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Rio+20: A Water Guide

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Legal notice The contents of this publication do not necessarily reflect the official opinions of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development or other institutions of the United Nations Rio+20: A Water Guide by Olimar Maisonet-Guzman is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Citation Maisonet-Guzman, O. (2012). Rio+20: A Water Guide. Washington, DC. Lead author Olimar Maisonet-Guzman (SustainUS) Copy editor Adam Greenberg, Gabriel Rodriguez Acknowledgements This guide could not have happened without the advice and contribution of water activists and researchers. Special thanks to: Susan Bazilli (IWRP), Ken Conca (American Univesity), Marco Daniel (Helvetas), Felix Dodds (Stakeholders Forum), Zachary Hurwitz (International Rivers), Louis Lebel (Chiang Mai University), Josefina Maestu (UN-Water), Jack Moss (Aquafed), and David Trouba (WSSCC). We also acknowledge the members of the UN Major Groups of Children and Youth that help make this guide a reality.

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Acronyms AOSIS CBD CCD CITES COP COP/MOP CSD ESOCOC GEF IGO IFI IFSD INC JPOI MEA MDB MDG MG MOP NGO RIO+20 UNCED UNCLOS UNCSD UNDESA UNECE UNEP UNFCCC UNGA WSEC

Alliance of Small Island States Convention on Biological Diversity Convention on Desertification Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Conference of the Parties Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties Committee on Sustainable Development UN Economic and Social Committee Global Environmental Facility Inter-Governmental Organization International Financial Institution International Framework for Sustainable Development International Negotiating Committee Johannesburg Plan of Implementation Multilateral Environmental Agreement Multilateral Development Bank Millennium Development Goals Major Group Meeting of the Parties Non-Governmental Organization UNCSD Earth Summit UN Conference on Environment and Development UN Convention on the Law of the Sea UN Conference on Sustainable Development UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs UN Economic Commission for Europe UN Environment Programme UN Framework Convention on Climate Change UN General Assembly World Sustainable Energy Conference

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Table of Contents Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………..5 The Earth Summit and Rio+20…………………………………………………………...…… 6 Rio+20: Twenty Years Later………………………………………………………………........7 The Role of Water in the Rio+20 Debate ……………………………………………………………...8 Existing Global Commitments to Water ………..……………………………………..…….. 8 Status of Global Commitments to Water ………..………...………………………….……... 9 Emerging Issues at Rio+20……………………………………………………………….…. 10 Rio+20: Water in the Compilation Document…………….....………………………………….……11 Member States’ Water Priorities………………………………………………….…….….... 12 Major Groups’ Water Priorities…………………………………………………….……..….. 15 Where was water in the Draft of the Outcome Document?..............................................18 What is missing in the Zero Draft …………………………………………………………….19 Zero Draft 2.0: Chair suggestions and Revised Text…………………………………..….20 Sustainable Development Goals: Water …………………………………………………… 22 Recommendations for Rio+20 ………………………………………………………………….……. 23 Appendices ………………………………………………………………..…………………………....25 Appendix 1: Lobbying for Water Management …………………………...…………...….. 25 Appendix 2: Water Events at Rio+20……………………………………………………….. 28 Appendix 3: Methodology for the Analysis of the Compilation Document …….……..… 31

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“Guaranteeing sustainable food and water security for all will require the full engagement of all sectors and actors. It will entail transferring appropriate water technologies, empowering small food producers and conserving essential ecosystem services. It will require policies that promote water rights for all, stronger regulatory capacity and gender equality. Investments in water infrastructure, rural development and water resource management will be essential.” Ban Ki-moon (2012)

Introduction The Rio+20 Summit will mark twenty years since Rio de Janeiro hosted its last Earth Summit. We expect it to be the largest event in the history of the United Nations. The UN estimates the attendance of approximately 150 Heads of State, and 50,000 visitors, including diplomats, journalists, businesspersons, politicians and environmental activists. Water will be a central component of the Rio discussions due to its role in the green economy. Furthermore, water management structures will be part of the discussions at the Summit. A strong unified front from the water community is required to assure that the agreements made at Rio produce positive and lasting results regarding water resources. Existing initiatives seek to tackle water challenges from different perspectives: environmental services, sanitation, infrastructure, and health. However, the fragmentations of these existent water commitments weaken the water sector’s ability to develop a unified voice that defines the role that water will play at Rio+20. The water community needs to guarantee that different water goals will not overlap and that the initiatives proposed in the documents can coexist with other water and energy goals. This is essential since the outcome document for Rio+20 will establish the priorities of sustainable development for upcoming decades. The 2012 Rio+20 Summit is developing to be very different from the 1992 Earth Summit. In 1992, countries came together and signed tangible documents such as the Rio Principles and the Agenda 21, which clearly stated goals for environmental protection. There will be no such outcome documents in this summit. The focus of this conference will shift to the Green Economy and the International Frameworks for Sustainable Development discussions. These are the places where opportunities for lasting impact and intervention are more visible. This guide seeks to introduce the Rio+20 process and facilitate water stakeholders’ participation in the process.

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The Earth Summit and Rio+20 The Earth Summit is the popular name given to the UN Conference on Environment and Development held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Around 170 governments and over 2,400 representatives from NGOs participated in the conference. The Earth Summit negotiations resulted in the following documents that have become some of the most important documents for sustainable development of our time: • Rio Declaration on Environment and Development • Agenda 21 • Forest Principles • Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) • UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Treaty

Credit: Michos Tzavaros, UN

The Earth Summit also began a new functional commission of the UN Economic and Social Committee (ECOSOC), namely the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), which has a mandate to monitor international progress on sustainable development, provide policy direction, and coordinate action within the United Nations system to achieve the goals of Agenda 21. Ten years later, in 2002, the Rio+10 Conference was held in Johannesburg, South Africa, and produced the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI). The document aimed at providing further guidance to operationalize sustainable development through advancing three priorities: • Poverty eradication • Changing unsustainable patters of consumption and production • Production and protecting the natural resource base

