OEM Off-Highway November/December 2021

Page 1

NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

NEW HYDRAULIC DESIGNS BRING EFFICIENCY GAINS Hydraulic system advancements are enabling improvements in machine efficiency. PAGE 24

2021 PRODUCTS PAGE 22

oemoffhighway.com


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CONTENTS

VOLUME 39, NO. 8 | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

FEATURES

ews Briefs: California Small Engine N Emissions Regulation

14 C alifornia Signs Law Banning Sale of New Gas-Powered Small Engines by 2024

The sale of mowers and other equipment powered by small off-road engines will be regulated by 2024 in an effort to reduce emissions.

Search: 21772086

News Briefs: New Volvo Electric Equipment

With the new compact wheel loader and excavators, Volvo

16 V olvo Construction Equipment Launches Three New Electric Powered Machines

CE will now have the broadest range of electric equipment in the construction industry. Search: 21759721

Cover Story: Fluid Power System

New advancements in hydraulic components and

Power Systems: Electric Motors

Replacing the cylinder and tube architecture of traditional

18 A xial Flux Motor Design Provides Increased Torque and Reduced Package Size

ON THE COVER

electric motors with that of a disc for the rotor and stators offers performance and packaging improvements.

24 I mproved Hydraulic System Design and Control Benefit Overall Machine Efficiency systems are enabling heavy equipment to operate more efficiently.

Search: 21796953

Top New Products

The Top New Products list features the most viewed

22 Top New Products of 2021

products on OEMOffHighway.com in 2021.

Search: 21796960

Search: 21427284

Engineering & Manufacturing

There is a massive commercial opportunity for OEMs who

30 Will Open Architecture Challenge Military OEMs?

18

utilize an open architecture to win more customer bids. Search: 21627685

30

Electrical & Electronics: Actuators

Electric actuators can provide a lower total cost of

32 E lectric Actuator Advancements Expand Options for Replacing Hydraulic Cylinders ownership compared to hydraulic cylinders, as well as increased control and precision capabilities.

32

Search: 21563427

Technology Breakdown: Western Star 47X

Building on the 49X launch last year, Western Star releases

34 W estern Star Expands X-Series Vocational Truck Line the 47X to reach new vocational applications. Search: 21759695

4

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021



IN EVERY ISSUE Editor’s Note

8 W hat Will the Future Hold for Emissions Regulations? Equipment Market Outlook

10 A griculture Equipment Orders Remain Above Year-Ago Levels oemoffhighway.com/economics

38 New Products: Operator Cab

oemoffhighway.com/directory

Published by AC Business Media

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD Craig Callewaert, PE Chief Project Manager Volvo Construction Equipment Roy Chidgey Business Segment Head, Minerals Projects and Global Mobile Mining Siemens Large Drives US Andrew Halonen President Mayflower Consulting, LLC

40 Events Calendar

Terry Hershberger Director, Sales Product Management, Mobile Hydraulics Bosch Rexroth Corp.

40 Advertisers’ Index

Steven Nendick Marketing Communications Director Cummins Inc.

oemoffhighway.com/events

Off-Highway Heroes

The invention of pneumatic tires improved

42 Pneumatic Tires for Scrapers

maneuverability of scrapers and other construction equipment, particularly in soft ground conditions. Search: 21796936

Online Exclusives www.oemoffhighway.com Pre-Compensated Valve Platforms Offer New Benefits in Mobile Machine Development

Complete, compact pre-compensated valve platforms provide plug and play solutions for OEMs, enabling them to select the right hydraulic control valves for a specific machine application. Search: 21392171

A Tier 5 Emissions Regulation is Coming

California has outlined the objectives, strategy and tactics to achieve the goals of a Tier 5 Diesel Off-Road Emission Standard. Search: 21796621

Market Forecast: Fluid Power

www.OEMOffHighway.com PRINT AND DIGITAL STAFF Publisher Sean Dunphy sdunphy@ACBusinessMedia.com Editor Sara Jensen sjensen@ACBusinessMedia.com Senior Field Editor Curt Bennink cbennink@ACBusinessMedia.com Contributing Writer Thomas Berry Senior Production Manager Cindy Rusch crusch@ACBusinessMedia.com

John Madsen Director Engineering & Product Management GKN Wheels & Structures

Art Director Dave Haglund Audience Development Manager Angela Franks ADVERTISING SALES (800) 538-5544 Greg Schulz.....................gschulz@ACBusinessMedia.com Nikki Lawson.................nlawson@ACBusinessMedia.com Sean Dunphy.................sdunphy@ACBusinessMedia.com Kris Flitcroft....................kflitcroft@ACBusinessMedia.com

Doug Meyer Global Director of Construction Engineering John Deere

Change of Address & Subscriptions — PO Box 3605 Northbrook, IL 60065-3605, Phone: (877) 201-3915 Fax: (847)-291-4816 • circ.OEMOff-Highway@omeda.com

Andy Noble Head of Heavy Duty Engines Ricardo

List Rental — Bart Piccirillo, Sr. Account Manager, Data Axle Phone: 402-836-2768 | bart.piccirillo@data-axle.com

Daniel Reibscheid Business Development Manager MNP Corporation

Reprints — For reprints and licensing please contact Greg Schulz at 920-542-1239.............. gschulz@ACBusinessMedia.com

Matt Rushing Vice President, Product Line, Global Crop Care AGCO Corp. Allen Schaeffer Executive Director Diesel Technology Forum Keith T. Simons President – Controls Products OEM Controls, Inc. Alexandra Nolde Senior Communication & Media Specialist Liebherr-Components AG Bob Straka General Manager, Transportation SBU Southco, Inc. Luka Korzeniowski Global Market Segment Leader, Mobile Hydraulics MTS Sensors Chris Williamson, PhD Senior Systems Engineer Global Research & Development Danfoss Power Solutions Company

The NFPA reports the latest shipments data of fluid power products. Search: 20846516

6

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OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

AC BUSINESS MEDIA Chief Executive Officer.........................................Ron Spink Chief Financial Officer..........................................JoAnn Breuchel Chief Digital Officer...............................................Kris Heineman Chief Revenue Officer...........................................Amy Schwandt VP Audience Development...............................Ronda Hughes Director, Demand Generation & Education................................................................Jim Bagan Director of Digital Operations & IT................Nick Raether Group Content Director......................................Jon Minnick Published and copyrighted 2021 by AC Business Media. All rights reserved. No part of this publication shall be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher. SUBSCRIPTION POLICY: Individual print subscriptions are available without charge in the United States to original equipment manufacturers. Digital subscriptions are available without charge to all geographic locations. Publisher reserves the right to reject nonqualified subscribers. Subscription Prices: U.S. $35 One Year, $70 Two Years; Canada and Mexico $60 One Year, $105 Two Years; all other countries, payable in U.S. funds, drawn on U.S. bank, $85 One Year, $160 Two Years. OEM Off-Highway (USPS 752-770, ISSN 1048-3039 (print); ISSN 2158-7094 (online) is published eight times a year: January/February, March, April/ May, June/July, August, September, October, November/December by AC Business Media, 201 N. Main Street, 5th Fl., Fort Atkinson, WI 53538. Periodicals Postage paid at Fort Atkinson, WI and additional entry offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: OEM Off-Highway, PO Box 3605 Northbrook, IL 60065-3605. Printed in the U.S.A. Volume 39, No. 8, November/December 2021


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EDITOR’S NOTE oemoffhighway.com/21808740

What Will the Future Hold for Emissions Regulations?

A

s I’m writing this, the 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) is taking place in Glasgow, bringing together leaders from around the world to discuss sustainability initiatives. In particular, they will be looking at ways to accelerate global emissions reduction efforts to meet the targets set out by the Paris Agreement. Shortly before the start of COP26, I also had the opportunity to attend the Argus Vehicle Emissions and DEF Summit during which current and future regulations were discussed as well as the technologies needed to meet them. With these events taking place—and ongoing discussions over methods and technologies for reducing emissions—comes the question of what the future of emissions regulations might look like for the heavy equipment industries, particularly the off-road mobile equipment sector. It was said during the vehicle emissions summit that discussions have begun on a Tier 5 emissions regulation for off-road equipment. On Nov. 3, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) held a public rulemaking workshop on Tier 5 emissions regulations for diesel off-road engines. Various proposals were outlined including: » » » »

Lower criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission standards Restrictions on prolonged idling New low load cycle (LLC) certification Increase in the useful life standards for off-road equipment.

California has already begun putting regulations in place for heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, with the Governor creating an executive order that will ban the use of combustion engines in all new vehicles sold in the state by 2035; this includes heavy-duty on-highway trucks and off-road equipment. As part of the Governor’s efforts to mitigate emissions in the state, he also recently announced a ban on the sale of gas-powered small off-road engines which will impact landscape equipment and generators. You can read more about this new executive order in our piece on pg. 14. The big question with these and other potential future regulations is how the targets will be met. While engine and alternative energy technology has advanced greatly, there is still a lot of development work to do. And as pointed out during the emissions summit I attended, there are limitations with certain technologies currently available. There will need to be a lot more technology developments undertaken in order to meet more stringent emissions regulations, which takes time. Although many agree emissions reduction targets are necessary, they also feel it is vital to have input from all possible stakeholders on what is technologically feasible, as well as what the market will accept to ensure uptake of the new technologies. A key sentiment during the emissions summit, and one we hear quite often, is that collaboration will be key to meeting any emissions reduction goals. ©OLEGDOROSHIN – STOCK.ADOBE.COM

IN THE NEXT ISSUE

We want to hear from you!

JAN/FEB ISSUE • Undercarriage Technology Advancements • Chip Shortage Impacts on Work Truck Availability • The Move to 48V Systems • Agricultural Equipment Market Outlook • Operator Environment Trends

8

Where do you see emissions regulations for the off-road equipment industry heading? What aspects do you think will be included in future regulations? How will the industry go about meeting future emissions reduction targets? Let us know!

