OER in Indonesia

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Aptikom, Indonesia


This article is prepared by Aptikom and Indonesia Higher Learning Council for OCW Consortium. For enquiry please contact the following email address: indrajit@rad.net.id

The Open Education Movement in Indonesia Archipelago Nation by Prof. Richardus Eko Indrajit - President of Aptikom OCW

Introduction Open Education has been recognised as the new today’s emerging revolutional concept within emerging lear ning practices. By effectively embracing such paradigm, access to quality education would be guaranteed for all through virtually extending and expanding the arm-reaching of education asset and resources. As example, OER (Open Education Resources) and OCW (Open Courseware) are two well-known initiatives under open education principle which are highly known and implemented throughout the world to leverage limited education resources. This document acts as brief report on how the concept of open e d u c at i o n i s evo l ve d a n d established in Indonesia,


especially within the higher c u l t u r e - i n c l u d i n g t h e i r education institution. perception on IT roles and functions. Disparity among regions in Indonesia is the cause Major IT Issues The posture of archipelago o f i m b a l a n c e f o c u s o f continent that consist of more development within the history than 18,000 islands have caused of the country. A multi-digital several problems faced by gap is the word that correctly I n d o n e s i a a s a n a t i o n . defined the nation problem in IT Essentially, there are four issues development. Scalability has a encountered presently by the meaning that for every successful society of Indonesia, which are: implementation of IT initiative diversity, disparity, scalability, in one area does not mean it can and sustainability. Diversity easily be expanded by replicating comes from the fact that i t t o o t h e r a r e a s . A n d Indonesia comprises more than sustainability implies to the 500 ethnic groups throughout phenomena of the difficulties the nation. It brings to the faced by related IT practitioners situation where every state or to come out with financial model district has its own unique that can ensure long-ter m characteristics in nature that existence of any IT program. differentiate them from one These four aspects have been another. This situation creates a considered as the Indonesian large spectrum of people’s core problems.

Aptikom, Indonesia

Information Technology Initiatives to Solve Education Problems Prof. Richardus Eko Indrajit

Higher Education Profile In 2011, there are at least 3,016 higher education institutions operated throughout the nation. Most of them are located in the highly populated area within Java and Sumatera Islands which are geographically spread out in the western part of Indonesia (Picture 1). In the eastern part of the country, there are a lack number of higher learning instututions established by state or private sectors. This discrepancy causes a shortage of competent people in most of the country’s territory resulting real problems in exploring and exploiting natural resources within such rich areas.

Picture 3: The HEI Gross Enrollment Rate in Indonesia

The next figure shows another problem faced by the country which is the education attainment trend where in 2014, it is predicted that only 11% of Indonesian students who can reach and finished their higher learning studies (Picture 4).

Picture 1: The Unequal Distribution of HEI in Indonesia

If the data is drilled down based on student population, it can be seen the disparity profile of the 33 states or provinces. The following figure shows how two states - Jakarta and Yogyakarta - dominate the HEI’s student population (Picture 2) across the nation. Such phenomena occur due to the facts that most of quality universities are located in these two big cities.

Picture 4: The HEI Students Attainment Rate in Indonesia

In order to ensure quality delivered, the Indonesian government develops several national standards, which are defined as minimum criteria of various education aspects to be achieved by all campuses.

Picture 2: The Distribution of HEI Students in Indonesia

Another real problem encountered within the higher learning ecosystem relates to student’s gross enrollment rate that is considered relatively low in Asia. The latest statistics in 2010 states that only 26,34% students go to college or university (Picture 3). There are several reasons causing such low figure, such as: high cost of education, difficult access to education institution, very limited learning resources, student body volume restriction, a few number of related program of studies, low motivation or willingness to study (loss opportunity), etc.


Picture 5: The HEI National Standards in Indonesia

For higher education institutions, these standards are: graduate competencies, contents, learning process, human resources, facilities, financing, institution management, monitoring and evaluation, research and development, and services (Picture 5). It is government task to ensure that all higher education institutions meet these ten standards so that the vision and missions of national education system can be achieved.