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Rio+20: Twenty years later

Key Dates

In 2009, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) convened to arrange a “…United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development at the highest possible level, including Heads of State and Government or other representatives. The Government of Brazil offer to host the Conference.” Paragraph 20 of the resolution A/RES/64/236 states: It is our hope that the outcome should be “forward-looking and action oriented” and should result in a “focused, political document” The UN Conference on Sustainable Development will be held in June 2012, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The objectives of the conference are: 1) Secure renewed political commitment for sustainable development. 2) Assess the progress to date and the remaining gaps in the implementation of the outcomes of the major summits on sustainable development. 3) Address new and emerging challenges. The Conference Secretary General, Mr. Sha Zukang, highlights some new and emerging challenges for consideration: green jobs and social inclusion, sound water management, sustainable cities, management of oceans, and improved disaster preparedness. The Conference will also focus on two themes: (a) a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication; and (b) the institutional framework for sustainable development. • The Green Economy: The concept of green economy focuses primarily on the intersection between environment and economy. This recalls the 1992 Rio Conference: the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. There are often trade-offs between economic and environmental goals. With the green economy, decision-makers want to recognize and strengthen the synergies between both. • Institutional Framework: The need to strengthen the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development (IFSD) is addressed in the Johannesburg Plan of Action and will be discussed in Rio+20. The IFSD discussion thus also encompasses the role of institutions comprising the economic and social dimensions, e.g. considering how to step up efforts to bridge the gap between the international financial institutions (IFIs) and the

• 25 Jan 2012 - 27 Jan 2012: Initial discussions on the zero draft of outcome document, New York • 31 Jan 2012 - 3 Feb 2012: Latin America and Caribbean Ministerial Environment Forum for Rio+20 Quito, Ecuador, • 20 Feb 2012 - 22 Feb 2012: 12th Special Session of the Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum, TBC th

• 12 Mar 2012 – 17 Mar 2012: 6 World Water Forum, Marseilles, France

• 19 Mar 2012 - 23 Mar 2012: First round of 'informal-informal' negotiations on the zero draft of outcome document, New York rd

• 26 Mar 2012 - 27 Mar 2012: 3 Intersessional Meeting of UNCSD, UN Secretariat, New York

• 26 Mar 2012 - 29 Mar 2012: Planet under Pressure 2012 - New Knowledge Towards Solutions, London, UK • 30 Apr 2012 - 4 May 2012: Negotiations (informal-informal) on draft outcome document, UN Secretariat, New York • 14 May 2012 - 19 May 2012: International Conference on Degrowth in the Americas, Quebec, Canada • 29 May 2012 - 1 Jun 2012: ICLEI World Congress, Belo Horizonte, Brazil • 5 Jun 2012 – 6 Jun 2012: World Symposium on Sustainable Development at Universities, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil rd

• 13 Jun 2012 – 15 Jun 2012: 3 Preparatory Committee Meeting of UNCSD, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

• 16 Jun 2012 – 19 Jun 2012: Conference of the Middle, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

• 20 Jun 2012 -22 Jun 2012: UNCSD Rio+20 Earth Summit

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multilateral development banks (MDBs), and the rest of the UN system.

The Role of Water in the Rio+20 Debate Water will be an important component of the proposals for Green Economy to be discussed at Rio+20. It is needed to meet multiple demands such as human consumption, sanitation, food, and energy. Bad economics, poor infrastructure, and lack of integrated management are responsible for the death of millions of people around the world. Water scarcity, poor water quality, and inadequate sanitation negatively affect food security, livelihood choices and educational opportunities for underprivileged families across the world. Drought afflicts some of the world's poorest countries, exacerbating hunger and malnutrition.

Existing Global Commitments to Water The international community has existing commitments when it comes to water resources. Documents such as the Agenda 21, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and the Millennium Declaration have time-bound commitments for increasing water access and improving water management. Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation recognize water resources as a critical factor in sustainable development. In recent years, however, there has been a growing concern over a “global water crisis” resulting from increasing demand for finite water resources, contamination of water supplies, and degradation of ecosystems due to mismanagement of water. Underlying those factors are population growth, urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agriculture (CSD, 2004). The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation was adopted at the end of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in September 2002. The JPOI provides the framework for action required to implement the original UNCED commitments with special focus on Water, Energy, Health, Agriculture and Biodiversity (WEHAB). The Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan particularly emphasize the importance of increasing access to safe drinking water and sanitation as a central element of poverty reduction efforts. The Millennium Declaration and the

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Key Water Conferences ● The First Ministerial Forum on Water was celebrated in Muscat, Oman. Water and climate change was the central theme. ● The Dushanbe Conference on Water for Life took place in 2010. The conference served as a midterm assessment of progress for the Water for Life” International Decade for Action. Among the topics discussed were transboundary cooperation, climate change, natural disasters, and IWRM. ● The Stockholm World Water Week. As one of the outcomes of the 2011 meeting, the participants submitted a statement to the governments that were attending the Rio+20 conference to set goals by 2020. The goals were: a 20% increase in total food supplychain efficiency; 20% increase in water efficiency in agriculture; 20% increase in water use efficiency in energy production; 20% increase in the quantity of water reused; and 20% decrease in water pollution. ● The German government hosted “The Water Energy and Food Security Nexus: Solutions for the Green Economy” as their main contribution to the Road to Rio. The conference had three objectives: 1) To develop policy recommendations based on multi-stakeholder consultations; 2) To position the water, energy and food security nexus perspective as an important dimension within Rio+20 process; and 3) To launch concrete initiatives to address the water, energy, food security nexus in a coherent and sustainable way.


Johannesburg Plan also include time-bound targets for the implementation of water related commitments (CSD, 2004).

Status of Global Commitments to Water Most reports presented by the CSD and UN-Water show that the world is not on track to meet water targets. Institutional problems increase the challenge of these targets. Additionally, national priorities often take precedent over water challenges. The following table based on a 2011 UNDESA Brief on Water and it presents a summary of existing water commitments and their status. Table 1. Summary of commitments with time�bound targets from consulted documents (UNDESA, 2011) Document Agenda 21

Target

Delivery Date

Status

Protection of water resources, water quality and aquatic ecosystems

All States, and other relevant organizations as appropriate, could set the following targets: [...] (e) To reduce the prevalence of water�associated diseases, starting with the eradication of dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) and onchocerciasis (river blindness) by the year 2000; (18.39; Section 2, Chapter 18)

2000

In developing countries, water-quality control has not received adequate attention in programmes. Slow progress is reported for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater. Many cities in developing countries report that municipal drinking water often does not meet national quality standards. Waterborne diseases are still increasing. (CSD, 2004)

Integrated water resources management (IWRM)

a) By the year 2000: i. To have designed and initiated, costed and targeted national action programmes, and to have put in place appropriate institutional structures and legal instruments; ii. To have established efficient water�use programmes to attain sustainable resource utilization patterns; (b) By the year 2025: i. To have achieved subsectoral targets of all freshwater programme areas. (18.11; Sec.2, Chapter 18) (a) By the year 2000, to have studied in detail the feasibility of installing water resources assessment services; (18.26; Section 2, Chapter 18) (a) By the year 2000, to have ensured that all urban residents have access to at least 40 litres per capita per day of safe water and that 75

