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EMERGER: CRECIMIENTO COLECTIVO A TRAVES DE ADAPTACIÓN EMERGE: COLLECTIVE GROWTH THROUGH ADAPTATION

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EMERGER: CRECIMIENTO COLECTIVO A TRAVES DE ADAPTACIÓN

P R E PA R A R Y R E F O R Z A R

E M E R G E : C O L L E C T I V E G R O W T H T H R O U G H A D A P TAT I O N

P R E PA R E + R E I N F O R C E

ANTES DEL DESASTRE PRE-DISASTER

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DESASTRE

AY U D A

DESARROLLO

DISASTER

RELIEF

DEVELOPMENT

Disaster Response

PRESIDENTIAL AGENCY FOR SOCIAL ACTION AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION / ACCIÓN SOCIAL

GOVERNMENT AGENCIES

UE IQ LD DE

STAKEHOLDERS

PRIVATE SECTOR - Aguas de Colombia Ltda - Xylem Watermark - Kellogg’s Corp Citizenship Fund - Unilever

- IFRC - Accion - OxFam - Colombian Red Cross - Plan International - Genesis Foundation - ShelfterBox - Pan-American Devlp. Foundation - MercyCorp - AmeriCares

UNITED NATIONS LABORERS

- UN OCHA - UN CERF - UNICEF - UNHCR - WFP

- WHO - FAO - PAHO - UNDP - IOM

Secure Va l u a b l e s

Rehearse Evacuation

Evacuate Elderly

Corale Livestock Cohabitate Homes + Shelters

PRIMARY INTERNATIONAL NGO HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS (UN OCHA)

/

UNITED NATIONS HUMANITARIAN COUNTRY TEAM (UN HCT)

1 KM

COLOMBIA HUMANITARIA

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS

(HUMANITARIAN RELIEF)

+ RED CRESENT (IFRC) /

ADAPTION FUND

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLES (CISP)

(REHABILITATION & RECONSTRUCTION)

/ OXFAM

MINISTRY OF INTERIOR

PRIVATE SECTOR AGUAS DE COLOMBIA LTDA

/ COLOMBIAN RED CROSS (CRC) / / HABITAT FOR

/ GRUPO ODINSA / GLOBAL

LOCAL UN HUMANITARIAN TEAMS

ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PLC

HUMANITY COLOMBIA

/ MINISTRY

- Survey Homes - Modes of Habitability

/ MINISTRY OF DEFENSE

Organization

OF ENVIRONMENT, HOUSING AND

/ MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT / MINISTRY TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT

-

OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL SECURITY

DEPARTMENTS & MUNICIPALS

NATIONAL NGOS

REGIONAL COMMITTEES FOR THE PREVENTION AND

/ GENESIS / PIES DESCALZOS FOUNDATION /

FUNDACIÓN MARIO SANTO DOMINGO FOUNDATION

Architecture Group

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF MINISTRIES

NGO HOME-COUNTRY TEAMS UNITED NATIONS CENTRAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE FUND (UN CERF)

- Analysis 1 - Analysis 2 - Analysis 3

NATIONAL SYSTEM FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT & PREVENTION / SNPAD

ATTENTION OF DISASTERS (CREPADS) LOCAL COMMITTEES FOR DISASTER PREVENTION AND

COLNODO

Network Identification Outline Community Groups List of Beneficiaries Organization / Governance Members Decision Making Sign-off

ASSISTANCE (CLOPADS)

Application Coordinate with Providers

LOCAL / GROUND-LEVEL RELIEF

Submit Proposals

/ COMMUNITY LEADERS / LOCAL POLICE / CHURCHES / SCHOOLS / HOSPITALS / COMMUNITY CENTERS /LOCAL AID GROUPS

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF SAN CRISTOBAL

Implementation From

Frediana.

Change

by

Design.

2011.

Adapted from Frediana. Change by Design. 2011.

LOCAL CONTEXT

GREEN INDUSTRY

0

100 M

500 M

El Higuertetal MASTER PLAN

GABION WALL BIO-SWALE

FLOATING SANITARY TREATMENT VETIVER GRASS

STRAW BALE CONSTRUCTION

STRAW BALE TEMPORARY DAMS

RADIO TOWER

PLANNING

San Cristobal MASTER PLAN

PLANNING

RAISED BED FARMING

AQUA AGRICULTURE

FLOATING UDDT

CONSTRUCTED CONSTRUCTED WET LAND

VETIVER GRASS FLOOD PROTECTION

CANAL

CANAL SECTION / FLOOD PROTECTION BUFFER

GABION WALL

CONSTRUCTED WET LAND

AQUA AGRICULTURE

FLOOD PROTECTION BUFFER

RAISED BED FARMING

ECO TOURISM

GREEN INDUSTRY

DIAGRAMS

FISHING

100 M

500 M R0 : EXISTING RESIDENTIAL

Evaluate Resources

Recognize Shareholders

Coordinate Providers

Group Collaboration

Analyze Policy

Build Leadership

Linking of Findings

Exercise First stage of Action Planning

Portfolio of Options

Reflection on the Social Production of Area in this Context

Assess Findings

Find the room to Maneuver New Vision for my Neighborhood Key Spaces - Canal - Farm Lands - Wetlands

Game Development

Analysis of Portfolio of Options

Key Issues - Food - Sanitation - Economy

Walking and Talking

Dreaming Through Drawing

Mapping Games

Dreaming Through Modeling

R3 : ADAPTIVE RESIDENTIAL

R5 : FLOATING RESIDENTIAL PROTOTYPE

Define

Identify Networks

Evaluate Resources

R2 : RESISTIVE RESIDENTIAL

Methodology

Develop

Implementation Exercise Through Group Sessions

Prepare an Exhibition as a way to comment

ARCHITECTURE

INSTITUTIONAL

- Active debates / OPPTA Conference

PLANNING

Design Dream

Vulnerable Groups Everyone

ARCHITECTURE

ENGAGEMENT

- Diagnose from a distance

- Engagement through site visit

C2 : C3 - ADAPTIVE and RESISTIVE COMMUNTY BLDG. w HEARTH

- Design guidelines for interpretation

Diagnose

DEVELOPMENT + IMPLEMENTATION

Participatory

R1 : REINFORCED RESIDENTIAL

ARCHITECTURE

0

R2 - RESISTIVE RESIDENTIAL BLDG. w HEARTH

Participatory Process Economics Education Culture + Sports

Planning Group INTERNATIONAL NGOS

UR BA NC OR RID OR

0

-

NATIONAL UNIT FOR DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT / UNGRD

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE COORDINATION OF

Adapted from Frediana. Change by Design. 2011.