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

editor@oemoffhighway.com

@OEMEditor


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EQUIPMENT MARKET OUTLOOK

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oemoffhighway.com/economics

©PAVLOBALIUKH – STOCK.ADOBE.COM

AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT ORDERS REMAIN ABOVE YEAR-AGO LEVELS

A

lthough annual U.S. Farm Machinery and Equipment Shipments were down slightly in August 2021, they remained 12.9% above the previous year. Production of agricultural and forestry machinery in Europe was also up in August 14.7% from 1 year ago. Most other sectors, including construction equipment and heavy-duty truck production continue to also fair well, although supply chain challenges are having their impacts. Construction is still likely to move into a slowing growth trend in the coming quarters. Go to oemoffhighway.com to sign up for our monthly ECONOMIC NEWSLETTER!

U.S. Leading Indicator:

ITR Economics is an independent economic research and consulting firm with 60+ years of experience.

• T he monthly U.S. OECD Leading Indicator came in relatively flat versus the prior month. • Decline in the monthly rate-of-change signals a transition to business cycle decline in the U.S. industrial sector around the first quarter of 2022, slightly earlier than the second-quarter transition we are forecasting given the preponderance of leading indicator evidence.

QUESTIONS? economics@oemoffhighway.com

10

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

101.0 100.5 100.0 99.5 99.0 98.5 98.0 97.5 97.0 96.5 96.0 95.5 95.0 94.5 0

Actual index (2010=100)

99.7%

Feb ’21

100.0%

Mar

100.3% 100.4%

Apr

May

100.5%

100.5%

100.5%

100.5%

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Editor’s Note: Please note that this chart has been modified on the Y-axis to show the trend more easily.


U.S. Private Nonresidential New Construction:

U.S. Industrial Production: • U .S. Industrial Production during the third quarter was up 5.6% from the same quarter 1 year ago; September was the third consecutive month of decline in the quarterly rate-ofchange. • Quarterly Production may briefly flatten but is unlikely to contract on the back side of this business cycle given consumers’ strength. 15.0%

15

• U .S. Private Nonresidential New Construction during the 3 months through August was down 3.2% from 1 year ago. • Greater economic activity this year will help refill the pipeline of projects that fuels New Construction spending; expect 2022 to be a growth year for New Construction.

0

12.0%

12

11.0%

-3

-3.2% -3.9%

9 7.4%

-5.0%

-6 5.6%

6

-7.0%

4.6%

-9 3

-9.7%

0 -3

Annual % change in 3 month moving totals

-3.0%

Feb ’21

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Annual % change in 12 month moving totals

-13.0%

-1.3%

Mar

-11.5%

-12

-15

-13.9%

Jan ’21

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

U.S. Total Public New Construction: • U .S. Total Public New Construction in the 12 months through August was down 4.0% from last year. • Robust rise in State and Local Tax Receipts bodes well for 2022 New Construction spending.

4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 -3.0 -3.5 -4.0

3.6%

Annual % change in 12 month moving totals

2.1%

0.8%

-0.1%

-1.3%

-2.6% -3.4%

Jan ’21

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

Jun

11

Jul

-4.0%

Aug


EQUIPMENT MARKET OUTLOOK

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oemoffhighway.com/economics

Europe Ag & Forestry Machinery Production:

U.S. Farm Machinery Production: • Annual U.S. Farm Machinery and Equipment Shipments ticked down in August but were up 12.9% from the same month last year. • Supply chain shortages and recent worker strikes may contribute to business cycle decline in Shipments in the near term.

Annual % change in 12 month moving totals

20

15.6%

• A nnual Europe Agricultural and Forestry Machinery Production in August was up 14.7% from 1 year ago. • Elevated prices of agricultural commodities augur for further Production rise, but next year’s slowing growth in the European industrial sector will likely push Production onto the back side of the business cycle.

15 16.4%

12

15.8%

15

13.8%

Annual % change

14.7%

14.7%

14.7%

99.5

6

101.0

Jul

Aug Sep

100.2 99.8 99.4

98.0

2.9%

97.5

6.7%

97.0

0

96.5

4.0%

-3

1.9%

Feb

101.1

101.0

100.5

98.5

3

Jan ’21

100.8

Monthly index

99.0

10

0

101.0 100.0

9

5

• The monthly Europe Leading Indicator moved higher in September. • Given the typical lead time, the Leading Indicator monthly rate-of-change is signaling that the European industrial sector will transition from accelerating growth to slowing growth in early 2022.

100.5

11.5%

12.9%

11.7%

Europe Leading Indicator:

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

-6

-3.2%

Jan ’21

96.0

-2.4%

95.5 Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

0

Feb Mar ’21

Apr May Jun

Editor’s Note: Please note that this chart has been modified on the Y-axis to show the trend more easily.

U.S. HeavyDuty Truck Production: • Annual U.S. Heavy-Duty Truck Production moved lower in September on supply chain (especially semiconductor) woes but was up 20.9% from 1 year ago. • Some heavy truck manufacturers have stopped taking orders due to shortages of key inputs. Expect decline in the near term, but longer-term growth is probable given the pressing need for transportation services. 25 20

16.7%

19.2%

20.9%

20.9%

10.4%

0

-5.9%

-10 Annual % change in 12 month moving totals

-20

12

20.6%

15 -19.0%

10.5%

10.5%

10

6.2%

-25

-35

-27.5%

Mar

19.6%

20

5

-30

-20.6%

-25 Feb ’21

Annual % change in 3 month moving totals

-14.9%

-20

-4.9%

-15

• Average Germany Industrial Production during the 3 months through August was up 6.2% from 1 year ago. • Germany’s export-reliant economy may be negatively impacted during the coming quarters by supply chain disruptions, particularly for the auto industry.

25

-15

0 -5

Germany Industrial Production:

-10

5

-30

• Annual total China Large Diesel Bus Production rose in August but was down 5.9% from 1 year ago. • Quarterly Production trends signal further rise is on the horizon; however, business cycle decline in China Industrial Production may limit upside potential in this sector during 2022.

-5

15 10

China Diesel Bus Production:

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

-40

-33.1%

Jan ’21

0

-32.7%

-33.2% -35.2%

-35.5%

-2.6%

Annual % change

Feb

Mar

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

-5

Jan ’21

-1.6% -4.0%

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug


U.S. Construction Machinery, New Orders: • Annual U.S. Construction Machinery New Orders in August were 25.2% above the yearago level. • U.S. Single-Unit Housing Starts recently transitioned from accelerating growth to slowing growth, foreshadowing an analogous transition for New Orders in the near term.

Annual % change in 12 month moving totals

30

U.S. Defense Industry, New Orders:

North American Rotary Rig Count: • T he North American Rotary Rig Count averaged 540 in the 12 months through September, down 21.0% from 1 year ago. • Oil prices have broken above $80 per barrel in recent weeks, a price point conducive to additional drilling activity in the future.

• Annual U.S. Defense Capital Goods New Orders in August were down 10.1% from 1 year ago. • Spending on defense capital goods will likely decline in the coming quarters, but R&D and MRO-related spending will likely increase.

0

0

-10

-2

25.2%

25

22.4% 20.5%

20 16.4%

15

-20

13.6%

10

-21.0%

-30

-2.0%

-4 -6

-31.0%

4.7%

5

-40

-8

-40.2%

0 -1.5% -6.7%

-10

Jan ’21

Feb

-48.1%

-50

-5 Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

-60

-56.6%

-58.8%

Feb ’21

Mar

-54.2% -58.1%

Apr

May

-10.3%

Annual % change in 12 month moving totals

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

-12

-8.9%

-9.3%

-10

Feb ’21

Mar

Apr

-8.8%

-8.8%

Annual % change in 12 month moving totals

May

Jun

-10.3%

-10.1%

Aug

Sep

Jul

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13


NEWS BRIEFS: CALIFORNIA SMALL ENGINE EMISSIONS REGULATION oemoffhighway.com/21772086

California Signs Law Banning Sale of New Gas-Powered Small Engines by 2024

O

n October 9, California Gov. Gavin Newsom signed a law that will effectively ban the sale of gas-powered small off-road engines (SORE)— spark-ignited engines rated at or below 25 hp (19 kW)—many of which are used in lawn and garden equipment such as mowers, as well as logging equipment, commercial utility equipment and specialty vehicles. The bill, AB1346, authored by Assemblyman Marc Berman, directs the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to ban the sale of new small off-road engines used in equipment which includes generators, lawn equipment, and other small off-road engine equipment. Regulations are to be in place by Jan. 1, 2024, or as soon as regulators determine what is “feasible,” whichever date is later. According to the text of the bill, by July 1, 2022, the state board is to “adopt cost-effective and technologically feasible regulations to prohibit engine exhaust and evaporative emissions from new small off-road engines.” The state board will also be required to make funding available for commercial rebates or other similar funding to support the transition to zero-emissions options. Currently, the state budget includes $30 million to offer a rebate for people to transition from gas-powered equipment to zero-emission equipment. The new bill is intended to be part of

14

The sale of new gas-powered small off-road engines will be banned in California by 2024.

California’s strategy to reduce pollution. Supporters of the bill argue that small off-road engines create as much pollution in California as passenger vehicles. Per the text of the new bill, California currently exceeds U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state standards for ozone in many parts of the state. The bill states that in 2020, daily oxides of nitrogen (NOx) levels emitted by SORE averaged 16.8 tons per day and 125 tons per day for reactive organic gases (ROG), both of which contribute to the formation of ozone. Because regulations for SORE have not been as stringent as those for other engine types, the state felt it was time to evaluate smaller engines, as well. In addition, there are many

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

zero-emission options, such as battery powered equipment, now available in the market. Read an extended version of this article at www.oemoffhighway. com/21772086. |

Head to the Web Listen to our podcast interview with Joshua Israel, Market Development Manager, Horiba Automotive Test Systems, about how this new legislation will help drive further electrification in the off-highway equipment market at www.oemoffhighway.com/ 21551386.

©DEDMIT YAY – STOCK.ADOBE.COM

The sale of mowers and other equipment powered by small off-road engines will be regulated by 2024 in an effort to reduce emissions. by Ryan Whisner and Sara Jensen


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NEWS BRIEFS: NEW VOLVO ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT oemoffhighway.com/21759721

Volvo CE’s newest electric compact equipment is designed to provide enough power for a full working shift.