2000

Average irrigation efficiency remains low in many developing countries, ranging from 25-40% for the Philippines and Mexico, to 40-45 % in Malaysia. Most developing countries are promoting development of their industrial sectors, often with serious implications for water pollution. New water laws are involving communities in the management of water resources (CSD, 2004) Global International Waters Assessment, a programme led by UNEP and funded about 50% by the GEF. It provides regional and national data. Urban drinking water coverage has remained at 95% since 1990. Urban sanitation coverage has increased by only one

Water resources assessment

Water and sustainable urban development

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2025

2000

2000


per cent of the urban population are provided with on‐site or community facilities for sanitation; (b) By the year 2000, to have established and applied quantitative and qualitative discharge standards for municipal and industrial effluents; (18.58; Section 2, Chapter 18)

percentage point, from 79% to 80%. About 770 million and 700 million urban people gained access to improved drinking water and sanitation, respectively, during 1990–2004. (WHO, 2006)

Johannesburg Plan of Implementation Access to safe drinking water

The provision of clean drinking water and adequate sanitation is necessary to protect human health and the environment. In this respect, we agree to halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water (as outlined in the Millennium Declaration) and the proportion of people who do not have access to basic sanitation; (Chapter II, 8)

2015

Between 1990 and 2006, the amount of people without improved sanitation decreased by 8 percent. At the current rate, the world will not achieve even half of the sanitation goal. The total population without improved sanitation in 2015 will have decreased 2.4 billion since 1990. The MDG will be missed by over 700 million people. (WHO, 2008)

IWRM

Develop integrated water resources management and water efficiency plans by 2005, with support to developing countries; (Chapter IV, 26)

2005

Countries having IWRM plans have risen from 21% to 38%. The Americas have improved most – from 7% to 43%; the comparable changes for Africa were from 25% to 38% and for Asia from 27% to 33%. 59 % of OECD/European countries have IWRM plans. (UNWATER, 2008)

Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation (MDGs, 7C)

2015

Unmet Goal for Central Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Oceania. (UN, 2011)

Millennium Declaration Access to safe drinking water

Emerging water challenges at Rio+20 Rio+20 will also address emerging challenges such as the nexus of water-food-security nexus and the human right to water. • The Water-Energy Food Security Nexus: The need to improve water, energy and food security for a growing population augments existing pressures on natural resources. Agricultural production is expected to increase 70 percent and energy production is expected to increase 50

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percent by 2050. Both increasing demands will translate into increasing demands for water and land resources. Climate change is expected to aggravate the pressure on natural resources by affecting water availability and land productiveness. According to experts, a nexus approach is needed to promote climate mitigation measures (e.g. forest conservation), increase water efficiency (e.g. more value per drop), and promote adaptation measures (e.g. water-saving irrigation). • The Human Right to Water: Since 2002, members of the UN have recognized the importance of defining water as an independent right, drawing on a range of international treaties and declarations. The UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights stated: “the right to water clearly falls within the category of guarantees essential for securing an adequate standard of living, particularly since it is one of the most fundamental conditions for survival.” In July 2010, the General Assembly of the UN voted in favor of a resolution to include people’s access to safe and clean water as a human right. An overwhelming majority of 122 voted in favor of the resolution, while 41 countries, including the United States, abstained from voting. The right to water guarantees all citizens: “sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic uses.” Following this, the Human Rights Council voted unanimously in September 2010 on a resolution that reinforces and clarifies the General Assembly resolution including States’ responsibility to ensure “the provision of a regular supply of safe, acceptable, accessible and affordable drinking water and sanitation services of good quality and sufficient quantity".

Rio+20: Water in the Compilation Document The Zero Draft is the text that is being worked on as part of the Rio+20 process. The final draft will be presented at the end of the Earth Summit as the main outcome of the conference. Member States, UN organizations, and stakeholders were invited to provide inputs and contributions to the Rio+20 Secretariat by the first of November. The contributions were gathered in a compilation document that served as cornerstone for the preparation of the first draft published in January 2011. The compilation document and individual contributions are available online in the UNCSD website. Of the six hundred and seventy-seven received submissions, three hundred ninety-nine of them mentioned water. The majority of these came from NGOs with specializations in the protection of human right and gender issues.

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Member States’ Water Priorities Sixty-four Members States also mentioned water in their submissions. Japan, Algeria, Tajikistan, Israel and Brazil were among the countries that addressed multiple water challenges. During the preparatory process, some Member States have supported the idea of water being a key emerging issue to be discussed at the Rio conference. This is an encouraging sign for those who wish to see water as a main topic of Rio+20. Germany and Tajikistan have taken the lead on water issues. They have also expressed their expectations for water in Rio and the role that UN-Water could play. Germany is engaged in raising awareness for the nexus perspective. The difference with this and Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is that while IWRM is water community driven, the nexus perspective proposes a two-way dialogue with the sectors. It also helps clarify what the responsibilities of the sectors are. Without this, it is difficult to set up measures and take action. Tajikistan considers that much has been achieved in water management. The country has acknowledged that water plays a key role in development and is fundamental in the transition to a Green Economy. The Dushanbe 2011 Preparatory Conference on water cooperation proposed to include a thematic section in the agenda for Rio+20. Tajikistan stated that cooperation is of utmost importance to improving citizens’ welfare. It has to acknowledge the important net economic benefits that result from water cooperation while there may be different sectoral and political interests. Brazil concluded that access to water is an issue to be solved with technological innovations in agricultural and energy production. Furthermore, they have classified the reduction of water consumption in industrial infrastructure and urban supply as one of the primary challenges for the development of sustainable cities. Finally, they proposed the creation of a Global SocioEnvironmental Protection Programme, which will guarantee clean water for all and reinforce the MDGs and UN-Water activities. The United States has also recognized the importance of water ecosystems. They have called for the better management of hydrological variability, promotion of sound water resources through regulatory reform, and better access to information. Furthermore, they recognized the existing link between water and energy, and called for improving both efficiency and reuse of water. The nexus approach was also included in the European Union’s submission. Other member states with strong water proposals are Switzerland, Tunisia, Slovenia, Mexico, Liberia, Israel, Guatemala, Croatia, Central Africa, Bolivia, and Australia. The following table summarizes Member States’ positions on water according to the statements submitted to the Zero Draft Compilation Document. The table displays Member states’ support for policies related to: implementation of national water strategies; increase of citizens’ access to water and sanitation; adoption of new technologies that monitor water quality; implementation of IWRM and water efficiency frameworks at regional and national levels; recognition of the water basin as the unit of management and implementation of its strategies; recognition of the water-energyfood security nexus and cross-sectoral water priorities; and participation of water users and stakeholders in policy process.