500 M

Documentation Engagement Group

ENGAGEMENT

L NA CA

COMMUNITY

COMMUNITY LEADERS

FUTURE EXPANSION

Before Rainy Season

NGO ORGANIZATIONS

Level 1

OTHERS - USAID INDIVIDUALS - Swedish Int. Devlp. Agency - Catholic Relief Services - Lutheran World Relief - Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB, and Malaria - Dialogo Inter-Agencial en Colombia

Decision Process

RISK MANAGEMENT DIRECTORATE / DGR COLOMBIAN GOVERNMENT CENTRAL RESPONSE AUTHORITY

COLOMBIAN GOVERNMENT INTERFACE WITH FOREIGN ASSISTANCE

Stock Pile F o o d + Wa t e r

Level 2

UE IQ LD DE RAISED BED FARMING

MAIN SERVICES 2-STORY HIGH DENSITY 1-STORY MED DENSITY 1-STORY LOW DENSITY RAISED AGRICULTURE

- CLOPADs - CREPADs - INCODER - Accion Social

Canal Response

L NA CA LEGEND

ENGAGEMENT

ECO TOURISM

- Colombia Humanitaria - Ministry of Interior Environment, Houseing Territorial Devlp. Health + Social Security

Level 3

- DGR - UNGRD - SNPAD - SENA

SAN CRISTOBAL BOLIVAR COLOMBIA

C1 : REINFORCED COMMUNITY BLDG. w HEARTH

C2 + C3 : RESISTIVE and ADAPTIVE COMMUNTY BLDG. w HEARTH

Workshop Findings + Outcomes Local

Adapted from Frediani, Alexandre Aspan; Matthew Anthony French, and Isis Nunez Ferrera, “Change by design, building communities through participatory design.” Urban Culture Press, New Zealand. 2011.

DETAIL OF RESIDENTIAL HEARTH TYPOLOGY

R0 : EXISTNG RESIDENTIAL BLDG. R1 : REINFORCED RESIDENTIAL BLDG. w HEARTH

R2 : RESISTIVE RESIDENTIAL BLDG. w HEARTH

R4 : ADAPTIVE RESIDENTIAL BLDG. w HEARTH

C1 : REINFORCED COMMUNITY BLDG. w HEARTH

C2 + C3 : RESISTIVE and ADAPTIVE R4A : HORIZONTAL RESIDENTIAL COMMUNTY BLDG. w HEARTH CLUSTER w HEARTH

R4B : VERTICAL RESIDENTIAL CLUSTER w HEARTH

HEARTH


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 2. INTERVENTION TIMELINE 2.1 REINFORCE & PREPARE 2.2 PRE-DISASTER 2.3 DISASTER 2.4 RELIEF 2.5 DEVELOPMENT 3. CONCLUSION


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1. INTRODUCTION Climatic events account for 70% of all disasters, 70% total economic loss, and 45% mortality. Climatic disasters (cyclones, floods, and droughts) affect 1 billion people annually. Of the various types of natural disaster, flooding is the most common worldwide, representing 40% of all natural disasters, and the leading cause of weather-related deaths in the western hemisphere. The challenge in responding to flood conditions is to rapidly meet the needs of many, support local responses, and develop guidelines and programs rather than final products. (Saunders) In addition to loss of life, flooding harms natural habitat, building infrastructure, and livelihood. The cost of rehabilitation and reconstruction greatly outweigh that of preparation and reinforcement. Any emergency intervention should transition the methods of relief into the means for development.

recovery”. The third phase of “long term actions”, Development, refers to ongoing interventions that incrementally raise capacity to mitigate flood impacts, introduce services for community improvement, and improve economic vitality of the region. Developmental activities may occur for at least eight months of the year, continually reinforcing the preparations from the prior year while incrementally increasing capacity. Institutionalization occurs when all of these objectives are integrated into the structure and fabric of the region, such that communities may sustainably maintain conditions without external support. The affected communities will be resilient to the future impacts of climate change, achieve the Millennium Goals targeted by local governance, and serve as a replicable model of development.

For the emergency interventions designed for the Municipality of San Cristobal, the existing environment, economies, and culture of the people became the primary drivers for consideration. The design team comprised of three groups: social engagement, urban planning, and architectural design. By following an integrated approach between these three groups, cooperative solutions were enabled to have synergistic impact. The design team recommends a participatory design process, eliciting information, ideas, and creativity from the inhabitants of San Cristrobal, Higueretal, and Las Cruces. A community-led approach breaks down the “uneven effects of vulnerability levels in relation to factors such as age, gender, race, and wealth.” The participatory design process attempts to give voice to the vulnerable and marginalized, allowing them to create their own dreams for the future of their town, communities, and individual homes. The role of the design team is to empower citizens through education: developing more resilient and adaptive means of building and planning for the “management of future risks.” The design, building, and implementation of future developments, ultimately, should be driven by the local inhabitants. The design team has laid out an intervention process mirroring that proposed in Decree 4580. The initial phase of the design team is to “save lives and provide shelter and food for affected families.” The design team has identified this in two parts: Reinforce & Prepare, occurring eight months before the rainy season, and Pre-Disaster, initiated at the beginning of the intense rainy season and before a catastrophic flood. From the onset of the Disaster event, Relief efforts are fully initiated leading to the second phase of “rehabilitation and

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ENGAGEMENT INTERVENTION

Dreaming provides new opportunities for the marginalized. It empowers citizens to develop new vision for their neighborhood. Within San Cristobal, HIgueretal, and Las Cruces, the key spaces to realize new futures for include the canal, farmlands, wetlands, and urban spaces. The key issues to tackle include but are not limited to nutrition, sanitation, and economy. It is recognized that everyone

Dream

Methodology

Develop

Define

Identify Networks

Evaluate Resources

Recognize Shareholders

Coordinate Providers

Group Collaboration

Analyze Policy

Build Leadership

Linking of Findings

Assess Findings

Find the room to Maneuver

Exercise First stage of Action Planning

Portfolio of Options

Reflection on the Social Production of Area in this Context

Evaluate Resources

New Vision for my Neighborhood Key Spaces - Canal - Farm Lands - Wetlands

Game Development

Analysis of Portfolio of Options

Key Issues - Food - Sanitation - Economy

Walking and Talking

Dreaming Through Drawing

Mapping Games

Dreaming Through Modeling

Implementation Exercise Through Group Sessions

Prepare an Exhibition as a way to comment

DEVELOPMENT + IMPLEMENTATION

INSTITUTIONAL PLANNING

- Active debates / OPPTA Conference - Engagement through site visit

Design

Vulnerable Groups Everyone

ARCHITECTURE

Diagnosis presents the first step of engagement: identifying networks, recognizing stakeholders, analyze existing policy, and assess findings of institutional methods. The resources of the site must be evaluated, their value conserved. Through participatory engagement, interviews with inhabitants may enable the most accurate diagnose. “Walking and talking” exercises throughout town reveal services, proximities, as well as the culture of habitability. In order to specifically engage children, such interviews may take the shape of “Mapping Games,” scavenger hunts that reveal the resources for children and the habits embedded within their daily lives.

Diagnose

- Design guidelines for interpretation - Diagnose from a distance

PARTICIPATORY DESIGN METHODOLOGY Engagement through a participatory model helps appropriately assess the needs of all citizens. “Participatory design and planning is key to achieving equity and efficiency when formulating plans and in urban governance. Together, design and participation unlock the resourcefulness of place and maximize opportunities for discovery in which all participate.” (Frediani, Alexandre Aspan; Matthew Anthony French, and Isis Nunez Ferrera, “Change by design, building communities through participatory design.” Urban Culture Press, New Zealand. 2011.) Arguably, engagement improves project implementation, as stakeholders are more likely to support developments where they are able to guide the principle activities. Capacity develops not only to respond to the disaster of the time, but for the ability to adapt to the future.

Participatory

ENGAGEMENT

While the urban planning and architectural group have created visions for the redevelopment of the San Cristobal region, these are intended primarily as guidelines based on the information gathered from external resources. The role of design must be a participatory process where every citizen of San Cristobal, Higueratal, and Las Cruces has the opportunity to dream and impact the future of their town and homes. By empowering citizens to design their future, they become full partners in the development process and the opportunity for systemic change may be realized.

