Chapter One, The opportunity of studying yiology 1-1. Current status of yiology During past two decades from the ending of twenty central to the begging of twenty-one central, the researches and development on yiology have been boomed up dramatically in every direction from societies, cultural, history to science, the combination between Chinese ancient philosophy and modern science has played a role of the mainstream flowing, and showed the new researching trend in the Chinese ancient yiology. The prospectors and fast development of yiology in current China have performed the unique period of developing ancient Chinese philosophy, such golden opportunities of development and promotion for the yiology has merely occurred during very long history since yiology created in ancient China. The factors of the improvement on yiology research and development may be resulted from the computer utilizations and the Internet development. Current world, computer employment and internet innovation made the yiological research and publications much easier than before, a large number of websites and publications in varied fields of yiology have been come out quickly like bamboo-sprout after raining in spring, the websites of Internet create and spread non-accountable varies information around world everyday. The exchanges, the publications and the development on the interested research topics are getting easier and easier to be promoted. The one who wishes to commit the yiological researches will be fully free in thinking and communication to the interested parties, the totally free atmosphere through the internet website can easily get the chances to attend the related conference, collect the materials and information needed, and find suitable research partners worldwide. This is a very effective way to improve the research quality and development levels through the opportunities in the exchange the ideas in a scope of worldwide. As the research and development of yiology going, a few of excellent research publications give readers delighted and newly ideas. For example, one of excellent book named ”Zhouyi Zhenyuan” written1 by Mr. Tian helu and Ms Tian feng, has described Zhouyi‟s principles from the mechanism of sun and moon movement, the 1
《周易真原-中国最古老的天学科学体系》田合禄 田峰著，山西科学技术出版社 2004 年
moon phases have regular changes as rotation around the earth. The reciprocal changes of the moon phases will delivery the information to human being, ancient Chinese scholars wrote out the change patterns based on that observation of astrology. Then, ancient Chinese scholars also derived the zhouyi‟s principles from those observations. The illustrations for basic elements of zhouyi, like Gua, Xiang, Hetu, Luoshu and Yao in the book gave the readers the new thinking and new concepts. Mr. Pan yuting 2 , a famous yiologist in modern China, had writtern a book named “Abstract of Zhouyi”, in which concluded most works or references done by the notable scholars and yiologists in Chinese history from Han Dynasty, more than two thousand years. Mr. Pan has summarized the research and development of yiology in different periods of Chinese history, and outlined the specialists of the notable scholars for the particular fields, and made the comments for those notable scholars for their contributions to the yiology in Chinese history. An article named “the principle of Taiji diagram and research on anti-atom structures” written by Mr. Wu quande 3 , is also one of excellent publications of yiology. Mr. Wu not only explained the basic principle of taiji diagram, but also combined the modern acknowledge of physical theory with taiji, gave us great idea that taiji could be used for the indication or guiding the research and development in modern societies, even taiji was very old Chinese philosophy, the most of the innovations and development in modern science and technology could be explained by using ancient Chinese philosophy. It is really surprising to modern scientists that most of research and development of science and technology are likely closed to the yiological principles of ancient Chinese philosophy, the deeper of the research development carried out, the closer to the yiological principle will be. Mr. Wu explained that there must have the internal relationship between modern science technologies and the ancient yiology, the thinking model in eastern society for whole, for movement, and for integrates of the world will be great help for the thinking model widely used in the modern science and technology. Another publication named, “stories of Zhouyi” written by Mr. Hu Zhiyong 4, was a readable, simple and interested yiological publication, which could be widely used as the textbook for the promotion of yiology.