Volvo Construction Equipment Launches Three New Electric Powered Machines

V

by Sara Jensen

olvo Construction Equipment (Volvo CE) has announced plans to introduce three new electric powered compact machines. These will include: • L20 Electric compact wheel loader • EC18 Electric compact excavator • ECR18 Electric compact excavator During the virtual launch event for the new machines, Melker Jernberg, President of Volvo CE, said the company will now have the broadest range of electric powered equipment in the construction industry. Volvo CE will have a total of five electric machines available for the market—the previously launched ECR25 Electric compact excavator and Volvo L25 Electric wheel loader, and these three new machines. “We are committed to building the world we want to live in,” he said. That means lowering carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and eliminating emissions, exhaust fumes and vibrations from equipment as it operates as well as reducing noise to create a more enjoyable operating experience for customers. “These machines will deliver exactly

16

that,” said Jernberg. “They will hopefully also deliver a lot of power into [customers’] business.” Development of electric powered equipment is part of the company’s, and the Volvo Group as a whole, efforts to reduce emissions. In June 2021, the Volvo Group’s climate targets were approved by the Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi). These include reaching net zero value chain greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2040 and having at least 35% of its total range of vehicles be fully electric by 2030.

Features of the new electric excavators and wheel loader Based on the larger L25 Electric, Volvo CE’s new L20 Electric is a 4.5-ton wheel loader with a 1.8 ton payload and track width of 1.65 m (5.4 ft.). Paolo Mannesi, Global Product Manager for Compact Wheel Loaders at Volvo CE, said during the launch event that the L20 offers the full benefits of electrification like its predecessor including local emissions-free operation and extensive noise reduction. He said these benefits open up new

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

opportunities for job sites in which the machines can be utilized—particularly those areas where noise and emissions are of most concern. The L20 Electric features a parallel-type linkage for improved visibility over the attachment being used as well as 100% parallel movements to suit use in fork applications. Also included on the machine is a new intuitive HMI (human machine interface) system designed for the company’s electric compact machines to help ensure optimized operation and comfort. Two battery size options are available for the L20 Electric, a 33 kWh or 40 kWh battery pack. This allows customers to configure their machine based on their needed net operating time and planned charging schedule said Mannesi. The L20 Electric can be charged from 0-100% in up to 5 hours on public charging stations or using the charging cable provided with the wheel loader. Customers can expect to get up to 6 hours of active working time on a single charge with this new wheel loader. A new parking brake concept with hill-hold functionality will be introduced with the L20 Electric, as well, said Mannesi, to help further improve operator comfort. The new EC18 and ECR18 Electric compact excavators have many aspects in common with their diesel equivalent, said Clement Brette, Global Product Manager for Compact Excavators at Volvo CE, during the virtual launch event. These include use of the same machine structures, a high level of operator comfort, the same hydraulics systems and optimized lifting and digging capabilities.


Brette said the 1.8-ton EC18 Electric is a conventional machine available with a heated cab or a canopy. It has a battery capacity of 20 kWh and runtime range of 3-5 hours depending on the application. According to Volvo CE, the excavator’s variable undercarriage retracts to less than 1 m (3.3 ft.) and expands up to 1.35 m (4.4 ft.), allowing it to squeeze into the tightest of areas, while the machine’s design ensures the right frame corner, swing post and cylinder stay within the tracks’ width, resulting in maximum visibility and a reduced risk of machine damage when working alongside obstacles. Meanwhile the ECR18 Electric is a short-radius equivalent of the EC18 Electric. This 1.8-ton excavator features a 12 mm (0.5 in.) overhang in the back and the front right corner stays within frame when rotating, ensuring maneuverability in tight spaces. This machine

ALL IMAGES COURTESY OF VOLVO CONSTRUC TION EQUIPMENT

A fleet management app, EMMA, will help customers better monitor battery usage to optimize productivity.

is only available with a canopy. It has a 16 kWh battery capacity and a runtime range of 2.5-4 hours depending on application. Both compact excavators feature 5 in. (127 mm) color displays with simplified menus to ensure ease of operation. The machines are compatible with Volvo’s range of fast chargers and can be recharged from 0-80% in up to 1 hour. Brette said all of the electric machines come with charging cables which use the same protocols as public charging stations. They come with a type 2 plug and can be used on house-

hold outlets as well as workshop blue or red outlets, ensuring customers can recharge their equipment wherever they may be. The charging cables include built-in protection from overheating and other electrical risks. The company has also developed a range of fast chargers to provide customers with even more charging flexibility. Volvo CE plans to make the new electric machines available for production starting in the second quarter of 2022. Read an extended version of this article at www.oemoffhighway. com/21759721. |

Light Equipment Electrification Simplify Your Business and Increase Efficiency. Hatz Diesel’s E1 technology unites the robust and reliable Hatz single cylinder air-cooled diesel engines with modern electronic control; providing the most efficient and versatile engines in their class, and offering features such as CAN control, diagnostics, connectivity, and full variable speed. Hatz also offers E1 variants which incorporate a unique flywheel integrated permanent magnet generator (fiPMG), giving a compact and efficient diesel/electric hybrid solution for all types of equipment. The fiPMG bridges the gap for light equipment from diesel engines with modern electronic features, to hybrid/electric solutions. The future of light equipment is here and growing. Hatznorthamerica.com

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

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POWER SYSTEMS: ELECTRIC MOTORS oemoffhighway.com/21796953

Axial Flux Motor Design Provides Increased Torque and Reduced Package Size

Replacing the cylinder and tube architecture of traditional electric motors with that of a disc for the rotor and stators offers performance and packaging improvements. by Sara Jensen

T

Daniel, co-owner and partner of Omni Powertrain Technologies. Omni, however, has developed an axial flux motor which it believes will provide benefits to a variety of industries, including the heavy-duty on- and off-highway equipment markets. In general, the axial flux design is torque dense whereas a radial flux motor is considered power dense, explains Craig Daniel. He says Omni believes its axial flux motor design can bring

some positive attributes to high-torque applications. “For the off-highway industry, we’re working to pair our motors with different types of drivetrains, swing drives or auxiliary drive applications because we can provide high torque at low speed very efficiently with the electric energy available.”

Why axial flux versus radial flux? Radial flux motor designs are comprised of two main elements, a rotor

OMNI POWERTRAIN TECHNOLOGIES

he push toward electrification and other power alternatives has brought about several new technological developments in recent years. This is due not only to advancements in technology, but also evolving needs and application uses. Integral to many electric powertrains are the electric motors. While there are a variety of electric motor options currently in the market, the majority of the global market is composed of radial flux motor designs, says Craig

The motor/gearbox combination used by PURE ETCR featuring a four motor combination for increased power output.

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OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021


and a stator. The rotor is the rotating portion of the motor and is typically made of several steel laminations; it may also have magnets inside of it and is shaped like a big cylinder, explains Craig Daniel. The stator or armature of the motor is a tube where all of the copper wires are located. “When you energize that you can make the rotor spin, and then in reverse flow turn it into a generator,” he says. “This [has been] the common motor technology of the world for the last 100 years.” Omni’s axial flux product line, however, eliminates the cylinder and tube designs of radial motors and instead utilizes a disc shape—like a pancake—for the rotor and two plate-like stators. As the stators are energized, they cause the disc-shaped rotor to spin between them. “The big advantage compared to a radial motor is that torque is a function of the energy applied or the force ap-

MAGELEC Propulsion, a division of Omni Powertrain Technologies, is providing the Electric Drivetrain Units for the world’s first allelectric, multibrand touring car series known as PURE ETCR.

plied at distance from the center,” says Craig Daniel. “And because we have a larger diameter, but shorter length motor, we actually create a pretty nice torque curve over speed compared to a radial motor.” In addition to spinning faster, which requires more gear reductions, radial motors are longer in length than the Omni

axial flux motor, making integration into some machine designs more difficult. Craig Daniel says there are other axial flux motor designs on the market, and like any technology, each has their own unique attributes. However, no one has yet industrialized this type of motor design. Omni is working on doing so. “Nobody has an automat-

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OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

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PURE ETCR


POWER SYSTEMS: ELECTRIC MOTORS oemoffhighway.com/21796953

ed process for actually pushing the copper into the stater,” he says. “That’s a technology that we’ve also been working on developing ourselves.” Developing the industrial IP path and utilizing a vertically integrated manufacturing process is equally as important as the design of the motor, says Craig Daniel. Doing so allows the production process to be more controlled, ensuring manufacture of a product as the company intended.

From race cars to off-highway equipment When Omni first developed its axial flux motor, it did so using a 21 cm (8.3 in.) frame size motor architecture. The company’s objective was to learn about and maximize the performance potential of the motor in this frame size in terms of torque, power and thermal capacity. It did so while working with Formula E—a car racing series which utilizes the latest electric vehicle technology. From there, the company got involved with the Electric Touring Car program—known as PURE ETCR— where it is supplying the powertrain technology for all of the electric race cars being developed by various manufacturers. Craig Daniel says that for Formula E, Omni used a dual motor design providing 250 kW power capacity. For ETCR, it used four motors producing over 500 kW. Over the course of these and other similar motor sport programs the company has been involved with, Omni has boosted the power of its axial flux motor significantly, says Craig Daniel. When first working with the 21 cm frame size motor, peak power capacity was around 120 kW and today it is at 270 kW. According to Craig Daniel, working in these motorsport programs has allowed the company to develop an engineering mindset of rapid product development. The company has evaluated the pace at which it looks at materials, its manufacturing processes as well as

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its rapid prototyping processes—all of which are done in house. As such, Omni is able to quickly move through design programs and ensure proper prioritization of the necessary processes. Craig Daniel says that when you have so many capabilities in house and a more vertically integrated production cycle, “you can bring all of that to bear in putting together a product. You control and define the process.” This is not always the case when using a third party, especially when trying to experiment with and evaluate a design. “If we determine we want to do a science experiment with a particular resin or change an oven setting or change tension on a carbon fiber filament, we can conduct that controlled experiment [in a few days]. We don’t have to explain [the experiment] and negotiate pricing and timing,” he explains. This in-house design,

OMNI POWERTRAIN TECHNOLOGIES

Omni’s axial flux product line eliminates the cylinder and tube designs of radial motors and instead utilizes a disc shape for the rotor and two plate-like stators.

testing and manufacturing capability will be beneficial as Omni looks to bring its axial flux motor design to other applications. Jeff Daniel, co-owner and partner of

