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A perspective on Hybrid Vegetable Seeds Industry in India Appemane Subbarao and Raju Barwale Mahyco, Jalna

India is the second largest producer of vegetables in the world. However, our per capita consumption is lower at about 110 gm against the recommended per capita consumption of 300 gm of vegetables per day. With the growing per capita income, the demand for vegetables has been increasing at a faster rate in the recent years. However, the supply has been growing at a moderate rate of 5 to 6% p.a.( Reference : Economic Times, 9th March 2011) The policy makers have realized the need for improving the supplies as evident from the support provided for improving the supplies by developing vegetable clusters around the urban areas in the recent Budget of Government of India. Hybrid Seeds are the most critical and cost effective input for increasing the vegetable production through improving per acre productivity. Hybrid vegetable seed Industry has made great strides in improving vegetable production over the past 25 years, and has a major role to play going forward.

Demand Side Trends The economy is expected to keep the good growth rate of about 10% over the next few years. There is a strong positive correlation between income levels & consumption level of fruits & vegetables. Given our current low per capita consumption of vegetables, the demand for vegetables would only grow as the economy improves leading to higher per capita consumption levels. With the consumption habits changing, there will be increased out of home consumption also. This would cause the demand shift from traditional vegetables like gourds to for relatively better valued vegetables like Tomato, Cole crops such as Cauliflower, Cabbage, Salad vegetables, etc. It is important that the production of these vegetables keeps pace with the increasing demand and also

to keep the prices stable and affordable. Currently, less than 2% of the vegetables produced in the country are processed compared to over 30 % in developed countries. Increased processing will not only help in reducing the enormous post harvest losses, currently estimated at over 15%, but will also help in stabilizing prices. Reduced uncertainty on the prices will help the farmers to use improved inputs like better seeds. With changing lifestyle, and modern retailing, the consumption of processed vegetables is projected to increase substantially.

Supply Side Trends Vegetables cultivation in India is currently estimated to occupy about seven percent of the cultivated area at 11.5 million Hectares. Vegetable cultivation requires relatively higher intensity of labor compared to many other crops. With labor availability rapidly becoming a constraint in rural areas, it is unlikely that there will be any significant increase in the area under vegetable cultivation in the coming years. In addition to this, use of land for non agricultural purposes has been increasing. These trends will necessitate improvement in productivity of vegetable cultivation to meet the growing demand. Currently, vegetables are grown largely by small and marginal farmers. The productivity of vegetables cultivated is poor in many states, due to inadequate inputs and poor cultivation practices. For instance, usage of Hybrid seeds, which is a key input for improving productivity, is estimated at less than 50% at national level. This is expected to change with better awareness and improved economics of hybrid vegetable cultivation in the coming years. However, it will be important to educate the farmers to improve their cultivation practices including adoption of hybrids. This

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challenge will have to be addressed by both the local governments and the private sector through joint programs. Recent initiatives in some of the states in this direction have been very useful and pioneering to follow. There are many developed Vegetable cultivation clusters particularly in Western and Southern India where adoption of appropriate cultivation practices and use of inputs is leading to high productivity. Farmers in such clusters are progressively looking for better inputs to improve their productivity further. In the coming years, with increasing attractiveness of economics of vegetable cultivation, more such clusters with best in the class practices are likely to be developed in a partnership mode between the governments and private sector.

Imperatives for the Industry Galloping demand for vegetables both processed and fresh, with constraints on expanding cultivable area presents following challenges to hybrid vegetable seed Industry. Quantum Improvement in productivity through Technology: Given the expected widening gap between demand and supply, vegetable production would need to be improved substantially in a short period of time. This would necessitate use of new generation technologies in addition to current conventional approaches. Use of transgenic technology would be one such option as it has proved already its merit in cotton production in India. Use of this technology in imparting disease and insect resistance to vegetable crops, and tolerance to adverse agro-climatic condition would provide break through opportunity for increasing vegetable production through increased productivity in the country. Application of this

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technology in improving productivity of several vegetables – Brinjal, Cabbage, Okra, Cauliflower, Hot pepper through both public sector and private sector institutions is on the horizon. Currently, some of these products are in different stages of the regulatory system of Government of India. These technological products have the potential of improving productivity significantly, benefiting both the farmers and the consumers and also meeting the increasing demand. Vegetable production will continue to be dominated largely by small and marginal farmers. Adoption of technologies and use of new practices by this set of farmers would require additional significant extension work. Besides this, new technologies would require consumer education, to help in understanding the benefits. This responsibility of education of farmers and the consumers will have to be shouldered by both the Industry and the government in the interest of growth of vegetable production in India. The hybrid vegetable seed Industry in the country is at a relatively nascent stage. The industry has the opportunity and responsibility to, not only participate but act as a catalyst in improving the productivity of vegetable crops in the country. Many new seed technologies for improving both quality and quantity of vegetable production can be delivered most cost effectively through improved and hybrid seeds in the near term, enabling the country to meet the expected demand and at the same time enabling the small and marginal farmers to improve their productivity and incomes, improving their lifestyles while making significant impact on poverty reduction, leading to an inclusive growth. This also puts the responsibility on the industry to provide such technologies and achieve significant growth to become a strong and vibrant component of the seed sector.


Onion Tears Brought Back the Focus on Vegetable Seed Industry Dr Arvind Kapur CEO, Vegetable Division, Rasi Seeds (P) Ltd, Email-arvindkapur@rasiseeds.com

Recent spurt in onion prices brought back the attention of policy makers on the production and storage of fresh vegetables. Since India is predominantly vegetarian country, high prices have contributed to the food inflation in the country which remained double digit for a very long time. Who is getting the maximum advantage of this situation? At least not the farmer and also not the seed Industry or input industry is making any profit but the middle man is making maximum profits. Whenever there is shortage or price rise of any agricultural commodity, government immediately bans the export of these commodities. But when there is an excess production of onions or tomato or any other perishable vegetable, then no concern is ever been shown by the any governmental agency. These concerns really put farming community in highly demotivated situation. Farmer’s return on the investment must be based on the market prices and not by the changing policies every time, which are normally favouring the traders rather than the producer. Vegetable growers are expanding in India and presently the area under vegetables is more than 8.0 million ha. This has happened because of vibrant private seed sector, which has developed highly performing hybrids in majority of the vegetable crops. India is producing more than hundred million tons of fresh vegetables (excluding tubers and cassava) for domestic and international market. The quality of the fresh produce is much better and consumer is getting fresh produce round the year.

Vegetable Seed Industry Contribution After the new seed policy of 1988, the vegetable seed industry flourished in India. Both multinational and Indian seed companies expanded their R&D and imported lot of seed in many crops to enhance productivity. Initially, hundred per cent cabbage and cauliflower hybrid seed and

more than 60% of Hot pepper hybrid seed were imported in the country. Since last decade, most of the hot pepper seed sold was bred in India. Similarly most of the key crops are now bred in India and have high productivity and disease resistances. Sensing high potential of the vegetable seed market and expanding market in India, many companies from Asia, Europe and America opened their subsidiaries in India. They started their breeding program of regional crops and brought resistant hybrids for global crops like Tomato and Peppers.

Hybrid Vegetable Seed Market in India By value, tomato, hot peppers and okra have 18% market share each while cabbage, cucumber and watermelons have 5-7% market share each. Total hybrid seed market is little more than $200 million and more than 3000 Mt seed is produced to have overall more than 50% seed replacement rate in hybrid vegetables. More than 350 hybrids of tomato are being sold in India by the private sector and most of them are with TyLCV resistance. Other resistances like Bacterial wilt and Tospo virus resistance is being bred in tomato by many companies. Similarly good shelf life and better taste are also the key traits being bred in tomato. In Hot pepper, many good hybrids with required fruit quality both for fresh and dry chillies are being supplied to the farmers and they are earning good profit. There are more than 12 types of chillies grown in India and more than 300 hybrids are sold in different quantities in different markets. Viral and fungal diseases are being addressed by breeding resistances in hybrids. Okra is another crop where hybridisation is fast picking up. More than 1600 tons of hybrid seed is being sold by various companies. Most of the hybrids are resistant to YVMV and new hybrids with ELCV resistant are being developed.

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Gourds are group of crops where hybridisation is fast picking up. Particularly bitter gourd, bottle gourd, ridge gourd etc. are the main gourds where hybridisation and disease resistance is fast spreading in vegetable market. Hybrids of other gourd crops like smooth and snake gourds are also getting promoted.

value. The private seed industry is continuously improving the OP varieties and introducing high performing research varieties. Many of these varieties are also showing intermediary resistance to diseases. In vegetables, even in OPV’s, the seed replacement rate is very high and farmers buy fresh seed every season/year.

Open Pollinated Seed Market in Vegetables

Fresh Vegetables Processing and Export

Open pollinated varieties (OPV) vegetable seeds are sold in big quantities in many crops. Still OPV’s of Okra, tomato and hot pepper are being sold in many markets because of local market needs and tastes required for local recipes. Presently around 40,000 Mt seeds of OPV’s in around 25 vegetable crops are being sold with a total value of more than $ 200 million. Out of the total OPV’s sold in India, 70% is made of Beans, Coriander, Onion and Peas by

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Except tomato no other vegetable has entered into large scale processing chains. In tomato most of the companies are breeding for dual type tomatoes which can be used both for table and processing purposes. With global players entering into India like Heinz ketchup, exclusive processing traits have to be built in the hybrids. Globally, Heinz have their own breeding program in tomato to deliver hybrids having higher TSS with high colour retention after processing and flavour. To deliver same quality in the product


year after year, these kinds of hybrids are needed. For fresh vegetable export, certain quality traits are needed like freshness of colour and better flavour. Farmers still use lot of banned pesticides and fungicides,the residues of these chemicals are appearing in vegetables for export. Recently a large consignment of Okra was rejected due to high level of residues of chemicals. The quality of fresh vegetables for export can only be controlled if contract production is allowed at large scale and cold chain facilities, both at airports and from farm gate to warehouses,are strengthened. Presently very few vegetables are being exported and there is large potential available in exporting the fresh produce to middle-east countries and Europe. India is exporting fresh vegetables worth Rs. 700 crores and Onions worth Rs. 1900 crores.

Protected Cultivation of Vegetables Protected cultivation of vegetables is still at a miniscule level in India. In few areas, farmers are growing vegetables under low cost net houses and

polyhouses. The quality of vegetables grown in these structures is good but farmers are not getting significant price difference from open pollinated varieties. Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) has set up a training centre for protected agriculture and advising farmers about know how on poly houses and suitable varieties for these. If the linkage between fresh vegetable exporters and farmers is strengthened for protected cultivation of vegetables, better quality of produce can be ensured. Only then protected cultivation will become popular.

Issues of Vegetable Seed Industry Availability of diverse germplasm –Germplasm availability is becoming scares and restricted. Under the new laws of CBD and NBA, the import and export of germplasm is restricted and time consuming. Advance and new technologies- Most of the advanced and new technologies are not being

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used in vegetable breeding. Very few companies are using even MAS in breeding. Establishing molecular labs and using these technologies in regional crops is very expensive and difficult to get return on investments Production of seed- Production of hybrid seed is becoming a major bottle neck for the private seed sector. Number of hybrids in each crop and in each company is increasing. The quantum of F1 seed is also increasing. All these issues are putting pressure on limited areas of seed production. Many companies are trying new areas for seed production. Many companies are now producing seed in China and other countries. New trends in vegetable products- Manyproducts are changing their shapes and sizes as per the customer requirement. Watermelons are becoming smaller and melons are required in different shapes and colours. Similarly in other crops also, shifts are visible. The research has to be directed towards development of new types. It also needs infusion of new germplasm. Intellectual Property Rights issues- With the advancement of technologies, many technology rich companies are taking broad patents on many traits and associated processes. Patents are even granted for natural biological processes. These trends will further complicate the breeding issues and many companies will entangle themselves in legal battles and thus will divert important investments in improving breeding to wasteful activities. The new initiative globally to revamp the patent regime and educate patent inspectors and examinees about the important biological processes and to grant only specific innovations based on the criterion already available in the patent laws. Genetic improvement by gene insertion- The first genetically modified tomato released in USA as Flavr savr TM by Calgene but did not make a big success. After that virus resistant papaya and squash and insect resistant sweet corn were

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released but very small success was achieved. Regulatory cost played a vital role in the growing disparity between the expanding global adaptation of large market crops like maize, cotton, canola and soybean and the “Small Market” crops or Speciality crops. Most of the transgenic trials are almost stopped or have slowed down. High cost and regulatory hurdles are preventing vegetable seed companies to aggressively work on GM seed, though many useful genes and traits have been identified for these crops. The latest example that can be cited is that of Bt eggplant in India, where there is very big advantage for farmers like in cotton against “Fruit and Shoot Borer”. But still it is taking much longer time for regulatory clearance. These kinds of issues further discourage the seed companies to enter into smaller markets with the beneficial traits. Similar example is for Cauliflower and cabbages against Diamond Back Moth (DBM).

Future Trends Vegetable seed market is expanding and will further expand in terms of area and hybridisation. India has high potential for domestic and export market. High quality seed with both input traits like higher yields, abiotic and biotic stress resistance wide adaptability and output traits like shelf life, seedless , better colour, flavour, flesh quality, pungency etc. will be in high demand. Accurate and quick methods in breeding like biotech intervention will further make the companies more competitive. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) issues on traits and genome will further complicate the breeding. Breeder’s rights restrictions will slow down the new product developments. The new wave of seed business in the environment of technology and cash rich companies will drive towards acquisition and mergers and joint ventures. Ultimately companies with focus on R&D and assets of technologies with IP’s will survive and expand their business.


Cucurbits in India – Achievements and Future Challenges O.P. Dutta Director(R&D), Namdhari Seeds Pvt Ltd., Bidadi, Bangalore

Introduction

Trends in Cucurbit Consumption

Cucurbits as a group include Watermelon, Melon, Cucumber, Squash, Pumpkin and Various gourds, are cultivated allover India throughout the year. High yielding cultivators, precision farming system, increased use of fertilizers, integrated pest management, proper training of the farmers and several marketing outlets have allowed a significant change in cucurbit production in India. The genetic improvement made through vegetable breeding and packed marvelously in seeds is delivered most efficiently to the farmers by the high tech Indian seed Industry. The Indian seed industry which has emerged as the 6th largest in the World and has been growing annually at 12% growth rate thus deserves congratulation. The vegetable seed Industry is expanding its business rapidly beyond its immediate vicinity to cover SAARC, Middle East, ASEAN and African countries. An extensive market survey done by NSPL and other leading vegetable seed production companies as well as renowned agri consulting firms during 2010 revealed an estimated market size of 490 tons of hybrid seeds of major cucurbits valued Rs. 83.50 crores (Table 1).

With the changing life-style and dietary pattern, the consumers in India are becoming more and more health conscious. There is an emerging shift in demand from synthetic to natural products and from fresh vegetables to functional foods rich in neutraceuticals. This trend will put pressure on the neutraceutical Industry, Processing Industry and flavour industry on one side and the production researchers, plant breeders and growers on the other side to keep pace with the changing consumption pattern. The health benefits of cucurbit are enormous, however, the public awareness seems to be lacking.

Table 1. Estimated Market Size of major Cucurbits in India Crop Watermelon Muskmelon Ridge Gourd Bitter Gourd Bottle Gourd Cucumber Sponge Gourd Pumpkin Total

Total Qty (Kg) 120,000 15,000 30,000 100,000 100,000 55,000 30,000 40,000 490,000

Total Value (Rs.in Cr) 48.00 13.50 7.50 30.00 17.00 44.00 13.50 10.00 183.50

Source: Survey report of NSPL and leading vegetable seed companies, 2010

Health Benefits of Cucurbits Cucurbits have been ranked as excellent, very good and good on World’s healthiest food ranking scale. Because of their high water content and lower caloric content, they deliver more nutrients per calorie – an outstanding health benefit. The neutraceutical industry looks at Cucurbits as a potential health capsule without any side effects. It is interesting to peep in to the health benefits of some of the major Cucurbits. Watermelon: The fruit is richly packed with some of the most important antioxidants in nature. It is an excellent source of Vitamin C, Vitamin A and lycopene. These powerful antioxidants travel through the body, neutralizing free radicals, thereby reducing the risk of heart diseases, airway spasm that occur in asthma, colon cancer, lower the risk of age related membrane degeneration (ARMD), the primary cause of vision loss in old age people and alleviate some of the symptoms of Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Watermelon has 40% more lycopene than Tomato. It protects the body from prostate cancer, breast cancer, endometrial cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer. It also protects DNA inside the white blood

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cells. Watermelon is also a rich source of Vitamin B6, B1, Magnesium, Potassium, . B Vitamins are necessary for energy production. Watermelon is exceptionally high in Citrulline(more in Watermelon rind) an amino acid which in our body is converted in to arginine which removes ammonia from the body, also used by the cell lining of our blood vessels to make nitric oxide which relaxes blood vessels thus lowering high blood pressure. It also improves insulin sensitivity in Obese type–2 diabetic patients with insulin resistance. Melon: It is an excellent source of Beta carotene. One cup of Cantaloupe cubes (160 g) provides 103.2% of daily value of Vitamin A, an important vision nutrient. It is an excellent source of Vitamin C ( One cup provides 112.5% of DV), which is a powerful antioxidant, is critical for good immune function, stimulating white cells to fight infection, directly kills many bacterial and viruses and reduces the risk of death from heart diseases, stroke and cancer. It is also a very good source of potassium, Vitamin B6, dietary fiber, folate and niacin (Vitamin B3), thereby making an exceptionally good fruit for supporting energy production, good carbohydrate metabolism and blood sugar stabilization. A dietary ingredient derived from melon such as antioxidant superoxide dismutase enzyme has been shown to release stress. Bitter gourd: Bitter gourd is regarded as one of the world’s major vegetables from health point of view, which can help millions in the developing world who suffer from metabolic disorders such as type-2 diabetes. Bitter gourd extracts possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antithepatotoxic and anti ulcergenic properties in addition to lowering blood sugar. Bitter gourd fruits are rich in Charatin, Vicine and polypeptide P which provide major diabetic medical benefits. They either regulate insulin release directly or alter glucose metabolism an insulin like effect. It is rich in bioactive compounds which activate the enzyme AMPK, a protein well known for regulating food metabolism enabling glucose uptake – useful in type – 2 diabetic. Antioxidant activities: Bitter gourd contains as many as 14 caretenoids, vitamin C, vitamin E, phenolic acids and organosulphur compounds which reduce cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