《读易提要》 潘雨廷著 上海古籍出版社 2003 年 http://www.mmmca.com/blog_cnfs/p/69957.html 4 周易故事,胡志勇著,长江文艺出版社出版,2004 3
However, a large number of publications in yiology are still focus on the predictions for un-coming events or the applications for forecasting future by employing ancient methodologies. Those prediction fields by employing mystery methodologies including “yin, yang, five elements, stem-branch, four-streams, eightwords” etc had a long history in China with very mystery faces, from the view of the modern science, those predictions are non-scientifically illustrated, are not on the scientifically background and therefore, those prediction or forecasting for future are not able to be admitted and accepted by modern societies. From the view of yiology, one should recognize that yiological theory or principles containing all time-spaces should have the functions of prediction in future, however, from view of the modern science, such predictions are not explainable and understandable by the modern theory. Until today, there have no one has done any work on the prediction of yiology by using the methods of modern science, such as statistic analysis, linear or non-linear regression, error probabilities, or mathematics analysis etc., there have no one done the work of combination of the yiology and modern science. Therefore, even yiology should have the functions of the prediction in future as realized; there has not reliable and trustworthy means to do right jobs. Even today, people still think that yiology is a mystery and non-scientific prostitutions, and therefore, yiology cannot still be accepted and admitted by modern science and technology as the true science. Actually, yiology contains acknowledge extremely wide and high, profound and deep. Kong yinda 5 , a notable Chinese scholar in Tang Dynasty had commented a book named”Zhou Yi Zhen Yi”. He wrote: Yi had four ways could access to the ancient sages for research as：One good at language and poem would appreciate the sentences and words of yi; one good at changes would appreciate the principles of the changes of yi; one good at technologies or innovations would appreciate the Xiang‟s principles of yi; one good at prediction or forecasting futures would appreciate the divinity principles of yi.” In Chinese history, the researches on yiology had been largely concentrated on the prediction, especially in the aspect of divinities including Feng Shui. From Han dynasty, most of notable yiologists made great efforts on the varies fields of “meanings and divines” of yiology, the relative researching publications were very rich and deep, like divines, poem, performance, music, arts, 5
传世藏书 – 子库，
术数 1 海南国际新闻出版中心出版
literatures, Chinese medicines, herbs, social customs etc, all those fields were fully derived from yiology with heavy prostitution and deep mysteries. Therefore, no many Chinese scholars were able to illustrate or describe further on the principles and theories. In other areas, like technological development, mathematics, physicals, chemistry or biology etc there have no much growth comparing with the divines. Therefore, in ancient Chinese history, no many scholars paid enough attentions on the researches of technologies based on the literatures. This is the undoubted facts which one had reluctantly to see and face in yiology history. However, in other hand, in modern society of China, one will be pleased to see a lot of younger generations were interested in the ancient Chinese yiology, and pay enough attentions to explain or describe the mystery theories in very field of yiology by every different method. Even some modern scientists were also interested in the yiology fields, this will largely promote the development of yiology in some extend. From the view of yiology, yiology is the origin point of all Chinese cultures, and is the base of Chinese civilization revolutions on. As the younger generation, it is not doubt that combination of the ancient yiology with modern science and technology will be the right path for the recovering back of Chinese society prospects, hence more, the development and innovations of yiology in combining with the modern science and technology models will certainly benefit further to all nationalities, to human been in world. It can be expected that transferring the yiology into the theories and principles or by using modern language to illustrate the yiology will be not very far, and the new concepts of the â€œyiology in scienceâ€? will be established through the great efforts made by all of those modern scientists.
1-2. Puzzles of yiology During recently two centurial periods, old Chinese societies and traditional system self-enclosed with self-growth and self-development had been fully broken up throughout because of the invasion of the western civilizations. In that days of which the country had always been beat and insulted because of the behind of world, most of scholars had studied western cultural and civilizations, absorbed the modern technologies and theories from western to try hard to change Chinese societies in every aspect inline with the westerns. Therefore, Chinese societies have since then