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

Omni Powertrain Technologies, says the form factor of the company’s axial flux motor appears to be a key benefit for many customers in the heavy-duty onand off-highway equipment industries. There are applications where a radial motor will not fit because of its long axial length, whereas the Omni motor design would be a good candidate due to its shorter length. The power-to-weight ratio of Omni’s axial flux motor is also a benefit for many customers in the heavy equipment industries. “[Our motor] by virtue of its design has the lowest amount in weight of copper magnets and electric steel,” explains Jeff Daniel. “Because of its design and torque density, the motor lends itself to a lot of applications.” These applications can include use in excavator tracks or mining equipment which previously had to utilize right angled gearboxes and motors because the motors were too long to fit into the chassis. He says Omni has reimagined the entire chassis setup for manufacturers by making it simpler to integrate an electric motor because the entire axial flux motor package can be installed without taking up extra space claim or requiring extra design work. Jeff Daniel says the axial flux motor can almost completely fit into a wheel assembly because of its compact package size—which includes the motor, brake and gearbox. This is vital in applications such as a crop sprayer in which use of a radial motor might otherwise extend beyond the wheel assembly and hit crops as the sprayer moves through the field, negatively impacting a farmer’s profits. Depending on the application needs, standard off-the-shelf or customized versions of the axial flux motor are available. There are several design choices that can be made to ensure the motor provides the performance requirements of the application in which it will be installed. “Through the engineering development on


OMNI POWERTRAIN TECHNOLOGIES

BELOW: A hub drive offering 7 KNm output combined with a smaller version of the company’s M15 motor which is air-cooled. Common applications for this size would include aerial work platforms, compact track loaders, miniexcavators, etc.

LEFT: An example of a hub drive that would be used in off-highway or industrial applications. In this instance, it combines a 34 KNm gearbox with a single M27 motor which is liquid cooled.

the motor, [we gained a] very clear understanding electromagnetically of different electric steel alloys and their performance characteristics, different copper forms, different magnet grades, different form factors of the motor shape itself. And then how you wind the copper inside the motor,” says Craig Daniel. “So even within the 24 or 27 cm (9.4 or 10.6 in.) frame size, there is literally close to 100 different variations in each frame size that we can evaluate in doing a custom build, if appropriate for a specific application.” The company foresees the motor benefiting a range of applications from small outdoor power equipment to some of the world’s largest mining equipment, and everything in between including heavy-duty on-highway trucks. “People are looking at it as a technology leap forward, not only for the motor itself, but for the form factor that it can achieve in the highest power-to-weight ratio product that’s in its class. We see huge demand globally for this type of motor,” concludes Jeff Daniel. |

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

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TOP NEW PRODUCTS oemoffhighway.com/21427284

TOP NEW PRODUCTS OF 2021

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ach year the Top New Products award winners provide insight into the components and engineering services or technologies our readers find most interesting. Winners also offer a look at some of the current trends in the heavy equipment industries, and what design teams are potentially most interested in as they develop their new machine designs. OEM Off-Highway compiles this list of top products based on page views over the past year. One winner is selected from each of the six main categories we cover on our website—Engines, Drivetrains, Fluid Power, Electrical & Electronics, Operator Cab and Engineering & Manufacturing. Visit www.oemoffhighway. com/21427284 to read more about the winners as well as see which products were runners up in each category.

2021

PRODUCTS

ENGINEERING & MANUFACTURING 3D Software Siemens Digital Industries Software announces the availability of the latest release of Simcenter 3D software, part of the Simcenter portfolio of simulation and test solutions. • Features new enhancements to AI (Artificial Intelligence) driven user experience, new simulation types as well as refinements in accuracy and enhanced performance speed • Includes full representative volume element (RVE) separation and 2D and 3D automatic insertion of cracks or cohesive zones in materials • Macro and microstructural models now allow for full mesh separation for a crack to propagate completely through a material • Auralization post-processing tool allows users to listen to simulated pressure results to evaluate sound quality • Acoustics engineers can hear the noise produced from various vibrating components or products as opposed to having to visually evaluate through charts or graphs • Thermal analysis capabilities have been scaled into a vertical solution for mold designers and design engineers • NX Mold Cooling product uses Simcenter 3D technology to rapidly set up and simulate thermal performance of an injection mold insert directly in NX while designing a mold, enabling easy and rapid thermal analysis of injection mold designs without having to wait for expert analyst feedback www.oemoffhighway.com/21283817

ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS High Torque Electric Motor Equipmake has launched the HTM 3500 high torque electric motor designed specifically for use in heavy-duty commercial vehicles. • Combines high torque with low motor speeds, fitting directly onto the propshaft of large electric vehicles • Direct drive design negates need for separate gearbox, allowing for more efficient packaging • Produces maximum torque of 3,500 Nm (2,581.5 lb.-ft.) at 1,000 rpm • Designed for multiple heavy-duty vehicle applications, including electric buses, heavy-duty onroad trucks and mining equipment, where high torque and start/stop duty cycles are required • Weighs 195 kg (429.9 lbs.) and has a diameter of 540 mm (21.3 in.) • Measures 251 mm (9.9 in.) wide and 607 mm (23.9 in.) high • Peak power of 400 kW (536.4 hp) and a maximum motor speed of 3,500 rpm • Available as a single or coupled unit www.oemoffhighway.com/21206211

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OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021


FLUID POWER Load-Sensing Proportional Directional Valve Power management company Eaton announces the launch of its SLV20 load-sensing proportional directional valve, a flexible priority-flow-sharing solution for mini and micro machinery. • Offers greater flexibility and control as well as space and weight savings compared to traditional cast iron control valves for low-flow applications • Brings priority flow sharing to low-flow machinery with the versatility and serviceability of screw-in cartridge valves • Designed in sections to enable stacking of multiple functions • Utilizes Eaton’s new ESV9 four-way three-position proportional solenoid cartridge valve in a hydraulic integrated circuit concept • Meter-out or meter-in control is achieve=d through logic elements, which enables flow sharing and flow prioritization in the same valve bank • Sections are manufactured from aluminum drawn bar, which enables production of small batches of individual sections with added functions www.oemoffhighway.com/21201768

DRIVETRAINS Electric Drive System for Wheeled Excavators The ZF eTRAC electric drive system for wheeled excavators provides a 100% electric, zero-emissions solution for OEMs. • Modular kit for various applications and vehicle sizes • Consists of a 2-speed powershift transmission, electric motor and inverter • Can be scaled up to peak torque 850 Nm (626.9 ft.-lb.) and continuous power of 80 kW (107.3 hp) • Three systems of the electric central drive system eCD50, eCD70 and eCD90 are available to cover different vehicle sizes • Total weight of 255 kg (562.2 lbs.) • Voltage 650V DC • SAHR parking brake included • Axle disconnection is optional (2WD/4WD) • Satisfies all expectations for performance and productivity found in traditional drivelines • Modular design can easily be adapted for various vehicle applications like backhoe loaders, telehandlers, forestry equipment, etc. as well • Provides low noise level • Efficient electrical components • Robust and reliable mechanical driveline • Compact installation space www.oemoffhighway.com/21366160

ENGINES High-Horsepower Engine for Mining Applications

OPERATOR CAB Dual Axis Joystick

Cummins Inc. introduces the high horsepower QSK95 engine for mining applications. • Produces up to 4,400 hp (3,281.1 kW) • Offers optimum power-to-weight ratio for 400T haul trucks • Provides 3,800 hp (2,833.7 kW) rating for increased fuel efficiency • Specially designed single-stage turbocharging ensures power at high altitude • Clean-sheet modular design for easy servicing • Delivers average 15% better life to overhaul (LTO) • Available with PrevenTech, Cummins cloud-based software designed for engine health monitoring and remote diagnostics • Features stiffened engine block and V16 cylinder set up which reduces vibration and noise to enhance operator comfort

Sure Grip Controls, a subsidiary of Bailey Hydraulics, announces the release of the JSC CAN Series Joystick. • Dual axis joystick • Designed and manufactured for rugged off-road market • Features IP69K and IP67 protection ratings • Sealing and durability testing to more than 5 million cycles or 20 million operations • Utilizes Hall sensor technology • Offers minimum below-panel depth • Integrated connector • Mounting compatibility with Sure Grip’s JSM joystick • High-strength chromoly shaft designed to operate with all existing Sure Grip handles

www.oemoffhighway.com/21521645

www.oemoffhighway.com/21220907

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

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COVER STORY: FLUID POWER SYSTEM oemoffhighway.com/21796960

Improved Hydraulic System Design and Control Benefit Overall Machine Efficiency New advancements in hydraulic components and systems are enabling heavy equipment to operate more efficiently. by Sara Jensen

VOLVO CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

Volvo CE’s new digital hydraulic actuator enables the design of a new type of hydraulic system which overcomes some of the shortcomings found in traditional systems.

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OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021


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fficiency is a key design criteria for almost all components and systems on a piece of heavy-duty equipment—as well as for the machine itself. Hydraulics are one of the many areas in which manufacturers are looking to achieve efficiency gains. Hydraulic components and systems remain a vital part of most machines due to their power density but are often seen as less efficient. Incorporation of electronics and advanced software control are among the methods manufacturers are utilizing to improve efficiency. Erik Westergaard, Senior Systems Engineer at Danfoss Power Solutions, says the company’s Digital Displacement pump technology—which the company has described as being inherently digital—has shown between 15 and 30% efficiency increases. The design of the pump itself combined with use of an electronic controller and advanced software controls enables these efficiency gains. In addition, Westergaard says the architecture around the pump also plays a part in improving efficiency. Read more about Danfoss’ Digital Displacement pump technology at www.oemoffhighway.com/21073848.

ment. Doing so makes it easier to determine where gains can be made, and where they might not. “Then you can lay out the system accordingly and also design the controls to still meet the demand of the application [while trying] to optimize it…from an efficiency or a productivity point of view,” says Westergaard. Software controls are an area Westergaard says Danfoss is focusing much of its development efforts for hydraulic components and systems. This includes designing the software in such a way that productivity increases can be achieved as well as inherent efficiency gains to help make machine operators more accurate. Doing so can reduce wear and tear on components, improving the overall lifespan of a machine. VOLVO CONSTRUC TION EQUIPMENT