Workshop Findings + Outcomes Local

ADAPTED FROM FREDIANI, ALEXANDRE ASPAN; MATTHEW ANTHONY FRENCH, AND ISIS NUNEZ FERRERA, “CHANGE BY DESIGN, BUILDING COMMUNITIES THROUGH PARTICIPATORY DESIGN.” URBAN CULTURE PRESS, NEW ZEALAND. 2011. Page 2


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ENGAGEMENT INTERVENTION here is vulnerable, young and old alike, and that any intervention will have to tackle a broad range of solutions and introduce new services.

COMMUNITY DESIGN CHARRETTE WITH MODELS

This exercise may occur through drawing charettes where citizens illustrate their vision for development. After revision and definition by the design team, modeling exercises allows residents to detail their modes of habitation, and how cohabitation may be accomplished. Development of solutions is a collaborative effort between the design team, the network of relief agents, and most importantly the local residents. The linking of all findings is crucial to develop a path for progress. The citizens should be presented with a portfolio of options, while children develop a game to recognize development opportunities. Implementation exercises may inform the design team and network of the capacity and the areas where training and education will be most effective. Definition call for a final analysis of options and the first stage of action planning. All providers and stakeholders must reflect on the social implications and production models for San Cristobal. Final solutions should be developed into an exhibition, developing the process, design, and required steps for implementation. These workshop findings and outcomes may be presented to the local community, and development may begin by connecting them with the networks for development.

ADAPTED FROM FREDIANI, ALEXANDRE ASPAN; MATTHEW ANTHONY FRENCH, AND ISIS NUNEZ FERRERA, “CHANGE BY DESIGN, BUILDING COMMUNITIES THROUGH PARTICIPATORY DESIGN.� URBAN CULTURE PRESS, NEW ZEALAND. 2011. Page 3


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PLANNING INTERVENTION The planning strategy for the San Cristobal region is one of adaptation to sustain and advance the quality of life that is threatened annually by the fluctuations in climate. The current layout, procedures, and flood mitigation techniques need to be overhauled to create a stronger community against the modern threats of climate change. Three critical areas that the planning group focused on were diversion of water for gainful uses, locating ideal areas for city growth, and initiating industries and sustainable practices that will promote long term economic growth and a thriving healthy community.

FRESHWATER PRESERVE

WATER With consideration to the community, encouraging water bodies to divert to areas for flood storage, restoring the natural underground waterways will create unique opportunities for ecotourism, with the presence of aqua communities and the creation of wetland preserves allowing the region’s diverse population of species to thrive and evolve with the existing community. This will also bring an economical value to the area to help the community thrive off of local resources. By establishing a freshwater nature preserve to attract ecotourism and scientific study of the flora and fauna. This will be unique to other regionally recognized preserves that currently serve to salt water research along the coastal edge. While redirecting storm water and canal overflow to established networks of streetscape swales and treatment wetlands will clean the wastewater through sustainable practices in order to have water that can be safely returned to the wetlands without negatively impacting the ecosystem and the wetland fishing industry.

GABION WALL

Canal flood waters are an important component to the success of this community. An area across the canal from San Cristobal has been implemented to contain flood storage through releasing locks. An open space along the canal edge has been implemented to produce a flood protection buffer to divert flash flooding waters away from the urban center through the use of reinforced gabion flood walls. When water levels reach capacity in the canal they will spill over into the open spaces. This triggers the first indication that flood waters are rising and allows more time for residents to reposition themselves to safer land. Having this added time becomes crucial for adequate preparation and supplies that would be coming from out of the area.

LOCAL As a local measure, redefining the urban framework to one that supports, protects and creates density in a centrally located area more suitable for higher densities and local services becomes critical for success. Placing local goods and services in locations that are ideal for pre-disaster and post-disaster are the backbone to this community and its continued growth. These urban cores should connect and support the connection between the towns of San Cristobal, Higueratal, and Las Cruces. Identifying and designating “destination zones� centrally located for easy accessibility for all residents to access in times of a disaster. LIFESTYLE Develop sustainable practices for agriculture and fisheries to a system that incorporates raising agriculture fields and floating fisheries to allow for minimal damage to land during disasters minimizing recovery periods post-disaster. A consideration to agriculture being better suited to the possibility of water inundation can reduce crop loss during disasters due to the adaptation of the crops to fully saturated water conditions. Locating and developing local industries to include technologies of harvesting new building materials and sustainable energy from the surrounding environment will add economic value while encouraging an adaptive lifestyle with nature. Methods for development can include silt collection from the canal which can be used along with agricultural waste in the production of straw bale for building construction. By developing the resources of hydroelectric, solar, and/ or biomass for the use of energy, one creates a local, sustainable, and reliable source for energy for all stages of disaster.

FLOATING BEDS

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ARCHITECTURE INTERVENTION The two primary architectural strategies are to protect the inhabited ground plane of the structure and create a vertical core of daily functional necessities. HEARTH With an immediate emphasis on preparing for the next possible flood, the first stage of development is to reinforce the existing buildings and houses in San Cristobal. This initial reinforcement will then be used as a basis for the future development of the city. The basis behind this development is to create a condensed structure which provides the functional necessities for sustainable living. In common historic and modern usage, a hearth is a fireplace or oven often used for cooking and/or heating. For centuries, the hearth was considered an integral part of a home, often its central or most important feature. Our proposal involves taking the traditional “hearth” (cooking, heating) and enhancing it to serve as much more, such as: • • • • • • • • • • •

Water Collection & Storage Clean water filtration Solar Collection Safe Storage Shelter Livestock storage Vegetation Emergency Beacon Telecommunication Modular growth potential Individual and Community identity

It is a vertical, modular structure which can adapt to the scale of a residential house, a civic building, a cluster of buildings, or as free standing. The structure of the hearth is a simple, but structurally sound reinforced concrete frame. It draws influence from the existing water tower in San Cristobal. Over top of the frame, it can be enclosed with a variety of lightweight, local materials and encouraged as a method for individual expression. The “Hearth” can be described as fitting into two primary categories: Residential and Civic. Their basic premise is the same, buts their scale and some its functions may vary. Page 5


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INTERVENTION TIMELINE 1. REINFORCE & PREPARE

GOVERNMENT AGENCIES -

DGR UNGRD SNPAD SENA

- Colombia Humanitaria - Ministry of Interior Environment, Houseing Territorial Devlp. Health + Social Security

- CLOPADs - CREPADs - INCODER - Accion Social

Engagement

OTHERS

NGO

- USAID INDIVIDUALS - Swedish Int. Devlp. Agency - Catholic Relief Services - Lutheran World Relief - Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB, and Malaria - Dialogo Inter-Agencial en Colombia

- IFRC - Accion - OxFam - Colombian Red Cross - Plan International - Genesis Foundation - ShelfterBox - Pan-American Devlp. Foundation - MercyCorp - AmeriCares

ORGANIZATIONS

COMMUNITY

COMMUNITY LEADERS

STAKEHOLDERS

PRIVATE SECTOR - Aguas de Colombia Ltda - Xylem Watermark - Kellogg’s Corp Citizenship Fund - Unilever

UNITED NATIONS LABORERS

RELIEF NETWORKS ADAPTED FROM ABARQUEZ AND MURSHED 2004; 19.

