Oceans Daily Issue No. 3

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Photo by Erda Estremera


Content Editors Note

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Discoveries

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The Art of Conservation

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Life Below

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The Outlaw Ocean Project

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Seafood Fraud

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Art Feature

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A tale from the Sea

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Daniela Freggi

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Be The Change

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Introducing Issue No. 3 of Oceans Daily Magazine

Dreams of an Octopus

Interview with Conservation Film & Photojournalist Joakim Odelberg

The Conch Snail

Interview with Ian Urbina

Labelling is both a solution and an illusion

Mat Brown

Mermaids

Sea Turtle Conservation

Small Fish - Big Problems

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Oceans Daily Magazine

Oceans Daily Scientific Illustrator Mikkel Juul Jensen mikkel@Penalhuset.dk Instagram : Mikkel_Juul_Jensen Page : 12,13 & 26,27

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Editors Note Dearest Reader ! 2020 has been anything but static. A Year filled with changes. Also for the Oceans Daily platform. Since the prior Magazine was published, Oceans Daily has been redefined. The Magazines are now the core product, due to the great response, - for which I am grateful ! It is now with great pleasure that I introduce to You, Oceans Daily Magazine Issue No. 3. As You may have noticed, this Magazine contains many different aspects of Ocean Conservation and perceptions of the life below surface. The intention is to summon and share as many different perspectives on the Ocean as possible, - both the forceful and exploited as well as the beautiful and mythical. Some have dedicated their lives to the Ocean and are working tirelessly to contribute to a a more sustainable future for the Oceans as well as it´s inhabitants. And most often, these passionate people, with true commitment, never get the proper amount of acknowledgement. But never the less - they continue ! In this Magazine, some of these incredible individuals shares their point of view. I am really proud to to share with You, a glimpse of their dedication and hard work. Thank You for Your interest in Oceans Daily ! Sincerely, Naja Bertolt Jensen

All articles and interviews are conducted by Blue Reporter Naja Bertolt Jensen Executive Editor of Oceans Daily


Dre of an

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ams Octopus

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Photo by Julia Kadel


When we go to sleep, a whole new world awakens. A world of dreaming. Dreams has puzzled mankind though out history. Ever since the first bonfires were made, stories inspired by dreamlike scenarios has been shared, - dream predations, and even otherworldly assumptions to what we may explore or learn about the univers and ourselves when dozing off. In ancient Egypt, dating all the way back to 2000 BC, Egyptians wrote down their dreams on papyrus, since they believed that dreams were messages from their gods. In Greece, a theory was made about the 5th century BC, that dreams, were a reflection of the soul. Simply put, - the soul would receive images during the day, and produce images during the night. Eksampels like these are endless, - and still today the nature of dreams are not fully understood. Dreams vary to each individual. As well as our understanding of dreams, - how vivid they might be, experiencing colors / black white, our ability taste, feel and smell while dreaming, - and so on. So when combining this incomplete understanding of dreams, with the yet magnificent world below surface, - something entirely new can be questioned… Are dreams a human privilege alone ? Or do we share this ability with the undersea inhabitants ? We know dreaming isn’t for “humans only”, since dogs have been known for chasing cats while dreaming for many years. This was also scientifically proved in 1977, - by dreamtesting dogs. Dogs are mans best friend, - therefore the interest in getting to know more about what ones dearest pet might be dreaming about, was much highlyer desired, -than the knowledge about the dreamworld of a parrotfish. Once again, - the peculiarity that of a fish, lowered the interest for exploring what fascinating dreamscapes they might be exploring when asleep. Though, one thing is certain - Fish do also dream ! Yet still today, - it is uncertain what fish dream about, since they dont change expressions, nor make sounds, that are instant understandable for humans. But one special marine animal does actually change expressions and make twitches while asleep. The Octopus. Dreamtesting is often done by testing Rapid eye movement sleep (R.E.M.). R.E.M. sleep is a type of sleep seen in humans, dogs, cats, birds and a lot of other land living beings. This is a stage of sleeping, where the eyes move rapidly in different directions. Though this phase of sleep has never been seen done by sleeping Octopuses, - Octopuses still have a sort of flicker, which can somewhat be compared to R.E.M. There has been made several octopus and squid sleep experiments and dreamtesting over the years, but it wasn't until last year a major break though happened !

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Discoveries

“Yet still today, - it is uncertain what fish dream about, since they dont change expressions, nor make sounds, that are instant understandable for humans. But one special marine animal does actually change expressions and make twitches while asleep. The Octopus.� 7

Photo by Qijin Xu


An Octopus named Heidi was filmed while sleeping, - and this video, filmed for a documentary called “Octopus: Making Contactâ€? showed something spectacular. Heidi sat still near the surface in an aquarium. And as she slept, she changed colors. Flashes of blood red - pale white - bright yellow and deep green. Her skin changed as well, - from smooth to bumpy. Twitches in her arms from time to time, and an almost sizzling movement at some point during her dozing. All the different movements she made, as well as color and skin change, reminded of a person power-napping on a sofa, dreaming about falling off a cliff - or mumbling numbers for the dreamland bank account. Scientists are still not sure what Octopuses are dreaming about. Some scientists believe that Octopuses are dreaming about hunting - mind training their techniques to, for instance lure and catch a tricky crab‌ Other scientists believe, that Octopuses dreams are a way for them to process and store memories, - which could also explain why Octopuses and Cephalopods in general, make such fast learners and it could also explain even more about their intelligence.

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Discoveries

Also this year, yet another perspective on dreaming Octopuses was placed on the table. This perspective rushing the fact, that Octopuses are nothing like humans, - and questioning : How we honestly could say (with accuracy) that Heidi the Octopus was dreaming ? An argument often used my scientists is that, we humans often wish to weave animals into human characteristics, in order to make the animals more relatable to us. And some scientists found, this was the case, concerning dreaming Octopuses. Heidi´s color change could be caused by simple muscle twitches, - which also controlles the color changing organs in an Octopus. A part of these scientists argumentation, regarding their skepticism towards octopuses dreamlands, was also that we can´t ´be certain that Octopuses dreams are completely like the dreams of humans. But this is a tricky argument, since we aren't able to define an overall finished and polished dream model for human beings.

