Greening Steel: how nuclear energy and electrification can power the future of steel

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Greening

How nuclear energy & electrification can power the future of steel


Nuclear Innovation Institute (NII) is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides a platform for accelerating the pace of innovation in the nuclear industry. Nuclear energy is a powerful force for decarbonization. It creates good jobs, drives economic growth and produces radioisotopes that are used—among other benefits—for cancer detection and therapies that save lives in Canada and around the world. The Institute is founded on the belief that the industry can enhance these vital contributions by adopting a structured approach to fostering innovation. nii.ca

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Bruce Power Centre for New Nuclear & Net Zero Partnerships advances the connection between the fundamental role of nuclear—

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both existing and new installations—and Canada’s pledge to achieve net-zero carbon emissions, demonstrating that there is no viable path to a net zero future without nuclear power. nii.ca/net-zero-partnerships

Canadian Steel Producers Association (CSPA) is the national voice of Canada's primary steel and the pipe and tube industry, dedicated to ensuring a competitive and sustainable business environment for its members and supply chain stakeholders. Canadian steel producers are integral to Canada's economy and a vital supplier to many segments of North American industry, including the automotive, energy, construction, and transportation sectors. canadiansteel.ca


Contents CHAPTER 5

GREENING STEEL 5

Wired for strength: the relationship between steel & electricity

22

CHAPTER 1 10

Canadian steel already has a green advantage.

CHAPTER 6 24

CHAPTER 2 15

More clean steel needs more clean electricity.

Nuclear power creates clean grids.

26

Always-on, always clean: grids with nuclear are reliable.

Nuclear stands ready to enable green steel production.

CHAPTER 8 28

CHAPTER 4 21

Nuclear provides clean, reliable energy—unassisted.

CHAPTER 7

CHAPTER 3 16

Nuclear provides an affordable option for meeting increased electricity demand.

Leverage the benefits of nuclear to bolster steel’s clean credentials.

CONCLUSION 31

Together, nuclear and green steel = a strong, healthy economy.

36

ENDNOTES


PHOTO CREDIT: EVRAZ


Greening steel

Wired for strength: the relationship between steel & electricity

T

ake a look around. Whether you’re sitting at home, the office, a waiting room or even riding public transit, two fundamental building blocks of our economy will be nearby.

Steel and electricity are pillars of our modern built environment. In many cases, they work hand-in-hand,

building and powering our homes, hospitals, arenas and offices, or the vehicles we drive. And, as much as steel and electricity have a long history of working together, an even greater level of mutual dependence will arise in the months and years ahead. The Canadian Net-Zero Emissions Accountability Act commits Canada to achieving net-zero greenhouse gas

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emissions (GHGs) by the year 2050.i Furthermore, the Government of Canada’s 2030 Emissions Reduction Plan outlines a “sector-bysector path for Canada to reach its emissions reduction target of 40% below 2005 levels by 2030 and net-zero emissions by 2050.”ii The decarbonization of both heavy industry (which includes steel) and electricity are both central elements of this plan.

The point at which the balance of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) emitted into the atmosphere and the emissions removed or avoided equals zero. A recent report from the Public Policy Forum highlighted the interdependence between clean electricity infrastructure and the steel sector when it stated that the world will require 2.8 billion tons of steel by 2050iii to build out critical electricity generation and transmission infrastructure—equivalent to 62,222 of Vancouver's Lions Gate Bridge. Added to this immense challenge is the imperative of decarbonizing the processes involved in making that steel—which, in turn, will require vast amounts of new clean electricity generation and transmission. The following report will demonstrate how Canada’s steel industry is a world leader in green steel production, while outlining the critical role of nuclear power—one of Ontario and Canada’s largest sources of clean electricity—and its fundamental role establishing and maintaining these clean credentials. The report has been produced through a partnership between the Canadian Steel Producers’ Association (CSPA) and the Bruce Power Centre for New Nuclear & Net Zero Partnerships at the Nuclear Innovation Institute (NII). It offers unique insights into the electrification needs of Canada’s steel sector and how nuclear, particularly in the province of Ontario, will play a foundational role in achieving these targets.