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Antiviral activities: α–mamorcharin present in Bitter gourd inactivates ribosome function and stimulates MAP 30 (Momordica anti HIV Protein) production which in turn simultaneously suppresses HIV activity. Momerdicoside A and B present in Bitter gourd prohibit tumor growth. Several Bitter gourd phytyochemicals has in invitro antiviral activity against viruses including Epstein, Barr, herps and HIV viruses. Bottle gourd: High in Sodium and Potassium, Bottle gourd is an excellent vegetable for hypertension patients. Its juice is helpful in treating insanity, epilepsy, stomach acidity, ingestion, ulcer and other nervous diseases. It cures urinary disorders and boost immune system. Ash gourd: Ash gourd is a rich in Calcium, Phosphorous and Potassium. Being alkaline in nature, it acts as a good antiacid, helps control thyroid related problems, fight mouth ulcers, good for bleeding gums, good to cure obesity, epilepsy, asthma. It is a good blood coagulant. The fruit also contain anticancer terpenes. Cucumber: Being rich in Potassium, it controls high and low blood pressure. It contains an enzyme erepsin that helps in protein digestion. The silica content in cucumber helps in clear complexion, strong hair and healthy nails. Cucumber skin is rich in fibre which helps prevent bowl cancer, maintains normal blood sugar and cholesterol level. It is a good source of pantothenic acid (Vit B5) which helps turn carbohydrate and fat in to energy and also plays a part in healthy adrenal gland. It is a good source of Vitamin K, which helps in blood clotting and prevents postmenopausal bone loss, protects against liver and prostate cancer. Pumpkin and Squash: They are rich in B-Carotene which is a powerful antioxidant as well as anti inflammatory agent, helps prevent built up of cholesterol in arterial wall. They are also rich in alpha carotene which is believed to slow the process of aging and also prevents cataract formation, reduces the risk of macular degeneration a serious eye problem resulting in blindness. Being loaded with potassium they boost immune system and also improve bone density. Pumpkin seeds are rich in L-tryptophane a compound that has been found to be effective against depression, natural protectant of osteoporosis, reduces inflammation, helps to prevent calcium oxalate, kidney stone formation, being rich in


phytosteroids, they have been associated with reducing the level of LDL cholesterol. Cucurbits for Processing and Flavour Industry: The quality and success of any natural flavour industry and processing industry begins with the raw material. Fruits picked at exactly right time, stored in correct manner, should reach manufacturers in peak condition. In Cucumber and Cantaloupe aldehydes and esters are key flavours volatiles that are highly susceptible to hydrolyses. In Watermelon and Cucumber both contain lipoxygenases flavour system which will become active once the flesh is cut or broken. The flavour of watermelon is said to be intensified when stored at 10oC for around a week. The processing industry will require the quality raw material for fresh cut fruits(Watermelon and melon) carotene and starch rich pumpkins suitable for chips and pumpkin powder and pickling cucumbers for pickling industries, Watermelon and melon for juice and Beer making, Bottle Gourd and Ash Gourd for juice making and bitter gourd for dehydrated products.

Emerging Trends in Cucurbit Breeding Keeping in view the emerging demand from consumers needs and likings, the enormous untapped health potential, the specific requirements of the processing industry and the economic concerns of those linked to Cucurbits production activities, the Cucurbit breeders and production researchers have to re-orient their breeding and production objectives. In addition to breeding Cucurbits for high yield, quality and stress tolerance, the breeders and production researchers should give more attention to develop Cucurbit cultivars and their production technologies for neutraceuitcal industry, processing industry and export.

Yield Improvement in Cucurbits Yield improvement in Cucurbits is done in three stages of cultivar development. The early stage where single plants or segregating families are evaluated in the early generation of a cross, where emphasis is on fruit quality, disease resistance, fruit bearing pattern and earliness. This strategy is followed because single plant yield is poorly

correlated with the yield of replicated field trials. The major emphasis on yield selection is during the intermediate stage where inbred lines are evaluated for possible use as a new cultivator or as a parent of the hybrids. At the intermediate stage, the yield is correlated with final stage trials. It is advisable to use combining ability as a means of yield in the early stages of hybrid development. In general heritability is high for fruit number and weight per fruit in many Cucurbits. The intermediate stage test should have two or three different seasons and locations with one replication each separated by one or two weeks in planting dates, rather than many replications in one season , location or year. A relatively high correlation for yield between cumulative early harvest and total yield permits the breeder to stop yield evaluation after fourth or fifth harvest in majority of the gourds and Cucumber. Final yield trials should be conducted under stressed and non stressed conditions.

Yield Stability in Cucurbits Improvement in yield stability is mainly achieved by making improvement in defensive traits such as tolerance to biotic and a-biotic stresses, Major diseases limiting the yields in Cucurbits are: i) Foliar diseases like powdery mildew, downy mildew, anthracnose and alterneria leaf spot ii) Virus diseases : Thrips transmitted watermelon bud necrosis, aphid transmitted watermelon mosaic viruses-2, zucchini Yellow mosaic virus, squash mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, bitter gourd mosaic virus, cucumber green mottled virus and whitefly transmitted squash vein yellow virus. iii) Soil borne diseases such as fusarium wilt, gummy stem blight and bacterial fruit blotch. Not much breeding work has been done in disease resistance in Cucurbits in India. Melon variety Arka Rajhans at IIHR and Punjab Rasila(at PAU) has been reported to be resistant to powdery mildew. Watermelon variety Arka Manik(IIHR) has been reported to have multiple resistances to anthracnose, powdery and downy mildew. Sources of resistance to CMV and fruit fly in Bitter gourd have been reported in germplasm collections available at NBPGR.

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iv) Local land races have a mosaic of stress tolerant genes. Driven by natural selections, such land races have been evolving to grow under harsh conditions. Use of land races for breeding cultivar better adapted to future needs is suggested. Breeding requirements pertaining to different Cucurbits are discussed below: Watermelon: Recently there is a shift in demand from large size watermelon to Ice box watermelon. Consumers prefer Icebox watermelon for their sweetness(12-14% TSS) , the convenient fruit size(2.5-4.5 Kg) , easy to carry and store in a refrigerator. Growers take advantage of their early maturity(60-65 days crop duration) which helps in escaping various virus diseases and get better price in the market. Good success has been achieved in breeding large size watermelon varieties both by private and public sector. During 1990’s watermelon variety Arka manikl(IIHR) having triple disease resistance covered large acreage in India followed by watermelon hybrid NS 295 and NS 750 developed by NSPL Bangalore. Efforts are being made to develop and popularize seedless watermelon by both private and public sector breeders. Seedless watermelons(Triploids) are developed by crossing tedraploits(4n) as female with diploids(2n) as male parent. Tetraploids are developed through colchiploidy. Some of the problems which a breeder faces are i) extra time for the development of tetraploids, 2) additional selections against sterility and fruit abnormality, 3) choice of parents to reduce seed coat production, 4) reduction in seed yield (50 – 100 seeds per fruit), 5) reduced seed vigor for growers, 6) necessity for diploid polinizers as triploids are sterile. It may require 10 cycles of selfing before sufficient seeds of tetraploid line can be produced for commercial production of triploids. Advanced generations of tetraploid have improved fertility, seed yield and germination rate. Efforts are also on, to breed watermelon hybrids with tomato seed (ts) gene which produces very small seeds which can be eaten along with watermelon flesh. Watermelon with yellow and orange flesh would also be available in the Indian market soon. The processing industry will require sweet watermelon(TSS 12–13%) having crisp texture for fresh cut fruit pieces, granular texture for juice

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and beer making, rich in lipoxygenase enzyme for flavour industry, rich in lycopene, and cartenoids and citruline for neutraceutical industry. Melons: Musk melon (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus) is commonly known in the trade as a cantaloupe which actually is a misnomer. True cantaloupe melon belongs to Cucumis melo var. cantaloupensis. These melons are highly aromatic and are without netting on the rind. These are also known as charantais in France. Naming of melons has created lot of confusion in day to day terminology among the consumers as well as the processing industry. In order to avoid the confusion, a simple classification is given in Table 2. Melons can be further classified based upon the physiology of fruit ripening. It can be, 1) Ethylene dependant(Climactric fruit), where ethylene is responsible for fruit softening, chlorophyll degradation of the rind and activation of abscission zone at fruit penducle. In climactric fruit, the rind colour changes from dark green to yellow orange as seen in many varieties of musk melon and galia melon and pale green to cream yellow as seen in charantais. Development of flesh colour is however ethylene independent. Green flesh (gf) and white flesh (wf) are controlled by a single gene. Orange flesh segregates quantitatively. 2) It can be ethylene independent (non climactric fruit), have much lower level of total volatiles, conspicuously lack volatile esters and lack odours as seen in Honey dew, Yellow canery varieties. The rind colour in dark green varieties remains so throughout as seen in Casabas, pieldesapo and Japanese melons or change from pale green to yellow due to pigmentation accumulation as seen in yellow canery. Ethylene suppressed lines exhibit a delayed and reduced fruit ripening. 3) Partially ethylene dependant varieties which are intermediate between climactric and non climactric fruits. Both fruits abscission and ethylene production is controlled by two independent loci Al-3 and Al-4. Non climactric fruit is insensitive to ethylene and is controlled by recessive alleles, sweetness in melons is due to soluble sugar sucrose which increases during ripening until abscission or harvest. The


Table 2. Melon Classification Latin Name

Description

US Terminology

Cucumis melo var. reticulatus

All varieties have a musky scent and skin with raised, netted pattern

Cantaloupe, musk muskmelon melon, nutmeg melon, rock melon

Gold netting, orange flesh Gold netting, green flesh

Cantaloupe, muskmelon Ogen, galia

muskmelon Galia

Good storage melons with unscented skin that can be smooth or corrugated — but never netted

Honeydew, winter Melon

Honeydew

Cream/white skin, green flesh

Honeydew, winter melon, Christmas melon

Honeydew

Yellow skin, cream flesh

Canary, Spanish, casaba

Spanish, (Honeydew in the United Kingdom)

Yellow skin, orange flesh

Crenshaw

Cucumis melo var. inodorous

Cucumis Highly fragrant, with melo var. thick, rough skin — no cantaloupensis netting Grey/beige skin, orange flesh

EU Terminology

Rarely grown

Cantaloupe

Rarely grown — French charentais

Charentais, chaca, French or Italian

Comments The cause of much confusion — in the United States, muskmelons are frequently called cantaloupes

The true cantaloupe melon

Source: John Boddington, Treatt USA Inc. glucose and fructose level fluctuate much less. Sucrose is controlled by a single gene-“Suc”. Recently a good attempt was made to introduce yellow canery(white flesh) and honey dew melon (light green flesh) in to the Indian market, but were soon rejected by the consumers mainly because of sale of poor quality immature fruits. Being non climactric the fruit do not come to full slip stage at maturity. The melon growers could not judge the fruit maturity at harvest time leading to the harvest of immature fruit of poor quality. This trend needs to be reversed. There is a good scope to introduce galia melon in to the Indian market. Galia melon each weighing 1-1.5 Kg are climactric or semi climactric, having golden yellow or golden brown netted skin, a green, juicy and sweet(TSS 12 to 13%) flesh with mild aroma, are well adapted to warm dry climate of India and are often called desert melon.

Melon requirement of fresh cut fruit industry is very specific. The industry prefers oval shape fruit, each weighing 1 to 1.2 Kg with diameter ranging from 115 to 135 mm to fit well in the peelers, should have non netted smooth, non ribbed rind for easy cleaning and peeling, should have small seed cavity for maximizing the chunk yield, dry sweet(TSS 12 to 16%) flesh with crisp texture, good aroma, deep salmon flesh, non leaking seed cavity and dry full slip scar. Melon genome with hundreds of DNA markers has been mapped by scientists with Texas, Agri Life research. This will help anchor down some specific genes for higher sugar content, ascorbic acid(Vitamin C) disease resistance, drought tolerance and male sterility in melons breeding programme.

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Cucumber: Cucumis Sativus L. is native to Asia. It is a popular fresh market vegetable in salad, for processing industry as pickling cucumber and for flavour industry as fresh cucumber flavour. The commercial types includes slicing cucumber(20–30 cm long) , European glass house (parthenocarpic) cucumber(30 to 40 cm long), mini Biet Alpha(Parthenocarpic) cucumbers(13-15 cm long) and the pickling cucumbers(10-15 cm long). Slicers are usually with thick skin and warts which needs peeling before consumption. European glass house and Biet Alpha Parthenocarpic cucumbers are seedless, do not require pollination for fruit development, have smooth rind and are often eaten whole as opposed to slicers which are often peeled and sliced before eating. Several flowering habits exist in cucumber. Most cultivar grown in open are monoecious , with separate male and female flowers in the same plant, glass house cucumbers are gynoecious or all female cultivars producing 12-13 times more female flowers than those obtained in monoecious cultivars. The so called PF cultivars produce predominantly female flowers along with the small number of male flowers. In India the cucumber breeding programme concentrates on yield, plant type, quality and disease resistance mainly in slicing cucumber cultivars. Breeding work in Parthenocarpic(controlled by a single dominant gene with several modifiers), cucumbers with gynoecious sex expression is gaining momentum for green house cultivation. Cucumber hybrid NS 499 developed by NSPL, a gynoecious parthenocarpic cucumber with multi pistillate bearing habit is suitable for green house cultivation. A number of slicer cucumber hybrids with light green, green, dark green and cream skin have been developed by private seed companies for commercial cultivation in the open field in India. Cucumber genome has been sequenced by an international consortium headed by china and US Institutions. The cucumber genome will give insight in to the genetics of whole cucurbit family which includes pumpkin, squash, melon and watermelon. The study showed that five of seven chromosomes in cucumber arose from 10 ancestral chromosomes shared with melon and the gene coding stretches of DNA shares about 95% similarity to melon. Preliminary studies in the Lucas lab at U.C Davis have established

12

comparable similarity between cucumber and pumpkin. The cucumber genome will also provide insight in to traits such as disease and pest resistance, fruit flavour and sex expression. This will help speed up the entire breeding work in cucumber in the near future. Bitter gourd: Four types of fruit shapes are seen in Bitter gourd. 1) Large fusiform fruits pointed at both ends with numerous triangular tubercles are classified as Momordica charantia var. charantia. 2) Spindle shaped small fruit belongs to Momordica charantia var. muricata 3) Cone shaped fruit(9-12 cm long) with dark green rind having prominent tubercles are moderate to strong bitter 4) Chinese long fruited type( 30-60 cm long) with smooth ridges, light green skin are less bitter but are rich in vitamin C( 440-780 mg per kg of edible portion). Small fruited Momordica charantia var. muricata is rich in protein, carbohydrates, iron, calcium and ascorbic acid. A number of bitter gourd hybrids belonging to charantia or muricata group have been developed by private seed companies for commercial, cultivation. Efforts are on to utilize germplasm available at NBPGR resistant to fruit fly( IC 256185, IC 248256, IC 213311, IC 248282) and CMV(IC85611, IC85636, IC 8560813 , IC 8560411) and gynoecious sex expression(INGR 03037) in Bitter gourd breeding programme.

Bottle gourd, Ridge gourd, Sponge gourd and Ash Gourd Major emphasis is to develop gourd hybrids having small cylindrical tender fruits bearing at each node. For yield stabilization, it is essential to develop cultivars resistant to powdery mildew, downy mildew and virus diseases. In Ash gourd there is a demand for small cylindrical cultivars(without ash) each weighting 1 to 2 Kg for household consumption. A number of gourd hybrids developed by private seed companies are under commercial cultivation.

Pumpkin and Squash Pumpkin cultivars(cucurbita moschata) are grown throughout the country. Summer squash(cucurbita


pepos) and winter squash(c.maxima) are grown in small areas for niche market. Breeding efforts are on in private seed companies to develop pumpkin hybrids, bearing small fruits(0.5 to 2 Kg) rich in carotenoids. There is a need to develop pumpkin cultivars suitable for powder, puree and chips making industries.

Heterosis and hybrid seed production in Cucurbits

Three genes reported earlier for male sterility(gms, ms-1, ms-dw) also reduce female fertility hence could not be used in hybrid seed production successfully. A new spontaneous male sterile mutant(ms-2) with normal seed set has been identified and will be more useful for hybrid seed production. A gynoecious mutant(gy) controlled by a single recessive gene has been reported in watermelon which will reduce the cost of hybrid seed production in watermelon.

In spite of the lack of inbreeding depression in cucurbits, the heterosis in yield(10 to 35%) has been observed in a number of cucurbits. Lack of inbreeding depression in cucurbits is mainly due to the non accumulation of deleterious genes as opposed to other cross pollinated crops like carrot, onion, where a heavy load of deleterious gene exists. Hybrids are often used to take advantage of dominant genes present in the parental inbreds, and protect parental lines from usage by growers or other competing seed companies. Specific combining ability – specific combination of inbred lines with good general combining ability is beneficial for the production of superior new hybrids in cucurbits. Improvement in non heterotic traits that confer stability of performance(defensive traits) enhances marketable hybrid yield as well as overall performance of the hybrids.

Melon

Watermelon

Cucumber

Sex expression in watermelon cultivars is either monoecious or andromonoecious. Heterosis in yield and earliness is expressed ranging from 10 to 35 percent. Hybrids in monoecious lines are produced by hand pollination. Demand for regular diploid watermelon hybrids has been increasing over the years(120 tons during 2010). Private seed companies have also developed a number of icebox watermelon hybrids for commercial production.