-

UN OCHA UN CERF UNICEF UNHCR WFP

-

WHO FAO PAHO UNDP IOM

NETWORKS FOR RELIEF To implement a successful integrated flood risk management plan, it is critical for the engagement group to identify disaster relief agencies within the Colombian government on the national, regional and local level, as well as international non-government organizations (NGOs), home-country relief teams and local aid groups, in order to coordinate and execute effective planning, design and engagement solutions for the flood victims of San Cristobal. The Risk Management Directorate (Direccion de Gestion del Riesgo or DGR) serves as the central response authority and national platform for disaster risk management in Colombia. Under the DGR’s authority, the National Unit for Disaster Risk Management (UNGRD) directs the implementation of disaster risk management and coordinates the National System for Disaster Management and Prevention (SNPAD), which manages overall responsibility for risk mitigation and prevention, and emergency response and rehabilitation. Colombia Humanitaria, a new government-run mechanism that mobilizes fund from public and private sectors, responds to humanitarian relief. Colombia Humanitaria works concurrently with the SNPAD in appropriating funds and resources to Colombia’s floodstricken departments and municipalities.

EVACUATION PLAN

Presidential Agency for Social Action and International Cooperation (Acción Social) serves as government interface with foreign assistance and coordinates with the international NGOs such as United Nations Office of Humanitarian Coordination Agency (UN OCHA) and the UN Humanitarian Country Team (HCT). The NGO home-country teams and local aid relief partners work with the Colombian government’s Regional Committees for the Prevention and Attention of Disasters (CREPADs) at a departmental level and the Local Committees for Disaster Prevention and Assistance (CLOPADs) at municipal level to allocate and deploy resources and assistance where it is most needed and avoid duplication.

During the Preparation Stage, approximately eight months before the rainy season commences, the engagement group will coordinate the Bolivar Department CREPADs, presided by Governor Juan Carlos Gossain, and the San Cristobal CLOPADs led by Mayor Adalberto Casti, to understand the regional and municipal support currently available in region, assess existing resources and infrastructural conditions, as well as evaluate the present NGO participation in the area. ORGANIZE COMMUNITY LEADERS At the local level, it is imperative for the team to immediately identify community leaders in San Cristobal, such as Mayor Adalberto Casti and municipal leaders, the clergy and church leaders, the local police force, teachers, local sports teams, community clubs and other recognized San Cristobal organizations and vocal citizens. These individuals will serve as liaisons between the general San Cristobal population and the engagement group, San Cristobal CLOPAD and local relief groups throughout entire preparation, survival, relief, reconstruction and long-term development process. The National Training Service Authority (SENA) is responsible for developing training programs for CREPADs, CLOPADs, and international NGOs to prepare Colombia for future flooding disasters at a national, regional and local scale. The engagement group strongly advises these training programs be implemented between February and September for flood preparation, evacuation training, relief assessment and reconstruction, especially for the local leaders identified by the engagement group. These individuals will serve as role models of flood preparation and survival to the overall community. COMMUNITY VENUE The planning group will determine a community venue at a destination zone to serve as the “safe haven” and will function as the primary headquarters for communication. The “destination/safe haven” will provide physical access for community to receive news and information disseminated by various government organizations, food & aid relief organizations, public health authorities and emergency/rescue services.

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INTERVENTION TIMELINE

The team plans on using public facilities and the local radio station as a key way to communicate correct information to the community to help reduce misinformation, and increase access and distribution of information, instructions, and warnings. When the publicly audible warning siren is used the community can tune into the radio station for more information, allowing authorities the ability to quickly disseminate information and instructions to everyone.

Secure Va l u a b l e s

Rehearse Evacuation

Level 1

The group also recommends mandatory flood awareness education programs be incorporated into the academic curriculum for all grades of the San Cristobal Education System. Introducing flood preparation, survival, relief and avoidance at an early age and incorporating the programs into syllabuses for the student population will ensure future generations become more knowledgeable about the annual flood crisis and learn measures to prevent and prepare for the future. Flood awareness in the school systems will develop a flood resilient generation in San Cristobal capable of adapting to the various impacts of ongoing climate change.

AWARENESS & WARNING SYSTEM Promoting awareness, daily communication via the local radio station and through bulletin boards on public buildings will report the canal wall’s integrity, water level, predicted water level, and canal lock openings and closings. The engagement group hopes to incorporate this information into everyday life creating more awareness and connection to what the water is doing and how it could impact the town. This kind of information can help prevent panic and surprise situations and allow individuals to take precautionary measures as organized through appropriate training. The engagement group hopes to develop local experts who can assess, measure, and communicate pertinent information pertaining to the canal’s integrity and water levels.

Stock Pile F o o d + Wa t e r

Evacuate Elderly

Level 2

The radio can also be used to conduct a town-wide scavenger hunt/ race for the local youth in the community. This scavenger hunt/race will include a map course of various “destinations” throughout San Cristobal, designated by the planning group, to teach participants where flood preparation and relief services will be located throughout San Cristobal. This social engagement exercise educates children early on where to receive assistance.

Disaster Response

Corale Livestock

Level 3

The engagement group also recommends the development of a radio transmitted novella with a Colombian flood plot. A drama-based flood plot can capture the audience’s attention as entertainment, while also raising awareness of the upcoming flood season to the listeners. A similar campaign sponsored by BBC World Service’s educational education program, “New Home, New Life” proved successful in remote mountain villages throughout Afghanistan to promote disaster risk awareness for the flood-prone regions.

The engagement group will utilize national and religious holidays, sporting events at the local baseball and soccer fields, cultural festivals and local carnivals as opportunities to capture the attention of a large portion of the community by setting up workshops, demonstrations and active vignettes for flood awareness and disaster preparation training. Training sessions will teach the local residents how to reinforce their homes, and workshops will engage local women through craft sessions for commodities such as hammocks, stools and “hearth” components, developed with the design team, that are critical to survival during the flood season. Engaging the community to participate in the flood preparation and relief activities provides inhabitants with a better understanding of why flood prevention training and exercises are necessary. Active participation develops a bond amongst contributors, which will prove crucial during times of crisis.

To aid in awareness, the engagement group proposes an audible disaster siren that can be heard throughout the region. This alarm will have different sounds to warn the town of potential flash floods, water topping the canal wall, and of catastrophic canal wall failure. This siren should be tested at least once a month at a regularly scheduled time to prevent panic.

Before Rainy Season

Due to limited access of mobile phones and televisions for the majority of the public, radios will play a key role in our flood awareness campaigns by providing the most up-to-date information about the weather/flood forecast, upcoming training seminars for home reinforcement, and learning strategies for flood preparation and survival.

Based on the diverse ecology of the San Cristobal region, the engagement group suggests creating a “frog mascot” as the flood awareness spokesperson for the community. Initially, the mascot will connect with the youth demographic and serve as a friendly icon and educator of flood awareness. Over time, the mascot can serve as a symbol of flood education and resilience to San Cristobal.

Canal Response

PUBLIC INFORMATION CAMPAIGN Raising flood awareness will be executed through multiple strategies to reach all demographics and sectors of San Cristobal. Public information campaigns will be initiated in the FLOOD PREPARATION PHASE between February and September.