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2.8 billion tons of steel By 2050, the world will require

or the equivalent of 62,222 Lions Gate bridges

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TOP TAKEAWAYS •

Canadian steel is currently among the greenest in the world—and the Canadian steel sector is taking action to further decarbonize their processes. By 2030, CSPA members are set to have reduced their GHG emissions by at least 45%.

More green steel needs more clean electricity. On average, Canadian steelmakers indicate they expect to see a 430% increase in electricity demand by 2050 as they transition to processes powered by electricity and expand operations.

Nuclear can provide the clean, reliable and affordable electricity supply to power a transition to widespread green steelmaking starting in Ontario and across Canada as provincial grid operators consider adding and expanding nuclear in their supply mix.

PHOTO CREDIT: EVRAZ NORTH AMERICA

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Chapter 1

Canadian steel already has a green advantage.

C

anada's steel sector is significant. Nationally, Canada’s steel producers represent a $15-billion industry that supports more than 123,000 direct and indirect jobs. Canadian steel is a critical part of supply chains both domestically and across North America in the automotive, construction, energy, infrastructure and other manufacturing sectors. Furthermore, in an age dominated by commitments, targets and aspirations when it comes

enviable position of having already

to decarbonization, Canada’s steel sector is in the

oxygen furnaces (BOF).

achieved a significant level of real success. Figures 1 and 2 demonstrate the comparatively low levels of Canadian emissions associated with two processes through which steel is produced globally. As can be seen, Canada ranks as the third lowest emissions-intensive jurisdiction when it comes to the production of steel using electric arc furnaces (EAF) and the second lowest jurisdiction when using basic

FIGURE 1:

Global steel emission intensity for Electric Arc Furnaces (t CO2/t crude steel)iv 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

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India

China

Vietnam

Mexico

South Korea

Japan

Ukraine

Russia

Turkey

U.S.

Italy

Germany

EU-27

Canada

France

Brazil

0


ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE (EAF)

BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE (BOF)

Technology used to create the immense amount of heat needed to produce steel products. EAFs create electric arcs which produce heat by striking between the electrodes in the furnace and a molten bath below.

Technology used to enable the oxygen converter process—a method in which molten pig iron and scrap steel are converted into steel by the oxidizing activities resulting from oxygen being blown into the combined melt.

FIGURE 2:

Global steel emission intensity for Basic Oxygen Furnaces (t CO2/t crude steel)v 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5

India

Ukraine

Vietnam

Japan

South Korea

Brazil-Charcoal C+

China

Italy

Russia

Turkey

France

U.S.

Mexico

EU-27

Germany

Canada

Brazil-Charcoal CN

0

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PHOTO CREDIT: ALGOMA STEEL 8.15.2023

This record of achievement places the Canadian steel sector in a sound position to compete in an economic environment that will demand increased levels of green steel production. But, for the Canadian steel sector, the work does not stop here. By 2030, CSPA members are set to have reduced their GHG emissions by at least 45%­­vi— which meets and exceeds Canada’s 2030 target of 40% GHG emissions reductions by 2030.

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PHOTO CREDIT: ARCELORMITTAL DOFASCO

Algoma Steel’s decarbonization efforts

ArcelorMittal Dofasco’s decarbonization efforts

Algoma Steel is advancing a project that features the installation of two EAFs to replace existing blast furnaces and BOF steelmaking processes at their Sault Ste. Marie site. Algoma anticipates the EAF facility coming online in 2024 and, when complete, will have the capacity to produce approximately 3.7 million tons of raw steel annually while reducing Algoma’s carbon emissions by approximately 70%.vii

ArcelorMittal Dofasco is similarly advancing a significant project that will reduce emissions at its Hamilton production facility. In July 2021, ArcelorMittal Dofasco announced that it will advance a project to transition away from BOF steelmaking processes to steel production using direct reduced iron (DRI)—EAF production methods. Scheduled to be completed in 2028, the project will ultimately reduce annual GHG emissions by approximately three million tons, representing 60% of the site’s present emissions.viii

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Chapter 2

More clean steel needs more clean electricity.

