this site, which includes hiring success stories, career autobiographies, as well as archived panel discussions. We will soon supplement our own Web site to include interviews with individuals who have used their doctoral degree in history to find rewarding jobs in the field, statistics about job opportunities in various fields, links to career-related articles and resources, and tips on interviewing and searching for a job outside academia. Additionally, we plan to expand the OAH Career Center (http://careers.oah.org/) to include professional opportunities in museums, libraries, universities, and nonprofit organizations. The OAH realizes times have changed, and we want to ensure that those with degrees in history are finding good jobs in the field. Please contact me to let me know of your success stories and how you are facing the unique challenges of the profession in today’s job market. ■
When most people think about a planned gift, they think about placing a bequest to an organization in their will. A bequest is the most common form of planned giving. Bequests in wills, along with life insurance policies, and individual retirement account (IRA) designations, are known as expectancies (a promise to make a gift to an organization at some future date). This type of gift is advantageous for donors, is easy to establish, and does not involve an immediate outlay of funds. For heirs, this type of gift may also reduce the amount owed through estate or inheritance taxes. However, such a gift can be revoked prior to the donor’s death and the assets named in these expectancies can be used to provide long-term health care for the donor. Below are descriptions of the three major types of expectancies. Life Insurance. A donor may assign the ownership of or beneficiary to a paid-up insurance policy, or an insurance policy on which premiums remain to be paid, to the OAH. Or the donor may name the organization as the primary or successor beneficiary (but not the owner) of the policy. By specifying the OAH as a beneficiary of an insurance policy, the donor is not giving up a sizeable amount of cash during his or her lifetime. If the organization is named as both the owner and a beneficiary of a life insurance policy, the donor may take an income tax deduction equal to the surrender value of the policy as well as on any future premiums paid. Retirement Plans and Individual Retirement Accounts. The OAH may be named as the beneficiary of a retirement plan or IRA. Naming the organization as a beneficiary is simple. The donor merely needs to request and complete a beneficiary designation form from the retirement plan administrator. The OAH may be named as the full or partial beneficiary of the retirement plan’s assets upon the owner’s death. Bequests. A bequest is a statement in the donor’s will designating the OAH as a recipient of a specific asset, a specific dollar amount, or a percentage of the donor’s estate. There are a number of other planned giving instruments available to individuals. In future issues we will examine deferred gifts (annuities and trusts) and outright gifts of stock, real estate, and tangible personal property. Planned gifts are an integral part of any estate planning. These gifts are an important way you can make a difference for future historians and ensure that the OAH serves its members and the profession for years to come. Please contact Katherine Finley, OAH Executive Director, to learn more. ■
November 2012 • OAH Outlook • 3
From the Archivist of the United States David S. Ferriero
NARA Assumes Expanded Role in Federal Records Management
he National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is about to experience a sea change in the way it oversees the management and preservation of government records. This change is a result of a directive from me and the acting head of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). This is our response to the president’s mandate to reform records management for the twenty-first century as delivered in his Memorandum on Records Management. In it, the president outlines his goal to require departments and agencies to manage all of their permanently valuable records in electronic form by the end of the decade to ensure transparency, efficiency, and accountability in government. This comprehensive directive is important as it places NARA among the first national archival institutions in the world to establish that from a date certain, we will require that agencies transfer newly created permanent records to
us in digital form only. Complying with the directive will result in a major overhaul of the way the federal government manages and preserves the records being created today and for years to come. For federal agencies and departments, the directive also sends a strong message about the importance of electronic records. It requires each agency to designate a highranking official to oversee its records management programs and to ensure that all appropriate staff receive records management training. And it creates a modern and robust records management framework that will allow reform while complying with existing laws and regulations. We make clear that all agencies must manage their records, including e-mails, in electronic format by the end of the decade. But we’ll still be taking in traditional, paper records. Regardless of their format, all records, traditional and electronic, are important to our democracy.