been widely changed and step-by-step opened to western world, and meantime, traditional Chinese scientific system, society system, political system, cultural and education system had been interrupted and discarded. In recent two centuries, whole system and researches of yiology had almost been destroyed, interrupted and lost. In current China, probably no one of modern scientists (including scientific fields or societies fields) or medical fields had systematically studied yiology and related areas like yin and yang, five elements etc. because no such curriculum was been allowed to design and open in any schools or colleges or universities within China. Younger generations were not need to understand the Chinese yiology system because this system was deeply taken as the consequences that Chinese yiology system directly caused Chinese society to behind world. In 1919, the students from Beijing and Qinghua University had promoted and stroked so called â€œnew cultural movementâ€? in which inquired all Chinese should give up the ancient system and study modern science and technology. During the time, Chinese societies had almost destroyed yiological systems and taken yiology as the old, usefulness and non-scientifically prostitution of the ancient China. The recent history of Chinese had shown that yiology system were fully recognized as the prostitution and non-science and nontechnology, and some of Chinese raised the questions that yiology were the worst prostitution in the history and inquired to totally give up yiology system including Chinese medicine, Chinese herbal therapy, and acupuncture therapy. Modern science and technology are actually established on the basis of the practical experience; a kind of practical science, the development and establishment were mostly from the experiments of the practice to prove the theory or experiment. The typical feature of modern science is the repeatable experience of the experiment or theory, and also the teachable and understandable. The practical repeatability of the experience and the experiment are most important feature and key factor indeed of modern science and technology. Therefore, the modern science may be defined as the practical repeatability of the experience and experiment of theories and postulations. Also the inspection and mathematical expression of the material world are also one of the features of modern science. Comparison with modern science and technology, yiology, like taiji, yin yang, eight diagram, hetu luoshu, and â€œimagines, diagrams, numbers, meanings and theory etc., had never such the practical or experienced repeatability. No such the practical or experienced or theories repeatability could be expected from the researches of all 5
fields in yiology. The lackness of the practical or theoretical repeatability made the extremely difficulties to illustrate yiological researches, also made the yiological researches in many fields be very mystery and non-teachable. However, yiology theories are not the scientific branches or concrete researches, yiology consists of ancient philosophy and theoretic system, containing a numbers of the principles which should be always in correction in everywhere in world. This very strange ancient philosophy and theoretic system has totally different theories, different thinking model and even working pattern comparing with modern science and technology. Therefore, modern science and technology couldn‟t understand it. Yiology expressed the rules of universal production, movement, change and development; it is so called the “yi daos”, and may be named as doctrine of yi. The yiological theories indicated that heaven, earth and humanity are integrated into one organic unity. Heaven, earth and mankind are all from nature, all are the products of the nature, the rules governing on universal production, movement, change and development should be the same on earth and mankind, therefore, heaven, earth and mankind should obey the same rules. Yiological theories not only emphasized mankind is a part of nature, also emphasized the thinking model in integrate, harmonic, comprehensive, dynamic and balanced, but yiological theories didn‟t emphases the repeatability of the experiment and practice. Oppositely, yiological theories particularly emphasized the changes, movement, and dynamics. Yiology pointed that there never have any repeatability existing in universe since every moment in universe should be in change and development. Yiology didn‟t admit any repeatability of world. For example, in the diagnosis of the diseases by using Chinese medicine and therapy, the Chinese traditional therapy took every case as the special case because no cases would be exactly the same. Different diseases would have a different background in the view of Chinese traditional medical doctor like, seasons different, temperature different, food different, environment different etc., therefore, the Chinese traditional medicine believed that it should never have such the repeatability of the cases even the diseases may be the same. Other difficulties of understanding yiology will be the yiological concepts, the basic concepts were philosophic concepts and therefore were very abstract and vague, what it pointed the objects may not be true objects, what it mentioned the matter may
not be true matter. A notable scholar in Song Dynasty, named 6Zhuxi, had indicated that yiology may not be readable, but could feel it and understand it. Therefore, yiology looked like to be very mystery, very obscurity and misunderstanding. It is particularly difficulty to clearly making the definitions of the basic concepts of yiology. Such a “gas”, “god”, “dao”, “change”, “movement”, “shape”, “phase” etc., people may use those but never understood what were those concepts exact meanings. Many other phases or words like, “xiang-ke means limiting each other”, “xiang-sheng means producing one from”, “xiang-xin means killing each other”, “xiang-wang means support each other”, “xiang-bo means fight each other”, “non–xiang-she means no interacting each other”, “xiang-chong means overlapped each other”, were very difficulty to describe the mechanism of the interactions by using such vague concepts, how do they work? General people may apply those interactions in normal life but no one could understand the mechanism. Because the concepts were very abstract and vague, it will be very hard to be expressed by mathematic