I

100% of respondents stated that if the current policy n order to deploy increased levels of green landscape remains, their company envisions using steelmaking technologies, Canada’s steel an increased amount of electricity from the grid to sector will require vast amounts of clean, reliable and affordable electricity to power meet their emissions reduction goals. them. To understand Furthermore, to understand exactly what this increase looks ‘By 2050, on average how much more electricity like, NII surveyed CSPA members the sector will need on the the sector will asking about their emissions path to net zero emissions by reduction plans, their electricity require an increase in 2050, respondents were asked consumption from the electricity to share information about electricity usage of grid today, expectations for future their present electricity usage demand, and their top priorities and how much their company ’ when it comes to electricity grids anticipates using by the year in a net zero context. 2050. Overwhelmingly, respondents— Using this information, it was determined that representing a significant number of companies on average the sector will require an increase in across the Canadian steel industry—stated that they electricity usage of 430%1 by 2050. will need more electricity in the months and years ahead… and lots of it. Meeting this increased amount of electricity would be a significant challenge for any electricity system operator. Compounding this challenge is the need for this increased level of supply to be clean (derived from non-emitting sources of generation), reliable and affordable. This is where Canada and Ontario’s nuclear sector can be a foundational part of a burgeoning green steel sector.

430%

1

Determined by calculating percentage increase from present day usage

to projected 2050 usage for each respondent. Average of percentage increases taken to determine overall average percentage increase. PHOTO CREDIT (LEFT): EVRAZ NORTH AMERICA

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Chapter 3

Nuclear power creates clean grids.

M

the emissions intensity of the grid matters when it

Thankfully, Canada’s nuclear sector already represents a significant clean advantage and has the capacity to support a growing green steel sector with clean, GHG-free electricity. Ontario is regarded as having one of the cleanest electricity grids in North America— thanks largely to the province’s nuclear sector. Nuclear annually contributes more than 50% of the province’s

comes to green steelmaking.

electricity.ix

uch like EVs or energy storage technologies, electrified steelmaking processes and operations provide a greater level of emissions reductions when the electricity used to power

them is sourced from clean generation. Simply put,

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FIGURE 3:

Sources of electricity (Ontario 2022)x

26% Hydro

15.2 KWh

54% Nuclear

10%

78.8 KWh

Gas/Oil

9%

15.2 KWh

Wind

13.8 KWh

0.3% 0.5% Biomass 0.35 KWh

Solar

0.75 KWh

FIGURE 4:

Greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity (kg CO2/MWh)xi NUCLEAR

5.6

ONSHORE WIND

11

SOLAR PV, CADMIUM (ON-GROUND)

16

OFFSHORE WIND

17 52

SOLAR PV, SILICON (ON-GROUND)

117

HYDROPOWER

439

GAS

970

COAL 0

200

400

600

800

1000

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In fact, the province’s efforts to phase out the use of coal-fired electricity generation stands as one of North America’s single-largest decarbonization efforts. This was made possible mostly thanks to nuclear units across the province coming online and displacing baseload coal plants. As shown in Figure 5, as nuclear output ramped up, coal-fired electricity generation wound down—which not only had a significant impact on human health in the province by cleaning the air we breathe, but provided a significant economic advantage. The Province of Ontario regularly uses the cleanliness of its grid as a means to attract potential businesses to the province. Even when considering full lifecycle GHGs (like those from plant operations, mining, etc.), nuclear power remains one of the lowest carbon-intensive sources of electricity generation. In fact, as Figure 4 demonstrates, at only 5.6 kg of GHGs per MWh of electricity generated, nuclear is the bestperforming source of electricity generation available globally.xii

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FIGURE 5:

Changes in nuclear supply and GHG emissions

xiii

(Production change in TWh vs. emission reduction in CO2 in Mt; Indexed to 2003)

ns

io

iss

CO2

25

10

20

15

15

20

10

25

5

30

0

35

-5

2003

2004

2005

Cumulative nuclear

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Emission reduction in Mt CO2

5

m

Production change in TWh

ne

ni

tio

30

0

uc

35

-5

d Re

40

40

Cum. GHG reduction

Note: After coal was fully retired, Ontario power sector GHG emissions only reduced by 0.5 Mt from 2014 to 2016 as renewables were rolled out.