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support

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Participation of Stakeholders

Cross Sectoral Approach

Right to Water

Basin Management

IRWM & efficiency

Management

Waste

Water Quality

National Strategies

Member State Albania Algeria Argentina Armenia Australia Belarus Benin Bhutan Bolivia Botswana Brazil Burkina Faso Burundi Canada Central African Republic Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Croatia Cuba Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador EU Members Georgia Germany Ghana Grenada Guatemala Holy See (Observer State) Honduras Iceland India Indonesia Israel

Water Access &Sanitation

Table 1: Analysis of Member States Positions on Compilation Document

support

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support (efficiency)

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support (efficiency)

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Lao People's Democratic Republic Liberia Liechtenstein Mexico Montenegro Nepal New Zealand Niger Nigeria Norway Pakistan Paraguay Peru Philippines Republic of Korea

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Venezuela

support

Participation of Stakeholders

Cross Sectoral Approach

Right to Water

Basin Management

IRWM & efficiency

Management

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Republic of Moldova

Russian Federation Senegal Serbia Singapore Slovenia South Africa Sri Lanka Switzerland Tajikistan Thailand Togo Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Kingdom United States Uruguay

Waste

Water Quality

Water Access &Sanitation

National Strategies

Member State Jamaica Japan Kazakhstan Kenya

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The right to water was not widely supported by Member States. Only Bolivia, Japan, Switzerland, and Paraguay made direct mentions of it. On the bright side, increasing water access and sanitation was widely supported by Member States. They also supported the implementation of integrated frameworks for water resources management. Representatives of the United Nations have stated that UN-Water can be a crosscutting link to other sectors. Some countries are counting on it to bring water and development to the Green economy and sustainability agenda. It must be clear that the Green Economy is not a technology blueprint that will solve problems. UN-Water can be a proper institution to elucidate the nexus and implement it in the UN system. IFIs such as the World Bank covered water issues as a central theme of their submissions. They called for water resources to be better allocated between agriculture, energy, urban consumption, mining, and increasingly threatened ecosystems. NGOs supported the incorporation of the human right to water in the Zero Draft. Some of the organizations were the Food and Water Watch, Earth Law Center, World Water Council, and Progressio.

Major Groups Water Priorities The Major Groups (MGs) of a civil society, as defined by Agenda 21, are women, children and youth, indigenous peoples, non-governmental organizations, local authorities, workers and trade unions, business and industry, scientific and technological community, and farmers. These groups have participated in meetings of the CSD as representatives of a variety of organizations that have been accredited by the United Nations. The MGs have expressed their concerns about water resources. These summaries are based in Major Group’s Zero Draft submissions and information provided by representatives. The Major Group on Children and Youth (MGCY) The MGCY is the official constituency of children and youth in the CSD process. The MGCY has called for the recognition of the water-food-energy security nexus in the Rio+20 discussions. Additionally, they support water efficiency in order to avoid worsening crises that affect youth and children. In terms of the Zero Draft, the MGCY supports:     

The importance of the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights The important role of the private sector and civil society in meeting the water challenge The renewal of the commitment made in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) regarding the development and implementation of integrated water resource management, the nexus approach, and water efficiency plans The development of specific water efficiency measures to track water use throughout all sectors such as agriculture, energy, industrial and urban use The implementation of national and regional water-basin frameworks to improve a mechanism for solving conflicts among water-users

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The Major Group for Business and Industry (BASD) BASD is the official constituency for businesses, industries, and representatives of the private sector that participate in the CSD process. Aquafed writes the proposals for water policies in behalf of BASD. They also represent private companies of all sizes that operate water and sanitation services under the mandate of public authorities in conformity with a wide variety of business models. Its aim is to contribute to solving water issues through the work of the international community. BASD recognizes the key role water plays for all aspects of sustainable development, the green economy, and for poverty alleviation. Among the water policies proposed are:    

Accelerate access to safe drinking water and sanitation in rural and urban settlements. Promote a common vision and adopt an action plan for wastewater management in order to protect the health of individuals by economic means. Ensure sustainable water economics to provide services through the execution of Sustainable Cost-Recovery mechanisms. To furnish water services to all users while supporting the long-term social, environmental, and economic dimensions of a green economy.

BASD and Aquafed support language to address the true scale and urgency of the water and sanitation crisis. Similar to the MGCY, the also support the crosscutting dimensions of water resources in the development of wastewater polices and city planning within the green economy.

The Major Group for Women (CSD-Women) CSD-Women is the official constituency for women within the CSD process. CSD-Women promotes the incorporation of gender mainstreaming in Rio+20 to grant exposure and support to both women’s and men’s contributions to water management. According to the MG, policies and programs that ignore the differential impact on gender groups are often gender-blind and hinder human development. CSD Women also promote:    

The vital role of women in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions The adoption of the human right to water The implementation of the Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) Effective public participation, particularly among women, is essential to reach an equitable outcome when proposing and implementing water policies

The Major Group of Scientific and Technical Community (ICSU) UCSU is the official constituency for the scientific and technical community. According to ICSU, water must be given the prominence it deserves on the global agenda; the future should be viewed through “water lenses.” They call for the improvement of the availability of data and information, particularly on transboundary water resources and planetary thresholds. Other priorities presented by ICSU are: 

Water-related climate change adaptations should be an integral part of water resources management plans (and vice versa)

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   

Need for greater stakeholder participation and collective action Urbanization should be interpreted as an opportunity, rather than a risk The need to introduce and implement strong policy and legal frameworks Proper finance mechanisms are required to ensure sustainability of water services while capacity building is required at all levels

The Major Group of Indigenous Peoples (CSD-Indigenous) CSD-Indigenous is the official constituency for indigenous people within the CSD process. CSDIndigenous calls for the inclusion of indigenous people in major decision-making processes, especially on decisions that may hamper their access to water. They call for better protection of water supplies from industrial activities and mining. Also, they call for the implementation of existing agreements such as the UN Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational uses of International Watercourses, and the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

The Major Group of Local Authorities (ICLEI) ICLEI is the official constituency for local governments and authorities. ICLEI calls for a good water governance that increases access to water supply and wastewater management in the context of urbanization. Additionally, ICLEI supports the concept of self-sufficient cities, which supports the idea that a city would be able to generate its own resources, including water. Improving water quality has also been of concern for ICLEI representatives.