Commercial cucumber hybrids in India are mainly monoecious. Hybrid seeds in monoecious hybrids are produced by crossing two monoecious lines by hand pollination. Cucumber hybrids having predominantly female flowers are produced in isolation using gynoecious x monoecious lines without hand pollination. Gynoecious x hermaphrodite lines will give 100 percent gynoecious sex expression. Such hybrids are useful in pickling cucumber varieties. Another gynoecious gene(gy) offers the possibility of economical production of monoecious hybrids by crossing a gynoecious inbred with a monoecious one.

Efforts are being made both by private and public sector plant breeders to develop seedless watermelon hybrids which are produced by crossing tetroploid female parent with a diploid male parent by hand pollination. Watermelon hybrids using tomato seeds(ts) gene have been developed by private seed sector. The seeds in these hybrids are very small and soft which can be consumed along with watermelon flesh.

Commercial melon cultivars are either monoecious or andromonoecious. Andromonoecious lines have only 20 to 35 percent natural out crossing. Hybrids are produced by hand pollination of emasculated perfect flowers on the female parent, using staminate flowers from the male parent. Gynoecious inbreds have been developed but fruits from pistillate flowers are oval to oblong rather than preferred round like those produced from perfect flowers. Gynoecy is controlled by several genes and is complex to work with. Five male sterile mutants(ms-1, ms-2, ms-3, ms-4, and ms-5) have been reported in melon. Male sterile mutant (ms-1) is being used for hybrid seed production programme at PAU Ludhiana.

Pumpkin and Gourds In Gourds and Pumpkins, hybrid seeds are produced by crossing two monoecious inbreds

13


by hand pollination. Gynoecious bitter gourd lines DABY 201 and DABY 270 have been isolated from land races from Eastern India. Hybrid seeds are produced by using gynoecious x monoecious inbreds in isolation without hand pollination.

Seed Extractions Care should be taken not to harvest fruit from vines having anthracnose, gummy stem blight and fruit blotch. Fermentation plus acid wash(1% HCL) can reduce chances of seed transmission of fruit blotch. Seeds extracted from tetraploid fruits for triploid seed production should be washed immediately without fermentation. In India, cucumber green mottle virus is a problem and is seed transmitted. Polymerace chain reaction(PCR) technique provides more efficient method to identify the presence of virus in a grow out test. In Pumpkin, Squash and Ash gourd the harvested fruits should be cured for 20-25 days allowing after ripening of the seeds. Commonly, seeds should be treated with a registered protectant such as captan and thiram before sealing them in to cans, bags and packets. Seeds should be stored in hermetically sealed containers at 6.5 percent moisture content.

Emerging Technologies in Cucurbit Production Production Researchers and plant breeders have put lot of efforts in developing high yielding cultivars, precision farming systems, optimum fertilizer application, disease management and transfer of technology to local farmers to maximize the crop production efficiency. Some of these technologies are mentioned below.

Advances in Nursery Management There is an emerging trend among cucurbit growers to raise seedling in plug trays kept under net houses rather than sowing seeds directly in open field. Transplants increase uniformity and earliness of the crop, protects seedlings from vector transmitted virus diseases and reduce seed cost. Transplants are grown in 1-2“ diameter plug trays using sterile cocopith growing medium available commercially. Usually cucurbit seedlings are grown in plug trays for 12 to 14 days followed by hardening of the seedlings for 2-3 days before

14

transplanting in the field. 200ppm nitrogenous solution is applied 3 times a week to the growing seedlings. Special care is required for raising seedlings of triploid watermelon. Before sowing the seeds, the growing medium is watered and allowed to dry for 24 hours. Triploid seeds are then planted at a depth of 0.75� in plug trays. The growing medium is kept moist (not wet) during seed germination. The temperature is maintained at 30-35o C with relative humidity ranging 90-100 percent. During first week in the plug trays, moisture of the growing medium is monitored very carefully. Once the seedlings are established, water can be adjusted to get sturdy plants. Triploid seedlings take longer time(25-28 days) for their establishment in the nursery.

Plastic Mulch and Fertigation Progressive farmers prefer growing cucurbits in polyethylene mulched beds with drip irrigation. Water and nutrient inputs are closely monitored and adjusted with drip irrigation. Drip irrigation provides plants with more uniform application of water, placing it near the root zone and also economise its use. It also minimizes the extent of foliage and fruit diseases. Further, it does not interfere with honey Bees and subsequent pollination and fertilization. Crucial stages when moisture stress is most harmful are 1) before seedling emergence, 2) after transplanting, 3) at early blossoming and last 10-12 days before harvest. Inadequate moisture at planting stage results in poor and uneven germination. Moisture stress at blossom results in poor fruit set, misshapen fruits, development of bitter fruits specifically in ridge gourd, moisture stress close to harvest greatly reduces fruit size. Excessive moisture at fruit ripening stage can cause white heart, low sugar and fruit bursting in watermelon. Black plastic mulch is used when temperature is low whereas, reflective mulch is used during summer keeping soil cool. It also repels the insects such as aphids and jassides. The plastic mulch helps control weeds, improves efficient use of water and fertilizer and reduces incidence of fruit rot. Around 40-80 percent higher marketable yield in various cucurbits has been obtained with mulch culture as compared to ground culture,


leading to better exploitation of the genetic yield potential.

Bee Pollination Cucurbits when grown in the open area are dependent upon honey Bees for pollination. For adequate fruit formation 8 1- Bee visits per flower are required. Usually 3 Bee hives per acre are recommended for optimum pollination. Pesticide application should be managed carefully since most pesticides are toxic to Bees. Misshapen fruit formation takes place due to lack of pollination, resulting in unevenness in seed formation. High temperature during fruit enlargement(40-45o C) often results in decreased fruit quality and yield. Flower and fruit abortion and sex expression changes from pistillate to staminate if the temperature rises above 38-48o C.

Protected Cultivation of Cucurbits Cucurbits like parthenocarpic cucumber, melons and icebox watermelon are grown under net houses or high tunnel plastic covered solar green houses for early season production.

Trellising of Cucurbits Most cucumber, melons and icebox watermelon are amenable to trellising. In cucumber, trellised fruits give more area(29.6%) per leaf than those grown on ground. Trellised Plants can have higher plant population density due to closure row spacing, prevent fruit loss due to soil borne diseases, facilitate easy pest management, uniform fruit shape and colour and increase harvesting efficiency and yield. Pruning in trellised plants is performed to achieve a balance between vine growth and fruit set. Pruning increases average fruit weight while reducing the number of unmarketable(cull)fruits. In melon, each vine produces a primary stem or leader with many secondary branches or laterals. A suitable pruning treatment for high tunnel muskmelon is to retain primary stem and one of the first laterals while pruning all additional laterals up to and including the 8th leaf node. All secondary branches after the 8th node can be left unpruned on the plant, to be easily trellised either by nylon net or by using string and vine

clips. Misshapen fruits that are not pollinated or pruned off. Melon and watermelon require hand pollination for fruit development whereas, parthenocarpic cucumber varieties do not require pollination under green house cultivation.

Cucurbit Harvesting, Storage and Handling For delivering a premium quality raw material it is essential that the fruits are picked at exactly the right stage, stored in correct manner and reach the retailers/manufacturers in peak condition. Harvesting There are several pointers indicating the maturity of watermelon fruits. A normal size (8-10 Kg) watermelon reaches its harvest maturity in 5-6 weeks after pollination depending upon the prevailing temperature. Usually the tendril nearest to the fruit dries naturally at fruit maturity. The rind colour of the ground spot changes from green to cream to deep yellow at fruit maturity. Sometimes a black mold is also seen developing on the yellow ground spot indicating fruit ripening. When striked with knuckles a high pitched tone indicates unripe fruit, deep pitched tone indicates ripe fruit and a dull sound or thud indicates over ripe watermelon fruit. Small watermelon(Icebox group) are hardest to test for ripeness. In Korea an internal quality prediction model by PLSR(partial least square regression) has been developed by analyzing the percussion sound of watermelon with overall prediction accuracy of 90%. The quality watermelon fruits are uniform, symmetrical in appearance, surface is waxy and bright, free from sun scald, scars and abrasions. The flesh is firm, crispy or granular in texture with TSS ranging from 11-14 percent. Sugar content in watermelon does not increase after harvest, however, flesh colour(red) develops after harvest if slightly immature fruit is picked. Most netted melons(climactric fruit) are harvested at half slip stages. The skin colour between the raised netting changes from green to yellow, gold or orange shades. The aroma industry prefers fruity and musky odour at the time of harvest. If picked at proper maturity, netted melon will continue to soften and become more aromatic after harvest. If

15


harvested pre-maturely by cutting the stem prior to abscission zone develops, may produce little aroma, low TSS and will not ripe properly. In non climactric melon varieties it is difficult to judge the fruit maturity. The rind colour does not change at maturity. Usually the fruit approaching ripe stage develops cracks, splits near the peduncle base. The leaf closest to the fruit will also begin to develop with pale colour. At the time of harvest, the picker should ensure sufficient maturity leading to completion of ripening, sufficient firmness(not soft) dry stem scar, no sun scaled, flesh and rind free from decay by fungus and bacteria, dry seed cavity(not leaking) free from surface aphid honeydew, scars, cracks, ground spot and other rind disorders. The flesh should be firm, crispy and sweet(TSS 12-16%). In slicing cucumbers and gourds the duration from pollination to harvest ranges from 14-18 days. In pickling cucumbers it ranges from 5-10 days. The fruit at harvest is fresh, crisp, well formed with immature soft seeds. The frequency of harvest is every other day or daily during warm months, 2-3 times/week during cooler weather or at higher elevation. In Pumpkin the fruit is peduncle is dry. In Ash harvested with the on set tender stage or after wax longer storage purpose.

harvested when the gourd, the fruits are of wax on the rind at is fully developed for

Storage and Handling For maximum shelf life, cucurbits in general should be pre cooled, after harvest to 10-15o C. The harvested fruits should be washed with chlorinated water at 150 ppm. The floating fruits in a single layer are held in chlorinated water no longer than five minutes. Watermelon can be stored up to 15 days at 15oC and up to 21 days at 7-10oC with RH 85-90 percent. Hydro cooling is most efficient. Below 7oC, chilling injury occurs in watermelon. During storage the carotenoid level in watermelon increases at 21oC as compared to fresh fruits. The gain in lycopene content is 11-40 percent and that of beta carotene 50-139 percent. Fruits stored at 5oC and 13oC shows very small change in carotenoids. Watermelon is very sensitive to ethylene and should not be stored along with melons. The optimum storage temperature ranges from 2-7oC at 95 percent

16

RH in melons for 5-14 days. During controlled atmosphere transit the recommended level of O2 is 3-5 percent for reduced respiration and ethylene production and that of CO2 is 10-20 percent for reduced loss of sugar and surface molds. Cucumbers can be stored for 10-14 days at 10-13oC with 90-95 percent RH. Chilling injury occurs when fruits are held below 10oC for 2 days. Cucumber is sensitive to ethylene and should not be stored along with melons. For flavour preservations, it is essential that the fruits are not chilled, but stored at temperature approaching 10oC, otherwise the flavour enzymes may start to become inactivated. The flavour of watermelon is said to intensify when stored at 10oC for around a week. In melons the ripe fruits are picked and processed immediately for flavour extraction. Cucurbits are subjected to a number of post harvest fruit rot such as black spot, phytophthora, cladesporium, rhizoctonia, erwinia and alternaria fruit rot which need to be attended efficiently.

Disorders in Cucurbits A number of physiological disorders occur in cucurbits due to various types of stresses. The misshapen fruit in watermelon, melons and gourds are due to lack of ovule fertilization, caused by poor Bee pollination or abortion of pollen or ovules due to high temperature stress. The blossom end rot in watermelon and melons is mainly due to calcium deficiency and excessive nitrogen fertilizer application. Excess nitrogen and irrigation during fruit ripening cause white heart in watermelon. Fruit cracking in watermelon and melon is due to irregular supply of water in developing fruits as well as due to calcium deficiency. Moisture stress during fruit expansion stage causes bitterness in ridge gourd. Deshaped fruits of gynoecious cucumber cultivars are due to excessive fruit load on the plant. All the above mentioned defects can be prevented by balanced fertilizer application, maintaining optimum moisture and temperature and Bee activities during fruit development stage.

Countering Disease Losses through Grafting and Protected Cultivation Majority of the foliar diseases and insect pests in cucurbits are well under control with the use of


pesticides. However, the soil borne diseases such as fusarium wilt, gummy stem blight, rhizoctonia root rot, bacterial fruit blotch and a host of aphids, whitefly and thrips transmitted virus diseases could not be controlled through pesticides. One of the unique way of combating majority of soil borne diseases is through the use of resistant bottle gourd and pumpkin(C.moschata x C.maxima) root stock for susceptible watermelon, melon and cucumber cultivars. Similarly majority of the virus diseases in watermelon, melon and cucumber can be prevented successfully by the use of low tunnel unwoven acryl net in the open filed for a period of 25-30 days after transplanting. For grafting, the watermelon and muskmelon seeds are sown in plug trays(kept in a net house) a week earlier than the bottle gourd or pumpkin root stock. The root stock bottle gourd seedlings are ready for side grafting 12 days after sowing. Each root stock seedling at this stage will have two cotyledonous leaves and a terminal growing bud. A slanting cut of 2cm long is given to the root stock removing the terminal bud and one of the cotyledonous leaves, retaining the second cotyledonous leaf intact. Another 2cm long slanting cut is given to the hypocotyle region of the scion seedling proceeding downwards and eliminating its radical portion. The cut portion of the root stock and scion are then joined together using a grafting clip (Fig 1). The grafted seedlings are kept under shade maintain 95-100 percent RH for 3 days. Afterwards the grafted seedlings are hardened in a net house for 2 more days and then transplanted in a previously irrigated field. Immediately after transplanting the grafted seedlings are covered with a low tunnel of acryl net for a period of 30 days (Fig 2). Care should be taken to control foliar diseases on growing plants periodically. Acryl net will protect the plants from vectors and vector transmitted virus diseases for a period of 30 days. At the time of flowering, the acryl net is removed from plants gradually during evening and covering the plants again next morning around 10am to prevent sunscald. The above procedure is repeated for 1 or 2 days more and thereafter the acryl net is removed permanently facilitating the Bee pollination activities. The grafted plants are thus

Fig 1.

protected from vector and virus diseases during the first 45 days. Thereafter the recommended plant protection measures are followed regularly. Virus multiplication in the older plants is slow. It takes roughly 23-25 days for the symptom expression and by that time melon or watermelon fruits would already be approaching maturity. At the time of fruit harvest only a few growing side

Fig. 2

branches or terminal portion of the main stem express virus symptoms. The plant thus escapes the major damage of the virus attack without any significant loss in yield and fruit quality. The cost of acryl net cover will be approximately Rs.6000 per acre. The net can be reused for two seasons. The net cost of the acryl net would thus be Rs.3000 per acre per season. Grafted watermelon plants are vigorous, produce heavier fruits with firmer and 30 percent more crispy flesh than the non grafted plants and have better shelf life. Sugar and lycopene content of the

17


grafted watermelon are usually equal to the non grafted plants. Grafted plants take 5-7 days longer to harvest and have slightly reduced aroma. The technology is ecofriendly and economical, turning 100 percent crop failure(due to wilt + virus diseases) to 100 percent success in watermelon, melon and cucumber cultivars.

Linking seed industry with Neutraceutical Industry Valuable fruit flesh rich in powerful antioxidants such as lycopene and other carotenoids as well as sugars are discarded by the growers engaged in seed production of cucurbits like watermelon, melon, pumpkin, squash, bitter gourd, cucumber etc. These commercially valued nutraceuticals provides several health benefits. In watermelon roughly 30,000 tons of fruit flesh is discarded annually during hybrid seed extraction programme. This cull material is a good source of lycopene, citrulline and sugar. After extracting lycopene and citrulline from cull material, the left over can be fermented to form ethanol, a bio feed. On an average a 10 Kg watermelon fruit will yield about 0.63 kg sugar from flesh and rind from which about 0.3 Kg of ethanol can be derived. The neutraceutical industry can get inexpensive material whereas, the farmers can get extra income from his seed production programme. Technology Transfer The driving force of the consumer’s demand, the needs of processing, neutraceutical and flavour industry along with the emerging super market sector, the demand for high grade raw material and premium quality products is growing day by day. A trained manpower is needed for the flow of precision technologies available for the production of quality produce. Establishment of grafted seedling production industry, use of ecofriendly production technology, training in precise harvesting packaging, transport and storage are essential in translating the research findings in to actual practices. Future challenges Available information on mapping of melon and cucumber genome will provide better

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understanding and identification of specific genes related to biotic and a-biotic stress tolerance, anti oxidants, flavours and sex expression in cucurbits. Recent research findings at U.C.Davis have shown that haploid plants can be easily generated through seeds by manipulating a single centromere-specific histone CENH3. The ease of generation of haploids through seeds by altering CENH 3 and converting haploids in to diploids allows large scale generation of double haploids. This will create instant homozygous lines bypassing several generations of inbreeding, thus greatly accelerating plant breeding work. It is time for the breeders and production researchers to focus their attention not only on yield improvement but also on stress tolerance and quality parameters required by the processing, neutraceutical and flavour industries as well as several health benefits provided by the cucurbits.