methods, also hard to practices those concepts or make any repeatability of the practices. From the view of modern science and technology, every research field of yiology wouldn‟t fit the basic requirement or scientific standard as modern science at all; therefore, modern science and technology will take the yiology as non-scientific knowledge. According to the standard requirement of modern science and technology, if any system has no practical or experiment repeatability or cannot be expressed by mathematical model, the system may not be admitted as modern science and technology. Then such system will be cataloged into prostitution or non-scientific fields. Yiology has no practical or experiment repeatability and also cannot be expressed by mathematical model, therefore, yiology had been still classified into the prostitution or heresy in current China. Even it was not taken as science and technology, yiology had not ceased the life and been still developed, contrast with modern science, yiology does not only admit and accept modern science and technology also accept all kind of culture, custom and civilizations in world including varies religions. It may be one of the great features that yiology is likely the container big enough to accept any thing just like the capacity to accept water from all of rivers. However, yiology without the practical or experiment repeatability had made the great difficulties for the principles itself to be
teachable, heritable and reliable. The principles or theories may be lost during passing to new generations by feelings; also it could cause a number of different versions of the principles or theories through different feeling and understanding. It may be the direct reason that yiology cannot be accessed into the academic hall of the modern science and technology. It could be imaged that yiology would face and accept the fights from all of the fields that derived from modern science and technology. It is true that every field of yiology had been fired and destroyed by modern society in China, like Confuses, Daoism, Budasim, traditional medicine, Chinese herb, divination, feng-shui, ancient building, ancient music and traditional customs. The very strong fires from modern science and technology had made the yiology in a very hard and weak position in society. In toady‟s China, no one in research fields could study yiology because it was commonly taken as the prostitutions and heresy. The most of the doctors in Chinese traditional medicine are almost turning into modern medicine doctors, no much people could believe feng-shui, and no much people appreciated ancient China music, and ancient Chinese towers or building styles. Chinese medicine and related fields like acupunctures, body‟s tunnels called “jingluo” and body‟s sensitive pots called “xue-wei” were based on the yiology theories and principles, now all of those acknowledges were heavily doubted and given up. Therefore three times in China society rose enquires of totally giving up the Chinese medicines and whole system at all during hundred years. It has shown that conflicts between Chinese ancient acknowledge of yiology systems and modern system of modern science and technology had developed into the new stage of no longer coexisting each other. The conflicts of these two systems are likely getting bigger and bigger. How could china solve the conflicts is actually old problem that every Chinese had faced before two hundred years ago. What is the right path that yiology could access into and merge with the modern science, the problems are in urgent to be solved in today‟s China, and every yiologist should have to face and try to solve the problems.
1-2. The right path of modern science As the gradually improvement of human civilization, the development of modern science is getting wider and wider, deeper and deeper. The more complicate
the research has, the more difficulty the development becomes. The modern science based on the experiments proven with the practical manner, this thinking model has only investigated and researched the facts of material world in partially, isolated, still, and seeing one side. The means of applied in modern science have also accepted the great challenges and doubts as the development and progressed of the researches and investigations. Some out-dated concepts, methods, principles and means in modern science were also modified, given up and changed. Because the scientific researches in modern society are getting more and more details on the materials, the subjects are getting more and more branches, the boundaries between different professional subjects are getting more and more vogues and unclear. The researches on particular areas are required the scientists from all disciplines to share mutual acknowledge in avoiding the lack of professions. Carrying out any new projects in material world will need new ideas, new concepts and updated methodologies with the basic opinions of dynamic, integrates, comprehensive, and whole connections in mind. Now, as the development of science and technology, human society needs updated concepts, new view of nature, new outlook of universe, also needs the thinking ability to establish new world or universe models in the whole picture, dynamic and integrate, it may be the only path for modern science to make the great breakthrough of limitations and difficulties in the current modern researches. Like in the year 2005, one central cerebration of Albert Einstein publishing “relativities”, physics world had looked for the new ideas of thinking, new views of world, and new concepts of universe to breakthrough current difficulties like Einstein did. In past hundred years, the progresses in physic world were not significantly improved indeed, some of concepts and professional terms used for physics were no longer to be effective or in right, like concepts “speed”, “time”, “space”, “mass”, “energy” etc.. These incorrect and the inaccurate concepts may have also wrong effluence on and misguided the modern science. After Mr. Einstein, no one in physic world could be able to develop further this science and bring the physic into a new era7. Therefore, physics world looks for new “Einstein”, however, where will they be able to find, how could they find it? The yiology may be able to provide the right path or right methodologies for modern science to look for the breakthrough because yiology will bring to modern science a number of new ideas of thinking, new views of material world and new