Cohabitate Homes + Shelters

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INTERVENTION TIMELINE 1. REINFORCE & PREPARE Planning CANAL EDGE The design for the length of Canal del Dique incorporates an intensive planting of vetiver grass at the existing canal edge as a first stage. Vetiver grass is used successfully to stabilize embankments and mitigate silt migration; this will prevent the catastrophic collapse of the canal walls which has been the main cause of the flooding in the town of San Cristobal. The reduction of silt being deposited into the canal will also reduce the frequency of which the canal needs to be dredged of sediment to maintain its capacity. BEGIN TO BUILD STORM WATER BIO SWALES Establishing storm water bioswales along the existing roadways will mitigate the problem of flooding due to heavy rain fall and return the water to the aquifer more quickly. This low impact design solution along with the successful reinforcing of the canal wall will help preserve some of the existing structures in San Cristobal.

During the “Reinforce and Prepare” period, a community wide network of UDDTs would be deployed to Destination points, shelters, and civic buildings to ensure that the entire population has access to sanitation. EVACUATION PLAN, DESTINATION POINTS AND SHELTERS An Evacuation plan would be developed to establish safe routes to Destination Points throughout the neighborhoods and Shelters at high ground which would have access to emergency services and reliable information. The Destination Points and shelters will have Hearths which are the critical services supplies and information units that have been developed by the architecture team. BUILD LOCAL RADIO TOWER A local radio tower will be erected to facilitate reliable information to as many people as possible regarding disaster

SEWAGE TREATMENT The region does not have reliable sewage treatment or waste removal which results in the polluting of local water bodies causing health hazards to the residents and damaging the area’s ecology. The construction of urine diverted dehydration toilets (UDDT) can be built of cast concrete and would not require an extensive infrastructural sewage piping and a conventional treatment plant. In-ground sewage systems would be unusable during floods and would likely overflow and result in polluting of the waterways. UDDTs mounted on structures which can float during a flood event are a hygienic, solution which can be implemented at low cost and using local labor and materials. The sewage treatment of the solid waste is safe; ash is thrown over the solid waste after each use to eliminate smell and the attraction of flies. Once the 20 liter bucket is at capacity, it is capped and placed in the sun for a minimum of six months until the dangerous bacteria become inert at which time the waste can be used safely as fertilizer for the agricultural industry or biomass fuel.

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INTERVENTION TIMELINE 1. REINFORCE & PREPARE Architecture R1 – EXISTING RESIDENTIAL TYPOLOGY To protect the inhabited ground level of the existing house, a water resistant base coursing around the perimeter is used to mitigate water infiltration. Combined with sandbags and plywood around the openings, this can provide as a baseline resistance measure against moderate level floods. At this point, the hearth is introduced as an attachment to the house. Locating the hearth beside the house can be flexible towards owner preference and site conditions. However, since the kitchen primarily serves as providing functional necessities to the house, it is economical to build it as an extension to the kitchen. Therefore the hearth can feed directly into the functional necessity of the house. C1 – EXISTING CIVIC TYPOLOGY The same basic principles of a resistant base coursing and a hearth can be established among various civic buildings (schools/community center/market). The difference here is scale. The “Hearth” at the civic scale can serve more as a beacon to the town for identity, education, resources, and emergency preparedness.

R1 – EXISTING RESIDENTIAL TYPOLOGY

C1 – EXISTING CIVIC TYPOLOGY

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INTERVENTION TIMELINE 2. PRE-DISASTER Engagement RESPONSE SERVICES As the rainy season begins and water levels begin to rise along the canal, the community must shift to pre-disaster planning. At this stage, all of the response services should have been placed throughout the town by the planning group. These services will include clinics, which should deploy additional medical providers; and where medical services are lacking, mobile health units. In addition, the architecture group who has been building the hearths should have completed work and stock them with water and food reserves. Floatable sanitation units, and floatable toilet barges should be deployed and monitored. This will provide adequate temporary sanitation measures during the disaster event. The civic buildings in the designated shelter area of town should prepare to receive displaced residents. NGO’s and other relief agents should establish base in this area and nearby locations. Local governance should coordinate with aid agencies ensuring that all NGOs and other providers are cooperating so as not to duplicate aid efforts. As a means of transportation during the flood event, canoes should be placed throughout the town. Their use has been demonstrated through multiple years of flood events and should remain an integral of the community’s lifestyle during the flood event. DISASTER RESPONSE PLAN Over the course of the past few months, the engagement group will have prepared with the inhabitants an appropriate disaster response plan. The first three stages of this response plan should be initiated before the rainy season begins. This includes: stockpiling of food and water reserves; securing valuables within ones homes; and rehearsing the evacuation plan. Families that have been paired to cohabitate in the reinforced homes should begin meet weekly, possibly over meals to create familiarity, trust, and comfortablity.

As the rainy season turns to floods and the canal level rises the three levels of the evacuation plan begins. The first stage is that of voluntary evacuations. This will include moving all elderly and otherwise marginalized individuals to the civic buildings in the shelter zone. This will ensure that they will receive proper care by medical providers, social counseling as needed, and appropriate support during the disaster.

Architecture

Level two, as the canal water level continues to rise, farmers should corral their livestock to predetermined, designated higher grounds. Level three occures when water level begins to rise along the new berms, leading to mandatory evacuation. At this stage, everyone must engage in cohabitations. Families who have agreed to live together should join in the reinforced homes. Those who are without a reinforced home should gather at the shelter centers, as well as any other individuals who are in need of appropriate habitation throughout the disaster event.

In preparation of a pending flood, the “Hearth” can be stocked with food and water, as well as storage for valuable goods. The perimeter openings can be sandbagged and boarded up. The Civic building “hearth” is to be stocked in preparation for cohabitation.

One of the functional necessities of the “Hearth” is to help mitigate the disastrous effects floods can cause to buildings and lifestyles. It is intended that by this point, the “hearth” has been constructed and populated with uses.

EVACUATION PATHS Proper evacuation pathways have been designated by the planning group. They have illustrated the flood zone, indicating path of travel for people move towards the central zone as a primary means to reach higher ground. The lights on top of the hearths should lead the way throughout the event, flashing for those in the primary pathway to higher ground. Audible sirens will be initiated from civic buildings to signal the need for mandatory and immediate evacuation of at-risk homes.

Planning CANAL EDGE Results of regular testing of water levels along the length of the canal should be reported on the local radio station and posted at the Destination Points. Strawbales made from collected silt and agricultural waste can be erected as temporary dams to channel water away from densely populated areas. AGRICULTURE All vulnerable mature crops should be harvested at this time and livestock should be moved adjacent to high ground.

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INTERVENTION TIMELINE 3. DISASTER EVENT Engagement EMERGENCY RESPONSE During the disaster event, all families and individuals should remain within their homes and shelter centers as much as possible. Cohabitation exercises should be in place, and shelter centers receiving and rescuing anyone in need. Emergency relief agencies should be moving throughout the city to ensure all homes have been evacuated and help all residents in need to receive assistance. There should be accessible healthcare to the entire community. Food and water reserves should be distributed through the duration of the flood event, reinforcing provision within the hearth, as longer events will need appropriate coverage. General counseling and healthcare should be made available to all families, children, and adults to ensure they maintain healthy mind and body throughout the crisis. Floatable sanitation units should be serviced to ensure proper sanitation. Active communications should be ongoing throughout the disaster event. Relief agents must be able to coordinate with each other and governmental bodies. On the radio, there should be consistent updates of weather conditions, levels of the canal, and the resources that are available for assistance. Positive reminders should inform inhabitants of the effectiveness of steps taking with advice of what is to come. Relief agents should be readying shelter tents for deployment upon the remission of flood waters.