References John Boddingdon, Treatt USA Inc. – Processing for Natural flavors : Cucumber, Melon, Watermelon, www.jevuska.com/topic/processing Maruthachalam Ravi & Simon W.L. Cahri – Haploid Plants produced by centrometre – mediated genome elimination, Nature, 464, 615 – 618 (2010) Heterosis Breeding in Vegetable Crops / Rai, Nagendra & Rai, Mathura. ...www.saujanyabooks.com/ details. Lin Depei, The Genes of Melon and Its Application to Breeding, Journal of changejiang vegetables – 1999-01 T.C. Wehner – Over view of the genes of Watermelon; Cucurbitaceae 2008, proceedings of 9th EUCARPIA meeting on genetics and breeding of Cucurbitaceae. T.C.Wehner ; Heterosis in Vegetable crops , chapter in “The genetics and exploitation of Heterosis in crops” ( 1999) Trevor suslow : chlorination in the production of post harvest handling of fresh fruits and vegetables – http://postharvest.ucdavis.edu. The world’s healthiest foods – http://www.whfoods. com (2011) FAO Plant breeding news Journal - www.fao.org/ag/ AGP/AGPC/doc/services/ Crops for the future - www.cropsforthefuture.org/


Vegetable Seed Sector in India – Achievements and Challenges Dr. Sharan Angadi Head of Breeding, Asia Pacific, Nunhems India Pvt. Ltd, Bangalore

INTRODUCTION Getting a balanced, nutritive meal is still a distant dream for majority of the Indians. Vegetables play a major role in providing an affordable balanced diet. About 42 percent of Indians are strict-vegetarians and depend on vegetables for their daily requirement of nutrients, minerals and vitamins. Increasing demand for vegetables, driven by consumer awareness about their nutritive value, makes the job of developing better quality vegetable hybrids and providing the growers with good quality seeds in sufficient quantities, very challenging. India produces 130 million tonnes of vegetables from an area of 6.5 million hectares and ranks 2nd after China in vegetable production. The country produces approximately 15% of the world`s vegetables from about 2.8% of the total land area. Per capita availability of vegetables has doubled between 1983 and 2000. By 2020, India would need 136 g/ capita/ day and has to produce 127.2 million tonnes of vegetables (other than tubers) to meet the demand. Due to the significant surge in prices of vegetables and onions, food inflation touched double digits in December 2010. To stabilize the prices and to meet the growing demands of an ever increasing population, seed industry has to gear up and equip itself with novel approaches employing advanced technologies. Seed is a vital input for agriculture and India is one of the major seed markets in the world. Indian vegetable seed industry is growing by about 9.3 per cent annually compared to 5 per cent growth of global seed market. Size wise Indian vegetable seed market ranks 6th in the world valued between Rs 1450 and 1500 crores in 2010. It is expected to grow to Rs 2921 crore by 2019. The top 10 companies that control more than 80% of the vegetable seed market are Syngenta, Nunhems, Namdhari, Bejo Sheetal,

Mahyco, Seminis, Advanta, Vibha, US Agri and Ankur. While Syngenta, Nunhems, Bejo Sheetal, Seminis, Advanta and US Agri are multinational companies, the rest are leading Indian companies. Mahyco has a JV with Monsanto. Syngenta, Nunhems, Monsanto, Mahyco and Namdhari are the market leaders.

Growth of Vegetable Seed Industry In the late 1970’s and early 1980’s, when food, commercial and field crop seed industry was in the mode of enjoying positive changes in government policies, Indian vegetable seed industry started selling Open Pollinated Varieties (OPVs), bred by State Agriculture Universities (SAUs) and public sector research institutes. Public institutes like IIHR, IARI and SAUs have contributed immensely to the seed sector by releasing many OPVs and providing breeders’ seed to the private seed companies. The varieties that were popular among the private companies and farmers were Pusa Jwala, Pusa sadabahar (IARI), Jayanti (PDKV), LCA-235, G-3, G4 (ANGRAU, Lam), Phule Jyoti (MPKV) and PC-1 (GBPUAT) in Chillies, Madhuras (IARI), Hara Madhu and P. Sunahari (PAU) in Muskmelon, Pusa PPL long (IARI) in Eggplant. Arka anamika (IIHR) and Parbhani Kranti (MAU) in Okra, Arka Manik (IIHR) in watermelon, Arka Komal (IIHR) in beans, Arkel in Peas, N-53 in Onion, Pusa Navbahar (IARI) in clusterbean, Himangi in cucumber, Pusa Ruby, S-21 (IARI) and PKM-1 (IIHR) in Tomato, Arka Suman (IIHR), Pusa barsati and Pusa komal (IARI) in Cowpea and Arka Komal (IIHR) in French bean. These varieties provided a much needed fillip to the indigenous private seed companies and helped to broaden their base and invest in R&D, initially. These varieties with wider adaptability, good yield, quality and customer satisfaction,

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became elite sources to begin breeding programs in the private sector. Open Pollinated Varieties could not provide much mileage in terms of profitability. Soon private companies switched their research to develop hybrids to meet repeated demands of the farmers. High productivity, earliness, superior quality, uniform produce and resistances to biotic and abiotic stresses were the major advantages these hybrids offered over OPVs. This change brought many land mark hybrids to the market. Some of the hybrids have ruled the market for long and some are still in great demand. Among the companies present in India, Seminis and Nunhems are the fully owned subsidiaries of Monsanto and Bayer Crop Science, respectively. Monsanto has a 26% share in Mahyco. Golden Seeds and Unicorn are subsidiaries of Advanta Seeds (now UPL) and Bejo Sheetal Seeds is a joint venture with Bejo Zaden BV, Holland. US Agri Seeds is a US based company operating in several countries. East West Seeds India is a 100% subsidiary of East West International, a Thailand based company.

Impact of Government Policies From 1960 to 1980 all R&D activities were under universities or government institutes. There were

restrictions on exchange of germplasm and foreign investment in the seed sector. Though in 1970s private seed companies came into picture, nothing significant happened till 1987 when government permitted MRTP/ FERA companies to invest in seed sector. “New Seed Policy” of 1988 and change in industrial policy of government in 1991 that identified seed production as high priority industry, had a positive impact on seed industry and its development. The shift in policies liberalized the import of vegetable and flower seeds and also encouraged MNCs to invest in seed business. During this period more than 30 companies started their own research in India. Consequently, for providing a system of protecting plant varieties, the rights of the farmers and plant breeders ‘The protection of plant varieties and farmers act, 2001’ was passed by the parliament. Positive environment created by government policies, attracted more investment in R&D by private players. This is evident from the fact that from 1984 to 1995, 50% to 60% of seed requirement was met by the private sector and in 2010 it was estimated that 80 percent of turnover in seed business came from private companies. One third of the companies in India have collaboration with a technological or foreign company investment. About 40 private companies have their R&D centers recognized by Department

Table 1. Hybrids commercialized by private seed companies in vegetables

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Sno. 1

Crop Chilli

2

Tomato

3 4

Melons Watermelon

5

Bitter gourd

6 7 8 9 9 10

Bottle gourd Ridge gourd Brinjal Okra Cucumber Sweet pepper

Hybrids Tejaswini (Mahyco), INDAM-5 (IAHS), Ujala (Nunhems), Devnoor Deluxe (Nunhems) Kranti (Nunhems), Wonder Hot (Seminis), Sitara (Seminis) Rupali (IAHS), Rashmi (IAHS), Avinash-2 (Syngenta), Abhinav (Syngenta), Naveen-2000 (Syngenta), NS-2535 (Namdhari), Utsav (namdhari) NS-815 (Namdhari), Laxmi (Nunhems), NS- 7455(Namdhari), Sona (IAHS), Kesar (Seminis) Patanagara (IAHS), MHW-6 (Mahyco), NS-295 (Namdhari), Kiran (Known-you), Madhubala (Nunhems), Madhuri (Nunhems) Vignesh (Seminis), Vishesh (Seminis), Chaman (Nunhems), Prachi (East west), Paali (East west) Warad (Mahyco) NS-3 (Namdhari) Utkarsha (Ankur), Ajay (Ankur), Mohini (Mahyco) M-10 (Mahyco), O-152 (Syngenta), Sonal (Nunhems), Awantika (Bioseed) Shivneri (Seminis), Malini (Seminis) Indra (Syngenta), Bharat (IAHS), Mahabharat (IAHS)


of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR). Apart from government policies, abundant cheap labour, skilled manpower, well established seed production centers and varied climatic conditions required to produce temperate and tropical crops make India indispensable for global seed business houses.

Consolidation and Investment Areas of Research Indian government is focusing on vegetable crops and vegetable seed industry investing in biotechnology and related researches to distinguish their products and to hasten the breeding cycle, that requires lot of investment. To keep pace with the growing business in India, small and medium sized companies are consolidating their businesses by mergers or by collaborations or are being acquired by MNCs. Many Indian and foreign MNCs like Bayer Crop Science, Monsanto, Nunhems, Syngenta, Shriram Bioseed Genetics, Mahyco, Indo-American, UPL, Namdhari, JK seeds have strong presence in Indian seed business. Presence of Indian and MNCs in the market is creating competition to provide good quality products at competitive prices. Farmer the end user of advanced technology is benefitting very much. The global companies that are investing 15-30 per cent of their turnover into R&D at global level are investing from 10 to 25 percent of their turnover in R&D activities in India and are in expansion mode. In future their investments can grow. Area under research and number of qualified technical professionals working with private seed companies, have increased many folds. Foreign

vegetable seed companies with global presence are looking to India for further growth. Companies like Rijk- Zwaan, Sakata, Tokita, Limagrain are investing heavily in recent years.

Biotechnology and Research Seed companies are investing more and more in application of biotechnological tools in crop improvement. To obtain speedier results (products) by complementing conventional breeding with anther culture, markers assisted selection (MAS) and molecular breeding. These tools also help to create more genetic variability through tissue culture, embryo rescue (of wide crosses) and in-vitro selection for abiotic stresses besides helping in micro propagation of elite germplasm. Novel genotypes evolved by recombinant DNA technology used for engineering plants for disease, pest and herbicides resistances are in various stages of approval from regulatory agencies in India. All these means are used to overcome natural barriers of crossing or speeding up breeding cycles and are very popular among commercial breeders. Apart from these technologies companies are investing heavily in resistance breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses with different plant and fruit types (segment) for the changing market needs. A notable success of such efforts is ToLCV resistance in tomato. Tomato hybrids with this resistance fetch premium price. Hybrids with different types of fruit quality being sold in India are mainly saladette type and sour or desi type. Keeping this as a base, companies are breeding for plant types, disease and pest resistances to acquire major market share.

Table 2. Major biotic stresses affecting vegetables. Sno. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Crop Pepper (Hot & Sweet) Tomato Melons Watermelon Gourds Eggplant Okra Cucumber

Biotic stresses Powdery mildew, Anthracnose, viruses, BW, thrips, mites Tospo virus, Tylcv, BW, Early and late blight, fruit borer Fusarium wilt, virus complexes Tospo virus, Fusarium Gummy stem blight, downy mildew, powdery mildew, fruit fly, CMV Fruit and Shoot borer, little leaf, BW YVMV, pod borer Cmv,

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In Hot pepper, fresh and dry are the major types. These are divided into several segments based on pungency and (fresh and dry) fruit colours. A total of 70 tonnes of hybrid hot pepper seed sold, accounts for 12 of total hot pepper seed sold in India. Many companies are using Cytoplasmic Genetic Male Sterility (CGMS) system in their hybrids to economise on seed production cost, protect their parental line and ensure uniformity of the produce. Resistances to anthracnose, powdery mildew, bacterial wilt and viruses are the focus. In Okra a popular Indian vegetable, crop breeding for resistance to YVMV is a major target. Hybrids with plant type suitable for close planting, internodes are in great demand. Many companies like Nunhems, Shriram- Bioseed and Syngenta have commercialized very good YVMV resistant hybrids. Efforts are in progress to incorporate Enation Leaf Curl Virus (ELCV) resistance and develop hybrids with combined resistances to YVMV and ELCV. Though, melons are grown all over India. Haryana, Rajasthan and Punjab account for the major market share of hybrids. Good yield, better fruit quality and shipping ability of fruits are important. Netted types are more popular but Galia and honey dew types are also in demand. Resistance breeding is targeting Fusarium wilt and virus complexes in this crop. In watermelon, 40 tonnes of seed is being sold in India. Market prefers large size (>12 Kg), high TSS (13%), crisp flesh, good transportability and oblong shape. Jubilee type is the largest selling segment in India followed by sugar baby and

Charleston types. Ice-box type weighing 2.5- 3.0 kg, is a craze among small families. Resistance to Fusarium wilt and viruses are essential. Early, mid late and late types ensure year round availability of cauliflowers. Consistency in curd colour and black rot resistance are major requirements. Bittergourd, Bottlegourd, Ridgegourd and Spongegourd are gaining in importance for their nutraceutical values. Many companies have very strong research programmes in all of these. Fruit shapes, size and presence of spines on fruits, mark different market segments in gourds. Hybrids are early, higher yielding and more uniform than OPs and are gaining in popularity. In Asiatic type slicer cucumber 15-20 cm length is preferred. Besides these, OPV seeds of Onions, vegetable legumes like Cowpea, Dolichos bean, French bean, Clusterbean and leafy vegetables like Coriander, Fenugreek, Amaranthus and Spinach are being sold by small players. Hybrid share of revenue and area in vegetable crops is increasing rapidly because of better prices to farmers, adaptability, disease/ pest resistance, uniformity and quality of produce, aggressive marketing and sales and better margins to dealers and distributors. In future this trend will grow.

Vegetable Hybrid Seed Production India is one of the largest vegetable seed producers in Asia and ranks among top three countries in Asia along with China and Thailand.

Table 3. Estimaties of seed production for hybrid vegetable seed crops 2009-10 Crop

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Karnataka

Maharashtra

Gujarat

All India

 

Volume (Kg)

% of All India

Volume (Kg)

% of All India

Volume (Kg)

% of All India

Volume (Kg)

Okra

325,000

29.30

400,000

33.30

320,000

26.70

1,200,000

Tomato

128,000

97.00

3,200

2.40

-

-

132,000

Hot pepper

144,000

68.60

60,800

28.90

-

-

210,000

Sweet pepper

12,800

42.70

16,400

53.30

-

-

30,000

Brinjal

60000

46.10

66,000

50.80

-

-

130,000


Table 4. Estimation of area under hybrid vegetable seed production in India 2009-10

Karnataka

Maharashtra

Gujarat

All India

Sweet pepper

160

205

-

365

Brinjal

500

550

-

1050

Crop   Okra Tomato Hot pepper

Acre 2200 1600 900

Karnataka produces 97 percent of tomato, 68 percent of hot pepper, 48 percent of sweet pepper, 46 percent of eggplant and 29 percent of okra hybrid seed (Table 3), while Maharashtra contributes sweet pepper (53.3%), Eggplant (50.8%) and Okra (33.3%) hybrid seeds.

Impact of Hybrid Seeds on Farmers Adaption of vegetable hybrids developed and marketed by private seed industry made a great impact on farmers. Increase in yields, quality of produce and productivity changed lives of the farmers by increasing their income levels. Area covered by private research hybrids is increasing day by day. It clearly indicates that farmers are happy with the hybrids. Though aggressive marketing is playing a major role in increasing the area of private bred hybrids, repeated demand of specific hybrids, in every vegetable crop by farmers clearly shows that products are meeting the expectations of the growers. Though, an independent survey is required to quantify the impact of private bred hybrids on farmers, we can firmly say that, apart from yields, farmers are getting better quality produce (Devanoor Deluxe hot pepper hybrid with 180 ASTA colour value), uniformity of produce (Cucumber, watermelon, muskmelon) which fetch them premium price in the market. Moreover, some of the commercialized vegetable hybrids are disease pest resistant (ToLCV in tomato, PM in hot pepper) and liked by farmers despite the high seed price.

Areas of Improvement Government has done a lot of positive policy changes in pre and post seed act era, still there are many aspects that need improvement.

Acre 2500 40 380

Acre 2000 -

Acre 6700 1640 1280

Indian farmers have no easy access to modern agriculture technologies and media presence is inadequate in rural areas to make farmers aware of new things happening in SAUs, public and private institutes. Government agencies should take up agricultural extension programmes on priority to educate farmers on new agricultural techniques, technology and application in their farms. There is a lot of improvement in rural infrastructure but lots more needs to be done, good rural infrastructure not only changed lives of people there but also makes them available to the world as a customer of new services, technology or increase two-way connectivity. Besides roads, cold storages, electricity supply, agro processing centers, market yards community centers and even broadband connectivity in villages should improve to bring “Bharat” nearer to “India”. In vegetable crops, public private partnerships have not improved much in the recent past. Any technology, in the form of scientific protocol, hybrids, implements, instrument/ machine, pathological or entomological services can be transferred to private firms by mutual agreements, licensing, royalties, exclusive/ non-exclusive rights. In vegetable crop research, AVRDC and USDA are more accessible for germplasm than our own research institutes. Private firms can fully fund any vegetable improvement project as they are doing in AVRDC or for field crops in IRRI and ICRISAT. Similar models can be adapted for Indian National Institutes. Further, this fund from public private collaboration can be invested in Indian vegetable institutes. IIHR has already initiated few of the projects of interest for private sector and has plans to improve public-private partnerships.

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Import of seeds through plant protection and quarantine offices continue to be cumbersome due to procedures and delays, even if it is accompanied by import permit and phytosanitary certificate or relevant other documents. NBPGR is authorized to issue permit for import of germplasm into India, but , retains substantial amounts of germ plasm which is a direct loss to the importer and deterrent to the efforts to import valuable seed. Because of this, private companies do not have easy access to germplasm of public sector institutes and if they import it from international institutes, they have to share it with NBPGR. Process of clearance of imported material should be simplified. To address concerns about the lack of effective IPR in the seed industry, the government of India enacted legislation in August 2001 called “Plant Variety Protection and Farmers Rights Act, 2001�.Only one vegetable crop Okra is open for registration as of now and it is expect to open soon for other vegetables. Plant authority should hasten the formalities and procedures, so that other vegetable crops would be registered at the earliest. This is very important as this will curtail infringement of IPR or more specifically parental lines or germplasm. Clarity on the implementation of the act by plant authority is needed. India is a vibrant economy and is growing at the rate of 9.2 percent. Agriculture contributes 18.5 percent to GDP (ADB, 2007) and employs 60 percent of the population. Success of agriculture is necessary for overall development of the country of 1.14 billion people. Private seed industry is developing and contributing substantially to agriculture after implementation of positive changes in policies by the government. Indian seed industry is growing at a rapid phase and can produce and sell hybrids not only in India but could reach markets of APAC and Middle East. Public and private partnership is essential to do basic research and to take the results to the farmers’ fields. Farmers in India are enjoying competitive advantage among vegetable seed companies that provide them with superior products. R&D activities targeted towards higher yield, better quality and resistances to biotic and abiotic

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stresses have resulted in increased share of hybrids in almost all vegetable crops and would increase in future. Consumer choice drives the market demand for any particular type/ shape/ size (segment) of vegetable fruit or produce, R&D divisions should be ready to cope with ever changing dynamics in vegetable crops. Multiple Disease Resistances in products will gain ground as they provide advantages against different diseases in one hybrid. Hybrids producing fruits with good shipping ability, quality and size suitable for small families (Watermelon, Melon) and super markets and suitable for off season (Hot pepper, cucumber, Okra) are in demand. Efficient seed production by decreasing or optimizing seed production costs will be important. Upgrading seed-quality in terms of germination, vigour and genetic purity is already being addressed by different seed companies by seed enhancement, priming, pelleting and other procedures to meet international quality standards. This will be an important factor for farmers to make a choice from among the available array of products. Success of private seed industry will depend on how it responds to the demands of growers and farmers in terms of superior products having better yield, wider adaptability and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Efficient use of resources blended with appropriate technology will play a vital role for its further development. Indian seed industry has contributed a lot in development of India and has immense potential to do so in future too.

