Issuu on Google+

Standards, Quality, Food Safety Issues and Good Agricultural Practice By Thomas Edmund Food Safety/Agri-Business Consultant

Castries, 8th October, 2009


` ` ` ` `

`

Introduction Food Handling in the Supply Chain Food Standards and Quality Food Control Food Safety and Hygiene in the Fresh Produce Trade Good Agricultural Practice


FOOD PROCESSING FOOD PRODUCTION

LAUNDRY PEST CONTROL MAINTENANCE

FOOD PACKAGING

THE FOOD INDUSTRY

STORAGE WAREHOUSING DISTRIBUTION

SELLING FOOD TO THE PUBLIC


Supply Chain `

`

`

`

Food produced for trade requires that such food meets certain quality and safety requirements One must be able to trace back the food from the place of production – through the supply chain Supply chain- the entire set of inputs, production, distribution, marketing and final delivery of a product to consumers Is also called agro-chain, product chain, value chain, commodity chain, agri-food system, etc.


Environmental interactions

Food Supply Chain

Consumption

Social acceptance & preferences

Trade & Distribution Processing

Financial, economic and legal conditions

Agricultural production systems Input & technology supplies

Operational capacities & technologies


`

`

` `

Supply chain management – is any form of cooperation between stakeholders in the supply chain In agriculture, some supply chains are loose and unstable over time while others are stable and well managed Unstable: Farmers selling produce to hotels Stable: Export of bananas to the UK.


`

`

Supply chain management is important in the provision of safe food. The responsibility for the supply of safe food is shared along the entire food supply chain by all stakeholders; ¾Input supply ¾Production ¾Harvesting ¾Processing ¾Trade


`

Roles and Responsibilities ƒ Public sector- development of official standards, provision of incentives, research, extension, regulations, and enforcement, information etc. ƒ Private sector – responsibility for investment, management and cost to ensure food production, post-harvest treatment, processing, distribution based on food safety standards, etc.


`

Drivers for Supply Chain Management ƒ Variations in quality and quantity ƒ Increasing consumer attention to safety and protection of the environment ƒ Shelf life constraints ƒ Variation in the speed/rate of production


`

Why should I be Part of the Value Chain? ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Better positioning in the market International trade demands Ability to deliver safe and quality foods Improved efficiency


Information flow

Producer

Processor

Wholesaler

Goods flow

Retailer

Consumer


`

Key Elements in Maintaining the Chain

ƒ Criteria- efficiency, effectiveness, trust, openness ƒ Safeguarding food quality and safety 9Food safety systems 9Traceability 9Certification 9Branding

ƒ Transparency ƒ Social accountability ƒ Co-operation and integrity


Components of a Supply Chain `

Production and Harvesting Operations

`

Postharvest Unit Operations

`

Processing Unit Operations

`

Distribution Unit Operations

`

End User Handling (Retail, Foodservice and Consumer) Unit Operations


`

Banana Supply Chain

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Growing Packing Transporting and Receiving Loading at port Unloading at port Ripening Distribution


Banana Supply Chain Grower Packer

Stock Keeping Unit/Field Box/Pallet

Transport by Truck Loading at Port Ship

Pallet/Container Deck/Slot Pallet/Container

Unloading at Port Ripener Retail (Distribution chain)

Box/Pallet Box/Pallet


Need for National Food Control Systems `

`

`

Increasing burden of foodborne illness and new and emerging foodborne hazards Rapidly changing technologies in food production, processing and marketing Greater focus on consumer protection with science-based risk assessments


Need for National Food Control Systems `

`

`

International food trade and need for harmonization of food safety and quality standards Food trade is disrupted by frequent disputes over food safety and quality requirements

Meet obligations of international trade agreements such as WTO


Need for National Food Control Systems `

`

`

Changes in lifestyles, including rapid urbanization Unprecedented consumer interest in the way food is produced, processed and marketed Increasing consumer demand for better information of food safety and quality issues


Food Quality ` ` `

`

Food quality is most typically associated with use characteristics All intrinsic attributes that influences a product’s value to the consumer May be positive attributes associated with origin, nutritive, organoleptic(colour, flavour, texture), processing method of the food or other properties of values to users Also includes negative attributes such as spoilage, contamination with filth, discoloration, off-odours


Food Safety `

` ` ` `

All those hazards, whether chronic or acute, that may make food injurious to the health of the consumer The absence of any risk of harm from food Involves the practical process of ensuring that food is fit to eat-assurance of safety Food safety is the most important quality factor Is not negotiable


`

Food control defined “a mandatory regulatory activity of enforcement by national or local authorities to provide consumer protection and ensure that all foods during production, handling, storage, processing, and distribution are safe, wholesome and fit for human consumption; conform to safety and quality requirements; and are honestly and accurately labelled as prescribed by law�.