“Records are the foundation of open government, supporting the principles of transparency, participation, and collaboration,” Acting OMB Director Jeffrey D. Zients and I say in the directive. “Well-managed records can be used to assess the impact of programs, to improve business processes, and to share knowledge across the government.” The deadlines for complying with various parts of the directive are spread over the coming years. Overall, the directive lists a dozen actions to be taken by NARA and other agencies to assist federal departments and agencies in meeting the new requirements. Among the highlights of the directive are: • Federal agencies must manage all permanent electronic records in an electronic format by December 31, 2019, and must have plans to do so by December 31, 2013. See NARA on next page u
2014 OAH Annual Meeting A Call for Proposals Atlanta, Georgia, April 10 –13
he theme for the 2014 OAH Annual Meeting will be “Crossing Borders.” The history of the United States is a product of migrations—internal and international. Along with people, goods and ideas crossed these borders, reshaping the composition and character of the American people. Sometimes the borders and boundaries were physical, as when international migrants crossed oceans and continents, or when large numbers of individuals migrated from one region of the country to another, or when the lure of wealth and influence led to foreign invasions and conquests. Those on the move were accompanied by bacteria or viruses, microorganisms whose migration across borders also shaped human experience. Borders were also framed by culture—ra-
4 • November 2012 • OAH Outlook
cial, ethnic, class, and gender differences that perennially redefined our population and social order. The theme seeks to examine, in all its complexity, a broad array of border Centennial Olympic Park, Atlanta. (Creative Commons photo, Kay Gaensler) crossings and “encounters” in U.S. history. encourages proposals from all practitioners The 2014 OAH Program Committee of American history. Submissions will be seeks a broad, wide-ranging program that accepted beginning January 1, 2013. treats the rich expanse of the American The deadline for proposals is experience, from the pre-Columbian Friday, February 15, 2013. To read era to the twenty-first century, and the the complete call for proposals, thematic breadth that defines the work of visit http://annualmeeting.oah.org/. ■ contemporary historians. The committee
From the OAH President Al Camarillo NARA, from page 4
• All agencies must manage both permanent and temporary e-mail records in an accessible electronic format by December 31, 2016.
• NARA will issue updated guidance on managing, disposing of, and transferring e-mail by December 31, 2013. • By December 31, 2014, all agencies must have records management training in place for appropriate staff. • By November 2012, each agency must designate a senior agency official to oversee its records management program. The Archivist will convene the first-ever meeting of senior agency officials before the end of 2012. Among the most important directives will be our work with the Office of Personnel Management to establish a formal records management occupational series to elevate records management roles, responsibilities, and skill sets for agency records officers and other records professionals. For further information and discussion about this directive, please follow Records Express, the blog of NARA’s Office of the Chief Records Officer at http:// blogs.archives.gov/records-express/. As the president said in his charge to us to reform recordkeeping: “When records are well managed, agencies can use them to assess the impact of programs, to reduce redundant efforts, to save money, and to share knowledge within and across their organizations. In these ways, proper records management is the backbone of open government.” Preserving and making accessible the records of our government is the heart of our mission at the National Archives. We look forward to working with agencies throughout the government and with the OAH and our other stakeholders to implement these goals in the years to come. ■
e were reminded recently how important it is for organizations that support history and historical research to band together. The announcement by the Georgia secretary of state in September that as of November 1, 2012, the state archives would close due to budget cuts mandated by the governor was met promptly by a letter to Governor Nathan Deal from the National Coalition for History (nch) urging him to keep the archives open. The letter was endorsed by nineteen associations and other groups that promote history and historical studies; the Organization of American Historians was prominent among them. Whether the advocacy of the nch and its partner organizations will be enough to keep the doors of the Georgia State Archives open remains to be seen, but the lesson of collaboration is an important one. Over the past four years the domino