outlook of universe. Fuxi designed8 and made the eight-diagram in a far ancient time based on the practices of astrological observations and investigated into movements of birds and animals and human society-itself. From the view of modern science, Foxi had quite rich experience of the observations on heaven and the investigations on earth, therefore, current people would believe that the ideas of eight-diagram, tiaji, yin-yang and related other yiological concepts were based on “scientific observations”, it was not fabricated. The derivations from those observations into the eight-diagrams from taiji, then tiaji produced two poles (quadrants), then two poles produced four quadrants, four quadrants produced eight-diagram (quadrants). All the processes of the derivations should be dedicated from the astrological observations, and therefore, it should have experimental basis of the derivations. From ancient yiology, a great ideas and rich of philosophic principles are still worthy to be absorbed in indicating or guiding modern science and technology. For example, taiji dualism of yin and yang, the balanced principles of yin and yang, the conservation of yin and yang, the five-elements principles, the principle of time-space conservation, the ideas of the time-space twisting, the concept of three-dimensional time, the concept of six-dimensional time-space, the ideas of mass-energy transformation, the principle of the conservation of mass and energy, the ideas of balanced in micro-system, the idea of the biological evolution, and the ideas of the human society balance etc.. Those very ancient concepts or principles or ideas, are looking like new in today‟s society, but it had been existed in ancient China for miltthousand years, and widely used in most fields in ancient Chinese life. However, ancient Chinese oracles didn't have such ability to make those concepts accuracy and clear in the forms of the math or physics, therefore, they presented those concepts, only as the ancient philosophy concepts, so those concepts and principles existed in very heresy, obstacles and hind ways to be heritable or guide the human life. And no one in history had developed those into the modern concepts or theories. Applying the view of historic materialism on the yiology, people will be able to re-read the ancient philosophy, absorb the wises of ancient oracles and sort out the meaningful thoughts aligning with modern language and expressions, modern science and society will be significantly improved by digging out the treasures of ancient philosophy. It is 8
传世藏书 – 史库 1，史记 海南国际新闻出版中心出版
also the main purposes of developing and studying yiology again today. In past few decades, the researches and development of whole modern science and technology, especially in physics have more and more shown out us that all or partial of events in universe are in closely relations to the environment, and material world is actually an organic unity, the non-isolated, non-separated and the harmonic unity. The events may be large or small, may be varied and quite different, thus the interactions inside among the events are corresponded, limited and controlled each others, those interactions may have the performance or phenomena which will reflect the properties of the events, as could be proven by eight-diagram. As mentioned in ancient statement of yiology that “alignment of eight-diagram, the performance could be shown then”. The principles of yiology thought “any phenomena in universe will be within the eight-diagrams, then, two eight-diagrams overlapped each other, „yao‟ will then be in line with”. “One yin with one yang will be so called „dao‟. Any events or happenings in universe must have the phenomena which should reflect the property of yin-yang interactions inside the events or happenings. It is just the view of yiological philosophy, the view of yiological material world, and outlook of yiological universe. Therefore, such tendency that the modern science and technology get closer and closer to the ancient yiological principles was recognized as returning the thinking models of modern science back to the ancient eastern yiology. It is huge challenge for both of modern science and ancient yiology. Under this favourable situation, modern science should pay enough attention on the development and studies of the ancient yiology by applying yiological principles combining with the thinking methods and means of the modern science and technology, it will certainly create new ideas and new views of the material world, it then will certainly benefit modern science and also the ancient yiology. Eventually, human society will be improved and breakthrough developed through the combinations.
1-4. The right path of yiology
A large number of sages, notable scholars, and wises in Chinese history had taken whole life in researching and developing yiology. They were very hard trying and studying to understand the meanings, phenomenon, and number and divine, they were committed in discovering the principles, and grasping the utilizations of yiology.