The Major Group of Workers and Trade Unions (CSD-Workers) CSD-Workers are the official constituency for workers and their trade unions. The MG asserts that the experiment of privatization in the water and sanitation sector has failed to deliver for the poor. They encourage governments to prioritize water and sanitation investments using public ownership and public management in order to ensure universal access to these fundamental services. Their comments state that commodification of water will only lead to greater exclusion for the most poor and vulnerable. Above all, they state that privatization of water resources affects water sanitation and other productive sectors directly.

The Major Group of Farmers (CSD-Farmers) CSD-Farmers are the official constituency for farmers and small workers within the CSD process. In their initial November submission to the Compilation Document, the Major Group of Farmers petitioned for an increase in resource efficiency in agricultural practices, particularly for nutrients and water. The Major Group also petitioned for:   

Best practices that improve watershed management Programs that support better rainwater harvesting and efficient use of water in agriculture The use of crops better adapted for dry land conditions

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The Major Group of Non-Governmental Organizations (CSD-NGOs) CSD-NGOs are the official constituency for non-governmental organizations within the CSD process. NGOS have underlined the importance of restoration and conservation of forests and other ecosystems that play a crucial role in the conservation of watersheds. Furthermore, they support an array of positions for water management such as:    

The implementation of equitable and sustainable Integrated Water Resources Management The implementation of an Environmental Reserve to ensure healthy flows of water in rivers and other water systems for thriving species and habitats The development of a Basic Needs Reserve ensuring adequate flows for the achievement of the human right to water The urgent need to halt the further reduction of aquatic biodiversity

Sanitation is also a priority for the NGOs. For example, in the Zero Draft they called to make sanitation a priority with the purpose of reducing threats to the health and wellbeing of inhabitants. They stated that political will is the main obstacle in increasing access to water and sanitation. Consequently, the human right to water must be acknowledged at Rio+20 to guarantee the implementation of universal access to water.

Where was water in the Draft Outcome Document? After the compilation document, the Rio+20 Secretariat drafted the “Future We Want.” The text, known as the Zero Draft, would serve as the basis for the Rio+20 negations. The first version of the Zero Draft was published early in January. The water theme/subject was included under the section for Green Economy in the setting of sustainable development and poverty eradication. It calls for sound water management to be based in the Rio principles, even though the Rio Principles did not specifically mention water. Other paragraphs that mention water are: Paragraph 65, We call for more transparent and open trading systems and, where appropriate, practices that contribute to the stability of food prices and domestic markets; ensure access to land, water and other resources; and support social protection programmes. Paragraph 67, We underline the importance of the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights. Furthermore, we highlight the critical importance of water resources for sustainable development, including poverty and hunger eradication, public health, food security, hydropower, agriculture and rural development. Paragraph 68, We recognize the necessity of setting goals for wastewater management, including reducing water pollution from households, industrial and agricultural sources and promoting water efficiency, wastewater treatment and the use of wastewater as a resource, particularly in expanding urban areas. Paragraph 69, We renew our commitment made in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) regarding the development and implementation of integrated water resources management and water efficiency plans. We reaffirm our commitment to the 2005-2015 International Decade for Action “Water for Life”. We encourage cooperation initiatives for water resources management in particular through capacity development, exchange of experiences,

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best practices and lessons learned, as well as sharing appropriate environmentally sound technologies and expertise. Paragraph 72, We commit to promote an integrated and holistic approach to planning and building sustainable cities through support to local authorities, efficient transportation and communication networks, greener buildings and an efficient human settlements and service delivery system, improved air and water quality, reduced waste, improved disaster preparedness and response and increased climate resilience. Paragraph 74, We also recognize that significant job creation opportunities can be available through investments in public works for restoration and enhancement of natural capital, sustainable land and water management practices, family farming, ecological farming, organic production systems, sustainable forest management, rational use of biodiversity for economic purposes, and new markets linked to renewable and unconventional energy sources. Paragraph 81, We call on countries to advance implementation of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, including further capacity-building and mobilization of resources for investment in treatment of human wastes and waste water and to develop a global action plan to combat marine litter and pollution. Paragraph 89, We encourage international initiatives and partnerships to address the interrelationship among water, energy, food and climate change in order to achieve synergies as well as to minimize conflicts among policy objectives, being particularly sensitive to impacts on vulnerable populations. Paragraph 107, We propose that the Sustainable Development Goals could include sustainable consumption and production patterns as well as priority areas such as oceans; food security and sustainable agriculture; sustainable energy for all; water access and efficiency; sustainable cities; green jobs, decent work and social inclusion; and disaster risk reduction and resilience.

What was missing in the Zero Draft? Overall, the Draft Zero does a good job by incorporating water resources from sanitation to its interdependency with energy and agriculture. Nonetheless, despite the attempt of the Zero Draft to provide an overarching approach to water resources, the document still has many flaws when it comes to addressing the water challenge. There is still work to be done in terms of developing frameworks for basin-wide management. The document highlights the importance of water, but fails to propose substantial mechanisms for solving conflicts among big users such as energy, agriculture, urban centers and industries. First, the document needs to strengthen its language to recognize the human right to water. The UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights added the right to water via the General Comment No. 15 at its twenty-ninth session on November 2002. The right to water guarantees all citizens “…sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic uses.” Member States’ obligations related to water access and sanitation have been recognized in international human rights treaties such as:  Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women  International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention No. 161 concerning Occupational Health Services

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 

Convention on the Rights of the Child Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

Second, the document does not clarify the implementation of stakeholders’ consultation and participatory processes. The Rio Declaration Principle 10 states, “Environmental issues are best handled with participation of all concerned citizens, at the relevant level. At the national level, each individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning the environment that is held by public authorities.” The Dublin Principles support the participation of all stakeholders, particularly women, since they have a vital role in environmental management and development. Their full participation is therefore essential to achieve sustainable development. Another worrisome aspect of the Zero Draft is the silo approach to different sectors such as energy, water, and agriculture. Statements from the Stockholm Water Conference and the Bonn Conference specifically address the need to incorporate a nexus or cross-sectoral approaches to all these areas. For example, national strategies need to address the existing relationship between water and energy in order to combine their priorities. In some countries, national water authorities do not review energy development proposals that might affect water resources. This can have a detrimental impact in a country’s water availability and other sectors that depend on them. Consequently, the document needs to establish the importance of promoting resourceefficiency with a special consideration toward water. The document does a poor job in establishing the role that the private sector will play to reach sanitation and water access goals. The UN estimates it would cost an additional USD 30 billion to provide access to safe water to the entire planet. Member States and IFIs have expressed the need for increasing the private partners’ participation within the water sector. The Zero Draft should express the need to establish clear guidelines to guarantee that these interactions between governments and private partners are successful. Governments need to protect the welfare of the citizens while meeting increasing demands for water at an affordable cost. Public private partnerships might be one of the key components for solving the challenge of providing water access to millions of people in the world.