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Chapter 4

Always-on, always clean: grids with nuclear are reliable.

A

nother significant factor in

Capacity factors are a means through which to

enabling the increased use of

measure the reliability of a source of electricity:

clean electricity for emissions

how much electricity a source actually produces out

reductions across Canada’s steel sector is reliability. Operating

of what it is capable of producing if it were running at maximum capacity.

any kind of manufacturing facility requires a consistent and uninterrupted source of electricity to power operations. The reality is unpredictable blackouts and brownouts are not conducive to a productive industrial sector like steel. Therefore, the clean grids of the future must be immune to these types of events. Nuclear is a key tool in ensuring this immunity.

‘Respondents made it clear that their efforts to decarbonize are contingent on a stable supply of clean electricity.’

Half of the respondents to our survey of the steel industry stated that reliability was a top priority for their company when it comes to the net-zero electricity grids of the future. In fact, respondents made it clear that their efforts to decarbonize are contingent on a stable supply of clean electricity. So, how do we make sure they get this stable supply?

For example, if a source had a maximum capacity of 100 MW but only has an average real output of 40 MW, it would have a capacity factor of 40%. In Canada over the last decade, we’ve seen these average capacity factors for each generating source: Nuclear plants: 85% Wind power: 30-35% Solar power: 13-20%

While sources like wind and solar play an important role, they cannot be available all the time because of external factors like when the sun isn’t shining or the wind isn’t blowing. Therefore, reliable, baseload sources of clean electricity with high capacity factors—like nuclear—will be required to enable technologies in the green steel ecosystem.

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Chapter 5

Nuclear provides an affordable option for meeting increased electricity demand.

E

ighty per cent of CSPA members stated

When comparing Ontario to countries like Germany,

that access to reasonably priced clean

which has shut down its nuclear program, Germany’s

electricity was one of their top priorities

power grids have become far more carbon-intensive,

when it comes to a net-zero electricity grid. This closely

corresponds to an NII poll in which 71% of Canadians from all walks of life said they are very concerned about the high cost of energy and electricity.xiv Canada needs competitively priced electricity in order to enable emissions reductions projects across the country—including in the steel sector. Nuclear power can be used to generate the electricity that Canadians will need to make these significant changes to a net-zero grid at an affordable price. Notably, CSPA members highlighted that remaining competitive in the international steel market will rely on

expensive and reliant on foreign sources of

80%

of CSPA members stated that access to reasonably priced clean electricity was one of their top priorities when it comes to a net-zero electricity grid.’

energy. Similarly, California is experiencing higher costs and increased emissions as a result of their support for large-scale renewables. The independent regulator of Ontario's electricity and natural gas industries, the Ontario Energy Board, regularly updates its Regulated Price Plan (RPP). The price plan identifies Ontario's electricity rates. Nuclear consistently ranks among the least expensive sources of electricity generation in Ontario when the cost of

access to low-cost electricity. Using data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration

producing electricity for each source is taken into

in 2021, when looking at varying jurisdictions, Ontario

account. In terms of Total Unit Cost, it is second only

is an example of a low-cost, low-carbon grid

to hydroelectric power at just 10.1 cents per kilowatt

(see Figure 6).

hour (kWh).

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FIGURE 6:

Emission intensity and cost from the electricity sector by jurisdiction (gC02eq/KWh)xv 348 gCO2eq/KWh

GERMANY

45 cents/kWh

330 gCO2eq/KWh

PENNSYLVANIA

9.9 cents/kWh

228 gCO2eq/KWh

CALIFORNIA

28 cents/kWh

25 gCO2eq/KWh

ONTARIO

13.5 cents/kWh

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

FIGURE 7:

Ontario electricity costs by generating source (cents/KWh)xvi 6.1 cents/kWh

HYDRO NUCLEAR

10.1 cents/kWh

GAS

11.3 cents/kWh 15.4 cents/kWh

WIND BIOENERGY

25.8 cents/kWh 50.2 cents/kWh

SOLAR 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

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Chapter 6

Nuclear provides clean, reliable energy—unassisted.