Those ancient Chinese scholars or wises had made the great contributions to make the yiology becoming the famous ancient philosophy, meanwhile, those scholars had also made great efforts to develop, apply and improve the ancient philosophy of yiology in many different fields in different stages in long history. It could see that Chinese history was fulfilled by the ideas and languages of ancient yiology because most of the senior officials in ancient government of the dynasties had to grasp solid acknowledge of yiology. However, those ancient scholars were concentrated almost on the meanings, phenomenon, numbers and divine of yiology, specially, the applications of the divine by using six-yao system of six-four-hexagram, also they explained or demonstrated the yiological principles like yin-yang dualism based on mostly feelings and experience, rarely researches made on the relationships among the meanings, phenomenon, numbers and divine by using the express of math or physics. Also they were failed to express the relationships how could yiology reflect to the great “dao”, the rules of universe, of cause, they were not able to discover the complicated and multi-dimensional relationship between yin-yang, time-space, massenergy etc., by using quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis. Therefore, yiology was not able to get rid of the face on the mystery, hold aloof, and imaginary, and also taken as unrealistic and non-understandable theories. Even today, modern science and technology have been fully developed; most of yiologists today still follow the methodology and paths of the ancient scholars to do the researches of yiology including in varies yiological fields like yi-jing, theories, traditional medicines etc.. Most of yiologists today still don‟t realize that ancient yiological principles could be used to indicate modern science and technology, they also don't recognize the importance that using modern scientific means to illustrate or analyse the ancient philosophy of yiology like, meanings, numbers, phenomenon and divine. The out of dated methodologies used by ancient Chinese scholars should be given up and updated means or methods should be combined with the key factors of yiology theories. Modern yiologists should be able to explain or demonstrate ancient principles like heaven-human unity, harmony of heaven and human, corresponding between human and nature by combining the modern science acknowledge like maths, physics, chemistry and biology etc.. Therefore, today‟s yiology, must have the ability to improve itself, change itself, and progress itself. The situation of the separating ancient yiology with modern science must have the change and improvement. However, it has been very difficulty in combining modern science and ancient yiology 12
without the solid background of modern science and solid back ground of ancient yiology acknowledge. It may be hard to feel the great ideas and to make breakthrough of science from yiology theories without the grasps of the yiology, and also it is hard to explain the yiology principles to become readable, understand and teachable without solid background of modern science. Thus, yiology will still be prostitution, still be heresy, still be mystery and cannot be still admitted by modern science and technology. Therefore, the right path for the researches on yiology will be that yiologists must have the acknowledge of the modern science background so they will be able to dig out the treasures from ancient yiology, the modern scientists should have some yiological acknowledge to absorb the new ideas, new views of the materials world, it will be the great starts for those modern scientists who understand the yiology to create new thinking models by combining the ancient eastern philosophy. One should say that yiology should have the functions of predicting future since six-four-hexagram of the yiology has contained all time and space of the events from past to future. However, from the view of modern science, the methods of the yiological prediction have totally not scientific background of practical experiment, also has no the repeatability of the experiment. Therefore, the prediction of yiological methods are not acceptable, non-explainable and not reliable. The prediction of yiological methods were relaying on the eight-diagram, six-yao and yin- yang changes without any qualitative and quantities analysis of modern science and such predictions have no experiment repeatability at all. Therefore, the predictions of yiological methods, such as divinations were still taken as the purely practice of prostitutions and the spawn of the feudalism. In todayâ€&#x;s situation of yiology, the predictions of yiology by using ancient methods like divinations, yin-yang, eight-diagram or six-four-gram would mislead whole yiological researches into the wrong directions. As the consequence, such researches will directly result the fail to access into the hall of the modern science and technology. Now, in twenty-one century, the new era of yiology development and improvement must open, yiologist must learn to apply new methods, new views and new thinking models on the development, re-understanding and re-demonstration of Chinese ancient yiology, it also becomes possible that applying modern methods on the principles of the ancient yiology. The combinations of yiology and modern science in either methodology or principles will bring yiological researches into the right path 13
which could be access into the hall of the modern society. The ancient methodologies of yiological researches should be given up and the phenomenon of yiology isolating and separating from the modern science must be terminated and changed. Because yiology is so wide and deep in philosophy, yiologists should carefully and seriously dig out scientific inside of yiology, realize and summarize the key factors, and promote those fine thoughts. Yiologists should present the best of yiology, its scientific insides, the fine cream of the thoughts, its high rich philosophy, to world. It will be the right path of yiology. As scholar, it will be one of the most important tasks that re-establishing yiology in a new era even the way may be very difficult to do so. Yiology was belonged to all Chinese; now yiological new era will belong to all human society.