Architecture During the event of a flood disaster, the hearth serves as a safeguard for food, water, and valuable storage. In destination zones where people would gather during a flood, the hearth can provide the basic resources needed to survive. It also serves as beacon tower which gives indication that this is in fact where people should head to during a disaster.

INFOSURHOY.COM

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INTERVENTION TIMELINE 4. RELIEF Engagement

SHELTERS - INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS AND RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES (IFRC)

- INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF RED CROSS RED CRESCENT SOCIETIES (IFRC)

TRAINING SESSION AND

SHELTER With water subsiding, relief activities may begin between the engagement group, planning and architectural group. The proper implementation of the Disaster Relief Plan should provide for survival needs including food, water, counsel, health care and shelter along with the coordination of relief agents. At this stage, shelters for individual families should be deployed in the higher grounds designates as a shelter zone. Cohabitation should end: individuals staying in the civic buildings and families living in reinforced homes should move to newly deployed shelters and tents. NGOs and relief agents may establish based in the civic center as a central resource to all. Social, healthcare, nutrition, and sanitation engagement should continue to reinforce already established practices. LIVELIHOODS In order to return to a sense of normalcy, the engagement group must attempt to stabilize livelihoods. Relief support should be used to subsidize the reconstruction of homes, providing jobs for local workers, improving construction methodologies, and increasing general capacity. Workshops may be held in the civic center to train men and women in general construction means, organizes crafts, and providing new shelters and housing for those in need. This not only provides a means to reinforce the town during the relief stage but also offers the opportunity to develop new trades and techniques that are to be introduced for ongoing development. CHILD FRIENDLY SPACES Child Friendly Spaces should allow a stabilization of children’s environment. The reinforced school building should have been able to mitigate the storm event and return to session in partial capacity or alternative schedules (primary classes – mornings; secondary classes – afternoons, etc…). This phase of relief ends the major interventions of the first year of engagement, but all of the interventions lay the foundations for the ongoing development that is now to begin.

CHILDVIEW.WORLDVISION.CA

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INTERVENTION TIMELINE Planning After the flooding occurs, there will be the need for damage assessment, restoration of critical services and clean up. Clogged swales and drains will be cleared to allow for the free flow of water as it is likely to continue raining. Land rehabilitation will take the form of cleaning, clearing, urban areas, transportation routes and agricultural land. SILT COLLECTION Silt should be collected as a part of the cleanup effort. The silt can be used to produce straw bales which will be used during rebuilding and it can be used for raised bed agriculture. The silt can be collected in sediment traps or silt collectors, these devices work by slowing down the silt laden canal water and detaining this water to allow the silt to settle out. RAISED BED AGRICULTURE Raised bed agriculture in areas prone to flooding allows silt to be used as a nutrient rich planting media, this aids in the clearing of flooded savannah and renders the crops resistant to a minimum amount of flooding. Archeologists have found evidence of Pre-columbian raised bed farming in this area by the indigenous Zuna societies in Momposina.

Architecture Post disaster, the resources stored in both the residential and civic hearth will help aid recovery. Food, fresh water, power, small livestock, stored tools, and hammocks are examples of what can be stored safely during a flood. The hearth itself can be transformed into a temporary shelter which can assist in cohabitation.

SHELTERBOX TENT

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INTERVENTION TIMELINE 5. DEVELOPMENT Engagement NETWORKS FOR DEVELOPMENT In order to enact long-term development, a major priority is to identify the networks of support that may fund or incentivize programs for progress, and align methods for support with the governmental policies for implementation. International organizations may support improvements, but the key is developing local capacity. International organizations must work with the national organizations which in turn may develop localized branches for the execution of development plans. Community networks should be intimately involved in this process, creating jobs out of funding resources and creating a sense of empowerment and responsibility for the direction of the town.

PRESIDENTIAL AGENCY FOR SOCIAL ACTION AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION / ACCIÓN SOCIAL

COLOMBIAN GOVERNMENT CENTRAL RESPONSE AUTHORITY

COLOMBIAN GOVERNMENT INTERFACE WITH FOREIGN ASSISTANCE

PRIMARY INTERNATIONAL NGO

NATIONAL UNIT FOR DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT / UNGRD

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE COORDINATION OF HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS (UN OCHA)

/

UNITED NATIONS HUMANITARIAN COUNTRY TEAM (UN HCT)

INTERNATIONAL NGOS

COLOMBIA HUMANITARIA

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF

(HUMANITARIAN RELIEF)

RED CROSS

+ RED CRESENT (IFRC) /

ADAPTION FUND

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR THE

While the Colombian Government’s mechanisms for directing relief and recovery aid retain the greatest amount of funds and influence for rebuilding postdisaster, third party regulators such as Refugees Internationals, have noted significant delays in government aid due to administrative barriers and minimal coordination between the existing NGOs and Colombia Humanitaria. In order for San Cristobal to evolve into disaster resilient community, communication and coordination amongst all government entities and NGOs at every level must be addressed. Significant collaborative engagement between relief/recovery groups (government, NGOs, private sector) and the affected citizens of San Cristobal is critical to develop a successful, long-term strategy customized to specifically address the needs of the community.

RISK MANAGEMENT DIRECTORATE / DGR

DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLES (CISP)

(REHABILITATION & RECONSTRUCTION)

/ OXFAM

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF MINISTRIES

NGO HOME-COUNTRY TEAMS UNITED NATIONS CENTRAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE FUND (UN CERF)

/ COLOMBIAN RED CROSS (CRC) / / HABITAT FOR

LOCAL UN HUMANITARIAN TEAMS

HUMANITY COLOMBIA

MINISTRY OF INTERIOR

PRIVATE SECTOR

/ MINISTRY

AGUAS DE COLOMBIA LTDA

/ GRUPO ODINSA / GLOBAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PLC

/ MINISTRY OF DEFENSE

OF ENVIRONMENT, HOUSING AND

TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT

/ MINISTRY OF / MINISTRY

AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL SECURITY

DEPARTMENTS & MUNICIPALS

NATIONAL NGOS

REGIONAL COMMITTEES FOR THE PREVENTION AND

/ GENESIS / PIES DESCALZOS FOUNDATION /

FUNDACIÓN MARIO SANTO DOMINGO FOUNDATION

NATIONAL SYSTEM FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT & PREVENTION / SNPAD

ATTENTION OF DISASTERS (CREPADS) LOCAL COMMITTEES FOR DISASTER PREVENTION AND

COLNODO

ASSISTANCE (CLOPADS)

LOCAL / GROUND-LEVEL RELIEF / COMMUNITY LEADERS / LOCAL POLICE / CHURCHES / SCHOOLS / HOSPITALS / COMMUNITY CENTERS /LOCAL AID GROUPS

MUNICIPAL COUNCIL OF SAN CRISTOBAL

Where local networks do not currently exist, it is essential to support the creation of such agencies or leaders. Agencies for development should incentivize growth, but success is determined when local economies can support themselves during stable months of the year and throughout disaster events.

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SERVICES

Services

Condition / Diagnose

Intervention / Solution

International Partnership

National Partnership

Local Partnership

Indicator

Promote of modern farming techniques.

Food Local agriculture and fisheries main source of food.

Comprehensive diversity and variety of crops.

Low yields of crops.

Investigate crops resistant to flood, absorptive to water.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Insufficient fishing artisanal exploitation

Develop an irrigation system.

World Food Program.

Low productivity of livestock due to low technological level.

Training on proper use of soil.

Water pollution for irrigation.