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Photo by Julia Kadel


“Its a catch 22. How could we rule out the possibility that Octopuses and other Cephalopods has dreamworlds, just as magnificent, divers and individual as humans, - when we are not sure exactly how we define the human dreamworld ? Simple answer, - we can’t.”

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Discoveries

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Photo by Daniel Mayorga


Did You know ? Manta Rays have the largest brain to size ratio of any living fish, and they are even able to recognize themselves in a mirror, - which proves a high cognitive ability ! 12


Did You know ? The name “Manta" originates from Spanish and means “blanket” or “cloak”

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Illustration by Mikkel Juul Jensen


!e A" of Photo by Joakim Odelberg

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C onservation Interview with Conservation Film & Photojournalist Joakim Odelberg


Photo by Joakim Odelberg

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!e A" of

Conservation

Interview with Joakim Odelberg

“I work as a conservation film and photojournalist, where I try to be the voice for the voiceless.” Please tell us a little about Yourself… I grew up in a small village 60 km north of Gothenburg, Sweden. It is a coastal village, so I grew up by the sea. I always felt drawn to the Ocean, and for as long as I remember, I've been curious about the underwater world. When I was three years old, I got my first diving mask, the best gift ever, - it still is. Later, when I was ten years old, I took my first diving certificate. I started to dive because I wanted to dive with sharks. I love them. How would you define Your mission ? My mission is to raise awareness, and change people's attitudes and behaviors towards a more sustainable and understanding future. What aspects do You find to be the most important concerning Ocean Conservation ? We need to do so many things, and we need to take action now, not tomorrow, - preferably yesterday. We know the fishing industry fished out the Oceans between 70% to 90%. We know that 3 billion people are dependent on fish as a primary source of protein. Most of those 3 billion people come from developing countries. We need to change behavior and habits in how we consume seafood. Another important thing is that only 6% of the Oceans are protected. Scientists agree that we need to protect at least 30%. Some even say we should protect 50%, and I agree with that. I've been diving worldwide, in marine protected areas and nonprotected areas, and the difference speaks for itself. It shows that if we leave marine areas alone, life will come back and thrive. We know that the Oceans cover a little more than 70% of our planet. The Oceans are our lungs and our heart. It provides us with oxygen for us to breathe, it provides us with food, and we are about to mess it up.

You are a member of the highly respected Explorers Club,You have been on many expeditions, You have several collaborations… What is Your most groundbreaking Ocean experience, and how has it inspired You ? Less than a year ago, Todd Steiner, the Executive Director at Turtle Island Restoration Network reached out to me. He is also an Explorers Club Fellow. Todd invited me to this fascinating and exciting Shark tagging expedition to Cocos Island, Costa Rica. The reason for this expedition is to understand the moving patterns of Sharks and other marine species, to establish a Mission Blue Hope spot called "Swim Way." This year, Mission Blue announced that the “Swim Way” between Cocos Island and Galapagos is now a Mission Blue Hope Spot, fantastic news ! It was a super exciting expedition. My job was to document the hard and time-consuming work of Shark tagging. There were two different ways of tagging. First, it was diving, and we hid behind rocks at cleaner stations, and we were just sitting there, waiting for a Shark to swim past. At 32 m (105 feet), You don't have so much time, so luck, skill and timing are crucial for a tagging success. The other method was, that before breakfast and before diving, we went out at 4 AM to catch sharks from the boat. When the team managed to catch a shark, we secured it to the boat's side, still in the water, and there we attached both a satellite and audio tag. We also took a skin sample, blood sample, and we secured DNA. This expedition result was, that Mission Blue could, with help from scientists, announce that the “Swim Way” between the Galapagos and Cocos Island is now officially a Mission Blue Hope Spot.

Joakim Odelberg Conservation Film & Photojournalist Photo Cocos Island Shark Expedition Scientists taking a blood sample from a Galapagos Shark

www.joakimodelberg.se Instagram: @joakimodelberg


Has Your approach to Ocean Conservation changed over the years ? I started working in Conservation because I had this fantastic encounter with a Manta Ray in Southeast Asia in 2007. I couldn't believe my eyes when suddenly this beautiful being occurred like an angel from the deep blue. I fell in love then and there. This manta ray stayed with me for about 50 minutes, and when we came back up on the boat, there was a guy who opened up a beer can, knocked it back, and threw the can over his shoulder into the sea. I reacted very strongly to that, and from that moment, I changed the path in life. From that moment, I decided to work towards changing people's attitudes and behavior. I guess it's thanks to the guy with the beer can, that I do what I do today. From 2007 up to now 2020, lots of good things happened, when it comes to Ocean Conservation. People are more aware. I feel that more people care about the Ocean's environment and understand how important the Sea is to our survival. Sadly we have so much more work to do. I know it's a long answer, but you asked if my approach to Ocean conservation changed over the years, and I have to say yes‌ - It has changed. Today I work harder and more intense than I ever did before, contributing to reach The Global Goals 2030.

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The Art of Conservation

How do You experience people's reactions to Your work ? Most of the time, the reactions are very positive, and people are curious and want to know more about how to change routines and attitudes towards a more sustainable future. Of course, there are people who don't believe in Climate Change, that we fished out our Oceans, Coral Bleaching, acidification, and global warming‌ but sadly all of that are scientific facts. Those deniers are the most important clientele. Those are the people we need to address. It's always easy to preach for the choir and for the believers. I'm aiming for the unbelievers.

Are You optimistic about the future of the Oceans ? Yes, I am optimistic about the future of our Ocean. I am convinced that we can change this negative trend to a positive one. Many have told me, that what I do is mission impossible, that we can't change attitudes and behavior. I say nothing is impossible. Of course, we can. For example, during the pandemic, when our governments announced the restrictions and regulations to fight Covid-19, most of us changed our routines and our behaviors, and we did it together.