O

ntario’s clean electricity grid is anchored by a nuclear fleet that generates more than 60 per cent of Ontario’s power. Beyond hydroelectric power, there are currently no standalone alternative generation sources that could provide the same supply of low-emissions baseload electricity generation at a price comparable to nuclear energy. Other renewable energies such as wind and PHOTO CREDIT: BRUCE POWER

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solar need to be backed up by either clean baseload power or a form of clean energy storage. Natural gas-fired electricity generating stations would require carbon capture technologies to meet the same lowemissions standards. While both energy storage and carbon capture show promising signs toward systemwide deployment, nuclear provides a clear, proven option that meets these critical attributes now.


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Chapter 7

Nuclear stands ready to enable green steel production.

N

ot only are nuclear assets across

Project 2030 at Bruce Power is a prime example of

Canada already creating an

how existing nuclear assets can support the need

environment that maximizes the

for increased amounts of clean electricity through

benefit of using increased levels of

innovation. Project 2030 is a Bruce Power initiative

electricity, but Canada’s nuclear

focused on achieving a goal of 7,000 MW peak

sector is primed to maintain and even expand this

generation by the year 2030 (up from a 2016 peak

environment for decades to come.

of 6,300 MW) from the Bruce site through continued

Refurbishment projects at the Bruce Power Nuclear Generating Station and Ontario Power Generation’s (OPG) Darlington Nuclear Generating Station are underway to extend the life of these plants by another 30-35 years. In the case of Bruce Power, their Life Extension Program will ensure that the site remains operational to 2064.xvii This predictability that comes with established sources of clean baseload electricity provides the necessary assurances needed for steel producers to proceed with electrification initiatives. Furthermore, these massive infrastructure projects have proceeded on time and on budget—proving that Canada’s nuclear sector is fit to compete in the years ahead.

asset optimizations, innovation and leveraging new technologies. The project would see the creation of 700 new megawatts of electricity on Ontario’s grid from an asset that is already sited and operational— ensuring new supply is online quickly and costeffectively. Furthermore, advancements continue to be made when it comes to new nuclear generation assets. Small Modular Reactor (SMR) technology continues to garner significant interest across the country. Ontario is poised to build Ontario’s first grid-scale SMR at OPG’s Darlington site (followed by three additional SMRs at the OPG Darlington site). The 300 MW station (and subsequent stations that would bring total SMR output to 1,200 MW at the Darlington site) would

The nuclear sector stands ready to contribute

demonstrate the viability of this technology and pave

further through innovation—both in the form of new

the way for other jurisdictions (like Saskatchewan,

technologies and advancements at existing sites.

New Brunswick and Alberta—all signatories to an

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inter-provincial Memorandum of Understanding on

made clear in July 2023 when Ontario’s Minister

SMRs) to advance similar projects.

of Energy announced that Bruce Power will begin

Further still, Ontario’s Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) made it clear in its Pathways

pre-development work to site up to 4,800 MW of new nuclear power generation at its existing site.xix

to Decarbonization report that new large-scale

Across Canada, investments in existing assets

nuclear assets will also form part of a future net-

and potential new nuclear will help Canadian steel

zero electricity mix by the year 2050.xviii This was

producers to accelerate electrification projects.

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Chapter 8

Leverage the benefits of nuclear to bolster steel’s clean credentials.

A

ll sectors of the economy face significant pressures with respect to emissions reduction plans, net zero targets, and Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) plans. Both Canada’s steel and nuclear sectors have made significant advancements on these priorities.

The IESO recently launched a provincial clean energy

That said, more work remains. Commitments to reach net zero goals or emissions reductions targets have an impact. They can determine eligibility for green financing products and can limit access to certain markets if they are not met. Canada’s nuclear sector offers benefits to the steel sector when it comes to this reporting in two fundamental ways.

single credit represents one megawatt-hour of clean

The first is simply through the product it provides: clean electricity. Corporate environmental reporting requires companies to report on their Scope 2 emissions. These emissions represent those that are attributed to a company indirectly through energy it purchases and uses. Therefore, the Scope 2 emissions of grid-connected facilities must report on the emissions-intensity of the electricity grid itself—since that is where they are deriving their electricity from. In Ontario, this figure is relatively low thanks to nuclear’s immense contribution to the grid. Companies in Ontario also have a new option when it comes to demonstrating their clean credentials.