effect of the “great recession” has spread far and wide across all sectors of American society. We are reminded almost daily how the economic downturn has caused untold misery for millions of unemployed workers, homeowners, and families living on the margins. Governmental agencies and public institutions—including our local and state universities and community colleges—as well as nonprofit organizations have also felt the pain of shrinking budgets. Scholarly and professional associations join the long list of nonprofits whose membership numbers dipped and budgets tightened. During lean times, when public institutions such as libraries, state parks, and archives are at risk of closure or facing drastically reduced public access, associations such as the OAH must redouble efforts to collaborate with partners not only defensively and reactively but also to build stronger bonds that lead to more cooperation. The OAH is taking steps in this direction to facilitate more collaborative relationships with partners old and new. For example, the annual meeting of the OAH in Milwaukee last April was cosponsored with the National Council for Public History. This successful collaboration is the seventh time the two organizations have held joint meetings together. More recently, the OAH has renewed and strengthened ties to organizations that serve particular subgroups of our membership. To attract more high school teachers to our annual conference and to build on a long-standing partnership with the Gilder Lehrman Institute (GLI), I will sponsor—with generous support from Stanford University—a breakfast meeting for GLI seminar alumni and provide free conference registration for those teachers who wish to attend sessions at the forthcoming conference in San Francisco. (Be sure to mark your calendars for April 11–14, 2013.) Part of the initiative to reach more teachers, and the public at large, also entails reinforcing our strong relationship with the History Channel. In a continuing effort to welcome public historians and to invite local colleagues in public history arenas to our conferences, I will also sponsor—in collaboration with the California Historical Society (chs) and the OAH Committee on Public History—a special reception for public historians and other conference attendees who wish to visit the chs exhibit galleries. Part of my goal this year as OAH president is to facilitate more ties to partners and establish new relationships with organizations and associations of common purpose. The efforts of the OAH to construct a “big tent” involve not only bringing more individuals into the membership of the organization but also reaching out to groups to form partnerships on many levels. ■
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A Call to Identify Best Employment Practices for Non–Tenure Track Faculty Does your history department or program exemplify good practices in the employment of contingent, part-time, and temporary full-time history instructors? In March 2011, the OAH Executive Board adopted a revised set of standards or “good practices” to encourage equitable and fair employment of part-time and fulltime contingent faculty. Those standards and practices include: • E quitable employment conditions, reasonable pay, access to benefits, clear evaluation procedures, and professional development opportunities; • P articipation in departmental and campus governance in appropriate ways where possible; • R ecognition of contingent faculty’s contributions, responsibilities, and rights, including academic freedom; • C ompensation for administrative work beyond teaching duties; and • A ccurate record keeping of courses taught by contingent faculty. The Committee on Part-Time, Adjunct, and Contingent Employment (CPACE) is looking for examples from history programs that put any or all of the OAH standards to good use. Part-time adjunct and contingent full-time instructors constitute an important part of modern college and university history programs. We can support adjuncts’ and contingent instructors’ contributions to our craft by following the OAH Standards. The CPACE invites OAH members to recommend to the committee techniques and procedures utilized by their departments or programs in employing contingent faculty that we may share with OAH members as models of good practice. To submit such recommendations, contact the committee at email@example.com. To see the full version of the OAH standards, please visit: http://www.oah.org/news/20110331OAH_ PACE_Standards_03-17-11.pdf ■
GENOVESE, from page 1