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Photo by Joakim Odelberg


- What advice do you wish to give the readers of Oceans Daily Magazine?

“Keep an open mind. Be curious - Trust science. Suppose You feel that You want to be a part of a better, and sustainable future. Don't be afraid to get Your hands dirty. It starts with You. Together, we can make significant changes.�

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The Art of Conservation

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Photo by Joakim Odelberg


Did You know ? The Queensland Grouper is one of the largest bony fish on the planet ! They can become about 2.7 meters long and weigh over 400 kg ! 22


Did You know ? The Queensland Grouper has many names. - It is also known as : Giant Grouper, Brown Spotted Cod, Brindlebass and Bumblebee Grouper,

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Photo by David Clode


Life Below

Conch


Snail


On the Ocean floor, an often overlooked being resides. It´s soft and slippery body is protected by a hard cone shaped shell. It glides peacefully across the bottom of the Ocean, searching for perfect spots to graze on algae with it´s long snout like mouth. The everyday life of the Conch Snail may sound rather simple. Find food, and avoid becoming someones meal. But when being highly delicious, which is the case for the Conch Snail, this can be a bit of a struggle, since many animals long to place the soft bodied, slippery and hard-shelled being, on a platter. These predators favoring a Conch Snail for supper, are called “Molluscivores”. Molluscivores are carnivore animals, that prefers a diet consisting of prey from the mollusk classification… “Mollusks” is rather large classification, that consists of both Octopuses and Squids, Snails and Slugs, Clams and more ! So in fact, being Molluscivore does grant the option for a quite varied diet. But Conch Snails are not fond of the idea of being targeted as primary prey, since evolution did not exactly favor these peculiar looking animals the ability to swim fast, nor run on the Ocean floor, to flee from the attacker.

Though, apart from just retracting into it´s shell, the Conch Snail does have trick to escape… It jumps !

With it´s large foot, it takes a leap and pursues to hurdle from it´s attacker. When the predator is a large spotted eagle ray, with special evolved jaws to easily crush the shell of the Conch Snail, - quick decision making and jumping is the only chance of escape. This very special ability has helped this mollusk to survive as a specie for approximately 150 million years.

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Life


But a study shows, that the Conch Snail may loose this vital skill, due to the rising Co2 levels in the Oceans. The study, lead Dr Sue-Ann Watson, observed that when the Conch Snail is exposed to the levels of carbon dioxide projected for the end of this century, the Conch Snail takes much longer time to make the decision to jump - or, it just does not jump at all.

It is often discussed how Co2 is in fact damaging the growth of animals shells in the Ocean, making them more vulnerable to predators‌ But the disruption of the Conch Snails ability to jump, sets an example on how Climate Change does have an impact on the behaviorism, that of a snail. Carbon dioxide and Ocean acidification disrupts a particular neurotransmitter receptor in the Snail's nervous system. Which means the receptor delays vital decision-making on fleeing from the attacker. And this is a huge problem ! It might not sound vital, if a Snail can or can´t jump, but this future lost ability most likely will effect the whole food chain in the Ocean, - and at the end of the line - also humans.

Below

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Illustation by Mikkel Juul Jensen


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Did You know ? An ancient technique of drying Atlantic Cod called “Stockfish�, enabled the Vikings to store the Codfish as food for their long journeys at sea, and provided them with strength to plunder, once they reached their destination.

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Photo by Naomi August


An Interview with

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Ian Urbina 31

Photo : The Outlaw Ocean Project


Photo : The Outlaw Ocean Project

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The Outlaw Ocean Project

An Interview with

Ian Urbina

“For the past 17 years, I've been a staff investigative reporter for The New York Times. I also created a non-profit journalism organization called The Outlaw Ocean Project, which stems from a Times series and a book I wrote about human rights, labor and environmental crimes at sea.” How would You describe Your work to a complete stranger? The Outlaw Ocean is a journalistic exploration of lawlessness at sea around the world. The project’s goal is to increase a sense of urgency by raising awareness and broadening the public’s understanding of what happens at sea, both above and below the waterline. This reporting touches on a diversity of abuses ranging from illegal and overfishing, arms trafficking at sea, human slavery, gun running, intentional dumping, murder of stowaways, thievery of ships and other topics.

The seas are vast. Most of that space belongs to no country. The result is there are few if any police out there. In the rare case that there are rules that apply, there is virtually no one to enforce them. What's more, when harm comes to seafarers, there is little incentive to investigate or prosecute since most of these crews are poor and with minimal leverage to hire lawyers or get the attention of government authorities. Human rights and labor abuse are rampant on the high seas, and environmental issues often arise (and are sometimes explained) by exploring the former.

What forged Your interests for the Ocean and the High Seas? I’ve been enchanted by the Sea since I was a little boy. Spending time offshore always captured my imagination. I was especially drawn to the idea of taking a ship and for weeks crossing this strange and dangerous netherworld that seemed to abide by its own laws of physics. An experience akin to space travel, but on earth. I got my chance, or so I thought, when I was in graduate school and employed as an anthropologist. I took a job on a research trip in Singapore, which, much to my annoyance, ended up never leaving port. So, as a travel experience, it offered little. But spending long days on the dock, I was exposed to the diaspora tribe of seafarers and I was struck by how distinct they were. They were colorful, clever, rutty, irreverent and generally outside the customs that us landlubbers often call law – And, truth be told, once I was exposed to the place and the people, I was hooked.