Digitalization provides opportunities for improved efficiency The design of hydraulic components, as well as what components are used to form a system are important factors for improving efficiency, says Westergaard. How the chosen components are controlled through software is equally as important. It can help make the system operate smarter, offer better integration with engine operation as well as help operators be more efficient with the work they’re doing— all of which can lead to efficiency improvements for an entire piece of equipment. Understanding and analyzing the duty cycle of different applications enables Danfoss to better determine where there are areas for improve-

stick steering on a wheel loader. A more comfortable operator is a more productive one, which leads to more efficient operation and control of a machine. In December 2020, Volvo Construction Equipment (Volvo CE) announced it was developing a digital hydraulic actuator with the goal of improving fuel efficiency of construction equipment. Development of the technology began at a university in Finland and with a Finland-based company, Norrhydro, with whom Volvo CE is partnering on further maturing the technology for use in construction and other heavy-duty equipment, particularly excavators. The actuator works like any other linear actuator, says Kim Heybroek, Research Engineer at Volvo Construction

In the area of steering, the company is working on electrohydraulic systems with multiaxis steering capabilities and steer-by-wire, both of which can help enhance operator comfort and reduce fatigue. Moving a steering wheel for off-highway equipment often requires a lot of shoulder and elbow movement, says Westergaard. Eliminating the need to use a steering wheel and instead utilizing an electrohydraulic joystick, for instance, can greatly reduce these movements that would otherwise put a lot of strain on operators. “We have some studies showing that you are on average reducing 65% of these movements,” he says when moving from conventional steering using a steering wheel to joy-

The Norrhydro patented system, NorrDigi, is a key part of the new digital hydraulic actuator technology Volvo CE is developing in collaboration with Norrhydro.

Equipment. “It controls force and speed of individual drives such as the boom or arm function of an excavator or a wheel loader,” he explains. “However, if you compare it to a normal double acting cylinder drive, this actuator is comprised of a mechanical cylinder and a number of electronically controlled valves and ECU (electronic control unit) with a software control interface that is controlling those valves with feedback from sensors within the actuator.” Feedback from the sensors control the force and velocity of the actuator in a closed loop fashion, he further

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

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COVER STORY: FLUID POWER SYSTEM

VOLVO CONSTRUC TION EQUIPMENT

oemoffhighway.com/21796960

explains. Instead of a conventional two chamber hydraulic cylinder, the actuator utilizes a four-chamber cylinder; the four chambers can be selectively pressurized by two supply pressure lines to enable 16 discrete force states to be achieved for any given pressure level in the supply lines. “Basically, you can think of this as the hydraulic equivalent of a stepped mechanical transmission,” says Heybroek. “Another way of understanding this is that the effective hydraulic area inside the cylinder is altered in steps depending on which of those two supply pressures is applied to which cylinder area,” he says. According to Heybroek, the digital hydraulic actuator enables the design of a new type of hydraulic system which overcomes some of the shortcomings found in traditional systems such as the inability to recuperate kinetic energy excessive pressure compensation losses.

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The digital hydraulic actuator allowed the creation of a hydraulic common pressure rail system in which all actuators are connected to a pressure rail containing hydraulic accumulators used for system decoupling and energy storage. With this design, pressure is applied only to the amount of cylinder area needed to generate the required force for the application, radically reducing pressure compensation losses says Heybroek. “It also enables bidirectional energy flow to and from the common pressure rail, which means that kinetic energy in a boom down motion may be recovered and stored in the accumulators,” he says. “At the same time, accumulators also serve as a source of peak power which means the power supply system may be downsized.” For rotary drives and functions, such as the swing or travel drive of an excavator, Heybroek says only the required amount of motor displace-

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

Prototype testing to date for the digital hydraulic actuator on a 30-ton excavator has shown fuel efficiency improvements of 50% compared to a standard Volvo CE machine working in the same operation.

ment is engaged to generate exactly the required amount of torque. This is achieved through the use of variable displacement motors. He says the company has conducted prototype testing to date on a 30-ton excavator which showed hydraulic losses are approximately cut in half and fuel efficiency improved by 50% compared to a standard Volvo CE machine working in the same operation. “We define fuel efficiency as the amount of work performed over the amount of fuel consumed,” he explains. “Part of this improvement comes from reduced fuel consumption and the other part from increased productivity.” While the technology is currently being evaluated for excavators, Heybroek says it would suit use in machines or


functions where there is a relatively high load inertia. “The highest efficiency gains are found in work functions or duty cycles where heavy mechanical structures are lifted against gravity, then lowered again.”

Lubrication choice is a vital component Blayne McKenzie, Ph.D., Strategic Technology Manager, Industrial Products at The Lubrizol Corporation, says any change to a hydraulic system will impact its efficiency, including those made to the hydraulic fluid. Because hydraulic fluid is so important to the functionality of the overall hydraulic system, several performance factors can be impacted when changes are made to a fluid. Optimizing aspects such as viscosity maximizes both volumetric and mechanical efficiency, which aid overall system performance. “Every change to the lubricant, every enhancement of hydraulic flow in the power delivering primary flow direction can be really significant,” says McKenzie. As part of its efforts to develop sustainable energy efficient hydraulic fluids, Lubrizol is deploying a new class of energy efficient performance polymers. The company is doing so by enabling the move from monograde fluids to multigrade alternatives using Lubrizol’s performance polymer technology, says McKenzie. “We’re developing those fluids with an eye towards saving energy consumption, whether that’s fuel or electricity, [and] being able to do more work,” he says. McKenzie says adding a performance polymer to a hydraulic fluid is not a new concept. What is new is the chemistry of the polymer Lubrizol is using. The new energy efficient performance polymers are long and flexible, capable of coiling and recoiling in a solution based on temperature and flow. They are also able to store and disperse energy. These features enable the polymers to disrupt parasitic, or secondary flows, which occur any time

fluid is being pushed in anything but a straight line, which is basically all the time in a piece of heavy equipment, says McKenzie. Traditional performance polymers, on the other hand, tend to be short and rigid, and do not have an inherent capability to enhance hydraulic flow like the new Lubrizol polymers can. The energy efficient performance polymer is used in conjunction with an industry-standard additive technology to ensure it continues to provide the existing durability, oxidation and corrosion protection requirements of the market. “That gives confidence to our end users that any changes we’ve made for efficiency’s sake have not compromised [industry requirements],” says McKenzie. Testing and use in operating equipment has demonstrated the new energy efficient performance polymers’

capability to reduce fuel use for heavy equipment owners. It has also shown the ability to make systems themselves run more efficiently, which can help to reduce costly downtime and enable machine operators to get more work done. These benefits can also lead to a reduction in emissions produced, helping the environment and meeting the sustainability targets Lubrizol is looking to achieve with its new polymer chemistry.

Hydraulic systems and requirements will continue evolving Sustainability and doing more with less will be two of the biggest pressure points placed on hydraulic fluids and systems in the coming years, says McKenzie. “What that means for hydraulic systems and ultimately for hydraulic

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COVER STORY: FLUID POWER SYSTEM oemoffhighway.com/21796960 THE LUBRIZOL CORPORATION

As fluid passes through a 90-degree bend in this hydraulic line, flows across the primary direction arise. These secondary flows are visualized here with greater intensity of red (clockwise) or blue (counter clockwise).

fluids is higher speeds, higher pressures, higher loads, [as well as] lightweighting, yet construction equipment will still be expected to carry the same amount of dirt from A to B or dig the same hole,” he says. Hydraulic fluids will therefore see

DANFOSS POWER SOLUTIONS

Danfoss test machines in a gravel pit help the company evaluate the capabilities of its new hydraulic system technologies.

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OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

more intense workloads in which they are utilized, placing a greater pressure on their ability to meet both efficiency and application requirements. The push toward electrification as part of sustainability initiatives is already having its impact with electric and hydraulic systems coming together to create more efficient machines which leads to fewer emissions produced. Heybroek says the digital hydraulic actuator Volvo CE is developing can actually be an enabler for electrification and other industry trends such as automation due to its integrated sensors and other electronics. In addition, the actuator features a more simplified package which requires less space claim in both traditional and alternatively powered equipment. The common pressure rail system design uses only two main pressure


lines to which all the actuators are connected. The distributed valves are integrated together with a cylinder or the actuator, enabling the main control valve normally used in an excavator to be eliminated or significantly reduced in size which leaves more available space in the center of the machine. For electric machines, this could allow more batteries to be installed to help meet power requirements. He also notes the reduction in losses achieved with the digital hydraulic actuator can help to simplify machine electrification and reduce the amount of battery capacity required. With the efficiency gains today’s hydraulic components and systems can achieve, and those that are yet to come, manufacturers are well equipped to meet the growing need for solutions which are more sustainable and capable of doing more with less. |

Head to the Web Learn more about Volvo CE’s new digital hydraulic actuator technology in our video interview with Kim Heybroek at www.oemoffhighway.com/21390024.

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ENGINEERING & MANUFACTURING oemoffhighway.com/21627685

Will Open Architecture Challenge Military OEMs? There is a massive commercial opportunity for OEMs who utilize an open architecture to win more customer bids. contributed by Roger Brereton, Head of Sales, Pailton Engineering

I

n the military sector, if an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) wins the contract to supply a vehicle, it secures a de facto monopoly for the provision of upgrades and maintenance for that vehicle. The shift to open architecture has the potential to upend this longstanding arrangement and the benefits to OEMs. Many manufacturers and their suppliers are starting to embrace this opportunity. If buying a Lego model for Christmas, a person can buy some more bricks at a later date. The new bricks might be different colors and pieces, but they all fit together. However, if it was decided to instead buy another building toy such as K’nex, the two sets of toys would not work together. The military faces a problem that is fundamentally similar. If military vehicles are going to share data in real-time, they need to be built out of the same building blocks, or use components that share the same architecture. This issue is becoming more pressing with rising defense costs, increased

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reliance on digital engineering and the need to unlock the potential of artificial intelligence and 3D printing. Currently, OEMs sell proprietary technology that none of their competitors can work on. If an OEM wins the contract to design and build a vehicle, it has cornered the market for maintenance and upgrades. If governments can escape from this so-called ‘vendor lock’ they will enjoy cost savings and easier upgrades. In the U.S., the goal is to develop a meta standard that will apply to all components and vehicles: a Common Modular Open Systems Architecture (CMOA). The initiative is currently in the feedback phase, with the military consulting industry leaders to help develop the standards. Although this movement has gained fresh impetus in the last year, it is not starting from scratch. The military has long yearned for interoperability and the call for more open systems can be traced to the 1994 Open Systems Joint Taskforce. It has evolved significantly

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

since then, but the end-goal is broadly similar: reduced life-cycle costs, more flexibility and more interoperability. The CMOA will aim to integrate existing standards across domains, requiring coordination between the Army, Airforce and Navy. It will be building on these existing standards which includes, for example, the Vehicle Integration for C41SR/EW Interoperability (VICTORY) for ground vehicles. While the focus is initially on future technology, the idea is that this will be retrofitted as well.