for insufficiently appreciating Marx’s contribution to history. In 1969, at the annual convention of the American Historical Association (AHA), he vigorously opposed a resolution putting the AHA on record against the Vietnam War because he did not want the AHA to stigmatize members with unpopular views. Throughout his life, Genovese combined the traits of a scrappy intellectual pugilist who was expelled from the Communist party at age twenty for ideological impurity (as he put it, he “zigged” when he should have “zagged”) with a courteous insistence on taking seriously the arguments of those with whom he disagreed. As a historian of southern slavery, Genovese was unusual in helping shape virtually Genovese received Columbia University's Bancrof t every subfield of the discipline, from slave life Prize in history for his book, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The and culture to slave owner ideology and comWorld the Slaves Made (1974). parative approaches to slavery. In his 1974 magnum opus, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made, Genovese joined other “revisionist” scholars in emphasizing slaves’ “agency,” the extent to which they helped make their own world rather than serving primarily as objects of white treatment. At the same time, however, he placed that agency within the broader context of slave owner paternalism, a complicated and contested concept that involved not a benign slavery but a slavery in which masters treated their slaves as perpetual children. In The World the Slaveholders Made: Two Essays in Interpretation (1969) and From Rebellion to Revolution: Afro-American Slave Revolts in the Making of the Modern World (1979), Genovese developed these themes in broadened context, pioneering in the emerging comparative approach to slavery. Beginning in 1983, most of Genovese’s works were written in collaboration with Elizabeth Fox-Genovese. In Fruits of Merchant Capital: Slavery and Bourgeois Property in the Rise and Expansion of Capitalism (1983) they explored slavery systemically, depicting the antebellum South as “a noncapitalist society increasingly antagonistic to, but inseparable from, the bourgeois world that sired it.” This volume also contained their slashing attack on the “new” social history as a field “steadily sinking into a neoantiquarian swamp presided over by liberal ideologues.” Subsequently, Genovese and Fox-Genovese focused increasingly on southern planters. Even as they displayed admiration for planter culture (which at times they conflated with southern culture), they continued after their mid-1990s turn to conservatism to elaborate on arguments they had developed as Marxists, insisting on the importance of class analysis. In Slavery in White and Black: Class and Race in the Southern Slaveholders’ New World Order (2008) they emphasized the “abstract” (nonracial) argument that antebellum polemicists put forth in defense of slavery, an argument they continued to find appealing for its attack on the selfish individualism promoted by northern capitalism. In Fatal Self-Deception: Slaveholding Paternalism in the Old South (2011), completed after Fox-Genovese’s death in 2007, they returned to paternalism, rebutting the notion that slaveholders felt guilty for owning slaves and stressing instead the “self-deception” of people who “said what they meant and meant what they said.” Certainly, Eugene D. Genovese said what he meant and meant what he said. A man of strong passions who aroused correspondingly strong reactions, he did more to shape our understanding of slavery over a longer period than any other single individual. He was a giant among historians. ■ Peter Kolchin is the Henry Clay Reed Professor of History at the University of Delaware.
6 • November 2012 • OAH Outlook
World War II
OAH Lectures by Topic African American, Women's, and Civil War History Lead the Way
World War I Political African American
Capitalism and Consumerism
frican American history topics were the most popular for the OAH Distinguished Lectureship Program during 2011–2012, accounting for nearly a quarter of all lectures given. Women’s history and Civil War history topics were also in demand, with each category representing approximately 20 percent of all lectures given. Note: More than one lecture each in the topics of Latino/a, Cold War, early national, immigration, Native American, and labor history were also given during the past fiscal year, but are not represented in this chart. Visit http://lectures.oah.org to learn more and to schedule an OAH Lecturer today. ■
Methodology and Teaching
Revolutionary, Colonial Era Women's History Constitutional
Research Grants Available! 2013 Larry J. Hackman Research Residency Program
Research Grants Available! at the New York State Archives Albany, New York
January 15, 2013 The New York State Archives and the Archives Partnership Trust announce the availability of awards to qualified applicants to pursue research using historical records at the New York State Archives. Awards generally range from $100-$4,500 for advanced research in New York history, government, or public policy. Applicants working on doctoral dissertations and those at the postdoctoral level are particularly encouraged to apply. Additionally, applications are available for teachers and public historians interested in advanced research.
www.nysarchivestrust.org for application and requirements.
November 2012 • OAH Outlook • 7
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