Thrust areas in Vegetable research l

Development of varieties and hybrids for specific market types eg. In chillies green/ dry/ oleoresin/colour/pungency

l

Standardization of artificial screening techniques for stresses for further development of varieties/ hybrids resistant / tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses

l

Collection, maintenance and preservation of vegetable germplasm

l

Exploitation of heterosis for higher yield, earliness and better quality using stable male sterile systems


l

Diversification of CMS sources and their utilization for developing commercial hybrids

l

Use of biotechnological tools such as MAS along with doubled haploidy techniques for speedier development of hybrids.

l

Seed replacement with improved varieties and hybrids

l

Management of aflatoxin/toxin contents to promote export in international markets.

l

Interspecific and intergenetic hybridization to exploit hybrid vigor, novel resistance for biotic and abiotic stress resistance.

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Hybrid Seed Production in Brinjal A.S. Sidhu Director, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake Post, Bangalore-560089 Email: iihrdirector@gmail.com

Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) is an important vegetable crop in India and other parts of the world. It is a native of India. Its indigenous germplasm have a great genetic variation with regard to fruit colour, fruit shape, vegetative growth and spininess.

preferred for brinjal cultivation. Soil should be deep, fertile and well drained. The soil should not have more than 5.5 to 6.6 pH for good growth and development. Seed production plot should not have a seed crop of brinjal in previous season so that there are no volunteer plants.

In brinjal many pure-line cultivars have been developed. Recently the presence of heterosis has been reported and exploited in many breeding programmes by developing hybrid cultivars. Brinjal hybrids yield 40 to 50 per cent higher than the parents and have very attractive colour. Hybrid seed is produced through hand emasculation and hand pollination. Easy cross-pollination and large number of seeds per crossing have helped commercial hybrid seed production. This accompanied by large heterosis and low seed seed rate for sowing have enabled the cultivation of hybrid cultivars.

Seed Rate and Seed treatment: The seed rate is 200 g per acre. The seed is sown in the ratio of 4:1 for female and male parents. Thus, the seed rate of femal parent is 160 g and that of male parent, 40 g per acre. It should be treated with Thiram or Captan at the rate of 3 g per kg of seed before sowing.

System of Pollination Control Brinjal is classified as an often cross-pollinated crop. Cross-pollination is reported to be up to about 7 per cent. The flowers are hermaphrodite. There are four types of flowers depending on the length of style, namely (i) long-styled with big size ovary, (ii) medium-styled with medium size ovary, (iii) pseudo-short style with rudimentary ovary and (iv) true short-styled with very rudimentary ovary. Flowers with long and medium styles produce fruits, whereas those with pseudo-short and trueshort styles do not set fruits. Howeve3r, chances of cross-pollination are more in long-styled flowers. Brinjal bears flowers in clusters. Different types of flowers are present in the same cluster. For crossing, only long and medium-styled flowers are selected. Hand emasculation and hand pollination is practiced for hybrid seed production.

Agronomic Practices Selection of field: Silt loam and loam soils are

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Season and Time of Sowing: Brinjal can be cultivated during autumn-winter season and spring-summer season. Autumn-winter crop is sown in June and seedlings are transplanted in July. Spring-summer crop is sown in March and the seedlings are transplanted in April. For hybrid seed production, autumn-winter crop is more suitable as seed setting percentage is higher in this season. Nursery raising: The land for nursery raising should be prepared by ploughing or digging thoroughly. An area of 25 m2 is required to raise nursery for 1 acre. Mix 5 q of well rotton FYM with the soil and prepare 1.5-m wide and 20-cm raised beds. Irrigate the beds at least 10 days before sowing. When in water condition, drench the beds with 1 to 1.5 per cent Formalin by applying 4 to 5 liters of solution per m2. Thereafter, the beds should be covered with plastic sheet-tarpaulin for 24 hr. After Formalin application, the soil in the beds should be thoroughly turned once a day for 4 to 5 days to eliminate its adverse effects on germinating seeds. Seeds are sown 1 to 2 cm deep in rows, 5-cm spaced apart. The nursery should be drenched with 4 per cent Captan or Thiram after 5 to 7 days of germination. The irrigation should be withheld 4 to 5 days before transplanting to harden the seedlings.


Transplanting: The seedlings become ready for transplanting in 4 to 6 weeks. Transplanting should preferably be done in the evening for proper establishment of the seedling. Row-to-row spacing is kept at 75 cm and plant-to-plant at 60 cm. Fertilizer application: About 10 tonnes of FYM should be incorporated in the soil thoroughly before transplanting. Apply 25 kg N (55 kg of Urea), 25 kg P2O5 (155 kg of Single Superphosphate) and 12 kg K2O (20 kg of Mutriate of Potash) per acre at transplanting time. Apply another dose of 25 kg N (55 kg of Urea) per acre after 1 month. Weed Control: Stomp 750 ml per acre should be applied before transplanting and should be followed by one hoeing after 1 month. Irrigation: First irrigation should be given 2 days before transplanting and the second, immediately after transplanting. The crop should be irrigated as per the need there-after. During hot months the interval of irrigation should be 4 to 5 days. In light soils, frequent irrigation should be preferred. During rainy season water should not be allowed to stand in the field for more than 1 day. Harvesting: Brinjal fruits are ready for seed harvest when at least one third part of the fruit from the stem-end turns yellow. If the harvesting of mature fruits is delayed, rotting starts at the blossom end of the fruits touching the ground. In addition, rodents damage the over-mature fruits.

Plant Protection Diseases and their control Phomopsis blight and fruit rot (phomopsis vexans): Straw brown to deep brown spots develop on the leaves and fruits. The infected areas of the fruit rot. To control this disease, select seed from healthy fruit, treat the seed before sowing with Thiram or Captan at the rate of 3 g per kg of seed and spray Ziram or Zineb at the rate of 200 g in 100 liters of water at weekly intervals after transplanting. Little leaf curl (Mycoplasma spp.) Affected plants have small leaves and the plants give rosette appearance. Plant fail to produce flower and fruits. The virus is transmitted by jassid and the attack is more severe in the rotten crop. The control the

disease jassid should be kept under control by spraying malathion at the rate of 250 ml in 100 litre water per acre. Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.): The incidence of nematode results in yellowing of leaves, patchy growth of plants and formation of knot like swelling in roots. To control nematodes, dip the roots of the seedlings in 10 ml of Rogor 30 EC (dimethoate) in 10 liters of water for 6 hr before transplanting.

Insect-Pests and their control Brinjal fruit and shoot borer (Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee)): It is a serious pest. The shoots infested with borer droop downwards and dry up. The infested fruits have a number of holes and are damaged. To control the incidence of this borer, any of the following insecticides may be used. The insecticides and their doses are 800 ml of Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan), 800 g of Sevin 50 WP/Hexavin, 50 WP (carbaryl), 100 ml of Sumicidin 20 EC (fenvalerate), 40 ml of Ambush 50 EC (permethrin), 200 ml of Ripcord 10 EC (cypermethrin), 160 ml of Decis 2.8 EC (deltamethrin), 800 ml of Ekalux 25 EC (quinalphos), 500 ml of Monocil 36 EC (monocrotophos) and 500 ml of Hostathion 40 EC (triazophos). Three to four sprays may be applied at 14 day interval using 100 to 125 litres of water per acre. The insecticides of the same group should not be used repeatedly to avoid the development of pesticide resistance and appearance of secondary pests. Ratoon brinjal crop should not be raised to minimize the incidence of this pest. In case of incidence, all infested fruits should be picked up and destroyed. Jassid (Amrasca biguttula (Ishida)): A large number of greenish adults and nymphs of jassid may be seen on the plants which become pale and finally bronze. Hadda beetle (Epilachna duodecastigma (Fabricius)): Hadda beetle feeds on the leaves and may cause of extensive damage. To control jassid and hadda beetle 250 ml of Malathion 50 EC may be sprayed at 10 day interval as soon as the pests appear.

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Seed Production Technology Field Inspection: A minimum three field inspections are required. First inspection is conducted before flowering. Plants not conforming to varietal purity should be rogued out. Second inspection is conducted at flowering stage. Individual plants are screened for flower colour, leaf and stem colour, absence or presence of spines on the leaves, plant height and plant spread. Third inspection is undertaken when fruits are at the edible stage. The fruits of individual plants are inspected for their size, colour and shape in addition to morphological characters of the plants.

Field Standards Isolation: A minimum isolation of 100 m is required for certified seed production. Specific requirements: Factor

Maximum permitted for Certified seed (%) Off-type plants 0.2 Plants affected by seed 0.5 borne diseases Plants affected by little leaf 0.2 virus

Crossing Procedure Emasculation: Brinjal bears hermaphrodite flowers. The flowers of female parent are prepared for cross-pollination for hybrid seed production by removing the male organs or anthers. The operation is called emasculation. Long and medium-styled flowers are taken for emasculation. Selection of flower buds for emasculation is the primary step. The flower buds where the tip of corolla have not been separated can be selected for emasculation. Emasculation can be done at any time in the day but is convenient and effective to perform it in the evening as pollination is done following morning. Soon after emasculation the flower is protected by a selfing bag or cotton pad.

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Pollen Collection: The flowers of male parent which are to be used for pollination, are bagged prior to opening in order to avoid contamination. Either pollen is collected from flower of male parent or the flower is used as such for pollination for which another dehiscence is essential, i.e. opening of anthers. Anther dehiscence depends upon light, temperature and humidity. There is poor anther dehiscence on cloudy days. Pollen can be collected by putting the anthers in a vial along with small iron balls for giving a beating affect. Cross Pollination: The flowers of female parent emasculated in the evening are cross-pollinated in following morning before 11 a.m. Pollen grains are taken in the petridish or on the thumbnail and then transferred to the stigma of female flower with help of brush, needle or match stick. After pollination, selfing bag or cotton pod is placed over the flower. The pollinated flower should be left with identification mark either by chipping of calyx or by tying a jewel tag. Before pollination, stigmatic surface of the female flower should be checked for the presence of pollen. The colour of pollen grain is white whereas that of stigma is green. Seed Extraction: Seed is extracted manually or mechanically. The mature fruits are cut and crushed into small pieces. The seed along with the fruit flesh is scooped out with hand. The seed is washed free of fruit material by washing with hands in a tub containing water. The seed being heavier settles at the bottom the flesh floats over the water surface. The floating pulp is decanted off. Clean seed can be obtained by repeated washings by water. Axial Flow Vegetable Seed Extraction Machine can also be used for seed extraction. Seed drying and storage: Seed should be dried immediately after washing. It should be spread in thin layer on cloth or in trays under sun for drying. Seed drying on pucca floor under scorching heat should be avoided. Seed extraction should be done in the morning so that the seed is sufficiently dried during the day. By doing so, the possibility of spourting during night is avoided. Seed can be


stored for 2 to 3 years under cool, dry and well ventilated conditions. Seed Standards: Factor

Pure seed (minimum) Inert matter (maximum) Other crop seeds (maximum) Weed Seeds (maximum) Germination (minimum) Moisture (maximum) Moisture for vapour proof containers (maximum)

Seed standards For certified seed 98% 2% None None 70% 8%) 6%

Efficacy of seed production: One person can emasculate 40 flowers and can pollinate 30

flowers per hour. Single fruit of brinjal yield 4 to 5 g of seed. Seed rate of brinjal hybrid is 200 g per acre. Thus one person can produce seed for 1 acre in 1 day. Hence, manual hybrid seed production in brinjal is a viable exercise.

Maintenance of Parents High quality of seed of parents is a critical factor in hybrid seed production. Brinjal being a often cross-pollinated crop, the seed of parents can be produced by isolating the seed production plots by 200 m. The seed should be procured from an authentic source. The seed production plots should be vigorously inspected and offtype plants should be removed as discussed earlier. The agronomic practices for the seed production of parents are the same as those for hybrids.

29


Vegetable Hybrid Seed Production David Tay1

Abstract The trend of F1 hybrid seed usage in vegetable is increasing globally in term of species, cultivars and volume of seed used. F1 hybrid vegetable seed can be categorized into hand-pollinated and gene-control pollinated species. The genecontrolled species can be due to the effect of self-incompatibility genes or male sterility genes. The vegetables with both F1 hybrid and openpollinated cultivars were summarized to show their trend of adoption in the world and their F1 seed production method. The development of the handpollinated F1 vegetable seed production industry in the world was summarized and the contract production system described. A case study using tomato hybrid seed production in Taiwan was exemplified in details to illustrate the production steps from selection of site to actual growing of the male and female parents, emasculation of the male flowers and pollination, seed extraction and drying, and constraints facing the industry.

Introduction Vegetables consist of many species and cultivars, and can be classified in many ways such as by botanical family and species, cultivar group, the edible part, climatic region, user ethnic origin, life cycle and nutrition. In seed production they can be categorized into open-pollinated, F1 hybrid and clonally propagated cultivars. The trend of F1 hybrid seed usage in vegetable crops is increasing globally in term of species, cultivars and volume of seed used. Most of the seed of our main vegetables including tomato, sweet pepper, eggplant, cucumber, squash, pumpkin, melon, watermelon, brassicas such as cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Chinese cabbage and radish, and onion in developed countries are of F1 hybrid cultivars. The popularity of F1 hybrid cultivars is due to their vigor, uniformity, disease resistance, Director, Ornamental Plant Germplasm Center, 670 Tharp Street, Columbus, OH 43210-1086, U.S.A., tay.9@osu.edu

1

30

stress tolerance and good horticultural traits including earliness and long shelf-life expressed and therefore giving consistent stable high yield. From the breeder point of view, it is a fast and convenient way to combine desirable characters of a vegetable together, for example fruit size and color, plant type and disease resistance, and as a mean to control intellectual property rights through control and protection of the parental lines by the breeders. The latter was the main reason Japanese seed companies applied to protect their cultivars in the 1940s and 1950s. In F1 hybrid vegetable seed production, vegetables can be divided into two groups: the hand-pollinated and the gene-control pollinated species. The genetic control system can be due to the self-incompatible system where pollen of the same plant or flower cannot pollinate itself or to the male-sterile genetic system where a female plant has no male organ, deformed organ or no functional pollen to pollinate itself. When no such genetic control system is found or when it is not introduced into inbred parental lines, tedious hand-emasculation and pollination have to be used to produce F1 seed. In both the gene-control system and hand-pollinated species sufficient field or female flower isolation have to be maintained to obtain high seed genetic purity. Table 1 gives examples of these two groups of species and the trend of F1 hybrid cultivars adoption in the world.

The gene-control pollination F1 vegetable seed production system The vegetables with highly developed selfincompatibility system are those in the family Crucifereae. They include Brassica oleracea (Brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kohlrabi and kale), Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage, turnip and a range of Asian leafy brassicas) and Raphanus sativus (Table 1). The genetics of the self-incompatibility system in the cruciferous crops are so well developed that they


consist of a series of genes (loci) and alleles. Vegetable breeders have been very successful in using them for decades in F1 hybrid seed breeding. Hybrid seed production of sweet corn, carrot and onion are based on male sterility gene system and the genetic control can be either just clear-cut male sterility genes or the interaction of a male sterility gene with a cytoplasmic factor. In recent years, brassica breeders are trying to use male sterility system instead of the standard incompatibility system. Some of the difficulties encountered were the reduction in nectary gland size and decreasing function of these glands. Plants with male-sterility gene were therefore

unable to attract insect pollinators which are required for pollination. The progenies of the male sterility progeny in Brassica juncea also gave rise to young leaf yellowing symptom.

The hand-pollinated F1 vegetable seed production system Most of the seed of F1 hybrid vegetables are produced by hand-pollination as indicated in Table 1. The method in principle is simple as it involves the manual emasculation of the pollenproducing organ, the anthers, followed by hand pollination with pollen of the male parent and then

Table 1. Vegetables with both F1 hybrid and open-pollinated cultivars showing their adoption trends in the world and their F1 seed production method. Vegetables Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) Beet and chard (Beta vulgaris) Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) Carrot (Daucus carota) Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) Celery (Apium graveolens) Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) Chinese mustard (Brassica juncea) Cucumber (Cucumis sativa) Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Gourd (Benincasa hispida) Leek (Allium porrum) Luffa (Luffa angulata & L. cylindrica) Melons (Cucumis melo) Okra (Abelmoschus esculantus) Onion (Allium cepa) Pakchoi and Petsai (Brassica rapa) Peppers (Capsicum annuum) Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Radish (Raphanus sativus) Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Sweet corn (Zea mays) Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) Turnip (Brassica rapa) Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo)

F1* Mainly (di) Increasingly (di) Increasingly (h) Mainly (si) Mainly (si) Increasingly (cms) Mainly (si) New (gms) Mainly (si) Increasingly (si) Mainly (h) Mainly (h) Increasingly (h) New (cms) Increasingly (h) Mainly (h) Increasingly (h) Mainly (cms) Increasingly (si) Mainly (h) Increasingly (h) Mainly (si) Mainly (di) Mainly (h & cms) Mainly (h) Mainly (si) Mainly (h) Mainly (h)

OP* Old cultivars Constant Local cultivars Local cultivars Local cultivars Local cultivars Local cultivars Mainly Local cultivars Local cultivars Local cultivars Local cultivars Local cultivars Mainly Local cultivars Local cultivars Local cultivars Old cultivars Old cultivars Local cultivars Old cultivars Old cultivars Local cultivars Local cultivars Old cultivars Old cultivars Old cultivars Old cultivars

* F1 – F1 cultivars; OP – open-pollinated cultivars; (di) – dioecious; (h) – hand-pollinated hybrids; (cms) – cytoplasmic male-sterile system hybrids; (gms) – genetic male-sterile system hybrids; and (si) – self-incompatibility system hybrids.