Challenge or opportunity? Despite the potential benefits of vendor lock, OEMs are so far embracing the possibility of change. First, they have an opportunity to shape the standards. Rather than watching from the sidelines with suspicion, they are now in the process of consulting with the military, actively contributing to the development of CMOA. Robust intellectual property protection will be high on the agenda. OEMs and the parts suppliers they work with will only support this initiative if there is appropriate IP protection so the most innovative companies can still


ALL IMAGES COURTESY OF PAILTON ENGINEERING

profit from their technology. Secondly, although open architecture might be the death knell of vendor lock, there is also a massive

each of them, an opportunity that is only possible with open architecture. Bruce Jette, who served until recently as the Army’s senior acquisition executive and was a leading advocate of CMOA, has argued that more competition means more chances to win. OEMs will have to adapt to the shift toward more open systems. Whether or not this shift will happen quickly or more gradually remains to be seen, but it is clear a fundamental change is on the horizon. What is less clear is which OEMs will benefit from the change, although many are optimistic about the challenge. |

commercial opportunity for OEMs who are leaders in their fields. If multiple programs use the same component, you can sell the same component to

This article was written and contributed by Roger Brereton, head of sales at Pailton Engineering. Pailton Engineering supplies steering components for military vehicles, including custom-built solutions.

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OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

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ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS: ACTUATORS oemoffhighway.com/21563427

Electric Actuator Advancements Expand Options for Replacing Hydraulic Cylinders Electric actuators can provide a lower total cost of ownership compared to hydraulic cylinders, as well as increased control and precision capabilities. contributed by Travis Gilmer, Product Line Specialist – Industrial Linear Actuators, Thomson Industries, Inc.

A

s electric actuators advance in load handling, durability and intelligence, their potential as hydraulic cylinder replacements continues to grow. Depending on your initial objectives for specifying hydraulic cylinders, there are an increasing number of electric alternatives that might meet—or even exceed—those specifications. If you specify hydraulic actuators, taking some time to evaluate the widening range of electric options available for your next application could pay off handsomely.

Increased force capabilities Until a few years ago, a machine designer building an application such as a signage boom truck would likely have used hydraulic cylinders. Doing so requires an oil reservoir, a system of tubing to bring the fluid from the reservoir to the cylinder, and a set of power cables running throughout the boom. Leakage is a possibility at any point, and maintenance demands are high. A modern electric option for such applications is a hybrid actuator that Figure 1: This H-Track electrohydraulic linear actuator from Thomson can handle up to 4,800 lbs. (21 kN) of force in a clean, compact enclosure that also has shock handling capabilities comparable to a hydraulic system.

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integrates the lifting capability of a hydraulic system with the cleanliness, compactness and controllability of an electric linear actuator. This combination delivers up to 4,800 lbs. (21 kN) of force in an electrically powered unit that functions without a complex system surrounding it. Furthermore, the unit will also deliver shock handling performance comparable to a fully hydraulic system. The boom on the signage truck might be subject to wind shear that could damage components of a traditional electric actuator. A hydraulic/electric hybrid system, however, would absorb these sudden shocks. (Figure 1)

Long-life, heavy-duty designs Machine designers building simple applications in which basic movements repeat with high frequency have also typically deployed hydraulic solutions. These provide an acceptable duty cycle of 40-80%, which contributes to a longer life, but a substantial part of that life is used up in order to maintain the actuator. A new generation of long-life, high-duty electric actuators has emerged that enables their use for simple, repetitive operations. Instead of using servo, stepper or brushed AC electric motors, long-life actuators typically use brushless DC motors. Unlike a brushed AC motor, which will overheat at high duty cycles, the brushless DC motors generate no friction, enabling duty cycles of up to

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

at least 35% or, depending on the load and ambient temperature, up to 100%. Other features contributing to a long-life actuator’s durability are double-circuit nuts and larger screws, which reduce another common point of actuator wear and can extend cycles from 30,000 or 40,000, improving travel time by orders of magnitude. Additional life-extending design features include strengthened screws and extra-angular contact bearings. Together, such features can extend actuator life 10 times more than a brushed motor-driven actuator that might previously have been deployed in transport-grade industrial applications And, as compared to stepper- or servo-driven solutions, brushless DC motor-driven actuators are more compact because they don’t need gearing configurations. Long-life actuators are also typically sealed for high ingress protection and lubricated for life in the factory, thereby requiring zero additional maintenance. And as an added benefit, because DC-brushed, motor-driven actuators can be run totally on 24V battery power, they are also a good choice for moFigure 2: The long-life Thomson Electrak LL actuator is designed for high duty cycle applications that do not need high precision. It includes a DC brushless motor, larger shaft and various features that extend its life up to 10 times over brushed motordriven actuators.


ALL IMAGES COURTESY OF THOMSON INDUSTRIES INC.

Eaton’s mVEC Figure 3: Smart actuators integrate electronics within the actuator housing, which enable switching, synchronization and networking to be managed automatically based on signals from a common external source, such as a programmable logic controller (PLC).

bile applications with simple, repetitive mobile operations. (Figure 2)

Command and control Another opportunity for an electric actuator to replace a hydraulic actuator is when the designer is trying to add some control capabilities. It is possible to add a modicum of control and precision to hydraulic installations, but it is not easy. It requires adding external feedback devices and electrical controls on the valves that regulate the flow of the hydraulic fluid. It also increases costs and variability on a system that is already complicated and space-consuming. For applications requiring precision and control for loads up to 4,000 lbs. (16 kN) of force, however, an electric actuator is a far more suitable technology choice. These smart actuators have changed the game by embedding microcomputer chips that provide precision and control without bolting on external devices. Switching, position feedback and system diagnostics are now done with software. (Figure 3) Multiple devices can be networked, synchronized and managed automatically based on signals from a common external source, such as pro-

grammable logic controllers (PLCs) or other control units.

Will electric actuators be your savior? Applications requiring more than 4,800 lbs. of force will most likely need fluid-driven cylinders but maybe not on all axes. As a rule, always consider electric actuators for any application requiring up to 4,800 lbs. of force. This is especially true where space is at a premium, where the messiness of hydraulic fluids could be an issue, where eliminating long-term maintenance costs is desirable, and where machines are intended to last for 25 years or more. For applications requiring up to 4,000 lbs. with any level of precision or control, compare the costs and benefits of electric systems against hydraulic systems over their entire lifecycle. The more axes of motion involved, the more cost, and electric actuators are more likely to save you in the long run. Read the full article at www.oemoffhighway. com/21563427. | This article was written and contributed by Travis Gilmer, Product Line Specialist – Industrial Linear Actuators, Thomson Industries, Inc.

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

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Economical CAN Network Oversight for High-Power Circuits

The Multiplexed Vehicle Electrical Center (mVEC) is a rugged power distribution node on the J1939 network. With the use of patented Bussmann VEC “power grid” technology, the mVEC is ideal for high-current circuits found in the heavy truck and commercial vehicles industries. Features include relay control as well as diagnostic reports for fuses, relays and circuit breakers via the vehicle’s CAN bus

For stocking information call 800-328-2724 or visit www.waytekwire.com


TECHNOLOGY BREAKDOWN: WESTERN STAR 47X oemoffhighway.com/21759695

Western Star Expands X-Series The shorter overall length of the new 47X will help meet the various requirements of vocational applications. by Curt Bennink

W

ith a standard 111.6in. (283.5 cm) BBC or optional 110.8-in. (281.4 cm) BBC—which is 10-in. (25.4 cm) shorter than the 49X— the Western Star 47X is well suited to applications that require a shorter overall vehicle length to meet federal or local bridge law requirements, such as mixers or super dumps. A short hood and a wheel cut up to 50 degrees optimizes maneuverability for work on tight construction sites or in congested urban environments. The new model comes in a set-forward or set-back axle configuration. The 47X incorporates all of the key

With a standard 111.6-in. BBC or optional 110.8-in. BBC, which is 10-in shorter than the 49X, the Western Star 47X is well suited to applications that require a shorter overall vehicle length to meet federal or local bridge law requirements, such as mixers or super dumps.

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OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

technologies first introduced on the 49X last year, although there are some unique features, such as the hood. The 47X hood offers forward visibility of 24.8 ft. (7.6 m), an 11-in. (27.9 cm) improvement over the 49X, while utilizing the same composite construction and ISO Tech suspension system. The ISO Tech system behaves similar to a typical coil-over shock suspension system with spring and damper. It isolates, absorbs and dissipates vibrations from the chassis when driving over uneven terrain to protect the hood from bending and cracking. “It is the only active suspension on a hood in a vocational truck today,” says Samantha Parlier,


Vocational Truck Line Vice President of Vocational Market Development, Daimler Trucks North America (DTNA). When the 49X was introduced, the purpose-built vocational cab was a key highlight. This cab finds its way onto the 47X. It was designed specifically for vocational applications and provides additional vehicle weight savings while delivering long-term durability and operator comfort. The X-Series steel-reinforced cab reduces mass by up to 8% while offering up to 13% more space than competitors. An optional two-person bench seat is available for applications demanding a large on-site crew. A new

space-optimized in-cab battery box affords additional legroom to the driver. An optional roof-mounted condenser offers maximum airflow through the radiator for stationary applications such as construction and mining while keeping operators comfortable. All X-Series models come with a wraparound dash that provides easy access to the driver command center and

A twin-steer version of the 47X is available.