Aptikom, Indonesia

Based on the data given by National Accreditation Board in learning. Through this backbone, a range of applications 2010, presently there are still more than 30% institutions such as tele conferences, webinars, open seminars, ewhich are not met the standar requirements yet (Picture 6). learnings, and virtual classes are being implemented. Most of these approximately 1,000 colleges and universities are located within remote areas in Indonesia.

Picture 6: The HEI Accreditation Status in Indonesia

Value of Technology Due to the fact that such condition would keep Indonesia away from being competitive, a breakthrough solution should be found. One of the opportunity realised by the government and education practitioners in Indonesia is by utilising the information and communication technology as the tool to solve some issues. There are a good number of value propositions that can be achieved by the effective implementation of ICT, which are: 1.

2. 3. 4.

Picture 7: The Indonesian Higher Education Network

Open Academic Journals Garuda (Garda Rujukan Digital or Digital Reference Portal) is the portal that are used by higher education institutions in Indonesia to share their academic journals openly. Thousands of journals from hundreds campuses have been shared in this portal (Picture 8).

IT can help the country to build the environment so that the society’s access to quality education can be guaranteed; IT can be used to leverage and to optimise the use of limited learning assets throughout the nation; IT can enable the collaboration among various campuses through shared resources and services practices; and IT can be utilised to enhance the quality of education by connecting higher education institutions to a great number of knowledge and research centers.

These four principles furthermore become the formal Picture 8: The GARUDA Portal strategy adopted by the Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia to improve the quality of education within the Aptikom Open Courseware nation. The Association of Computing and Informatics Colleges and Universities that consist of 850 institutions has launched Open Education Projects Portfolio NEXSUS (National e-Education Exchange System for So far, there are several IT projects undergone by the Undergraduate Studies) that functions a clearing-house government, private sector, and learning communities in platform for credit transfer exchange based on opencourseIndonesia that are based upon open education philosophy. ware paradigm (Picture 9). The courses that are agreed to be The followings are brief descriptions of various undertaken transferred are the ones that are considered as elective programs. subjects. Open National Education Infrastructure The Indonesian Higher Education Network (INHERENT) is the internet infrastructure backbone that connects more than 350 campus nodes across the nation (Picture 7). This broadband plays as the main highways of connected campuses in conducting their collaboration and cooperation


Open K-12 Digital Books Through a presidential decree, the Board of National Education Standard working together with higher learning institutions community has developed more than 1,000 digital books that can be freely accessed, printed, and distributed by all K12 schools.

Aptikom, Indonesia

Open CC E-Books Upon the introduction of creative commons license in Indonesia, there are several academic reference book writers from campus communities who are agree to share their masterpieces under such type of license. They upload all of their works in a special portal that can be easily and be openly accessed by anybody (Picture 12).

Picture 9: The Aptikom NEXSUS

The government of Indonesia has bought all copyrights and intellectual properties of these publications so that anybody or any publisher - who is willing to print and to distribute them are eligible to do so. Actually the way the license is handled is aligned with the existing creative commons concept.

Picture 12: The CC E-Book Portal

The Way Forward After undergoing several open education based projects, it is realised that such initiative can only be guaranteed to be sustainable if a systemic and a holistic approach is used. The latest research conducted by Aptikom, Ministry of National Education and Culture, Indonesian Telkom, and Warta Ekonomi Research Center, has delivered the ecosystem model that should be used in order to make the open education concept workable within campus environment (Picture 13).

Picture 10: The K12 Digital Books

JPA-APTIK Open Library Network Another initiative that is conducted by the Association of Catholic University or APTIK is the establishment of open library network (Picture 11). Through this initiative, students and lecturers from any catholic university can have open access to other campuses within the network.

Picture 13: The Open Education Ecosystem in Indonesian Campus

By taking into consideration all components of the ecosystem - which are representing the key success factors on the adoption of open education principle - the mission to make a campus adopting and embracing this new paradigm on education would be achieved. --- oOo --Picture 11: The JPA-APTIK Library


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