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credit (CEC) registry that will provide businesses with “a new tool to meet their corporate environmental and sustainability goals.”xx These credits are effectively certificates that demonstrate that clean energy generation in Ontario has been purchased to meet corporate environmental and sustainability targets. A electricity. Proceeds from the sale of CECs held by IESO and OPG will be invested back into Ontario’s electricity system via the newly created Future Clean Electricity Fund.xxi

‘CECs from incremental output at nuclear plants offer yet another avenue to meet emissions reductions targets and ESG reporting requirements.’ CECs derived from incremental output at nuclear generating stations offer yet another avenue to meet emissions reductions targets and ESG reporting requirements. CSPA members have expressed their interest in the potential of CECs.


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Conclusion

Together, nuclear and green steel = a strong, healthy economy.

C

anada’s nuclear and steel sectors

supportive policy environment that enables them.

share the same vision: a strong,

Made-in-Canada solutions—like the increasing

healthy Canadian economy that makes

number of clean steelmaking processes at

consistent advances when it comes

plants across the country or refurbishment and

to emissions

reductions. Already, Canadian steelmakers produce some of the lowest GHG-intensive steel globally—and the sector stands ready to do more. Among the potential hurdles is a 430% increase in the amount of clean electricity required to power an increasing number of clean steelmaking processes.

‘Made-in-Canada solutions deserve to operate within a policy environment that recognizes this ambition and provides domestic advantages.’

This is where Canada’s nuclear industry can help. This country’s nuclear sector has the ability to provide Canadian steelmakers with the clean, affordable and reliable power needed to maximize the impact of the significant investments being made to implement emissions reduction plans.

investments in Canada’s nuclear plants—deserve to operate within a policy environment that recognizes this ambition and provides domestic advantages. For example, over the past decade, Canada’s steelmaking industry’s domestic market share has reduced due to an increase

in offshore imports (see Figure 8) which now capture 41% of Canada’s steel market—generally with a much higher carbon intensity. In fact, CSPA estimates that Canada has imported approximately 25 million tons of GHG emissions since 2017 by importing steel from counties such as China, South Korea, Brazil, India, Japan and Vietnam. xxii If the volume of steel imported from

These combined efforts to decarbonize the

these countries had been sourced domestically,

economy are vitally important and governments

global emissions would have been reduced by

at all levels must meet these efforts with a

10.5 million tons.

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FIGURE 8:

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5

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2023

2022

2021

2020

2019

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

0

2013

Offshore imports market share in Canada (%)

Offshore imports comprise an increasing share of Canada’s domestic steel market xxiii


PHOTO CREDIT (ABOVE): EVRAZ NORTH AMERICA

This means that despite efforts from Canadian steelmakers to reduce emissions and create greener products, they are subjected to pricing disadvantages from jurisdictions not committed to emission reductions efforts to the same degree. Governments must be ready to implement global trade system remedies while also spurring domestic market demand for Canadian-made steel. A similar story can be seen across our nuclear

supply chains based largely outside of Canada. A made-in-Canada approach to decarbonization relies on policy support for made-in-Canada electricity production.

100%

of respondents said they plan to increase electricity to reach their GHG reduction goals.’

sector. Canada’s nuclear sector is supported by a robust domestic supply chain: it produces made-in-Canada electricity and supports Canadian workers at Canadianbased companies. In fact, 98% of the spending on the Bruce Power Life Extension Program stays in Canada. xxiv Despite this, until recently, most

As stated throughout this support, a symbiotic relationship exists between Canada’s steel and electricity sectors. They share the same commitments to decarbonization, economic growth and a truly Team Canada approach to reach our climate targets.

This point was made most clear in our survey when asking whether CSPA members support the use of nuclear for electricity production. An overwhelming 100% of respondents stated that they do.

policies, programs and tax incentives favoured

With this support and alignment, together, steel and nuclear can form two of the fundamental

alternative sources of clean electricity with

building blocks of a net-zero economy in Canada.