Performance AND Design The beginning of a new era  Aluminium housing

 Excellent price-performance ratio

 Optical bonding

 Versatile use - across industries

 Sunlight readable

The NEW OPUS B Series (B6 / B4 / B3)

ALL IMAGES COURTESY OF DAIMLER TRUCKS NORTH AMERICA

topcon-electronics.de

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

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TECHNOLOGY BREAKDOWN: WESTERN STAR 47X oemoffhighway.com/21759695

B-panel. On the B-Panel, a Flex Panel can be prepped for a tablet or configured for an additional 12 switches or 10 gauges. There are removable plugs to access connection points on the top of the dash. “They are on every single truck,” says Parlier. “The customer doesn’t have to drill through the top of the dash anymore.” With the X Series, ingress and egress was a major design consideration. “Slips and falls are the No. 2 cause of jobsite injuries,” Parlier notes. “The engineering team devoted a couple of years into creating access steps that are more like a staircase than a ladder. Truck operators get in and out of their trucks in mixer operations up to 50 times a day.” This is not only a safety issue; it can create a lot of wear and tear on the

driver. The staircase design alleviates stress on the driver and optional bright yellow grab handles remind operators where to grab. Dual-stage headlights are standard with a heated headlamp. “It is called dual stage because not only does it melt thick ice in a matter of minutes, but it also de-fogs in humid climates, and it is all automatic,” says Parlier. “It is being controlled based on the temperature setting and the sensors outside.”

Weight reduction became a priority “A key priority was to consider how to reduce mass without compromising strength,” says Tracy Mack-Askew, Chief Engineer of Chassis, Propulsion and Vocational Engineering, Daimler Trucks North America. “From the cab

to the frame rails, to powertrain and battery configurations, we examined all features to deliver weight savings to our customers for greater productivity and profitability.” The 47X is approximately 200 lbs. (90.7 kg) lighter than the 49X in likefor-like spec. This makes it the best choice for weight-sensitive applications such as mixers and bulk haul. The X-Series offers single-channel frame rail options with a resisting bending moment of up to 3.8 million in.-lbs. A new 9.5 mm (0.37 in.) single-channel rail option features comparable strength as today’s 11 mm (0.43 in.) rail. “It got a little taller, but it actually saved 120 lbs. over the course of the rail,” says Parlier. Standard highstrength aluminum forward, rear and end-of-frame crossmembers further reduce mass. The 47X will accommodate a full array of rear suspension options. “We also added the Hendrickson UltiMaax suspension into both X Series products,” says Parlier.

Power to meet any job The standard engine on the 47X will be the Detroit DD13 Gen 5 diesel, which features higher compression ratios and a new swirl piston design that further improves combustion and efficiency. ThermoCoasting in the DD13 Gen 5 engine prevents aftertreatment cool down during a driving regen to keep the system at its optimum temperature and significantly reduce the need for parked regens. Cummins L9 and X12 engines are available for weight-sensitive applications. When equipped with the DD13 Gen 5, the 47X comes standard with the Detroit Assurance suite of active safety systems. This includes active brake assist, side guard assist, adaptive cruise control and other features to keep operators and workers safe at the jobsite while protecting pedestrians and other motorists. Optional front engine power take-off (FEPTO) is offered on Detroit DD13 and Cummins engine offerings.

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OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021


Rectangular fuel tanks and a raised aftertreatment system mounting are offered with Cummins engines for better clearance for belly plows in snow removal applications. The available DT-12-V automated manual transmission includes three work-ready mode applications: Rock-free, Off-road and Paver for the challenges of specific vocations.

Built for upfit Western Star partnered with leading truck equipment manufacturers (TEMs) to ensure the X-Series supports fast and efficient upfits. A QuickFit Interface System offers ready access to the electrical architecture and was designed for easy TEM interface, programming and access to power. A CHEC Tool from DTNA enables TEMs and dealers to view and modify electrical configurations, giving them the power to customize inputs and outputs and change parameters within minutes. “With the power of QuickFit and CHEC, you can take things that were once considered to be complex, expensive or impossible to do and accomplish them more easily and efficiently,” says David Carson, Senior Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Daimler Trucks North America. A Flex Panel located in the dash B-panel of the truck gives TEMs the ability to mount body controllers. This eliminates the common practice of compromising space between the seats. The Flex Panel can also accommodate additional gauges, switches or a RAM Mount prep, depending upon customer needs. “It is a time saver for the TEMS,” says Parlier. “They can have the Flex Panel pre-built up and when the truck shows up, they pop it in.”

A Truck for Every Application “With the 47X and the 49X, we can offer our vocational customers different options that will give them the right tool for their specific job needs,” Carson states. “The vocational segment is a broad segment covering many different applications, and our Western Star X-Series reflects that reality.” The trucks each fill their own unique niches. The 49X is a good fit for heavy-haul and logging, and both models—depending upon the spec—are ready to handle oilfield, towing & recovery, bulk haul, crane and dump applications. “With the addition of the 47X to the X-Series lineup, Western Star is offering fresh, modern trucks with purposeful technologies to enable all vocational customers’ success,” says Carson. “The wide breadth of segment coverage means there is a Star for every need.” The 47X is available for order now and delivery to customers will begin in early 2022. |

A Flex Panel located in the dash B-panel of the truck gives TEMs the ability to mount body controllers. This eliminates the common practice of compromising space between the seats.

E-6100: Electric Rooftop A/C

E-9725: Electric Condenser

R-9925: Electric Compressor

Innovation for the future, built on decades of expertise At Red Dot, we know that battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are the future. That’s why we are hard at work, partnering with OE companies to design and create HVAC systems that work symbiotically with on- and off-road BEVs. From designing custom solutions for specific end-user needs, to creating a suite of electric products that endure the harshest environments, we continue to push the envelope in technical innovation and know-how that delivers value to you and your customers.

Visit www.RedDotCorp.com for more information, or contact our engineering team today to learn more.

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

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NEW PRODUCTS: OPERATOR CAB oemoffhighway.com/directory

Pushbutton Switches

HEPA Filter

EAO has enhanced its Series 82 family of pushbutton switches with the addition of devices that feature ultra-high contrast red, green, blue, white or red/green LED illumination. • Boosted symbol and halo illumination level enhance visibility of standard or custom switch status symbols in most ambient conditions • Available with silver alloy or gold-plated switching elements in momentary or maintained action variants • Built-in high contrast LEDs provide single and bi-color illumination • Designed for heavy-duty and special vehicles transport control panels • Metal-bodied design • Measures 22 mm (0.9 in.), enhancing both visual appeal and functionality • Includes plug-in terminals • IP65/IP67 front protection

The Sy-Klone RadialSHIELD HEPA (ISO 35 H, H13) filter provides OEMs and machine owners a new filter option for protecting worker air quality and supporting safety initiatives to reduce occupational exposure to dust, debris, and harmful respirable particulates.

www.oemoffhighway.com/21784124

• Arrests microscopic dust • Provides additional layer of air quality protection against nanoparticles and viruses • Tested to be 99.95% efficient at stopping COVID-19 and influenza-sized particles • Features increased filter efficiency and ability to arrest smaller particles compared to traditional HEPA filters • Effective on common worksite contaminants like asbestos, silica and coal dust, as well as smaller particles like toxic diesel soot (diesel particulate matter or DPM) • Lower restriction to airflows than traditional HEPA filters which provides operational benefits • Designed to be more durable, as well as vibration- and drop-resistant • Improved durability protects filter media from harsh work environments and promotes sustained performance • Provides better sealing capabilities that prevent harmful particulates from bypassing the filter • Tested and third-party-validated to conform to the HEPA filter test manufacturing standard, ISO 2946, and operator enclosure air quality standard ISO 23875

iMX8-Based Displays CrossControl is launching the CCpilot V1000 and V1200, creating a full series of iMX8based display computers for industrial vehicle applications. • Opens up new levels of operator support and HMI (human machine interface) functionality • iMX8X application processor gives the displays more than three times the graphics processing performance compared to the many displays based on the common and older iMX6 core • Supports new software frameworks that enable advanced operator assistance functionality like displaying multiple video streams, object recognition, 360-degree surround view camera, and augmented reality • Enables advanced functionality with limited programming effort www.oemoffhighway.com/21710575

Universal Grip OTTO introduces new features for its G3-C Universal Grip which include operator presence, trigger switches, side keypads, faceplate keypads and z-axis rotation. • Increases level of functionality for anyone who requires versatility in a grip • Operator presence uses sensors to detect the presence of operator’s hand on the grip • Trigger switch selections for the back of the grip include single trigger, dual momentary trigger and dual maintained trigger • Keypads are available on both the faceplate, with up to eight switches, and on either side of the grip as a side keypad, with up to 10 switches on each side • Z-axis allows for a +/- 25 degree horizontal rotation of the grip • Handles many types of high-performance applications www.oemoffhighway.com/21307336

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OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

www.oemoffhighway.com/21485411


Fingertip Joystick Compact ISOBUS Terminal Müller-Elektronik has begun series production of its ISOBUS terminal SMART570. • User-friendly with easy-to-use functions • Complies with ISOBUS standard ISO 11783 • Low weight and easy cab integration • Equipped with capacitive 5.7 in. (14.48 cm) display for optimum display of the connected implement even in sunlight • Can display work screens with up to 12 softkeys • Operated either via touchscreen, membrane keyboard or rotary encoder www.oemoffhighway.com/21354780

APEM’s XS Series fingertip joystick features a reduced height for easy navigation in small spaces and compact mounting footprint for comfort, safety and durability in outdoor environments. • Two axis Hall effect joystick • Features reduced panel height to provide precise fingertip control • Measures less than 45 mm (1.8 in.) • Allows for unimpeded access to other devices located on control panel • Compact, low profile design reduces risk of inadvertent operation as well as damage when mounted in handheld mobile devices that are prone to accidental drops • Includes redundant Hall effect sensors for more than 10 million operations