How do You define innovative storytelling? And how do You find this to be a powerful tool to create change? Innovative storytelling uses much more than just the written word – it uses all five-senses for readers to quite literally feel others, however foreign, experiences. The Outlaw Ocean has experimented with a spin-off collaboration, The Outlaw Ocean Music Project, to combine journalism and music mediums, to convey emotion and a sense of place in an enthralling new way. The result is a captivating body of music based on The Outlaw Ocean journalism. While reporting for 5 years at sea, I built an audio library of field recordings. It featured a variety of textured and rhythmic sounds like machine-gun fire off the coast of Somalia and chanting captive deckhands on the South China Sea. Using the sound archive and inspired by the reporting, over 400 artists from more than 60 countries produced EPs in their own interpretive musical styles -- be it electronic, ambient, classical or hip hop. The project is a clever way to commandeer music platforms like Spotify and Amazon and turn them into news outlets. This allows us to message Ocean issues at younger demographics, like my 16-year old son, who might not otherwise read the New York Times, but nonetheless still consumes a lot of news through alternate channels. The music project also allows us to conscript musicians from various places around the world so that they begin talking about Ocean issues.

In the introduction to Your book “The Outlaw Ocean” You mention Your deep fascination for the Ocean, and how You as a Reporter at The New York Times was nudged by your Editor, to focus more on the people than on the fish, - and how You found that environmental issues would arise as well though that lens... Can You elaborate this? I knew from the seafarers that I had met prior that there was a truly outlandish world offshore and my hope then—and over a decade later when I convinced my editor to cut me loose so I could produce the series that ran in The New York Times—was to explore and chronicle these characters: the traffickers and smugglers, pirates and mercenaries, wreck thieves and repo men, vigilante conservationists and elusive poachers, seabound abortion providers, clandestine oil- dumpers, shackled slaves and cast-adrift stowaways.

Ian Urbina Staff investigative reporter, The New York Times Author, The Outlaw Ocean www.TheOutlawOcean.com


What has been Your most eye-opening experience on the Ocean, concerning the life below? Rather than the life within the Ocean, it was the experiences I had on the Ocean that were most eye-opening. It was the conditions on the fishing ships where I spent a lot of time that worried me most. These are industrial settings and there are loads of heavy equipment. Fifteen-foot swells often climbed the sides of these ships, clipping the crew (and my photographer and I) below the knees. Ocean spray and fish innards made the floor skating-rink slippery. Seesawing erratically from the rough seas and gale winds, the deck was an obstacle course of jagged tackle, spinning winches, and tall stacks of five-hundred-pound nets. Furthermore, fishing ships, particularly in the developing world, are not especially hygienic places. Cram dozens of men into a dank, confined space for months, where they are handling thousands of dead and decaying creatures day in and day out, and you can expect infections. By the time I arrived in Palau, I had already spent time on dozens of fishing boats, and I had learned that for my own safety I needed to adjust certain habits. No more nail biting; you don’t want your hands anywhere near your mouth. Even small cuts get infected quickly and severely. I stopped wearing contact lenses because putting them in and taking them out was a wobbly, germladen process that kept resulting in styes. Ear infections were a constant battle from the persistent moisture. Daily drops of a concoction of 50 percent vinegar, 50 percent rubbing alcohol helped manage the problem but often it stung like hell.

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What do You find is important aspects for people to know about the high seas? All of these types of abuses, whether they’re human rights abuses, or environmental crimes, stem from a core problem, which is a lack of governance at sea, especially on the high seas. Specifically, there are three ways in which misbehavior happens offshore routinely and with impunity: too few rules, a lack of enforcement, and insufficient awareness of what is happening there. All of these problems are also connected in the sense that they occur with a certain tacit complicity from all of us who live on land. We all are the beneficiaries of the lawlessness on the high seas, where 90% of all the products we consume comes by way of ships, and the commercial channels are usually unbothered by the government and therefore, rules. We have been able to access impossibly cheap products that arrive to our shelves with incredible speed. 90% of everything travels by ship, 50% of our oxygen is from the Ocean, and 70% of the protein we consume comes from the Ocean: We are deeply dependent on the Ocean. With Your in-depth knowledge from years in the Field, what are Your suggestions on how we can act, both as a society and as individuals, to contribute to create a more sustainable future for the Oceans? It's difficult to care about things that we don't know exist. Not only is there a lack of knowledge about what lives offshore, there is also a resulting lack of empathy or self interest in safeguarding the life and habitats out there. Meanwhile, this ignorance also allows entrenched misconceptions to stay entrenched. If industry argues that fish stocks can and will replenish themselves regardless of the intensity of industrial over-fishing, who's going to argue that they are wrong? If dumpers contend that sinking oil rigs offshore does more benefit than harm by providing a place for fish to hide, how can anyone prove that they are not right? And none of this touches on the possible self-interest we have at stake in exploring the oceans for the sake of discovering the cure to diseases, for example.

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Photo : The Outlaw Ocean Project


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It is difficult but not impossible to confront this reality. Seafood may be having its moment of reckoning, not unlike what occurred previously with blood diamonds, sweat-shop garments, and dolphin-free tuna, where companies and consumers say that they are willing to accept higher prices for goods that can actually be traced from bait to plate. Admittedly, because the sea is so far from inspectors and watchful eyes, it will be difficult for companies to track their products better and publicly prove that abuses are not baked into their production process. But if the will is there, companies and governments can accomplish this level of accountability and transparency. Other steps include: Creating zones (often called marine protected areas or MPAs) of the ocean that are off limits to fishing or other industrial activity, stepping up port inspections of ships globally, lessening our overall demand for fossil fuels by shifting to alternative sources of renewable energy, pressing companies to shift away from single-use plastics, ending government that subsidies that are helping to put too many fishing ships on the waters – these are examples of winnable battles that help in the larger war.