Repair and reinvigorate fisheries. Generate sustainable fishing farming.

Nutrition rates.

Colombia Humanitaria

Oxfam. International Federation of Red Cross. Action against Hunger.

Improved population health.

Colombian Red Cross Food Security Network/ ReSA (program from Department of Social Prosperity, promoting healthy eating and conditions of consumption, use of food and local products to reduce hunger and poverty) Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (INCODER)

Diversity and variety of crops. INCODER promotes aquaculture in San Cristobal Bolivar (tilapia)

Increased market share. Quality of crop. Fisheries volume. Productivity of livestock.

Implement sustainable pasture system.

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SERVICES

Services

Condition / Diagnose

Intervention / Solution

International Partnership

National Partnership

Local Partnership

Indicator

Ministry of Environment, Housing and Territorial Development. Water Resources Group

Water pollution. Potable Water

Low service coverage. Poor quality of water

Formulation & implementation of comprehensive water resource management. Provide solutions for treatment of drinking water and waste treatment. Offer basic sanitation education.

World Bank. Xylem Watermark. Catholic Relief Services Lutheran World Relief OxFam USAID

The Vice-Ministry of Water and Sanitation, within the Ministry of Environment Potable Water and Basic Sanitation Regulation Commission (CRA)

Quality of water. Aguayuda (Marylandbased NPO)

Water borne disease rate.

Asoagua Espnit

Sewage conveyance and treatment.

Superintendence of Residential Public Services (SSPD) Aguas de Colombia LTDA Mercy Corp (NGO arm for Xylem Watermark)

Services

Condition / Diagnose

Low health service coverage, due to a poor infrastructure.

Health Care

Local hospitals provide outpatient and simple surgeries. In rural areas health care is virtually nonexistent.

Intervention / Solution Extensive health system coverage. Create programs of mobile heath units. Ensure coverage to the population specially the most vulnerable population.

International Partnership

National Partnership

Local Partnership

Indicator

World Health Organization. Pan-American Health Organization. UNICEF Red Cross

Improve sanitation practices.

Doctors without Borders

Provide immunization and nutrition of children.

AmeriCares

Ministry of Social Protection and Territorial Health. Colombian Family Welfare Institute.

Decline in mortality rate. Regional Hospital of San Rogue UOL at Sector Square.

Reduction of infectious and respiratory illnesses. Keep medical records.

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SERVICES

Services

Condition / Diagnose

Intervention / Solution

International Partnership

National Partnership

Local Partnership

Indicator

Provide and promote education.

High levels of literacy.

Education

Low average number of years of education. Lack of infrastructure.

Build schools.

Local school.

Develop and update education programs for preschool, primary, secondary, technical and vocational.

Church.

Literacy rates.

SENA.

Attendance rates.

Mayor of San Cristobal.

Years of schooling.

Aquaculture Technical Educational Institution San Cristobal, Bolivar.

College attendance.

Families in Action.

Enrollment levels.

Provides education subsidies and direct monetary support for children in situations of displacement/ indigenous families/beneficiary mothers.

UNICEF

Ministry of Education.

International Committee of the Red Cross

Genesis Foundation National Learning Service.

Employment rate.

Foment enrollment.

Services

Condition / Diagnose

Intervention / Solution

International Partnership

National Partnership

Local Partnership

Indicator

World Health Organization. Pan-American Health Organization. Sanitation

Low knoledgement and practice of hygiene standards

Provide training and workshops throghout the community

UNICEF Red Cross Doctors without Borders

Ministry of Social Protection and Territorial Health. Colombian Family Welfare Institute.

Regional Hospital of San Rogue UOL at Sector Square.

Reduction of infectious and respiratory illnesses.

Mayor of San Cristobal.

AmeriCares

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SERVICES

Services

Condition / Diagnose Low sewage service coverage. Reduced waste Collection service in polulated areas non existen in rural locations.

Waste Collection

Water pollution. Decline of the fishery potential & wildlife. High risks of acquiring diseases. Reduced wildlife population.

Services

Condition / Diagnose

Good service coverage. Frequent interruptions. Electricity

High fees Management deficiencies.

Intervention / Solution

Formulation & implementation of comprehensive waste management programs. Provide alternative solutions for of waste treatment. Provide a reliable and affordable service to the community.

International Partnership

National Partnership

Local Partnership

Quality of water.

World Health Organization. Pan-American Health Organization. UNICEF

Indicator

Ministry of Social Protection and Territorial Health.

San Cristobal Municipality – Secretary of Government.

Water borne disease rate. Reduction of infectious and respiratory illnesses.

Red Cross

Offer basic sanitation education.

Intervention / Solution

International Partnership

National Partnership

Local Partnership

Indicator

Expansion of coverage to rural areas. Improve distribution. Improve operations. Education programs. Explore Hydro-electric in use of locks; biomass, solar at home scale.

Global Energy Development PLC.

Ministry of Mines and Energy. Unidad Planeacion Minero Energetica (UPME)

Middle Magdalena Valley, Colombia.

Reliability. Coverage.

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SERVICES

Services

Shelter

Condition / Diagnose

Provide temporary safe housing and permanent disaster resilient homes. Hearth

Services

Condition / Diagnose

Intervention / Solution

International Partnership

Relocating families in inhabitable flood zones to temporary shelter.

United Nations Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

Transition to stable permanent housing.

International Committee of the Red Cross

Train to design/build disaster resilient homes.

Intervention / Solution

Shelter Box

International Partnership

National Partnership

Infrastructure and Housing programDepartment for Social Prosperity - DPS Colombia Humanitaria Colombian Red Cross

National Partnership

Local Partnership

Urban Land Management Plan Program by Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development

Local Partnership

Indicator

IDP rate / urban development rate

Indicator

Region requires training in a wide range of disciplines. Agriculture Fishing Training

Environmental Natural resources Construction

Develop training programs. Vocational Technical Promote

United Nations Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs International Committee of the Red Cross

Colombian Red Cross UNGRD SNPAD SENA

CREPAD CLOPAD San Cristobal Municipality – Secretary of Government.

Improve of productivity. Expand business activities. Increase earnings.

Ecotourism Sanitation

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SERVICES

Services

Community Building Infrastructure

Services

Condition / Diagnose Low number of civil organizations.

Provide community facilities.

Lack of community infrastructure. Basic public services.

Develop program to offer governmental services to the area.

Need of large scale temporary shelter for emergencies.

Generate community groups and provide infrastructure.

Condition / Diagnose

Community has rich and strong culture. Culture

Services

Construction Methodology

Intervention / Solution

Deficiencies of infrastructure to support cultural exchange.

Condition / Diagnose

Utilization of local resources

Intervention / Solution Generate programs for interaction and cooperation through opportunities to reinforce identity. Enjoy cultural, sports, recreational and leisure time expressions in conditions of equity and respect for diversity.

Intervention / Solution Fosters closed material loops and eliminates waste; further capacity to grow and use resources; Encourage dirt/clay use; Dreging canal for resources; introduce efficient techniques

International Partnership

National Partnership

Local Partnership

Municipality of San Cristobal. United Nations Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

Ministry of Commerce Industry and Tourism. Ministry of Culture.

Church. Community Center. Juntas de Accion Comunal.

International Partnership

National Partnership

Ministry of Culture. UNESCO

International Partnership

Local Partnership

Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism.

San Cristobal Municipality – Secretary of Government.