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preventing other pollen from contaminating the pollinated flowers. However, it is labor intensive and requires a team of skillful growers and many dedicate pollinators with good eye-sight, gentle hands, a lot of patience and commitment, and able to follow instructions accurately. The main task of a seed producer is the management of the production system and business. To be cost-effective, this system only works in species where a single pollination of a female flower will produce many seeds. This is the case for all the solanaceous crops and cucurbits. On the contrary, in legumes the small number of seeds per flower/ pod prevents hand-pollination to be efficient and thus no hybrid beans to date have been produced. In this case the use of gene-control pollination has to be exploited. Similarly, if a good gene-control pollination system is available in say tomato and pepper their seed production could be transformed into less intensive large field production system as in the brassicas and sweet corn.

The distribution of F1 vegetable seed production in the world The two systems of hybrid vegetable seed production have different production requirements. The gene-control pollination system requires suitable climatic conditions, good growers with mechanized farm and high standard of seed quality and seed health control. Many of these locations are in developed agricultural countries such as USA and Canada, Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. On the other hand, the intensive hand-pollination system demands in addition to suitable climate, good seed growers and high standard of seed quality and seed health control also efficient low cost pollination teams, small intensive fields with constant supervision, techniques to harvest and extract pollen from the male parent, efficient way and machinery to extract, clean and dry the valuable hybrid seed produced and also quarantine certification. These conditions are usually found in lesser-developed countries where horticulture is progressive and a contract agreement is respected and kept. The contracting seed company through stringent contract specifications and regular supervision of the seed production field and the harvested seed is able to control and maintain high seed quality.

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The distribution of hybrid vegetable seed

production in the world is therefore limited to some specific regions where the climate, weather and availability of good growers are the main deciding factors. Vegetables can be classified into three categories according to their temperature requirements as follows: l

Low temperature species such as brassicas, radish, carrot and spinach require a low temperature of 8°-15°C of vernalization to bolt, flower and seed set;

l

Moderate temperature species such as tomato, sweet pepper and zucchini require a temperature of around 18°-20° with around 25°C in the day and 15°C at night for optimum seed production. The diurnal temperature difference is desire to obtain best result. Too low a temperature causes low seed set and pollen production, and too high a temperature flower abscission, low pollen production and viability, and pest and disease problem; and

l

High temperature species such as okra, cucurbits, sweet corn and tropical vegetables require a temperature of 20°C and above.

This temperature requirement is attained at different latitudes by a combination of climatic season and elevation above sea level. For instance in tomato, a moderate temperature requirement vegetable, seed production can be carried out equally well in the winter season of a subtropical region as the case in Taiwan and Southeast Asia or in the summer season in temperate region as in Northeast and Northwest China, and in Chile. In the tropics seed production is sometimes achieved in highlands of 500-2000 m altitude where the cool temperature is suitable for the moderate temperature loving vegetables to produce seed. Photoperiodic reaction is not a concern as most of the modern cultivars of the moderate temperature requirement species are day-neutral plant and thus insensitive to photoperiod. The low temperature requirement vegetables often require a specific period of cold vernalization in their growth phase to induce bolting and flowering. Seed of these species are often produced in the higher latitudes. However, some of the heat tolerant cultivars of these cold loving vegetables e.g. some cruciferous crops and carrot require less vernalization time and also


process shorter day photoperiod requirement and thus their seed production has been successfully carried out in subtropical areas. The hand-pollinated F1 hybrid seed occurs mainly in East Asia (China and Taiwan) and Southeast Asian highlands (Northern Thailand and Northern Philippines), India (Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh), Mexico and Chile. The gene-controlled pollinated seed production is found largely in the USA (California – brassicas, onion and radish; Idaho – brassicas, onion and radish; Oregon – brassicas, onion, radish and turnip; and Washington State – brassicas, carrot, onion, radish and turnip), Canada (British Columbia – crucifers), Denmark (crucifers), Australia (Southeast Australia including Tasmania – crucifers and onion), New Zealand (crucifers) and in East Asia, China (Northeast, North and Northwest China - crucifers, Central China and Southeast China), Korea - crucifers, Japan – crucifers, and Taiwan – crucifers.

Development of hand-pollinated hybrid vegetable seed production in the world I. Post Second War World Period Following the success of F1 hybrid sweet corn breeding in the USA in the 1940s and 1950s other F1 hybrid vegetables were bred. The end of the Second World War could be said to mark the beginning of the global hybrid vegetable seed industry when the seed production technologies were spread from the US and Japan to other countries. Japan was already exporting hybrid tomato and eggplant in the 1950s. The main recipient of this technology was Taiwan which was to develop into one of the most successful countries in the world in producing hand-pollinated F1 hybrid vegetable seeds. The combination of both the US and Japanese know-how in Taiwan has resulted in an efficient production system. During the peak of the industry in the 1970s, Taiwan produced most of the world F1 hybrid tomato seed and also watermelon, melon, sweet pepper, eggplant and cucumber. Hot pepper and other lesser cucurbits such as luffa and gourds were also introduced during this period. Almost all of the hybrid seed produced were for the US, Japanese and European seed companies.

Some of the international companies decided to establish offices and research farms, or joint partnerships with local Taiwanese seed companies, for example Petoseed (presently, Seminis) acquired Wann Shiang to form Peto Wann Shiang which later served as Petoseed’s technical base for its entry into other Asian countries like China, Thailand and India. On the other hand Sluis & Groot (presently, Syngenta) decided to enter into partnership with Ching Choung to form Fu Lan which then operated like other local seed companies. Sakata Seed of Japan decided to establish its own research farm there. The prominent local seed companies were Known-You Seed and Evergrow Seed and they are still the main vegetable seed companies there, presently. Known-You has been the winner of several All-America Selections awards in the past years including most recently in 2001 for its melon hybrids. The production areas were concentrated in southern Taiwan in Kaohsiung, Pintung, Chaiyi and Tainan Prefecture with approximately 40%, 40%, 14% and 6% of the total production, respectively. There are several factors that contributed to this success and development, and the four main factors are: 1. The cool dry climate with plenty of sunshine hours and good irrigation water during the winter season is ideal for growing moderate temperature requirement crops such as tomato, melon and pepper and thus their seed production. In general, the day and night temperature difference at this period is optimal for good fruit-set. In addition, the dry climate allows the soil moisture to be accurately controlled by furrow irrigation for optimal growth and seed development. 2. The seed crop fits well into the existing paddy rice based cropping system which ensures better farm land utilization and pest and disease control especially the soil borne pathogen such as bacterial and fungal wilt, root-knot nematode, viruses and others. This is important because some of the parental inbred lines due its inbreeding or polyploidy origin as in the case of seedless watermelon seed production are often not so vigorous and specific cultural techniques have to be used to grow them successfully. In addition, every

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new field has to be tried out to identify the species and best hybrid combinations that it can produce. 3. The general crop management skill of the seed growers was high such as skill in seedling raising, irrigating, fertilizing, pruning, staking and general field cleanliness and hygiene. The growers had the economical capability to invest in labor and farm inputs in this intensive undertaking. Skillful and patient pollinators with delicate and stable hands were available. Hence, a successful hand-pollinated hybrid seed production enterprise depends both on the availability of technical knowledge at the actual operational level of seed production, and the ability and willingness of the growers to participate in this high-risk high capital cost and slow turnover investment. 4. An efficient contract seed production system was developed and established between the international seed companies and specialized local seed contract production companies. Those international companies even after setting up their own offices in Taiwan continued to use some of the services of the local production companies and their area seed agents to implement their seed

production targets. The contract system is summarized in Figure 1. Both the local and overseas companies in Taiwan were equipped with modern appropriate machinery and had highly trained technical staff who worked directly with the growers or through their area seed agents. The responsibilities of the area agents and company staff were to recruit potential seed growers, to negotiate the production contracts, and to train and retain good growers. The contract covered agreement on the amount of seed to be produced, seed price, time of delivery, term of payment and seed standard including germination rate, genetic purity and moisture content. Sometimes, certain production inputs e.g. mechanized wet seed extractor had to be loaned to growers depending on the contract agreement. Once a contract was signed the company personnel issued seeds of the parental lines and provided expertise on seed production rangeing from crop management practices to pollination and seed processing techniques to the growers. The most important duty of the seed company staff and agents were to ensure the contract quality and quantity of the seed produced under their supervision. The seed standard of tomato was a genetic purity of at least 98%, germination rate of above 85% and moisture content of less than

Figure 1. Summary of contract system of F1 hybrid vegetable seed production in Taiwan.

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8%. Normally, a grower would be paid around 45 days after seed submission to the seed company. Due to the close supervision of seed company’s staff and agents only occasionally a seed lot would be rejected. Through the contract production system the seed company technical staff could also plan and locate seed production fields to ensure sufficient isolation distances between species and that each company usually would develop its own production areas and respect those of another company. This contract production system has led to the development of the “seed village� concept where the whole village will be trained and developed to produce hybrid vegetable seed. II. From early 1980s to present The era from the 1960s to 1980s marked the beginning of large-scale hand-pollinated hybrid vegetable seed production in Taiwan and in the world. When the cost of production started to increase in the mid 1980s in Taiwan due mainly to its manufacturing industry competing for labor both local and international companies started to seek new production sites in other countries including China, Thailand, the Philippines and India. For example, Peto Wann Shiang was to dispatch and station its Taiwanese technicians in China and India for the entire seed production season. In China several very successful production locations have been established in northeast, north and northwest China, some area of south and central China. It has positioned itself into one of the main hand-pollinated F1 hybrid vegetable seed production countries in the world. The expansion of Chinese domination is to a great extend the result of the Chinese government policy to commercialize its seed industry from a centrally plan operational system where seed production target were handed down from the top into a more open business and profit-orientated industry. The state-own seed companies are facilitated to operate in a reasonably independent manner and they seek outside funds such as the World Bank loans to modernize and to train a new class of market-orientated managers. They seek and forge corporation among themselves and with international companies to build competitive advantages in the market.

In Thailand vegetable hybrid seed production is concentrated in Northeast Thailand where the cool winter weather is drier and thus has less disease and pest problem as comparing to Northern Thailand. However, the cooler weather in the highlands of Northern Thailand continues to offer good suitable locations both for seed production and plant breeding station. This industry has shown sign of stabilization and consolidation due to the increasing wages of pollinators. In the Philippines production is concentrated in Northern Luzon and it is not expanding and has stabilized as in Thailand. In India, vegetable production is expanding at a rapid rate with an increase of three folds during the last 50 years. A large area is now planted with F1 hybrid cultivars and thus hybrid vegetable seed production is growing at a rapid rate. The production is mainly concentrated in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. All these new production locations in East, Southeast and South Asia are based on Taiwanese technology and the rice paddy based cropping system. In the western hemisphere, Mexico due to its proximity to US and the availability of cheap pollinators the industry is also established in Baja California. In Chile the reverse season in the southern hemisphere and suitable climate have provided specific advantages that are not found elsewhere and a substantial hybrid vegetable seed production industry has been established.

F1 hybrid vegetable seed production: A case study on tomato in Taiwan The goal of a seed grower is to produce good quality seed and to make a profit by increasing seed yield and reducing labor and other farm inputs costs. To achieve this, both the growers and the seed companies have developed their own specific techniques in order to be more competitive than the others. Many growers because of their experience in managing their own fields have modified the standard management recommendations to suit their fields. Some of the modified techniques are unsuitable for other fields and others have no obvious advantages over the standard methods. The following are the standard techniques in use for commercial F1 tomato hybrid seed production in Taiwan:

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1. Crop management practices:

In tomato higher fruit yield generally gives higher seed yield but this applies only within each of the genetic types. For example, the Roma-type generally gives fewer seed per fruit as compared to medium-size globe fruit type. Most reciprocal crosses in tomato express almost the same hybrid vigor and therefore the better seed yielding line is always used as a female. Optimal crop management practices should therefore be adopted to grow a healthy vigorous crop with more and concentrated flowering period to reduce pollination days and to increase fruit set. The application of more phosphorus and potassium fertilizers is reported to increase seed filling and thus seed yield.

1.1. Planting season. The optimal planting season is from September to October at the on set of the cool season. This will allow the fruit to ripen in the cool dry month of February thus reducing disease occurrence and facilitate seed drying. 1.2. Soil and location. Well-drained sandy loam is selected but fields with deep sandy soil along the bank of rivers have been successfully used when fertilization and irrigation are well managed. Fields immediately after rice paddy are selected because they are relatively free of pests and diseases and they should be away from commercial tomato production areas. 1.3. Female to male parent ratio. The ratio of female to male parent is normally four to six females to one male depending on the flowering ability, pollen productivity and fertility of the male. 1.4. Synchronizing sowing and planting. Depending on the flowering date difference between the male and female sowing date are adjusted. However, the male is normally sown 1-2 weeks earlier in order to produce enough pollen for pollination when the females are ready. This also provides more time for the off-types to express themselves, thus more accurate roguing and better genetic purity. 1.5. Stagger planting. Stagger planting is commonly practiced to spread out the concentration of works at any one time. This

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eases the problem of shortage of experience pollinators. 1.6. Transplanting. Seedlings are raised in small plastic pots or flats. The male and female are planted in separate field or in difference section of the same field. They are usually planted in double rows per bed with within row spacing of about 0.40-0.45 m and between row if 0.80 m for the female. The bed height is normally about 0.25-0.30 m high. The wide spacing of the female rows allows easy movement for pollinators during emasculation and pollination. 1.7. Staking and pruning. Depending on the availability of labor and capital, staking of the female plants help to facilitate hand emasculation and pollination, and if the weather is wet it also reduces diseases. Seed yield will therefore increase. A comparison of the two staking systems – tee-pee over a raised bed and tee-pee over a furrow, and no staking is given in Table 2. 1.8. Purity of the parental lines. The parental lines are supplied by the seed companies and seed genetic purity is usually high. Optimum crop management is used to allow all the plants to express their full potential so that all offtypes can be recognized easily during field inspection and roguing from the beginning of the production season before they contaminate the production. Extra precaution and effort are emphasized in the male parent because when contamination occurs it could be extensive as it is not limiting to an individual as in the case of a female plant. Several rounds of field inspection are done at different growth stages including seedling, transplanting, growing, flowering stage, etc. to rogue all suspected off-types and volunteer plants. Every plant is inspected because of the high demand in cultivar purity of better than 98%. In addition, non-emasculated flowers and selfed fruits on the female plants are removed during emasculation and pollination rounds, and at harvesting. 2. Emasculation and pollination:

Tomato style and stigma are, normally, enclosed by the anther cone and the stigma


Table 2. Comparison of the three staking system in tomato F1 hybrid seed production. Staking Method

Advantage

Disadvantage

Tee-pee over a raised bed

• Easier hand emasculation and pollination • Less diseases • No direct soil compaction on the plants

Tee-pee over a furrow

• Easier hand emasculation and pollination • Less diseases • Dry working path in wet weather and after irrigation • No weeding of furrows once covered by the tomato • Low capital cost and less risk • No direct soil compaction on the plants

• Extra stake cost and labor for staking • Extra weeding of furrows • Wet working path in wet weather and after irrigation • Extra stake cost and labor for staking • Direct soil compaction on the plants

No staking

• Emasculation and pollination more difficult • More diseases • Extra weeding of furrows • Wet working path in wet weather and after irrigation

is often at the same level or below as the tip of anther cone. As the result, tomato is predominantly self-pollinated with only about 2% of natural out-crossing. It is therefore safe to leave the female flowers uncovered after emasculation and pollination when isolation distance of at least 50 m between two lines is provided in hybrid seed production. However, usually greater isolation distance is planned for in the field.

the following morning for pollination. Once the anthers split pollen can then be shaken out in a closed container and the pollen are separated from other flower parts by sieving through a 300-mesh screen. Alternatively, buds that will open that day are collected, allowed to open and the pollen extracted for pollination. Tomato pollen can be stored in a cool dry place for weeks e.g. in moisture-proof container with calcium chloride in a refrigerator.

2.1. Emasculation. The female flowers are emasculated usually starting from the second cluster up with a forcep at 2 days before anthesis. Too early emasculation can damage the bud and too late stage increases the chances of selfing. The whole anther cone can be taken out or each anther is removed individually. Chiou and Yu (1969) showed that the first cluster has lower rate of fruit setting, small fruits and fewer seed in a fruit. This also allows the young plants to have more vegetative growth before the onset of reproductive phase. Usually, emasculation is done in the afternoon after the emasculated flowers from the previous day were pollinated.