Zero Draft 2.0: Chair suggestions and Revised Text The Zero Draft has been under revision since the negotiations started in January 2012. Some of the paragraphs and references of human right to water have been reworded or removed. In addition, the majority of the water-related text is part of the Framework of Action presented in Part V of the outcome document. During the negotiations, the outcome text grew to more than 200 pages, which clearly slowed down the process. The co-chairs of the Rio+20 process prepared a new text to facilitate the negotiations between Member States. The text delivered on April 17, 2012 is known as the Co-chairs Suggested Text (CST). A new text, known as the New Co-chairs Suggested Text (NCST) emerged during the second round of “informal-informal” negotiations on the zero draft in late April. The original document has been reduced 100 pages. However, only seven percent of the text has been agreed on. Because of the lack of progress of the negotiations, Member States gave the Co-Chairs the authority to deliver a new compromise text for the “emergency negotiation session” at the end of May.

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In the new text, some mentions on water can be seen in Section V. Framework for Action: Water 1. We reaffirm our commitments regarding the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as essential for the full enjoyment of life. We commit to the progressive realization of universal access to safe and clean drinking water and basic sanitation, with a particular emphasis on people living in vulnerable situations. In this regard, we reaffirm our commitment to increase access to safe and clean drinking water and basic sanitation in accordance with national legislation and consistent with our goal to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. We also highlight our commitment to the 2005-2015 International Decade for Action “Water for Life.� Water 2. We recognize that water is at the core of sustainable development as it is closely linked to a number of key global challenges. In this regard, we reaffirm the commitments made in the JPOI and the Millennium Declaration regarding the development of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Water Efficiency Plans, ensuring sustainable water use through integrated water resource management and increased resource efficiency. Water 3. We further highlight the critical importance of water and sanitation within the context of the three dimensions of sustainable development, including for poverty and hunger eradication, gender equality and women’s empowerment, public health, agriculture and food security, rural development, production of energy, as well as for the protection of biodiversity and ecosystems. We therefore reiterate the importance of integrating water in development and all relevant sectoral policies. Water 4. We commit to adopt measures, in accordance with national legislation and planning frameworks, to reduce water pollution from households, industrial and agricultural sources, reduce water loss, increase water efficiency and wastewater treatment, promote the use of treated wastewater as a resource, as well as other non-conventional water resources, such as desalinated water, when appropriate. Water 5. We recognise the importance of inclusive basin-based cooperation at national, transboundary and international levels, as appropriate, for water resource management, and of reducing institutional fragmentation. In this regard, we welcome the General Assembly Resolution A/RES/65/154 designating 2013 as the International Year of Water Cooperation. We recognize that capacity development and the exchange of experiences, best practices and lessons learned contribute to successful, long-term development in the water sector.

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Sustainable Development Goals: Water The government of Colombia has introduced a proposal for the development of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The aim of the proposal is to integrate poverty eradication goals with sustainable development goals. The goals are supposed to serve as the successors of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which will expire in 2015. SDG Proposal: Integrated water management for sustainable growth Potential issue areas: Increased access to water supply and sanitation Improved quality of water resources and ecosystems Increased water efficiency Reduced health risks from water-related diseases → MDG Linkage: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

The proposal includes water as one of the indicative areas for action. The goal aims to address the integration of the social, environmental and economic dimensions of water management. For example, improving water quality (economic dimension) must be accompanied by water quality indicators (environmental dimension) while improvement of access must be accompanied by clean water and sanitation (social dimension). This message was also highlighted in the Stockholm+40 conference outcome document.

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Recommendations for Rio+20 Rio+20 presents an opportunity to renew Member States’ water resources commitments and propose more ambitious, but achievable goals and targets. Rio+20 must not aim to reinvent the wheel in terms of water commitments, but rather incorporate existing commitments within the frameworks of action that will be approved at the conference. The efficacy of these policies needs to be complemented by institutional frameworks with sufficient capacity to manage water resources. There is a need to gain a comprehensive global perspective on water governance, incorporating international water law, in conjunction with domestic law and organizational framework. When referring to the development of economic policies such as the ones being proposed by Rio+20, it is necessary for Member States to put in place safeguards to protect citizens’ water access. • Member States must recognize the human right for water in national water strategies. • Water strategies should clarify the entitlements and responsibilities of water users and water providers. Additional clarification must be issued for the roles of government, private sector and civil society institutions. Such roles must specify the rights, duties and obligation for men and women, where appropriate. • Policies must establish gender indicators and conduct gender audits to strengthen women’s participation in governance processes. Collection and analysis of gender-disaggregated data would need to be made mandatory for developing effective gender indicators. • Water strategies for access must incorporate a Sustainable Cost-Recovery mechanism to finance infrastructure while protecting the most vulnerable populations. • Multi-stakeholder consultations should be encouraged at the basin-level to promote a better distribution of water resources. • The water-energy-food-security nexus must be recognized at Rio+20. There is a necessity to integrate water in development and sectoral policies. These should include agricultural, rural and urban development, and energy related policies to promote efficient water use throughout all productive sectors. In this regard, governments and private sectors must facilitate research and grant incentives to advocate water efficiency and water quality monitoring technologies. • There is a need to include a SDG for water that incorporates the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of water management.

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References Biswas, A. & Tortajada, C. (2005). Impacts of Megaconferences on Global Water Development and Management. Springer. Maisonet, O. (2011). Water and Energy: The New Kobayashi Maru? The Nexus Blog. Retrieved from: http://www.water-energyfood.org/en/stakeholders/blog/show__17/water_and_energy_the_new_kobayashi_maru.html Narain, S (2008). The politics of inefficient irrigation technology. Global Subsidies Initiative. Retrieved from: http://www.globalsubsidies.org/en/subsidy-watch/commentary/the-politicsinefficient-irrigation-technology NGLS (2003). Intergovernmental Negotiations and Decision Making at the UN: A Guide. New York and Geneva: United Nations Rioplustwenties (2011). Rio+20 Participation Guide - An introduction for children and youth. Retrieved from: http://rioplustwenties.org/documents/Participation_Guide_Rio+20_web.pdf Strandenae, J. (2011). Sustainable Development Governance towards Rio+20: Framing the Debate. SDG 2012. The Stakeholders’ Forum. Retrieved from: http://www.stakeholderforum.org/fileadmin/files/SDG%20Paper%20Jan%20Gustav%20_2_.pdf UN (2011). Moving toward a Balance and Inclusive Green Economy: A United Nations Systemwide Perspective. Retrieved from: http://www.ledevoir.com/documents/pdf/rapportONU15decembre2011.pdf UN (2011). Millennium Development Goals: 2011 Progress Chart. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/(2011E)_MDReport2011_ProgressChart.pdf UNCSD (2011). Rio+20 Issues Briefings: Water. No. 11. Retrieved http://www.uncsd2012.org/rio20/index.php?page=view&type=400&nr=231&menu=45

from:

UNEP (2007). Negotiating And Implementing Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs): A Manual For NGO. Retrieved from: http://www.unep.org/dec/docs/MEAs%20Final.pdf UN-Water (2008). Status Report on Integrated Water Resources Management and Water Efficiency Plan. Retrieved from: http://www.unwater.org/downloads/UNW_Status_Report_IWRM.pdf WHO (2006). Meeting the MDG Drinking Water and Sanitation Target: The Urban and Rural Challenge of the Decade. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/jmpfinal.pdf

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Appendix 1: Lobbying for Water Management There will be many sessions and side events in where you can participate to promote specific policy recommendations for Rio+20.

______________________________Tip 1_____________________________ “…. Be prepared. As a water expert and advocate, you will need to tie your country’s national water priorities with the outcomes of Rio+20. ” _______________________________________________________________ As a water expert, you will need to be informed about the role that water will play in the Rio+20 negotiations. Having the right information is necessary for developing text suggestions and proposals that your delegation can use to propose amendments. You will need to be able to respond to the following questions: • What are your country’s national water priorities? • What major themes are forgotten when addressing the role of water in the green economy? • What can be done to improve the current proposals for water management? • What lessons learned or initiatives that worked in your country could potentially be used as an example to promote synergy between water and other economic and social sectors?

______________________________Tip 2_____________________________ “…. Prepare short statements to share with the members of your delegation. Take a look at previous international water commitments for language references.” ________________________________________________________________ The purpose of these questions is to help you develop short statements and proposals that can be shared with your country’s official Rio+20 delegation. Keep in mind that the Rio outcome will not have pages devoted to discuss a single issue. You will need to propose concrete solutions and policy actions. However, when discussing these options with your delegates do not forget to bring supporting material. Other actions that you can take to participate in the Rio+20 process at the local and regional levels are: • Participate in national and regional official or non-official committees for Rio+20 • Provide individual input of an organization into national and regional preparations • Organize awareness campaigns and events on water issues and Rio+20 • Offer to organize a stakeholder’s call or meeting with the delegation that will participate in the conference

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• Transmit technical information to national authorities and regional bodies on specific subjects relating to Rio+20 There are multiple ways of increasing the credibility of your proposal. One of the most effective ways to increase credibility is linking your proposal with existing international agreements. Examples of these documents are: • Agenda 21 (1992) • Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development (1992) • Millennium Development Goals (2000) • Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002) • WSSD: A Framework for Action on Water and Sanitation (2002) • Dushanbe Water Appeal (2003) • Resolution on the Human Right to Water (2010) • Human rights and access to safe drinking water and sanitation - A/HRC/15/L14. • Previous CSD Sections Outcome Documents Other documents will also help you make informed suggestions. The UN-Water Decade Programme prepared a “Water and Green Economy Reader” to help stakeholders’ familiarize with the green economy concept and the importance of water. The reader provides basic references for easy reading and some of the most relevant United Nations publications on the subject of water and the green economy. Additionally, some useful information has been compiled in their Rio+20 website. The Water for Life Programme put together the “International UN-Water Conference: Water in the Green Economy in Practice: Towards Rio+20.” The conference book presents the main outcomes of the International UN-Water Conference “Water in the Green Economy in Practice: Towards Rio+20,” which took place in Zaragoza, Spain. Finally, the UNU Institute for Water, Environment & Health undertook an examination of the changing language of water in high-level declarations from eleven UN conferences on water and the environment over the past forty years. The “Deep Words, Shallow Words: An Initial Analysis of Water Discourse in Four Decades of UN Declarations” was their contribution to the Rio+20 process.

_____________________________Tip 3_____________________________ “…. When lobbying your government, you need to find out who you should be talking to. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs or the Ministry of the Environment is generally the lead for Rio+20. You will need to locate the section of the Ministry that deals with UN Relations or Foreign Aid.” ________________________________________________________________

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Once you have found the right contact, communicating your message effectively is essential; otherwise, your effort will be lost. Never ignore a contact you have made. If you make a lot of contacts before you find the “right’ contact” make sure you keep in touch with all of them, internal knowledge of the government system will come in handy and they may be able to help you at a later stage.

_____________________________Tip 4_____________________________ “…. Develop partnerships and team up with national and international organizations that are currently working on water.” ________________________________________________________________ Effective lobbying requires developing partnerships with other agents that are interested in the same issues as you. Partnerships can be developed with NGOs, private sector representatives, gender-focused groups, youth groups, and others. One way of finding out which groups in your country are currently active in Rio issues, is taking a look at the Zero Draft submissions in the UNCSD website. You can use the search bar and look for the submissions of organizations that are based in your country. Your proposal will be stronger if you present it as the product of an inclusive consultation with national water stakeholders.

_____________________________Tip 4_____________________________ “…. Join the global discussion in the water community.” ________________________________________________________________ Rio+20 is an opportunity to strengthen environmental governance. However, there are other opportunities to engage with members of the water sector. Before and after Rio+20 there will be ongoing opportunities for networking and exchanging ideas. These opportunities include the World Water Forum, the SIWI’s World Water Week, the International Meeting of the Damaffected People, and the Ministerial Conferences on Water.