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Photo : The Outlaw Ocean Project


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- You have spent so many hours on the Ocean, experienced and seen horrible things, that can be hard to comprehend is happening in this century... What is Your perspective about the future for the Oceans? “The big threats to the Oceans divide into two categories. The first is the waste that we are putting into the Seas, including carbon emissions dissolving from the air, oil sludge released by ships’ magic pipes, plastic coming from landfills, ghost fishing gear. The second category includes the resources that we are taking out of the Oceans (including fish at an unsustainable rate, oil and gas from under the sea floor, minerals from the sea floor, and biodiversity wasted in the form of so- called bycatch which refers to marine life caught and killed inadvertently before being thrown overboard.) The situation looks especially bleak if You focus on whether we can win the larger war to save the Oceans. It's far less demoralizing and debilitating, however, if we look instead at the individual battles and just try to tackle each, one by one. ” 39

Photo : The Outlaw Ocean Project


Did You Know ? Yellowfin Tunas are warmblooded fish and this makes them extremely fast swimmers. Reaching speeds up to 80 km pr hour, they are able to escape almost all predators.

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Photo by Mishal Ibrahim


Photo by Bruno Aguirre

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Seafood Fraud Labelling is both a solution and an illusion

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Photo by Sas Kia


Perhaps You have heard about water pumped into chicken breasts to make them heavier, counterfeiting of bee honey with sugar syrup - or dilution of milk‌? Food fraud has been around since the dawn of day, and is still today an unwanted part of our worldwide supply chain. In fact, there is also a major black spot on the Seafood industry. In recent Years, it has become clear, how mislabelling of Seafood, among other swindle techniques, is a global problem. A problem which needs to be eliminated, since it affects both the individual consumer, as well as the health of the Oceans. Though, unfortunately this does not come easy. Seafood fraud is extremely difficult to tackle due to it´s many layers, creativity of methods, and once again the Oceans ambiguity joins in. When we, as consumers, decide to buy a Monkfish, - we expect to return home and prepare a monkfish for supper. However, the monkfish might turn out to be a poisonous Pufferfish, if a DNA based test was made. Resent investigations, made by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the non-profit Organization Oceana, proves that approximately one third of all fish and Seafood products worldwide are mislabelled. Though it varies a lot from country to country how severe the mislabelling is. Lets take Europe as an example.

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Seafood Fraud

A recent study in Spain done by using DNA barcoding, proved that about 50 % of the food service establishments sold mislabelled Seafood. The “Dusky Grouper” and “Tope Shark” showed the highest mislabelling percentages, ranging from 86% to 100 %. The study also found that one of the primary difficulties was the international Seafood supply chain. Imported species from Asia, South America and South Africa were substituting local species, since the market value for imported species were lower, and could be labelled and sold under false comprehension, for the higher market value of local species. But one of Spain´s neighboring countries - France, tells a different labelling tale. France is the largest Seafood consuming country in the EU, and a study dating back to 2015, proves that accurate labelling of fish, is in fact possible. The study analyzed a marked-wide dataset, - collected samples from fishmonger shops, supermarkets and restaurants - both fresh and frozen fish, prepared meals and fish fillets. Their overall substitution rate was as low as 3.7%. They detected no mislabelling among the frozen fillets or in the industrially prepared meals - only in fishmonger shops and restaurants. Despite a very small samle of Bluefin Tuna (only 6 samles) a chocking 5 out of 6 Bluefin Tuna samles, turned out to be substitutions. Species with a lower market value.

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Photo by Oziel Gomez Il Nzcmcnwc


“The comparison of these two neighboring countries within the EU, proves that mislabelling varies enormously depending on the country.”

In a campaign run by Oceana back in 2015 called “One name, One fish” the complexity of mislead fish names was pointed out. Another part of the labelling issue. In an example they grant, they explain how a critically endangered Warsaw Grouper caught in Panama, can be sold legally un the U.S. simply by the name “Grouper”. This lack of differing between species is really an issue, since fish has wide ranges in sustainability within the “fish order”. The order of the grouper consists of 159 different species of Groupers in the family Epinephelidae, - spread out worldwide and varying from critically endangered to threatened and vulnerable. Oceana´s suggestment was to make species-specific names in latin, - since this would be universally recognized regardless of language, and could then help the consumer to identify the specific specie before placing the fish on the dinner table. In the U.S. aproximiadly 1.700 different species of Seafood from all over the world is available for sale. And as a conscious consumer, one might be familiar with the fact that some fish are more sustainable to eat than others, but keeping up and researching a range of 1.700 species, is an unrealistic requirement of the consumer. Despite the fact that google is invented and research might only be one tap away. But in the mist of grocery shopping, with a job and a family, - that extra time-consuming consciousness is a requirement that many people might choose to skip.

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Seafood Fraud

“When mislabelling fish, the Seafoods traceability from boat to plate is also critically diminished.”

Mislabelling is as mentioned also a huge treat to the health of the worlds Oceans. A new report by Greenpeace, “30x30 A Blueprint for Ocean Protection. How we can protect 30% of our Oceans by 2030”, states that 93% of the worlds fish populations are fully fished or overfished, and more than a third at unsustainable levels, - which is a fact that is widely recognised. And when mislabelling fish, the Seafoods traceability from boat to plate is also critically diminished. These are but a few eksampels on why mislabelling of Seafood is critical the health of the Oceans.

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Photo by Ramille Soares


Simply put, - Seafood fraud makes it impossible for the conscious consumer to contribute to a more sustainable future for the Oceans. If a consumer chooses a fish, that is labelled as a specie of fish, that is possible to fish sustainably, but is mislead and instead served a fish that turnes out to be a vulnerable or endangered specie, it becomes very difficult to do the “right thing�. Seafood fraud is an issue that needs top-down solving, since the consumer cant possibly help push in the right direction.

(For more information about the Studies, Campaigns and Mislabelling of Seafood, visit the Oceans Daily Website) www.OceansDaily.com


Seafood Fraud

But if the Labelling is accurate, - as it turned out to be in France, - labelling is clearly a great way to help the conscious consumer choose Seafood on an informed basis, since researching the fish, shrimp etc., from boat to shop, - before purchasing, might seem insurmountable for the individual consumer. Guides are necessary. And Labelling can serve as a solution. But, obviously, the labelling needs to be accurate in order to work. In the U.S., approx. 84% of the Seafood consumed is imported, and approx. 2% is inspected by the government for fraud. There is a long way to go. But having France as an example, proving it possible to function in a Society with correct labeling, gives hope that if a greater effort is made worldwide, Seafood Fraud could be eliminated.