The Red Dot R-9925 DC Electric A/C Compressor Assembly is a robust and flexible component. • Save energy by providing maximum cooling only when needed • Variable displacement compressor • Automatically cycles back as the temperature in the cabin cools, reducing its electric load • Heavy cast aluminum structure keeps weight down while providing durability for use in extreme environments • Heavy-duty brushless motor runs with ease at a fixed speed, for maintenance-free operation through years of rough use

www.oemoffhighway.com/21808666

www.oemoffhighway.com/21485603

Wireless Cameras and Monitors Continental has added a line of wireless cameras and monitors to its range of cameras systems. • For use on articulated equipment or vehicles where long cable lengths are not preferred • Available in 12 and 24V configurations • Used for a wide range of applications in small and medium trucks, agricultural and construction equipment, and material handling applications • Features code-pairing technology that allows for simple installation and setup of the system • Code-pairing technology reduces interference and maintains a stable video connection with a barrier-free transmission distance of up to 130 yd. (390 ft.) • Built to handle rugged operation in harsh conditions • Features an IP69K housing design that is water- and dust-proof, and resistant to shock up to 100g • Two 120-degree wide angle wireless camera options available • Cameras can be used as stand-alone pieces or in a group of up to four cameras to provide a complete view around the vehicle or equipment • Two remote-controlled 7 in. (17.78 cm) monitors are offered to interface with the cameras as required by customers www.oemoffhighway.com/21521175

Electric A/C Compressor

LOW CTE EPOXY

for PRECISE

ALIGNMENT Two Part EP30LTE-2

flowable system for bonding, potting & encapsulation

Very low CTE, 75°F 10-13 x 10-6 in/in/°C

NASA low outgassing Per ASTM E595 standards

Electrically insulative Volume resistivity, 75°F >1015 ohm-cm

Hackensack, NJ 07601 USA • +1.201.343.8983 • main@masterbond.com

www.masterbond.com

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

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CALENDAR OF EVENTS oemoffhighway.com/events

2022 CONSUMER ELECTRONICS SHOW (CES) Las Vegas Convention Center and Area Hotels Jan. 5-8, 2022 | Las Vegas, NV www.ces.tech

BUSWORLD NORTH AMERICA Location TBD January 9-10, 2022 | Grapevine, TX www.busworldnorthamerica.org

WORLD OF CONCRETE

COURTESY OF WORLD OF CONCRETE

Las Vegas Convention Center January 17-20, 2022 | Las Vegas, NV www.worldofconcrete.com

www.enmco.com

LCD Vibration Activated LCD Vibration Activated Hour Meter Hour Meter With With Alerts With Service With Service Alerts Service Alerts Service Alerts HOURMETER T56E HOURMETER T56E e-mail: customerservice@enmco.com

HOURMETER T56E

T56E MADE IN THE U.S.A

e-mail: e-mail: customerservice@enmco.com e-mail: customerservice@enmco.com TOLL FREE 888-372-0465

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AD INDEX Advertiser

Page #

APEM, Inc................................................44 B&R Industrial Automation Corp............. 15 Comet Clutches....................................... 41 Eberspacher Climate Control Systems..... 11 ENM Company.........................................40 FPT Industrial............................................9 Hatz Diesel Of North America, Inc........... 17 IFH Group..................................................7 Master Bond Inc...................................... 39 MP Filtri USA, Inc..................................... 27 OTTO....................................................... 31 Ram Industries Inc..................................29 Red Dot Corp........................................... 37 Robert Bosch GmbH................................ 19 SBG Systems...........................................2-3 SPAL USA................................................. 21 Topcon Electronics.................................. 35 Volvo Penta of the Americas......................5 Waytek.................................................... 33 Work Truck Week - NTEA......................... 43

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

WORLD AG EXPO International Agri-Center Feb. 8-10, 2022 | Tulare, CA www.worldagexpo.com

ASABE AGRICULTURAL EQUIPMENT TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE Omni Louisville Hotel Feb. 14-16, 2022 | Louisville, KY www.asabe.org/AETC2022

NATIONAL FARM MACHINERY SHOW Kentucky Exposition Center Feb. 16-19, 2022 | Louisville, KY www.farmmachineryshow.org

NFPA ANNUAL CONFERENCE Arizona Biltmore Feb. 23-25, 2022 | Phoenix, AZ www.nfpahub.com/events

AGRITECHNICA Hanover Messe Feb. 27-Mar. 5, 2022 | Hanover, Germany www.agritechnica.com/en

NFPA/FPIC REGIONAL CONFERENCE Virtual and In-Person Event Location TBD March 3, 2022 | Chicago, IL www.msoe.edu

GREEN TRUCK SUMMIT Indiana Convention Center Mar. 8, 2022 | Indianapolis, IN www.ntea.com

THE WORK TRUCK SHOW Indiana Convention Center Mar. 8-11, 2022 | Indianapolis, IN www.ntea.com


COMMODITY CLASSIC, AN AEM COLLABORATION Ernest N. Morial Convention Center March 10-12, 2022 | New Orleans, LA www.commodityclassic.com

MID-AMERICA TRUCKING SHOW Kentucky Expo Center March 24-26, 2022 | Louisville, KY www.truckingshow.com

COMVEC

SIMA

In-Person and Virtual Event Location TBD Sept. 20-22, 2022 | Indianapolis, IN www.sae.org/attend/comvec

Parc des Expositions Paris-Nord Villepinte November 6-10, 2022 | Paris, France www.simaonline.com

BAUMA New Munich Trade Fair Center Oct. 24-30, 2022 | Munich, Germany www.bauma.de

WCX WORLD CONGRESS EXPERIENCE Location TBD April 5-7, 2022 | Detroit, MI www.sae.org/attend/wcx

HANNOVER MESSE Messegelände April 25-29, 2022 | Hanover, Germany www.hannovermesse.de

ACT EXPO Long Beach Convention Center May 9-12, 2022 | Long Beach, CA www.actexpo.com

WASTEEXPO Las Vegas Convention Center May 9-12, 2021 | Las Vegas, NV www.wasteexpo.com

HILLHEAD Hillhead Quarry June 21-23, 2022 | Buxton, United Kingdom www.hillhead.com

NFPA INDUSTRY & ECONOMIC OUTLOOK CONFERENCE The Westin Chicago Northwest August 16-17, 2022 | Itasca, IL www.nfpahub.com/event

FARM PROGRESS SHOW Farm Progress Show Grounds Aug. 30-Sept. 1, 2022 | Boone, IA www.farmprogressshow.com

THE BATTERY SHOW Suburban Collection Showplace Sept. 13-15, 2022 | Novi, MI www.thebatteryshow.com

ELECTRIC & HYBRID VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY EXPO Suburban Collection Showplace Sept. 13-15, 2022 | Novi, MI www.evtechexpo.com

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021

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OFF-HIGHWAY HEROES oemoffhighway.com/21796936 R. G. LE TOURNEAU INC. IMAGE

The first scraper to be equipped with pneumatic tires is pulled by an AllisChalmers crawler tractor in California’s Imperial Valley in August 1932.

Pneumatic Tires for Scrapers The invention of pneumatic tires improved maneuverability of scrapers and other construction equipment, particularly in soft ground conditions. by Thomas Berry, Archivist, Historical Construction Equipment Association

R

obert G. LeTourneau was responsible for some of the most important innovations in construction, mining, forestry and oil production design as well as welding and manufacturing processes. Although he had already been thinking outside the box on equipment design, especially scrapers, he was limited by available technology to putting his scrapers on steel wheels. Steel wheels were certainly durable, but they had two huge disadvantages—weight and ride. The more a scraper weighs empty, the less payload it can carry if drawn by a given tractor; try to get around that and use a more powerful tractor, and you invite breakage and failure. Indeed, manufacturers of drawn equipment in the early 20th Century very often specified the maximum power, be it number of horses or a tractor’s horsepower, that could be used on their machines without risking damage as the machine failed under the strain of power versus load. The lighter the scraper without sacrificing strength, the more payload can be carried. Without any form of suspension in

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the machine, a steel wheel offered absolutely no cushioning against a rough ride. While the tractor operator was spared being bounced around as the steel wheels rolled jarringly over rocks, ruts or what have you, the impacts were still rough on the scraper. And, related to how the wheels rode, they had very little flotation on soft surfaces. The first pneumatic tire was developed in 1888 for the specific reason of softening the ride, in that case on a tricycle. It took time for the technology to progress far enough to be capable of what LeTourneau had in mind, but when it was ready, so was he. His first use of pneumatic tires on a scraper was in 1932. He had introduced an improved scraper, the A Carryall,

that year. The A was equipped with steel wheels, but by August he retrofitted one with pneumatic tires, singles in front and duals in back. At least one more of the half-dozen A Carryalls built had single pneumatics in the rear and the stock steel wheels up front. In 1933, LeTourneau used Goodyear “Airwheel” military surplus aircraft tires as nothing else suitable was available; tires of this type were used when needed on graders, scrapers and proofrollers when more flotation was needed than a normal tire afforded. LeTourneau standardized on heavy-duty tires of a more conventional design. That all-rubber version of the A Carryall cast the pattern for all scrapers that followed.|

The Historical Construction Equipment Association (HCEA) is a 501(c)3 non-profit organization dedicated to preserving the history of the construction, dredging and surface mining equipment industries. With over 3,800 members in 25 countries, its activities include publication of a quarterly educational magazine, Equipment Echoes, from which this article is adapted; operation of National Construction Equipment Museum and archives in Bowling Green, OH; and hosting an annual working exhibition of restored construction equipment. The next International Convention and Old Equipment Exhibition will be September 23-25, 2022, at the National Construction Equipment Museum in Bowling Green, OH (read more, 10598970). Individual annual memberships are $35.00 within the USA and Canada, and $55.00 U.S. elsewhere. HCEA seeks to develop relationships in the equipment manufacturing industry, and offers a college scholarship for engineering and construction management students. Information is available at www.hcea.net, by calling 419-352-5616 or e-mailing info@hcea.net. Please reference Dept. OEM.

OEM Off-Highway | NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2021


North America’s largest work truck event March 8–11, 2022 | Indiana Convention Center | Indianapolis, IN Green Tr uck Summit March 8 | Education sessions begin March 8 Wor k Tr uck Show exhibits March 9–11

Register at worktruckweek.com Advance pricing ends Feb. 8, 2022


JOYSTICKS

CONSTRUCTION VEHICLES

APEM’S ALL NEW PADDLES The BHN Series paddle controls are the latest generation in high precision controllers, combining the features of a non-contact, single axis joystick with a smooth responsiveness at your fingertips. Hall effect technology ensures a long, troublefree life for analog and switch outputs. Featuring high quality detents and sealed up to IP67, this all new design with its innovative mechanism is ergonomically styled for operator comfort and reliability. Available in five trim colors. www.apem.com

info@apem.com