Music Video Glossary Amplification In this context, to add to the meaning of the lyrics through a visual interpretation which may be quite removed from them. Animatic An animated storyboard, often used in advertising, as well as in music video, to give a better idea of the planned project. AOR Adult-Oriented Rock, the dominant, white, mid-America music form in the early 1980s. AVID A professional, industry-standard digital editing system used by many filmmakers. BARB Broadcastersâ€™ Audience Research Board, which researches UK audience data for TV, producing reports for subscribers, with basic statistics available on its website. Brief The original requirement from the client given to the creative team, via the commissioning editor. Capture The act of transferring footage from camera to computer. Chromakey A feature allowing material to be shot against a plain blue or green background which at the edit stage can be replaced with a pictorial background (eg to show a character in an impossible environment). Also referred to as blue-screen technology. Client The record company and artist who want to produce a music video. Commissioning editor The person employed by the record company who offers contracts for music videos. Continuity editing The dominant editing system in film and TV, in which spatial and temporal continuity is maintained for the comprehension of the audience.
Cutaway A shot of an object, person or detail, which can be inserted at any time in a sequence (usually to give extra narrative information to the audience) without breaking the continuity of a sequence. Demographic Particular socio-economic or geographical features of the audience, eg working-class males, aged 16 to 25, in the north of England. Director The main creative interpreter and organiser in charge of the production process. Distribution The means by which a media product reaches its audience, including all promotional and marketing activity. DP Director of photography, also known as lighting cameraperson, in charge of camera and lighting teams. Exhibition The point at which audiences view media products. Exhibitionism The emphasis on an artistâ€™s performance and self-display, while dancing or posing, to show off their status, skills or image. Form The structuring conventions of a media text, such as generic, narrative or ideological framework. Genre The categories into which media texts may be divided according to similarities of form and content. Hybrid A combination of different genres or styles. Iconography Specific visual features associated with an artist or genre, such as a costume or style of dress, particular jewellery or other objects such as cars, guns, etc. Ideology Systems of ideas, values and beliefs we hold as individuals or share as groups, which inform the way we interpret and construct representations of the world. In Media and Film Studies, this concept is sometimes referred to as Messages and Values.
Intertextuality The process of creating meaning through reference to other media texts. Lip-synch The process by which mimed performances of songs are matched up to the original soundtracks in editing. Mise-en-scène The combined effect of a series of visual elements within the frame of a visual text, such as costume, props, decor, figure placement. Montage editing A style of editing in which the juxtaposition of different elements creates impact and meaning. Niche marketing Where a small specific audience is targeted, not a mass one. Ofcom The Office of Communications, the UK organisation now charged, under the 2003 Communications Act, with responsibility to oversee issues of regulation in all electronic media. Its predecessors for TV were the Independent Television Commission (ITC) and the Broadcasting Standards Council (BSC). Offline edit The basic edit to be viewed by the artist and record company prior to any effects being added. Online edit The final edit where effects are added and the tape produced to broadcast standard. Overages Costs which were not in the original project budget but which have been agreed by the client while the video was in production. Panarom Early American video jukebox. Pitch To present ideas for a creative project to producers in order to secure funding. Post-modern An aesthetic category, often applied to MTV, which can mean a mixture of an abandonment of linear ways of telling stories and the eclectic ‘stealing’ of ideas and images from other sources. Post-production The stage where effects are added.
Pre-production The planning stage of a project, prior to shooting. Producer The person who looks after all the logistics for the project, including personnel and the financial balance sheet. Executive producers have less direct input in day-to-day management of a project but may control initial and subsequent funding decisions. Production The main shooting and editing stage of a project. Production designer Also known as the art director, responsible for the mise en scĂ¨ne, including set design. Production manager Responsible for the daily organisation of talent, crew, locations, etc. Representation The processes by which aspects of the real world are reconstructed in media texts. Most commonly applied to the construction of particular individuals or social groups. Scopitone French version of the video jukebox from the 1960s. Sell-through The practice of releasing videos either as a single or compilation album to sell in the shops. Single bid The awarding of the contract for a video where only one video maker is approached and no competition is sought. Storyboard A planning sheet on which shots can be drawn prior to shooting. Style The combination of visual, and other production elements, which gives the text a distinct image and mode of address. Synergy The process by which one media product may be used to help sell another, often from the same company.
Telecine A stage between shooting and offline editing whereby all footage is transferred from film to video to allow editing on a computer. Transition Editing components, such as fades, dissolves, wipes, etc which overlap between shots to move the video from one shot to another. Treatment An initial outline of a project, which indicates the main features of the finished product. Voyeurism The obsessive desire to look at a subject who is unaware of the looker, usually accompanied by erotic pleasure; different from sexual display, where the subject is inviting our attention. Zeitgeist The spirit of the times. Used to identify a particular creative trend (eg Bollywood style) or popular political preoccupation (eg ecology or anti-globalism).