National Partnership

Local Partnership

Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism; WWF Colombia (program office, working to reforestation/FSC)

Indicator Cultural and religious festivals, cuisine, ethnic communities. Local and national services. Tight community. Cooperation for development.

Indicator

Increase of number of cultural events. Participation rate. Increased tourism

Indicator

Acceptance of use, management, and production; new materials; Progress in construction

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SERVICES

Services

Condition / Diagnose

Intervention / Solution

International Partnership

National Partnership

Local Partnership

Indicator

Water pollution. Decline of the fishery potential & wildlife.

Natural Resources

High risks of acquiring diseases.

Development of conservation policies.

Drainage of swamps.

Educate and enforce strategies.

Increased sediment downstream. Deforestation for agricultural and pastoral use. Degradation of soils.

Revive and reinforce the native landscape resiliency. Promote eco-tourism.

World Bank Adaptation Fund International Conservation The Nature Conservancy WWF

Ministry of Environment, Housing, and Territorial Development. National Parks Conservation Association. OpEPA.

Soil, water, air quality. Wildlife population. San Cristobal Municipality – Secretary of Government.

Ecotourism rate and profitability. Awareness community Resiliency

Replenish fisheries.

Uncontrolled hunting. Reduced wildlife population.

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INTERVENTION TIMELINE Planning CANAL EDGE The long term design for the length of Canal del Dique incorporates an intensive planting of vetiver grass at the existing canal edge and at the newly created secondary canal wall 50 meters parallel to create a flood protection buffer. The 50 meter wide zone will act as a very visible early warning sign to warn of an impending flood, it is a storage basin between the existing and new canal wall which will divert canal water from the town through a linear constructed wetland to treat the canal water. The water will pass through terraces to oxygenate the nutrient rich water and reduce suspended solids before releasing the water into the two existing wetlands north and the open space along the canal edge will provide various purposes from recreational to providing a preliminary flood zone and initial alert for disaster. Stabilization through grasses on the canal edge and gabion walls on the second edge help mitigate heavy flood conditions from entering into more dense areas in town. Diversion of the flood water to designated wetlands surrounding the town will allow for more time for people to evacuate to another location that isn’t as heavily populated.

50 METER WIDE ZONE

At the north edge of the canal, a green industry zone is created to allow for micro hydro turbines to create electricity. This is also where the majority of the silt collection will occur and the manufacturing of straw bales for construction. As a long term strategy an overflow lock on the north side of the canal can create a sizeable overflow outlet for flood waters. By providing a sustainable urban core located east-west in the center of the town allows for services to be located on higher land less susceptible to flood waters allowing them to better serve and provide for residents during disaster conditions. While including swales along streets to divert water to designated areas outside of the town and in the process filtering the water to be useful for agriculture.

MICRO HYDRO TURBINES

CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

OVERFLOW LOCK

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INTERVENTION TIMELINE

AQUATIC AGRICULTURE Farming on floating beds is an established practice in other communities especially in southeast Asia. This form of farming is flood resistant and does not require the clearing of forests to create more farm land. ECOTOURISM AND AQUA COMMUNITIES A singular characteristic of this area is that it is at the location of three large fresh water lakes, CiĂŠnaga de Capote, Embalse del Guajaro, CiĂŠnaga de Jobo. This area can be developed as a destination for ecotourists to visit and for scientists to study the varied and unique ecosystem.

FLOATING BEDS

ECOTOURISM

Ecotourism and aqua communities provide a recreational and economical attribute to the town that will allow residents to sustain the environment and the community. The aqua community will include floating residences, elevated boardwalks, and informative nodes and destinations all developed and located to not impede on the sensitive ecosystem. While during non-flood months this area and buildings can serve as the infrastructure needed for tourists, these structures can serve a dual purpose as viable shelters as these facilities will float with rising flood waters.

FLOATING BEDS

AQUA COMMUNITIES

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INTERVENTION TIMELINE Architecture The Hearth is not meant as a one time, one size implementation. It is meant first to provide San Cristobal with an immediate access to these functions, alongside with preparing for a possible flood in the near future. It is then through this framework, which new development can integrate the “Hearth” as part of the structure of the building. With existing buildings, the strategy was to reinforce the base against water and build an attachment of functional necessities. For future development, the basic principles apply, but the strategy evolves. Rather than to try and block water from getting into the building, the new building typology begins to rise off the ground and let water pass through below. Also, the “hearth” no longer becomes an attachment to the building, but rather integrated into the construction on the new development.

R2 – RESISTIVE RESIDENTIAL TYPOLOGY

R3 – ADAPTIVE RESIDENTIAL TYPOLOGY

R2 – RESISTIVE RESIDENTIAL TYPOLOGY In areas of potential flood plains, this typology raises the house 2 to 4 feet above ground. R3 – ADAPTIVE RESIDENTIAL TYPOLOGY In areas of existing flood plains, the adaptive typology lifts the house up on piers. If water is not occupying these areas, the area can be usable underneath the house. C2 & C3 – ADAPTIVE/RESISTIVE CIVIC TYPOLOGY By lifting the primary level of the civic building, a usable space is established below. This typology utilizes a raised pier system regardless of if it is in a potential or existing flood plain. This way, the lower level can be utitlzed as a function space for a majority of the year, and if a disastrous flood hits, its upper level will remain the safest place for people to gather.

C2 & C3 – ADAPTIVE/RESISTIVE CIVIC TYPOLOGY

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INTERVENTION TIMELINE R4 – RESIDENTIAL CLUSTER In existing models of dense urban living, multiple living units are fed off of a primary core of services. The introduction of the hearth in San Cristobal can help serve as the pivot point from which densification can cluster around. Rather than one hearth per home, it becomes more economical and sustainable for one hearth so serve multiple families. Clustered growth around the hearth can move both horizontally and vertically. C4 – CIVIC CLUSTER/MIXED USE The same strategy applies here. However, clustering these kinds of the buildings can enrich primary communal and business centers. There is the opportunity to mix in residential here, as well. R5 & C5 – HYBRID TYPOLOGY As part of the development strategy to keep the inhabited ground level dry, the next level is to have the buildings float. The hearth could serve as the anchor from which the building could pivot on depending on the water level. There is a great opportunity to create an aspect of eco-tourism out of this. However, this could eventually serve as a means for living. It is a practice already seen in other areas of the world.

R4 – RESIDENTIAL CLUSTER

R5 & C5 – HYBRID TYPOLOGY

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CONCLUSION INSTITUTIONALIZATION The long term goals for the communities of San Cristobal, Higueratal, and Las Cruces is to help the communities stay in this region and allow them to thrive in their quality of life and the health of the regional ecology which are so closely tied. The most important long term indicator is successful institutionalization of the proposed measures of intervention, plus new and expanded services. The successful achievement of the Millennium Development Goals will demonstrate a sustainable condition whereby the Municipality of San Cristobal may be self-sufficient. MILLENIUM GOALS 1. Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, 2. Achieving universal primary education, 3. Promoting gender equality and empowering women, 4. Reducing child mortality rates, 5. Improving maternal health, 6. Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, 7. Ensuring environmental sustainability, and resiliency in a changing climate 8. Developing a global partnership for development, In addition to the Millennium Goals, the combination of design and engagement in this submission strives to envision a future that will link the past and present with a thriving self-manifestation of this community and region. The broad goals of the proposed process and spaces are to fortify the positive aspects of the existing social and cultural networks and traditions while creating a foundation for long term growth and an emerging empowering regional identity.

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