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Appendix 2: Water Events at Rio+20 This water-calendar at Rio+20 has been compiled by the UN-Water Decade Programme on Advocacy and Communication (UNW-DPAC). Information provided has been mainly sourced from the official Rio+20 website www.uncsd2012.org For the full calendar go to: http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/pdf/draft_water_calendar_rio+20.pdf Wednesday 13 June 11:30-13:00 • Next Steps: Moving Forward to Achieve Water for All By Food and Water Watch, In RioCentro Room T-10 15:30-17:00 • High Level Meeting on National Drought Policy By World Meteorological Organization (WMO), In RioCentro Room T-11 Thursday 14 June 13:30-15:00 • 4th Helena Z. Benitez Global Forum on Gender Justice and the Green Economy Focusing on Water, Energy and Food: Promises and Paradigms By Philippines Women University, In RioCentro Room T-10 15:00-17:30 • Russia. Water: for health and against disability By Interregional Union of Life Help for Mentally Handicapped Persons, In RioCentro Room T-10 17:30-19:00 • Transboundary Waters, Climate Change and Good Governance By WWF Indonesia, In RioCentro Room T-8 Friday 15 June 13:30-15:00 • TEEB for Water and Wetlands By Ramsar Convention, In RioCentro Room P3-6 15:30-17:00 • On Right to Water, Green Economy and Right based approaches to Sustainable Development By Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (IATP), In RioCentro Room T-8 Saturday 16 June 09:00-10:30 • Building a New Ecosystem for Sustainable Economy. Session at Rio+20 Corporate Sustainability Forum (Rio+20 CSF) By UN Global Compact and Global Compact Network Korea, In Windsor Barra Hotel 11:00-12:30 • Water Conservation Initiatives across Sectors. Session at Rio+20 CSF By UN Global Compact and Global Compact Network Indonesia,In Windsor Barra Hotel 13:30-15:00 • The human right to water and sanitation: The challenge of implementation By Centro de Derechos Humanos y Ambiente (CEDHA), In RioCentro Room T-5 14:00-15:30 • Corporate Water Stewardship & Innovative Partnerships: An Imperative for Improved Water Resource Management. Session at Rio+20 CSF By UN Global Compact and Alliance for Water Stewardship, In Windsor Barra Hotel 16:00-17:30 • Towards a Green and Resilient Economy: Addressing the Climate-Water Nexus. Session at Rio+20 CSF By UN Global Compact and UNEP, In Windsor Barra Hotel & Congresses Sunday 17 June 09:00-12:30 • Aligning Business Practice with the Human Right to Water and Sanitation. Session at Rio+20 CSF By UN Global Compact, In Windsor Barra Hotel 09:30-11:00 • Without Water There is No Life – Educational Component By The International Health Awareness Network (IHAN), In RioCentro Room T4

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14:00-17:30 • Emerging Best Practice in Corporate Water Disclosure. Session at Rio+20 CSF By UN Global Compact, In Windsor Barra Hotel Monday 18 June 09:00-10:30 • Enabling Achievement of Water Sustainability Objectives: Collective Action & the Water Action Hub. Session at Rio+20 CSF By UN Global Compact, In Windsor Barra Hotel 09:30-11:00 • The Spirituality and Ethics of Water By United Religions Initiative (URI), In RioCentro Room P3-B 09:30-11:00 • Mountain knowledge solutions for sustainable green economy and improved water, food, energy, and environment nexus By International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development ICIMOD, In RioCentro Room P3-A 11:00-12:30 • Understanding Effective Water-related Collective Action in Practice. Session at Rio+20 CSF By UN Global Compact, In Windsor Barra Hotel 11:30-13:00 • Investing in Natural Capital. Securing Food, Water and Energy in the World’s Most Valued Ecoregions By Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF), In RioCentro Room P3-E 11:30-13:00 • Dublin Rio Principles. Bridging the gender gap in water resource management: where do we stand, what lessons learned By Global Water Partnership (GWP), In RioCentro Room P3-6 14:00-15:30 • Responsible Water Management Practices in Conflict Affected & High-Risk Areas. Session at Rio+20 CSF By UN Global Compact, In Windsor Barra Hotel 14:30-18:00 • Water panel. Session at Sustainable Development Dialogues By Government of Brazil, In RioCentro 15:30-18:00 • Gender, Water and Preparing for Climate Change: Implications for Food, Health and Human Rights By International Women’s Anthropology Conference (IWAC),In Barra Arena Room UN3 17:30-19:00 • Sustainable Energy, Food, Water and Oceans By International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), In RioCentro Room P3-E 19:30-21:00 • Scalable Solutions – Managing water for economies, communities and nature By World Wildlife Fund (WWF) International, In RioCentro Room T-3 Tuesday 19 June 09:30-11:00 • Water Day (part 1). Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM): Benefing countries for a sustainable and equitable future By UN-Water, In RioCentro Room P3-6 11:30-13:00 • Water Day (part 1). Towards global commitments on universal access to water and sanitation By UN-Water, In RioCentro Room P3-6 13:30-15:00 • Green Growth Approach in the River Basin Management Planning By Turkey, In RioCentro Room P3-F 14:15-16:15 • Thematic breakout ‘Water’ Session at BASD 2012 By Business Action for Sustainable Development (BASD), In Windsor Barra Hotel 17:30-19:00 • Water Day (part 2). Water and Sanitation as a Human Right By UN-Water, In RioCentro Room P3-6 19:00-21:00 • Water Security and Water Diplomacy – Prospectives for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) By United Nations Association Finland, In RioCentro Room T8

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19:30-21:00 • Water Day (part 2). International Year of Water Cooperation and World Water Day 2013 By UN-Water, In RioCentro Room P3-6 Wednesday 20 June 11:00-12:30 • Water and Sanitation: Rights for Sustainable Development By Spain, In RioCentro Room T9 17:00-18:30 • Sharing and Partnering in Urban Water Solutions By Israel, In RioCentro Room P3-B Thursday 21 June 13:15-14:45 • Sustainable Development and Water: Global Goals, Targets, Partnerships By Finland, In RioCentro Room P3-E 13:15-14:45 • Efficient Water and Sanitation services provision as a key factor for sustainable development By National Association of Water and Sanitation Utilities in Mexico, In Barra Arena Room UN5 15:00-16:30 • Thematic Session on Water Cooperation By Tajikistan, In RioCentro Room P3-E

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Appendix 3: Methodology for the Analysis of the Compilation Document At its Second Preparatory Meeting in March 2011, the Preparatory Committee for the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) requested the Bureau to establish a public, transparent and inclusive process, led by member States, to prepare a draft text, based upon all preparatory inputs, to serve as the basis for an outcome document for the Conference. The compilation document is available in the official UNCSD website. The author proposed the categories to analyze the document, according to existing international agreements for water resource such as those proposed by Agenda 21, JPOI, and the Millennium Declaration. The established categories were national water strategies, water access and sanitation (MDG), water quality, wastewater management, IWRM and water efficiency plans, basinwide management, cross-sectoral approach, human right to water, and participation of stakeholders. The author performed a search to determined mentions of water throughout the compilation document to determine mentions by major groups, non-governmental organizations, UN agencies, and other relevant actors. The inputs submitted by Member States were studied to determine States’ positions related to each ones of the categories. A mention or reference to one of the categories was understood as support for it, and was recorded in the excel sheet. The inputs submitted by Major Groups were also studied to determine their positions related to water resources. Additionally, the author reached out to the focal point for water of some Major Groups to clarify their positions. Major Groups positions were not included in the table that presents Member States’ positions.

For other questions related to the methodology, feel free to email olimar.maisonetguzman@sustainus.org .

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Rio+20: A Water Guide for Young Water Experts