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Photo by Zeshalyn Capindo


Art Fea

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ture

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Photo by Joshua Rawson Harris



“Ordovician” Mat Brown


Photo by “Imagefoundry"

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Mat Brown Visual Artist www.MatBrown.org Instagram: @MatBrown777


Art Feature

Mat Brown “I am a visual artist living and working in Berlin Germany, working entirely with ink on paper.” The illustrative style that I have, lends itself well to narrative story telling. I create intricate depictions of, what I can only describe as my world-view; meaning I create elaborate narratives around how I see the world and try to incorporate, how I was educated and a reflection of the culture, I come from. I was born and raised in Toronto Canada, educated in the public school system in a white christian family. The cultural influence of my upbringing is something I try to be honest about when approaching larger subjects like the evolution of life on earth, political narratives about contemporary culture or concepts in society like climate change. The aim of my work, or the intent of it, is to convey a kind of open stream of conscious satire of the world I see myself living in. I hope to achieve some level of communication with the viewer, not in a literal way necessarily, but at least provide a world in which the viewer can enter and discover details and easter eggs of recognition, little references to the way I see the topic I'm narrating in each piece. The overall intention of my work is to create a kind of visual record of how I see the world, which I started by illustrating the history and evolution, animal life on earth from the emergence of life, through the dinosaurs and up to the entrance of homo sapiens and the development of our culture from my perspective.

In laying this ground work of my world-view by depicting the concept of the evolution of life, I have gone on to draw the development of culture and currently I'm addressing the issue of climate change as a cultural concept. Our relationship to the concept of climate change, it's effect on the Oceans and on our societies in general (from the perspective of my work) is that of a cultural layer, on top of the reality that everything we do as humans on this planet is ‘natural’. Our human interaction with other systems of nature, in my opinion, is currently functioning like a poison, cancer or disease. That being said, I believe that pathogens are also part of nature, that we hold ourselves back from being able to conceptually move forward in terms of interacting more symbiotically with the rest of the world. I think, that if we could fundamentally see ourselves as part of nature and not separate from it, we would be able to see more clearly how we could contribute to the well being of our environment, more than the way it's often talked about now. I think culture is causing anthropogenic climate change, the culture of materialism and consumerism. If we as humans are going to be a positive force in consort with the rest of macro (animal) life on earth, I believe, we need to look through different cultural eyes, - perhaps not human eyes...

“As Above So Below” Mat Brown


Did You know ? When a Clownfish moves to an Anemone, it performs a type of dance. The Clownfish swims around and gently touches the Anemones tentacles with different parts of it´s body. At some point, the Clownfish and the Anemone becomes familiar with one another, and then the Clownfish takes residence.

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Photo by Sebastian Pena


A tale from the Sea

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Photo by Claus Jensen


The Ocean has inspired mankind to tell stories from the dawn of day. It´s raw power, the countless creatures below surface that appeared alienlike to humans, as well as the Oceans key role in maintaining the existence for humans throughout history, - has created a great setting for storytelling.

But the part that becomes really fascinating, is when stories, myths and folklore can be linked, - mapped out - stretching from the cold waters of Skotland, to Brazil and furthermore to Greenland and Japan. When stories have been told, almost at the exact same time different places around the world - despite the lack of ability to communicate cross the globe at the time, a question arises… Are these myths somehow connected to reality, or are they just well told bed time stories ? On land tales about, for instance, fire breathers that flew and looked like giant reptiles, has been told in the same era - in both Asia, Russia and South America… “Dragons” as we call them today in a popular term. Some Mythologists and Creationists claim, that dragons are dinosaurs, and the reason for the lot of Dagon tales is that a few specimens were still to be found meanwhile humans had evolved to a stage, where storytelling would be prioritized. Though, no evidence has been found to prove this, since dinosaur fossils does not turn up in the same rock layers as human remains… This though, does proves a point that is linked to the Ocean. We know so much about the ground we walk upon. And we know so very little about what lyes beneath the surface.

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A Tale from the Sea

So what might be the possibility of these creatures from tales actual existence ? A very special Ocean character has been a subject for countless myths and tales… The Mermaid.

Many of us will picture a red haired beauty with big blue eyes and a green tail, if we should describe a Mermaid. Disney's Princess Ariel, is actually an interpretation of a story written in 1837 by the Danish author Hans Christian Andersen. The story is called “The little Mermaid” and in many ways, it is easy to see that the Disney movie is almost a direct copy of the story. However, this elder literary fairytale is probably one of the most gloomy stories ever written. A Mermaid falls in love with a Prince on land, whom she once saved. She decides to do a major sacrifice to be able to go ashore. Though unfortunately at the end of the story, the Prince chooses to marry another girl, leaving the little Mermaid filled with sorrow. The part, where Disney decided to make a happy ending instead. The Mermaid in Hans Christian Andersens tale, is described as a mysterious beauty, witholding kindness, but also wrapped in a certain melancholy and longing. This was his projection of a Mermaid, back in 1837, - but there are many different Mermaid projections and descriptions dating much further back in history. Some of these descriptions origins from pirates and seafarers all the way back to the 1300s… Describing seductive woman lying on rocks, singing to the sailors - providing them with fantasies they might longed to outlive meanwhile they were still at sea, far from shore and a woman arms. Others seafarers, described these women as dark and evil creatures. These charakters called “Sirenes” would use their beauty to make these desperate men join them in the water. Though what the men would experience, was far from the affection they might have dreamt of, - since the cunning Sirenes would drown them, - and sometimes even eat them…

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Photo by Rikke Bertolt


“If only I could find my skin once more,” she cried to her husband, “So that I might return to the sea now and then, to visit my sisters and my home beneath the waves. The lack of moisture here is withering me so. I shall be old before my time and I fear you will not love me by and by.” - The Selkie Bride (Scottish Folklore)