2.3. Pollination. Pollination is done first thing in the morning. The emasculated flowers are pollinated on the day of flowering by either using the little finger dipped with viable pollen or with a special small vial that has a ring to be worn on the pollinator finger. It is important to introduce enough pollen onto the stigma to ensure high seed set because normally pollination is done only once in a flower and one pollen can give only one seed. Two to three sepals are cut with a small scissor to indicate that the flower has been pollinated and to identify the hybridized fruit during harvesting. Generally, setting of 4-5 fruits per cluster and 5-8 clusters are sufficient to give good yield. However, individual plants with up to 80 pollinated fruits are not uncommon in good season. Pollination 1-2 days before blooming gives low fruit set and seed yield whereas one day after blooming has no

2.2. Pollen collection. Male parent flower buds that will open the following day are picked in the afternoon, the anthers are separated that night to dry and the pollen are extracted

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detrimental effect. The pollination period normally last about a month to a month and half with about 40-60 workers per hactare per day. 2.4. Post-pollination cultural management. Immediately after the final round of pollination the female plants are pruned to remove new growth firstly to prevent formation of new flowers and thus selfed fruits and secondly to reduce competition for nutrient with the pollinated fruits. The field is given another top-dressing and followed by furrow irrigation if needed. Pest and disease control are rigorously implemented until harvesting. All selfed fruits found are removed through out the season to avoid seed contamination. 3. H a r v e s t i n g , processing:

seed

extraction

and

3.1. Harvesting. Fully matured fruits with full color are harvested and any selfed fruits found should be discarded. The fruits can be immediate seed extraction or kept in a cool place for 3­4 days for post-harvest maturation before extraction. However, some crosses with no seed dormancy may have to be harvested a little earlier than full fruit maturity and should not allow for postharvest incubation because seed could start to germinate in the fruit. A simple field test to determine seed readiness for harvesting is to cut a fruit with a sharp knife and if the seed are not being cut they are ready for harvesting. 3.2. Seed extraction and processing. Most of the growers use a mechanical “wet” seed extractor which can process about 2-3 t of fruits per hour. A “wet” seed extractor consists of a feeder, a cutting component, fruit pulp and seed separating cylinder, seed strainer cylinder and a network of water-jet flashing system to assist the seed and pulp separation. The seed with the mucilagous coating is separated from the pulp. This mucilagous coating can be removed by acid treatment or fermentation. The acid method consists of mixing thoroughly in proportion of 7 ml of commercial grade concentrated hydrochloric acid (19-21%) in every kg of

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wet extracted seed for 20 minutes. Washing is done immediately when treatment is completed using the decantation washing process. Alternatively, the fruits are squashed in the bags manually by stepping on them until all the fruits are broken and the seeds have come out of the fruits. The slurry of the squashed tomato in the bags is then allowed to ferment in a non­staining container away from direct sun and rain. No water should be added during squashing and fermenting. The fermentation process may take 2-3 days depending on the ambient temperature. Warm days allow faster fermentation. The fermentation is indicated by the bubbling CO2 gas releases, and the slurry swells and produces heat. Fermentation completion is recognized by the reduced bubbling activity, cooling of the slurry, the swollen slurry subsiding to its initial volume and the clearingup of the supernatant of the slurry. The seed may then be acid treated to disinfect the seed and to improve the seed color. 3.3. Seed drying. The washed seed are bagged into nylon netting bags and spin-dried with a standard laundry centrifuge before being spreading out into thin layer of less than 0.5 cm thickness on fine-mesh netting trays for drying. In solar drying partial shade is provided during hot midday hours with a layer of the clear fine-mesh netting. The seed are turned regularly to allow uniform drying and to break down the seed clumps into individual seed. Dried seed of about 7% seed moisture wet basis are packed in multiple layers of plastic bag for submission to seed companies. 3.4. Quality testing. The individual seed companies control their own seed quality. Seed germination is carried out following ISTA seed testing method and rules. In the field genetic purity is done in the greenhouse or field by observing for specific morpho-physiological markers, disease resistance markers and also DNA, isozyme and protein markers. A well managed seed production field coupling with optimal climatic conditions will give seed yield of 140-200 kg/ha. The success of this seed


industry depends on a set of complementary technical, environmental and social inputs and considerations. A lack of a single attribute will negate the others resulting in poor performance.

Future of the hand pollinated F1 vegetable hybrid seed production The present state of the hand-pollinated F1 vegetable hybrid seed production industry is entering a stabilizing phase following the rush to look for new locations after Taiwan became to costly to be competitive in the early 1980s. This

stabilizing phase will become even more settled in the coming years as both China and India, the current main production countries still process the flexibility and cushion in term of available new locations and human resources to provide for new expansion and cost-effective pollinators, respectively. As the adoption of F1 hybrid cultivars the vegetables is growing globally the vegetable seed industry will thus continue to explore and move to new, better and more cost-effective areas and countries. Source: Reproduced from www.seedconsortium. org/23vegetable hybridseedproduction.pdf

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The Vegetable Seed Industry – Where is it Heading? Philip W. Ashcraft Director Verdant Partners LLC

The vegetable seed industry is arguably the most complex and fragmented segment of the seed industry. It has a long, illustrious history highligted with many industry firsts and technical advances. Over time, many parts of the business developed different histories depending on the specie and the particular market segments being addressed. The ensuing paragraphs will review the common background and interests for some of the more notable vegetable seed business segments; and more importantly outline some key issues and implications for the future, especially for NAFTA based operations. To begin, most of the homeowner segment is closely associated with personal values and preferences. For example, the pleasure of paging through seed catalogues on a cold winter’s night to choose the perfect heritage tomato to be experienced in the summer to come. These individual experiences drive the homeowner segment of the business to produce products and distribution systems that serve these personal demands. In the small commercial segment, growers focus more closely on choosing seed products that will profitably fill the specific wants and needs of their local market base. Much of this produce will eventually move through farmers markets and roadside stands. These seed buyers desire high yielding products with the characteristics and quality that their local retail customers want to buy. The vegetable seed companies serving this market segment must address these unique factors. The large grower segment (and in some cases the huge grower segment) has developed into a variety of complex, high-tech, very efficient business models. Marketing, distribution, seed purchasing, and other important decisions have become heavily influenced by the efficiencies and demands of large grocery chain and big

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box stores. Also of equal importance are the compelling forces generated by the fast food industry. These include consistent and very specific quality standards, reliable year around supply, and huge volumes. The vegetable seed industry has to address the wants, needs, and requirements such as those noted above, not to mention everything in between. Compounding this difficulty is the reality that, given such widely differing business models and criteria, major issues and opportunities inevitably present themselves or affect each model in very different ways. For example, a general economic downturn that hits most vegetable seed businesses can result in a counter cyclical boom for others. Given the disparate nature of the vegetable seed segment, the major forces that are impacting the business will produce a wide variety of results: good, bad, and indifferent. Never the less, let’s take a look at some of these forces and factors that are shaping the vegetable seed segment today. Undoubtedly they will have significant implications for the business for years to come. The current structural changes in the economy and financial institutions will have a profound, and mostly negative effect, on the vegetable seed business for a long time. Profound in this case meaning it will apply to virtually every aspect of how business is done. This is true even for those companies currently benefiting from the difficult economic climate. Managing these difficulties and opportunities is one thing, but planning and taking advantage of the situation is quite another. This is where the real opportunity lies. In times of profound c hange, the older, more ridged systems in place tend to be shaken, redefined, or in some cases will even disappear. This changing landscape affects everything in the vertical chain


for vegetable seed companies from plant breeding through sales. The opportunities created will vary, but the advantage will go to the quick and the nimble. The advances in technology, including biotechnology, have already brought dramatic change to the vegetable seed business. Inevitably this trend will continue, but as high-tech derived products become an ever-larger part of the vegetable seed portfolio, even more dramatic changes will occur. There will be great opportunity for those with the resources to compete and with the resources necessary to withstand the trials and tribulations of the new frontier. Down the road, there will be many advances in biotechnology. Numerous technologies are expanding at an exponential rate, including technologies for yield improvement, drought resistance, disease resistance, quality enhancement, etc. Over time this wave of technology and science is reshaping the business. The largest players will lead the way and have the most to say about how these advancements are introduced and how they are used. The mid-sized and smaller companies will need to be vigilant, carefully planning and redefining their roles, while simultaneously making the adjustments necessary to prosper and succeed. Seed coatings and treatments will also continue to develop and be a driver of change in the vegetable seed business segment. The advancements made to seed coatings and treatments in recent years have added significant value to many parts of the vegetable seed segment. A closer look at what is happening today in this area makes it easy to see the possibility of a bright future in this area especially in the long run. The movement toward vertically integrated marketing systems will undoubtedly continue for the foreseeable future. The long sought goal of vegetable seed companies being able to manage or to be more directly involved in branded produce is becoming a larger reality with every passing season. Narrowing the number of variables and increasing profit margin possibilities are a powerfully and attractive combination. Greater control of this channel by fewer players is very likely. Identifying the best strategic options will be the most challenging aspect, potentially resulting

in large returns for those able to build a solid plan and implement it effectively. One of the most difficult drivers to get a good handle on is consumer tastes and preferences. Although it certainly is not inexpensive, qualifying and quantifying current consumer preferences is a relatively straightforward process. Meanwhile, tracking the trends and forecasting the future size and importance of these trends is much more difficult. The process is further complicated by the importance of these issues. Yes the consumer is the final arbiter of choice and taste. Because the consumer is so far down the distribution pipeline from seed companies, it is all too easy to miss or misunderstand what they are saying and what it really means. Despite the uncertainty of the future, there are some ground swells that are evident and likely to continue for sometime. To strike a cautionary note, some of these trends are more fact or science based than others. Also, the size and duration of consumer trends are hard to predict. Such is the nature of preferences. That said, the shortlist of trends with at least a good chance to grow for the mid-term include: l

Things seen to be healthy or healthier

l

Localvors (local is good)

l

Freshness

l

All things green (of course)

One of the underlying forces in this area is a growing realization that what we put in our mouths matters and has consequences. This message is being asserted by a lonist of powerful forces and voices from the government, science, and other social pressures. All of these forces are converging to change human behavior. This is a monumental issue for the vegetable seed business, and for the most part it is quite positive. The final driver to be considered in this exercise is the relative profitability of the vegetable seed industry. The assertion of this writer is that over time the vegetable seed segment has not been as profitable as it could or should have been. Further, this rather pedestrian level of profitability over the years has limited, and in many ways defined the role of the vegetable seed business. A caveat at the outset, the writer wouldlike to acknowledge

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his responsibility for any contributions to this industry’s shortcoming over the years. A quick review of profit margins generated by seed corn products compared to the average margins for vegetable seed products shows corn margins are considerably higher than vegetables. Over time, with less available recourses, the vegetable seed business has had to play a more limited role. In short, larger margins mean more opportunities. The seed corn sector has done a good job of building solid margins over the decades. Some of us remember what the leading seed corn companies were doing when hybrids were being widely introduced and promoted. The concept of added value was demonstrated and sold by techniques such as the use of weigh wagons in grower’s fields, providing visual proof positive of the benefits to growers. The idea that the seed companies should be well paid for these advances successfully concluded the transaction. There are many reasons that the vegetable seed industry has behaved differently over the years, and there is little to be gained by detailing it here. In fact, this quick look at the past is for the sole purpose of illustrating what can and should be done to improve profitability and build a stronger vegetable seed business in the future.

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The bottom line is that there are several driving forces that will quickly change the way the vegetable seed business is structured and operates. The challenge is to quickly identify the issues, understand them, and then to determine what needs to be done to take best advantage of the situation. Despite the difficulties the vegetable seed segment is experiencing today, the emerging forces and business drivers offer the opportunity for a brighter, more successful tomorrow for vegetable seed companies. Verdant Partners LLC is a leading investment banking and consulting firm specializing in the global crop genetics sector. With over 300 years of combined experience in all crops and in all phases of the international crop genetics industry, as well as in other sectors of agribusiness, Verdant’s investment banking and consulting skills are sharply focused and experience-based. Each of Verdant’s principals has senior management experience in leading agribusiness companies. Together, Verdant has initiated and managed transactions and alliances valued in excess of U.S. $1.5 billion. Source: Reproduced from Seedquest.com/id/v/ TheVegetableSeedIndustry.pdf


Field Standards for Seed Production of Vegetables Crops Dr. B.S. Tomar, I/c Seed Production Unit, IARI, New Delhi-110012

To maintain the requisite genetic purity and to achieve the high level of seed standards during seed production it is essential to have field standards. Since the seeds production programme organized by public as well private sectors organization at different locations, seasons and of various class, thus the field standards has to be maintained uniformly during the execution of the seeds programme in field. the field standards is of two types, the first one is general requirements which include the isolation distance for foundation and certified seed and second is the specific requirements comprising offtype, objectionable

weeds and plants affected by seed borne diseases. The objectives of general and specific requirements are to maintained genetic purity avoiding the genetic contamination and ultimately to meet the seed standards.

General requirements: The isolation requirement is variable among the crops and it is low in self pollinated crops while moderate in often cross pollinated crops and higher in cross pollinated crops where wind/ insects act as pollinating agent. The crop-wise isolation is given below. Minimum distance(m) Foundation Certified 50 25 50 25

Sr.

Crop

Contaminants

1

Tomato

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification

2

Brinjal

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification

200 200

100 100

3

Capsicum& Chilli

Field of the other varieties

400

200

Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification

400

200

Field of capsicum from chilli and vice versa Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and wild okra

400 400 400

200 200 200

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and from balsam apple (Momordica balsamina), bhat kerala and jangli kerala

1000

500

1000

500

1000 1000

500 500

1000 1000

500 500

4

Okra

5

Ashgourd

6

Bittergourd

7

Bottlegourd

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification

43


44

8

Cucumber

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and from cucumis hardwickii

1000 1000

500 500

9

Indian Squash Field of the other varieties (Tinda)

1000

500

Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification

1000

500

10

Longmelon

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and snapmelon,muskmelon, oriental pickling melon and other non-desserted forms of cucumis melo

1000 1000

500 500

11

Muskmelon

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and snapmelon, longmelon, oriental pickling melon and other non-desserted forms of cucumis melo known to cross

1000 1000

500 500

12

Pumpkin

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and from winter squash, summer squash and cushaw(C. mixta) Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and from spongegourd (L.cylindrica)

1000

500

1000

500

1000 1000

500 500

13

Ridgegourd

14

Snakegourd

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and from Trichosanthes labata, T. palmate and T. cucumerina

1000 1000

500 500

15

Spongegourd

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and from ridgegourd (L.acutangula)

1000 1000

500 500

16

Summersquas

Field of the other varieties

1000

500

Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and from pumpkin (C. moschata), C. mixta and C. maxima

1000

500

17

Watermelon

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and wild watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis L.)

1000 1000

500 500

19

Amaranth

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and wild amaranths

400 400

200 200

20

Celery

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and from turnip rooted celery Apium graveolens

500 500

300 300


21

Methi

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification

10 10

5 522

22

Lettuce

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and wild lettuce (Lactuca scariola)

50 50

25 25

23

Parsley

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification

500 500

300 300

24

Spinach& Spinach beet

Field of the other varieties

1600

1000

Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification

1600

1000

Field of the swiss chard,sugar beet and garden beet for spinach beet only

1600

1000

25

Cabbage

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certificationandfromthevarietiesof Brassica oleracea(L)var. oleracea, ramose, gemmifera, acephala, gongylodes, subaduda,italica and botrytis etc.

1600 1600

1000 1000

26

Cauliflower& Broccoli

Field of the other varieties

1600

1000

Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and from the varieties of Brassica oleracea(L)var. oleracea, ramose, gemmifera, acephala, gongylodes, subaduda, italica and botrytis etc.

1600

1000

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming

1600 1600

1000 1000

27

Knol-Kohl

to varietal purity requirements for certificationandfromthevarietiesof Brassica oleracea(L) var.oleracea, ramose, gemmifera, acephala, gongylodes, subaduda, italica, capitata and botrytis etc. 28

Garlic

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification

5 5

5 5

29

Onion

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification

1000 1000

500 500

29

Carrot

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification

1000 1000

800 800

30

Garden beet

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and fields of the swiss chard and spinach

1600 1600

1000 1000

Field of the other varieties Field of the other varieties

1600 1600

1000 1000

31

Radish

45


32

Turnip

33

Pea

34

35

36

Dolichous bean

Cowpea

French bean

Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and from rat-tail radish Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification and from other species of genus Brassica pekenensis, B.chinensis B.napus and various kind of sarson/rai

1600

1000

1600 1600

1000 1000

Field of the other varieties

10

5

Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification Field of the other varieties

10

5

10

5

Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification Field of the other varieties

10

5

10

5

Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification

10

5

Field of the other varieties Fields of the same variety not confirming to varietal purity requirements for certification

10 10

5 5

Specific requirements: The maximum permitted (%) of off type, plant affected by seed borne diseases and objectionable weed plants are given below. Sr.

1 2

3

4 5 6

7 8 9 10

46

Crop

Tomato Brinjal

Capsicum and chilli

Factor

Remarks

Off type Plant affected by seed diseases

FS 0.10 0.10

CS 0.20 0.50

Off type

0.10

0.20

At and after flowering and For seed borne disease at inspection

Plant affected by seed diseases

0.10

0.20

Phomopsis vexans

Off type

0.10

0.20

At and after flowering and For seed borne disease at inspection

Plant affected by seed diseases

0.10

0.50

Leaf blight and anthracnose

0.10 none 0.10 0.10 None

0.20 none 0.20 0.20 None

At and after flowering Wild okra At and after flowering At and after flowering Balsam apple,Bhat karela and Jangli kerala

0.10

0.20

At and after flowering

0.10

0.20

0.10 0.10

0.20 0.20

At and after flowering Cucumis hardwickii At and after flowering At and after flowering

Okra

Off type Objectionable weed plants Ash gourd Off type Bitter gourd Off type Objectionable weed plants Bottle gourd Cucumber

Maximum Permitted (%)

Off type

Off type Objectionable weed plants Tinda Off type Longmelon Off type

Max. at final inspection Early blight, leaf blight, TMV


Objectionable weed plants 11

12 13 14 15

Pumpkin Ridge gourd Sponge gourd Summer squash Water melon

17

Amaranth

18

Celery

19

Methi

20

Lettuce

21

Parsely

24

None

Snap melon, weed melon and nondessert form

0.10

0.20

At any inspection conducted after flowering and for seed disease at final inspection

Objectionable weed plants

None

None

Snap melon, weed melo melon and non-dessert form

Plants affected by seed Borne disease

0.10

0.20

Cucumber Masaic Virus

Off type

0.10

0.20

At and after flowering

Off type

0.10

0.20

At and after flowering

Off type

0.10

0.20

At and after flowering

Off type

0.10

0.20

At and after flowering and For seed borne disease at inspection

Off type

0.10

0.20

At and after flowering

Objectionable weed plants Off type Objectionable weed plants Off type

None 0.10 0.010 0.10

None 0.20 0.020 0.20

Wild water melon At and after flowering Wild amaranth At and any flowering in the c off type and at the final insp in case of seed borne disease

Plants affected by seed Borne disease

0.10

0.50

Leaf blight and root rot

Off type Objectionable weed plants Off type Objectionable weed plants Plants affected by seed Borne disease

0.10 0.010 0.10 0.010 0.10

0.20 0.020 0.20 0.020 0.50

At and after flowering senji At and after flowering Wild lettuce Lettuce Mosaic Virus

Off type

0.10

0.20

At and any flowering in the c off type and at the final insp in case of seed borne disease

Plants affected by seed Borne disease

0.10

0.20

Leaf spot

Off type Off type

0.10 0.10

0.20 0.20

At and after flowering At and any flowering in the c off type and at the final insp in case of seed borne disease

Plants affected by seed Borne disease

0.10

0.50

Black leg, black rot and soft ro

0.10

0.20

At and any flowering in the c off type and at the final insp in case of seed borne disease

Muskmelon Off type

16

22 23

None

Spinach Cabbage

Cauli Flower/ Broccoli/ Knol-K

47


Need to Boost Okra Exports Dr Vigneshwara Varmudy

Okra is considered to be a prized vegtable due to its high-nutrient value. As it is available in India throughout the year and the country is the largest producer of okra in the world, India should be quick to encash on the opportunities in the global market. Production can be tailored according to demand. So what is needed is proper planning to promote exports. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) is a native of tropical Africa. It was cultivated by the Europeans as early as the 13th century and has since been introduced into warm tropics and subtropics. The plant can be grown throughout the year and resembles cotton in its habit. It is an annual vegetable crop grown in the tropics of the world. It can be grown on all kinds of soils. However, to get the best results, it requires a friable well-manured soil.