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CALLS TO ACTION NUCLEAR

STEEL

Provincial governments and grid

All levels of government must recognize

operators should explore and integrate

the already-low and steadily declining

nuclear into provincial net-zero grid

emissions intensity of Canadian-made

planning.

steel and create the policy conditions including the consideration of green

Ensure that overly burdensome

and reciprocal procurement policies

regulatory processes do not stifle the

to spur increased levels of domestic

expansion of new clean electricity

consumption.

generating assets like new nuclear projects. Eliminating duplicative

All levels of government must

processes and recognizing previous

support Canadian steelmakers as

study of potential sites are simple ways

they advance plans and projects to

to reduce the regulatory burden of

adopt green technologies. This includes

assessment processes while maintaining

making strategic investments to spur

robust community, Indigenous and

innovation and incentivize technology

environmental protections.

adoption, planning for increased levels of electricity demand and ensuring grid

NUCLEAR + STEEL •

infrastructure is ready, and more.

Both sectors commit to working collaboratively to ensure that a mutually supportive relationship exists across Canada’s nuclear and steel sectors. This includes collective advocacy and working to ensure that the green credentials of each sector are fully recognized by one another.

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Endnotes i

Government of Canada. “Net-Zero Emissions by 2050,” Canada. ca, July 11, 2023, https://www.canada.ca/en/services/environ-

xiv

da Afford Not To?,” NII, February 27, 2023, https://www.nuclearin-

ment/weather/climatechange/climate-plan/net-zero-emis-

novationinstitute.ca/post/when-it-comes-to-investing-in-nuclear-

sions-2050.html. ii

can-canada-afford-not-to.

Government of Canada. “2030 Emissions Reduction Plan: Clean Air, Strong Economy,” Canada.ca, July 12, 2022, https://www.

xv

Energy Information Administration (EIA). California Electricity

climate-plan/climate-plan-overview/emissions-reduction-

Profile 2021 - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). CER –

2030.html.

Provincial and Territorial Energy Profiles – Ontario (cer-rec.gc.ca)

“The Strength of Green Steel.” Public Policy Forum, April 20, 2023. https://ppforum.ca/publications/the-strength-of-

xvi

Global Efficiency Intelligence. “Steel Climate Impact – An

xvii

sion-program-mcr-project/.

April 2022. Global Efficiency Intelligence. “Steel Climate Impact – An

xviii

ber 2022, https://www.ieso.ca/en/Learn/The-Evolving-Grid/Path-

April 2022.

ways-to-Decarbonization.

Canadian Steel Producers Association. “State of Play,” May 2023.

vii

Algoma Steel Inc. “Algoma Steel Announces Final Investment

xix

ontario.ca/en/backgrounder/1003234/ontario-starts-pre-development-work-for-new-nuclear-generation-at-bruce-power.

November 11, 2021. https://algoma.com/algoma-steel-announces-final-investment-decision-for-electric-arc-steelmaking/.

xx

CAD$500m Investment by the Government of Ontario: Arcelor-

xxi

https://news.ontario.ca/en/backgrounder/1002878/ontaio-launch-

mittal.com.

es-clean-energy-credit-registry-and-establishes-future-clean-elec-

IESO. “Media.” 2022 Year in Review, 2022. https://www.ieso.ca/ en/Corporate-IESO/Media/Year-End-Data. IESO. “Media.” 2022 Year in Review, 2022. https://www.ieso.ca/

tricity-fund. xxii

UNECE (2021). Life Cycle Assessment of Electricity Generation Options. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.

Origin, Port or Clearance, Quantity and Value.” 2023. xxiii

IESO data; Strapolec, 2015; Strapolec analysis. https://www. greenribbonpanel.com/reports-and-publications/

xiii

Origin, Port or Clearance, Quantity and Value.” 2023. xxiv

Bruce Power, “Safe Clean Reliable Affordable, Ontario Ratepayers Are Top Priority for Bruce Power,” Bruce Power, June 2022, https://

Greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity "https://our-

www.brucepower.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/06/Provin-

worldindata.org/explorers/impacts-of-energy-sources

cial-Candidate-Briefing.pdf".

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36 |

“Statistics Canada – International Accounts and Trade Division; imports for specified HS10 Codes by Country of Origin, US State or

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