Critical Food safety Issues `

`

Many problems with food safety have increased public anxiety that modern farming systems, food processing and marketing do not provide adequate safeguards for public health What are the food hazards of concern ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Microbiological hazards Pesticide residues Misuse of food additives Chemical contaminants, including biological toxins


`

What are the food hazards of concern ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Adulteration Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) Allergens Veterinary drug residues Growth promoting hormones


`

`

Consumers must be protected from food hazards along the entire food chain; the farm-to-table continuum What is required

◦ An integrated approach ◦ Control systems must address all stages in the food chain ◦ Preventive and educational strategies ¾ Effective enforcement of legal requirements ¾ Training and education ¾ Community outreach programmes ¾ Promotion of voluntary compliance ¾ Preventive strategies such as HACCP implementation


Global Considerations `

International trade

◦ International trade in fresh and processed foods will continue to increase ◦ Access to export markets will depend on capacity to meet requirements of importing countries ◦ Need to build trust and confidence of importers and consumers in integrity of our food systems


SPS and TBT Agreements ` `

SPS-Sanitary and Phytosanitary TBT- Technical Barriers to Trade â—Ś Came into being after the establishment of the WTO â—Ś Agreements are important for requirements for food protection at the national level, and rules under which food is traded internationally


`

SPS Agreement ◦ Confirms the right of WTO member countries to apply measures to protect human, animal and plant life and health ◦ Covers ¾ laws ¾ regulations ¾ decrees ¾ testing ¾ inspection ¾ certification and approval procedures ¾ packaging ¾ labelling requirements


`

SPS Agreement ◦ Apply only those measures for protection based on scientific principles and only to the extent necessary ◦ Not in a disguised manner to restrict international trade ◦ Use of international standards/guidelines- Codex standards (not product standards) used as a benchmark ◦ Need to harmonize national food standards with Codex standards


`

TBT Agreement â—Ś Requires that technical regulations on traditional quality factors, fraudulent practices, packaging, labelling etc imposed by countries will not be more restrictive on imported products than they are on products produced domestically. â—Ś Also encourages use of international standards


`

What is a standard “A standard is a document which sets out rules that control how people develop and manage materials, products, services, technologies, processes and systems”. “Document, established by consensus and approved by a recognised body, that provides for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context”. “An acknowledged measure of comparison for quantitative or qualitative value; a criterion”.


`

`

What is food “Food means any substance, whether processed, semi-processed or raw, which is intended for human consumption, and includes drinks, chewing gum and any substance which has been used in the manufacture, preparation or treatment of ‘food’ but does not include cosmetics or tobacco or substances used only as drugs.” What are food standards “Food standards concern themselves with the quality, identity, composition, safety, labelling, advertising, presentation or other aspects of the food and its preparation”


`

Available standards ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

`

International Regional National Industry Company

Other forms of standards

◦ Technical specification-document that prescribes technical requirements to be fulfilled by a product, process or service (may be a standard, part of a standard or independent)


`

Other forms of standards 笳ヲ Code of Practice 窶電ocument that recommends practices or procedures for the design, manufacture, installation, maintenance or utilisation of equipment, structure or products x

e.g. Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs)

笳ヲ Regulation-Document providing binding legislative rules, that is adopted by authority

ツセ Technical regulation-regulation that provides technical requirements, either directly or by referring to or incorporating the content of a standard, technical specification or code of practice


Types of Food standards `

Standard of identity â—Ś Standards of identity define what a given food product is, its name, and the ingredients that must be used, or may be used in the manufacture of the food. â—Ś Food standards ensure that consumers get what they expect when they purchase certain food products. â—Ś These food standards prescribe minimum amounts of certain ingredients, such as meat or poultry or milk fat; maximum fat and water contents; methods of processing, cooking and preparation; permit optional safe and suitable ingredients, and/or identify expected or characterizing ingredients.


`

Standards of Identity â—Ś These standards ensure that the basic nature of foods is maintained to meet consumers' expectations no matter where they buy the product. â—Ś Without standards of identity, different foods could be sold under the same name and different names could describe the same food.


`

Standards of quality ◦ Quality standards set quality minimums that must be met or exceeded ◦ Establish specifications for quality requirements ◦ Set minimum specifications for such factors as tenderness, color, and freedom from defects for canned fruits and vegetables. ◦ Such characteristics would not be readily apparent to the purchaser of these foods because of the nature of the foods and the manner in which they are presented to the consumer (inside a can).


`

Fill-of-container standards â—Ś Define how full the container must be and how this is measured â—Ś These requirements are particularly important when foods are packed in liquids and sealed in opaque containers.

Other food standards ` ` `

Labelling Presentation Advertising


`

Why is hygiene necessary

x We need!!!!!!!!!! x We have to!!!!!! Food Safety Food Quality


Is demanded by: ` ` ` ` `

Laws Prescriptions Consumers Product Liability Food safety


What is all the Fuss About!!!!!! ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` `

Food poisoning and injury Complaints Legal action and fines Brand damage and bad press Recalls and associated cost Loss of business and lower profits Pest infestations Poor working conditions No job security and possible closure of the business


Cause of Food Borne Illness ` ` ` ` ` ` ` `

Preparation too far in advance (raw food) Not storing at the correct temperature (raw food) Cooling too slowly Using contaminated raw products (raw food) Under processing Cross contamination (raw food) Infected food handlers (raw food) Using incorrect products and mislabelling (raw food)


`

Factors influencing food hygiene

Raw material

air condensate

Final product


`

What does hygiene mean ◦ Bad food quality!!!!!!!!!