Stories about “Mermaids” - or “Servants of the Sea” - have existed all over the world - all the way from cold Scotland to hot Africa. Though their names as well as actions varies a lot. In Scotland, “Mermaids” are called “Selkies”. Selkies are seals, that are able to shed their skin and take human form. They are gentle, beautiful beings, that loves the Ocean beyond anything else. Legends about Selkies often ends tragically, since it mainly concerns Selkies being stolen and married on land. The Selkies normally looses their “sealskins” (their skins allows them to transform into seals and live in the Ocean) since their husbands normally hides the skin away. But many of the Selkie legends ends when the Selkie finds the Sealskin and runs off - returning to the Ocean, leaving the human husband and sometimes children behind on land. Mermaid legends also exists in Japan, - though they are very different from the Scottish Selkies. “Ningyo” is a fishlike - ugly - described creature, far from the "classic" sensual and seductive idea of a Mermaid. Some of the oldest written stories in Japan concerns the “Ningyo”. It is said, that the “Ningyo” holds the power of everlasting life, and the person that eats it shall live forever. Though the “Ningyo” also has powers to create disasters by casting spells and destroying lives if it feels threatened, or harmed. Some stories about the Ningyo has it, that naive fishermen would catch the grim looking creature, varying in size from a small child to a giant seal. Yet sometimes the fishermen had not thought though the supernatural powers the Ocean creature percessed - which ment their entire village would be destroyed by a tsunami or an earthquake.

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A Tale from the Sea

Fun Mermaid stories can also be found ! A story from the transitioning era of the 1600s claimed, that a type of Mermaid entered Holland though an embankment, but was injured when doing so. She was then taken to a lake close by and nursed until she had healed. Eventually, she became a Dutch citizen, learned the language as well as taking care of a household - she even converted to Catholicism according to the tale ! A final Mermaid example is from Brazil, where they have a story about a type of mermaid called “Iara” translated, this means : Lady, or, Mother of the Waters. This immortal Mermaid is beautiful, dark skinned with gorgeous eyes. Iara is said to mesmerize men, and tempt them to join her in her underwater world, to make love to her. This, as it may seem, irresistible proposal, - has often been the justification for many mens disappearance and drowning accidents. According to some tales, the men that survived Iara by escaping, ended up going mad - or, having teeth marks on their necks and bodies. When looking at a geographical map - tales of Mermaids has accrued on almost all continents. Still, Mermaids has not been “scientifically discovered” Folklore, myths, tales and legends are interesting in many ways. But what makes them incredible - is their striking truth. "Truth" can be many different things - this "truth" being the reflection upon the general works of the human mind - no matter if you live in Brazil or Scotland a projektion of a Mermaid occurs. These myths and tales explains to us who we are, who we have been and displays the general fascination humans project to the Ocean.

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Photo by Ashkan Forouzani


Less than 10% of the Ocean has been fully explored, - and if We come to think about some of the creatures we have discovered, like for instance the giant squid, who knows what our ancestors my have encountered on their journeys at sea ? Perhaps something we will come to know of later on.

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A Tale from the Sea

Myths, folklore and tales from the Oceans are still worth sharing, since “In mari multa latent” translated “In the Ocean many things are hidden.” Photo by Claus Jensen


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Did You know ? There are more than 2,000 different species of Nudibranchs, and new species are discovered almost daily. They can be found in all of the Oceans in hot tropical seas as well as in Antarctica.

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Photo by Maria Belen Bonaz


Sea Turtle Surgery Amputation of a flipper that was destroyed by a discarded nylon fishing line Photo by Naja Bertolt Jensen

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Daniela Freggi

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Photo by Naja Bertolt Jensen


Photo : Lampedusa Sea Turtle Rescue Center Archives


Daniela Freggi

Biologist & Sea Turtle Conservationist

“I am a biologist and all my life has been dedicated to Sea Turtle conservation and care. I am the fonder and director of the Sea Turtle Rescue Center in Lampedusa, where about 100 turtles are rescued each year.” I work close with fishermen and try to involve them in the protection of the Sea and it´s creatures.

It has been a real battle, but I have been supported by many volunteers coming from different parts of the world.

Every year we perform about 60 surgeries, we host about 20 thousand visitors, developing educational programs, and we are supported by about 50 students and volunteers from different Countries.

In 30 years many things have changed, and now fishermen are more aware, and also a few of them cooperate in the rescue activities, - most of them stopped killing Sea Turtles and other creatures in the sea!

I grew up in a family and we would travel a lot, since my mother was french, my father was a pilot. So, we moved and lived in many different Countries. I believe this opportunity, hard when You are a child, but precious for an open mind development, gave me the possibility to discover how marvelous our planet is. I love the Oceans in a special way, as they represent our origin, source and future… the sound of waves, the special smell of sea water always give me a deep peace and joy. I chose to study biology science and one of my teachers was the first scientists working on Sea Turtle Conservation in Italy. Some decades ago, this represented a complex challenge, as fishermen considered Sea Turtles competitors with what they were accustomed to consider their property. The University organized various research plans in south Italy, where nesting activity was registered.

I probably decided to dedicate my life to the protection of Sea Turtles as I feel, in general, animals are the most vulnerable, they are often considered, by the majority of the humanity, something to be used, and not respected as individuals with lives of their own. It seems natural to protect children, elder people, sick people, communities affected by wars or disaster… but animals are still considered something useful to us, without soul and feelings. Sea Turtles live alone, they fight in the middle of Oceans for their future, they migrate for miles, - they never give up. Sea Turtles represents the freedom and the global view of our world… And they also represent the deepest feelings and values, on which I have based all my life : freedom, independence, resistance, resilience.

After some experience in different departments, I arrived in Lampedusa Island: the situation was awful. Turtles were killed or left to die in the Sea. So I decided to realize a Rescue Center.