Incorrect cleaning procedures

Incorrect production process

Incorrect “cool chain”


`

What does hygiene mean ¾Hygiene deals with preserving health ¾A hygienic operation presents no risk of illness from the operation carried on therein ¾Food hygiene is much more than cleanliness; it involves

¾“all measures necessary to ensure the safety and wholesomeness of food during production, preparation, processing, manufacturing, packaging, storage, distribution, handling and offering for sale or supply to the consumer


`

What does hygiene mean 他 Protecting food from risk of contamination; cleaning, disinfection, personal hygiene, training 他 Preventing any organisms from multiply to pose a risk to consumers or allow premature spoilage of food 他 Destroying any harmful bacteria in the food through thorough cooking, processing and other means 他 Removing contaminated food


`

Your part in food safety ¾Protecting food from things which could lead to contamination ¾Good personal hygiene and habits ¾Reporting illness ¾Following company (or farm) food safety procedures ¾Reporting problems


Food Hazards `

Biological hazards ◦ Microorganisms

3Bacteria 3moulds and yeasts 3viruses 3protozoa

◦ Parasites ◦ pests `

Chemical hazards

◦ naturally occurring ◦ intentionally added ◦ unintentionally added


Food Hazards `

Physical Hazards ◦ Foreign materials ◦ Bones

`

Allergens ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Peanuts Tree nuts Milk Egg Fish Shell fish


How contamination occurs

P e s ts

F o o d h a n d l e rs

W a ste P re m is e s

R a w F oo d


`

Micro-organisms in Food 1/1000 mm

1/100 mm


`

Micro-organisms in food

◦ Useful: Fermentation: Lactic acid bacteria, yeast ◦ Spoilage (quality/shelf life) x Bacteria, yeast, moulds

◦ Pathogenic (safety/hazards) x x x x

Bacteria Viruses Parasites Toxins (poisons)


` `

Micro-organisms in Food

When food is spoiled, the characteristics of the food are changed in such a way that it is no longer acceptable for consumption (not necessarily dangerous)


Micro-organisms in Food `

One cannot tell the difference between food contaminated by pathogenic bacteria and safe food


Micro-organisms in Food ` Bacteria are living organisms ` In ideal conditions they will grow and multiply ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

`

Food Temperature (warmth) Time Moisture (water) Oxygen Non-acid environment/food

Bacteria multiply by splitting into two – binary fission


Bacteria multiply every 10 minutes in ideal conditions 0 mins 10 mins 20 mins 30 mins 40 mins 50 mins 60 mins


` `

` ` ` ` `

Growth of pathogenic bacteria on food is a serious hazard Pathogenic bacteria contaminate the food and cause disease 1 2 3 4 5

hour hours hours hours hours

64 4,096 262,144 16,772,216 1,073,741,824


`

What are GAPs 他GAPs are sanitary procedures used during crop production, harvesting, packing and distribution to prevent or minimize produce contamination with pathogens


`

What are the enemies? â—Ś Plant pathogens â—Ś Human and animal pathogens


`

GAPs guidelines and areas of concern ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Water quality Fertilizer use Worker health and hygiene Field and facility sanitation Transportation/distribution issues Traceback and recall


`

Fertilizer use ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Chemical contamination Environmental pollution Use of organic manure/Introduction of pathogens Worker health and safety


`

Worker health and hygiene ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Personal hygiene Hand washing Worker illness Sanitary facilities for workers


`

Field and facility sanitation ` ` ` ` `

Clean equipment and containers/packaging Field sanitation Packhouse sanitation Waste management Pest control


`

Water quality â—Ś Potable water versus raw water x x x x x

Irrigation Washing Icing Cooling Water for staff facilities/use


`

What can growers and packers do? ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Learn about the risks Find about the enemies Develop a food safety plan Keep records


`

Transportation/distribution issues ` ` ` ` ` `

Sanitary vehicles and containers Cold chain Handling Time Operational procedures Customer issues


`

Traceback and recall ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

The need for traceback and recall Procedures Product identification Identification of possible route of contamination Records and “due diligence”


`

On-Farm Food Safety Plan ◦ Designate Farm sanitarian-develop, implement, monitor, record ◦ Identify GAPs/GMPs specific to agricultural environment ◦ Prepare SOPs for production, harvesting and field packing activities ◦ Develop master sanitation schedule ◦ Keep field, facility and equipment sanitation records on file ◦ Document sanitation system is working ◦ Continuous training of staff


`

Remember food quality and safety are not one and the same

While Food Quality is an Option Food Safety is an Entitlement


Thank You!


Theory and Practice of International Trade