Pho to b

yK ris M

ikae

l Kr iste

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Photo by Naja Bertolt Jensen

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My days are full of different activities: we need to sensibilize fishermen to the protection of seas and Sea Turtles, so every day we try to spend time with them; we need to take care of our Sea Turtle patients, with therapies and food, cleaning tanks and keep their behaviour under control; we need to clean and maintain the Rescue Center, to keep the administrative duties in order, to find solutions for our need of economic support. I have to take care of the volunteers, most of them are students from different Countries of the world, supporting them in their researches. During the summer season, we do sen-sibilization for the visitors, more than 25 thousands every summer, and we realize denotative tours. Some nights I’m in the harbour, as fishermen generally decharge their fish at that time, and it is the opportunity to save some Turtles. We cooperate with some scientific institutions, and for them I collect data and samples. Also, for many Years, I have been cooperating with the incredible passionate Scientist Prof. Antonio Di Bello of the Vet Dept of Bari University. The best and most innovative surgeon of Sea Turtles, - and his support has been very precious to me… All what was done in these 30 years was possible thanks to the many volunteers and students supporting our Association Caretta Caretta, that is in charge of our Rescue Center. We are a little group of passionated people, without any financial support - but we don’t give up! Since 2018, we also take care of a little rescue center for wild animals in danger in Cattolica Eraclea, a little village of south Sicily. Yet another challenge, but animals risk so much, and we can’t just close our eyes.


The youth that comes to support our activities in the Rescue Center is something that motivates me to continue. To see the world through their eyes, gives me the desire to endure! But also for all the Sea Turtles that we were not able to save: they deserve we continue our efforts, and transform their actual pain into a warning, to find a more sustainable way to live all together in peace and respect.

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“We need to work hard on ourselves and discover the real value of life. It isn’t what You have that gives You joy and peace, but what You are. We need to remind young people that egoism, cruelty, passivity destroys many lives, - including humanity, - as we are part of a connected world. What You do, will always come back to You… We have all the technologies and the clever minds to realize a more equitable and sustainable world, - but we need a more prepared politic class in every Nation and Institution!”

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Photo by Claus Jensen


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Be The Change

Small Fish

Big Problems Photo by Naja Bertolt Jensen


As I stood on the beach and looked upon the Ocean surface, watching the layer of mixed floating trash, palm leaves, domestic waste and seaweed, I remember discussing with myself, weather it was a good idea to enter the Ocean to examine the varied lot. It was the rainy season in Indonesia, and the prior days had been rather wet. This combined with articles I had read, on people getting sick, due to inland pollution entering the Ocean, especially after heavy rain, since this washes out a lot of contaminated water from lakes and sewages, made me consider the risks vs. outcome before leaping into the sea. However, - I zipped up my wetsuit and plunged in. The surface layer was oily. And the closer I got to the floating mixed stream, the oily layer changed color and became more yellowish. I was so alerted to the fact, that I did not want any of that water to enter my mouth, since that could cause various diseases, such as cholera and typhoid fever, if I was extremely unlucky. Though this worry ment, that the journey to reach the stream felt short. And all of a sudden, slurred shapes that were hidden in the thermal layer, resembling the heat from burning asphalt on a hot summer day, slowly emerged as I got closer. And there it was. A messy mixture of single use plastic, faeces, palm leaves, sanitary products, polyethylene rice bags, old destroyed fishnet, coconuts and more. Also fish. Small fish species as well as juveniles seeking refuge and hideout in items, not belonging in the Ocean.


Be The Change

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Photo by Naja Bertolt Jensen


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Be The Change

I followed them around. Some of them hid in seaweed floating alongside single use plastic bags, others had found shelter in a used diaper. All of a sudden my eye caught a tiny juvenile Major Damsel Fish. The tiny individual was at a cross road. It could not decide weather to take cover in a used plastic bag, or in a coconut shell, where many other Juvenile Major Damsels were also staying protected. But as I approached - it decided to join the others by the coconut. A good choice. Cause the protection, that the small fish was granted by the plastic, could also be lethal. Further into the mixed stream I came across a dishevelled floating bundle of plastic bags, nylon wire, decaying plants and seaweed. Fish were also following this bundle and hiding in between the mess, - but some of the fish were stock. Trapped and fighting inside a nearly transparent plastic bag, with no escape route, since the current had knotted the opening of the plastic bag with other bags and nylon. The fishes gills were pumping desperately, - revealing how these small animals were severely under pressure.

Photo by Naja Bertolt Jensen


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Be The Change

“They were far from the only trapped fish in the stream. No matter where I looked, fish were stuck, dead or half eaten by the others. Unfortunately, I was not surprised. The waste made it almost impossible to imagine, how a fish could stay alive in these conditions.�

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Photo by Naja Bertolt Jensen


While swimming around, I shot as many pictures as possible. I found a Frog Fish in a plastic ice cream wrapper, tiny fish hiding in plastic lids, and a small fish inside a single use plastic cup. A single use plastic cup identical to any other single use plastic cup used around the world. The small fish hid behind a bend in the cup, and looked straight at me. It is hard for me to say why this specific fish struck me so.

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Be The Change

But one thing is for certain, - this fish visualized how we as individuals, as consumers, have a say and a direct impact, concerning the future of the Oceans. At some point, the steam had carried me along with the mixed mess far out at sea, and I decided to head back to shore. The following days and weeks, streams like this occurred frequently.

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Photo by Naja Bertolt Jensen


"FROM THE OCEAN

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S POINT OF VIEW”

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Photo by Tim Marshall


Photo by Ari He

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Oceans Daily Magazine Issue #3. Nov. 2020

contact@oceansdaily.com

Publisher

Oceans Daily

Executive Editor & Blue Reporter

Naja Bertolt Jensen

Scientific Illustrator

Mikkel Juul Jensen

Photos

All Photographers are Credited

Cover Photo

Joakim Odelberg

Economics

Oceans Daily is an Independant News Media

Oceans Daily DK - 8000 Aarhus Š 2019 by Oceans Daily, All Rights Reserved


www.OceansDaily.com


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