Values and uses The vitamin and mineral-rich Okra is a prized vegetable in the Indian sub-continent. It has an average nutritive value of 3.21, which is higher than tomato, pumpkins and ashgourd. It contains 27 gm of carbohydrates, 2.2 gm of proteins, 0.29 gm of fat, 90 mg of calcium, 50 mg of phosphorus, 15 mg of iron and 16 mg of vitamin C per 100 gm of edible portion. The seeds contain 18-20 per cent oil and 20-23 per cent crude protein. Soups and stews of okra are popular dishes in India. The seeds, when ripe, are sometimes roasted and used as a substitute for coffee. The roots and stems are used for clarification of sugarcane juice before it is converted into jaggery and brown sugar. The crop is used in the paper industry and fibre is extracted from its stem. Okra is considered by many as a super-vegetable with a lot of nutri-tion and medicinal benefits. It is rich in nutrients, soluble fibre, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Soluble fibre helps to reduce serum cholesterol, thus reducing the risk of heart disease. Fibre also helps in stabilising blood sugar. The mucilage not only binds cholesterol but also the

48

bile acid carrying toxins dumped into it by the liver. Its fibre absorbs water and helps prevent constipation. In fact, its slippery characteristics, which people dislike, facilitates elimination of excess cholesterol and toxins from the body.

Area, production and productivity in the world Okra or ladies finger is an im-portant vegetable of the tropical countries and most popular in India, Nigeria, Sudan, Iraq, Pakistan, etc. Though virtually not grown in Europe and North America, lots of people in these countries have started liking this vegetable due to the presence of good amount of vitamins. Table 1 gives data on area, production and productivity of okra in the world. Here the share of India is 67.1 per cent, followed by Nigeria at 15.4 per cent and Sudan at 9.3 per cent.

Area, production and productivity in India In India, okra is grown throughout except in the mountain regions. The major producers are West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat (see Table 2). As far as area under okra


Table 1. Area, Production and Productivity of Okra in the World in 2008-09 Country India Nigeria Sudan Iraq Cote D’lvore Pakistan Ghana Egypt Benin Saudi Arabia Others Total

Area (ha) 432,000 387,000 21,926 22,250 46,000 15,081 19,500 6,800 13,658 4,000 58,365 1,024,580

Production (MT) 4,528,000 1,039,000 223,650 141,000 115,867 114,657 108,000 107,000 48,060 46,000 276,206 6,749,440

Productivity (MT/ha) 10.5 2.7 10.2 6.3 2.5 7.6 5.5 15.7 3.5 11.5 4.5 6.6

Source: FAO, For India NHB Database 2009 cultivation in India is concerned, Orissa has an area of 74 thousand ha, West Bengal has an area of 73.1 thousand ha under cultivation followed by Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand and others. In terms of okra production, it is 0.83 million tonnes in West Bengal, 0.65 million tonnes in Orissa and 0.43 million tonnes in Andhra Pradesh. The average productivity in India is 10.5 tonnes per hectare. The highest productivity is in Andhra Pradesh at 15 tonnes per hectare followed by Jharkhand at 14 tonnes per hectare. The total area under this crop has increased over the years. In 1991-92, the total area under okra cultivation was 0.22 million hectares and the production was 1.88 million tonnes, while in 2006-07 the area went upto 0.396 million hectares and the production was 4.07 million tonnes and in 2009-10 the area was 0.43 million hectares and the production stood at 4.54 million tonnes. In India, of the total area under vegetable cultivation, the share of area under okra cultivation in 2009-10 was 5.4 per cent and the share of okra production was 3.5 per cent. As a whole, in the plains of northern India, normally two crops are raised—one in the early spring for the summer crop and the other in late summer—while in the southern parts, a winter crop is also raised.

Okra growing belts in India Table 3 shows the okra-growing belts in India or the pockets where it is concentrated.

Varieties There are a number of varieties of okra and they may be classified as tall, medium and dwarf. They are further classified according to the quality of the pod, some on the basis of colour like deep green and light green. Important commercial varieties grown in India are Arka Abhay, Arka Anamika, Azak Kranti, Co 1, MDU1, PUSAA4, Red bhindi, TN hybrid 8, Varsha, Nath Sobha, Su-priya and Sungro 35.

Harvesting Okra fruits are harvested every second day from the time the first pod is formed. It takes 7-8 days from flowering to picking of fruits ready for the market. Harvesting is usually done early in the morning, after which it enters the market. The market prefers small, tender fruits on every alternate day. It is important to harvest this plant frequently to increase the yield and to spur the growth.

Marketing In the marketing chain of okra, there are local traders, middlemen, bulk purchasers, co-operative institutions and others. As far as availability of okra is concerned, it is available throughout the year in West Bengal and Karnataka and to a certain extent in Orissa and Gujarat. In the rest of the states, availability is maximum in the period from

49


Table 2. State-wise Area and Production of Okra in 2009-10 State West Bengal Orissa Bihar Gujarat Andhra Pradesh Jharkhand Maharastra Chhattisgarh Haryana Uttar Pradesh Total (including others)

Area (‘000 ha) 73.1 74.0 59.0 49.5 29.3 29.0 27.0 23.9 15.9 11.0 435.6

Production (‘000 MT) 839.3 651.1 754.1 466.2 439.7 406.0 175.5 217.3 115.5 124.2 4541.2

Share in India (per cent) 18.48 14.33 16.60 10.26 9.68 8.94 3.86 4.78 2.54 2.73 100.00

Source: NHB April to June. As far as exports are concerned, okra accounts for 60 per cent of the export of fresh vegetables. India exports okra mainly to West Asia, Western Europe and the US. The demand for fresh okra is more in the overseas markets. As far as preference by the external Okra plants market is concerned, it prefers green, tender okra which is 7.5-12.5 cm in length, packed in 5 kg poly bags. Nearly 35-40 per cent of domestic production from India is exported. Among the importers, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Kuwait are the largest. In Europe, the largest importers are the UK, Germany, Switzerland and France.

There are several problems related to okra cultivation in India:

Districts Guntur, Prakasham, Kurnool, Rangareddy Madhya Pradesh Bilaspur, Raipur, Durg Bihar Varanasi, Nalanda, Muzzfarpur West Bengal Hoogly, Nadia, Bankues, 24ponaga Gujarat Surat, Vadodara, Junagadh Assam Darrang, Sibasugar Karnataka Dharwad, Gulbarga, Mandya, Belgaum, Haveri, Shimoga UP Western Areas

1. Insect pests like jassids which affect shoots and fruits

Measures to improve competitiveness

2. Diseases like yellow-vein mosaic virus and powdery mildew

Several measures are suggested to increase the competitiveness of okra production in India:

3. Non-availability of quality seeds which are resistant to virus and other diseases

1. Need to increase productivity: In India, a number of superior cultivars and even hybrids are available for cultivation with productivity ranging between 15 and 20 tonnes/ha, which should be provided to farmers to increase productivity.

Problems

4. Problems of transportation, storage and marketing 5. Lower productivity 6. Absence of training to farmers on production and marketing aspects

50

Table 3. Okra-Growing Belts in India State Andhra Pradesh

2. Improving appeal: Freshness and eye appeal must be enhanced in the product to make it competitive.


3. Packing: Effective and attractive packing is essential. It should be as per the norms of the external market. 4. Training to farmers: Farmers need to be trained on quality requirements of importing countries. 5. Creating a brand: India must have a brand. It may be in the form of state-wise or colourwise. 6. Need to provide cold storage facilities near the growing belts. 7. European maximum residue levels (MRLs) are very low and hence organic or pseudoorganic growing practices have to be adopted to ensure compliance with strict European Union MRLs.

As India is the largest producer of okra in the world, it should be quick to encash the opportunities in the global market. Okra is available in India throughout the year and production can be tailored according to demand, so what is needed is proper planning so as to promote exports. APEDA has joined hands through sanctioning agri-export zones in several states. Among the fresh vegetables exported, okra alone constitutes a major share, hence efforts are needed to increase this share. The author is professor in department of economics, Vivekananda College, Puttur, Karnataka Source: Reproduced from FACTS FOR YOU. Feb. 2011

51


Bt Brinjal in India and Bihar (around 10% each). In 2005-2006, the national average productivity of brinjal was recorded around 15.6 tons per hectare.

Brinjal or baingan, known as eggplant and aubergine in North America and Europe respectively, is a very important common man’s vegetable in India. It is often described as a poor man’s vegetable because it is popular amongst small-scale farmers and low income consumers. A poor man’s crop it might be, but brinjal is also called by some as the ‘King of Vegetables’. It is featured in the dishes of virtually every household in India, regardless of food preferences, income levels and social status. Low in calories and high in nutrition, the vegetable has very high water content and is a very good source of fiber, calcium, phosphorus, folate, and vitamins B and C. It is also used in ayurvedic medicine for curing diabetes, hypertension and obesity. In addition, dried brinjal shoots are used as fuel in rural areas. Brinjal has embedded itself deeply into the Indian culture. Numerous folk songs in Indian languages center on the humble vegetable. Brinjal is grown on nearly 550,000 hectares in India, making the country the second largest producer after China with a 26% world production share. It is an important cash crop for more than 1.4 million small, marginal and resource-poor farmers. Brinjal, being a hardy crop that yields well even under drought conditions, is grown in almost all parts of the country. Major brinjal producing states include: West Bengal (30% production share), Orissa (20%), and Gujarat

52

In spite of its popularity among small and resourcepoor farmers, brinjal cultivation is often input intensive, especially for insecticide applications. Brinjal is prone to attack from insect pests and diseases, the most serious and destructive of which is the fruit and shoot borer (FSB) Leucinodes orbonalis. FSB feeds predominantly on brinjal and is prevalent in all brinjal producing states. It poses a serious problem because of its high reproductive potential. FSB larvae bore into tender shoots and fruits, retarding plant growth, making the fruits unsuitable for the market and unfit for human consumption. Fruit damage as high as 95% and losses of up to 70% in commercial plantings have been reported. Farmers resort to frequent insecticide applications and biological control measures to counter the threat of FSB. However, since FSB larvae are concealed within shoots and fruits, the pest normally escapes insecticide sprays. Therefore farmers tend to over-spray insecticides, because they rely mainly on the subjective assessments of the visual presence of the pest. In addition to the financial cost associated with indiscriminate insecticide applications and its negative effects on the environment, high pesticide residues


in vegetables and fruits pose serious risk to consumers’ health and safety. Although, several attempts have been made to develop resistant cultivars through traditional plant breeding, these have met with limited or almost no success. There are no existing brinjal varieties with adequate resistance to FSB in India. Accordingly, scientists have used biotechnology to develop a brinjal variety that can resist FSB attack.

India’s First Vegetable Biotech Crop

Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Dharwad. The event EE-1 was backcrossed into open-pollinated brinjal varieties. Mahyco also donated the technology to public research institutions in the Philippines and Bangladesh. Several other research institutions, both public and private have also been developing Bt brinjal using different genes. The National Center on Plant Biotechnology (NRCPB) has developed Bt brinjal varieties expressing the cryFa1 gene. The technology was subsequently transferred to companies including Bejo Sheetal, Vibha Seeds, Nath Seeds and Krishidhan Seeds. The Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR) is also developing Bt brinjal using the cry1Ab gene. Scientists are also looking for ways to develop Bt brinjal in conjunction with other multiple and beneficial traits.

Climbing the Regulatory Ladder

FSB-resistant brinjal or Bt brinjal was developed using a transformation process similar to the one used in the development of Bt cotton, a biotech crop that was planted on 7.6 million hectares in India in 2008. Bt brinjal incorporates the cry1Ac gene expressing insecticidal protein to confer resistance against FSB. The cry1Ac gene is sourced from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). When ingested by the FSB larvae, the Bt protein is activated in the insect’s alkaline gut and binds to the gut wall, which breaks down, allowing the Bt spores to invade the insect’s body cavity. The FSB larvae die a few days later. Bt Brinjal was developed by the Maharashtra Hybrid Seeds Company (Mahyco). The company used a DNA construct containing the cry1Ac gene, a CaMV 35S promoter and the selectable marker genes nptII and aad, to transform young cotyledons of brinjal plants. A single copy elite event, named EE-1, was selected and introduced into hybrid brinjal in Mahyco’s breeding program. Mahyco also generously donated the Bt brinjal technology to the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore and University of

Bt brinjal is the first food crop under evaluation for commercial release in India. Since its development in 2000, the crop has undergone rigorous scientific evaluation to assess its food safety, environmental safety, human and animal health safety and biodiversity. Figure 1 summarizes the protocol followed for the regulatory approval of Bt brinjal.

Biosafety and Food Safety Assessments Rigorous scientific tests, including toxicity and allergenicity evaluation as well as nutritional studies on rabbits, rats, carps, goats, broiler chickens and dairy cows, have confirmed that Bt brinjal is as safe as its non-Bt counterparts. The safety of Bt brinjal was further validated by the results of the studies on pollen escape, effects on soil microflora and non-target organisms, agronomy, invasiveness and Bt protein degradation. Results of the studies demonstrated that Bt brinjal does not affect beneficial insects such as aphids, leafhoppers, spiders and lady beetles.

Farmer and Consumer Benefits Bt brinjal was found to be effective against FSB, with 98% insect mortality in Bt brinjal shoots and 100% in fruits compared to less than 30%

53


2000: Transformation and greenhouse breeding for integration of cry1Ac into brinjal hybrids. 2001-2002: Preliminary greenhouse evaluation to study growth, development and efficacy of Bt brijnal. 2002-2004: Confined field trials to study pollen flow and growth, aggressiveness and weediness, biochemical properties, toxicity and allergenicity of Bt brinjal hybrids. 2004-2005: Data on the effect of Br brinjal on soil microflora efficiacy against FSB, pollen flow and chemical composition submited to the Review Committee of Genetic Manipulation (RCGM).

2004: RCGM approval for the conduct of the Multi-location Research Trails (MLRTs) of 8 Bt Brinjal Hybrids. 2004-2007: MLRTs were conducted separately by Machyo and All India Coordinated Vegetable Improvement Programme (AICVIP) of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).

2006-2007: Submission of biosafety, environmental safety, gene efficacy and agronomic performance data to the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC). GEAC posted a biosfety dossier on its website shoeing results of studies conducted between 2001 and 2007.

2007-2009: GEAC approved 7 Bt brinjal hybrids for large scale field trials (LSTs). Indian Institute of Vegetable Research (IIVR) of ICAR is currently conducting the LSTs.

2008-2009: GEAC approved the experimental seed production of 7 Bt brinjal hybrids on 0.1 acre per hybrid.

India’s biotech regulator GEAC recommends commercial release of Bt Brinjal

Under consideration for commercial release by Ministry of Environment and Forest (MOEF), Government of India Figure 1. Development and Regulation of Bt Brinjal in India. (Adapted from Choudhary and Gaur, 2008, GEAC Dossier 2008, MOEF, 2008)

mortality in non-Bt counterparts. The Multilocation Research Trials (MLRTs) confirmed that Bt brinjal required, on average, 77% less insecticides

54

than non-Bt counterparts for control of FSB, and 42% less for the control of all insect pests of brinjal. The benefits of Bt brinjal, translate to an average increase of 116% in marketable fruits over conventional hybrids, and 166% increase over popular open-pollinated varieties (OPVs). Furthermore, the significant decrease in insecticide usage reduced the farmers’ exposure to insecticides and results in a substantial decline in pesticide residues in brinjal fruits. Scientists have estimated that Bt brinjal will deliver farmers a net economic benefit ranging from Rs.16, 299 (US$330) to Rs.19,744 (US$397) per acre with national benefits to India exceeding $400 million per year.


Conclusion Bt brinjal has enormous potential to benefit both farmers and consumers. Results of studies submitted to regulatory authorities in India confirm that Bt brinjal offers the opportunity to provide effective control against fruit and shoot borer, and decrease insecticide input by as much as 80%. Bt brinjal also yields significantly more marketable fruit than conventional hybrids and open-pollinated varieties. The remarkable success of Bt cotton in India, which now occupies 80% of the 9.4 million hectares planted to cotton in the country, is a clear demonstration that biotechnology can be harnessed to contribute to alleviation of poverty and hunger. The development of Bt brinjal, the first biotech vegetable crop, is an appropriate and timely step because it will further demonstrate the significant benefits that biotechnology offers farmers, consumers and India as a nation. In this context, the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC), in its 97th meeting held on 14th Oct 2009 has recommended the commercial release of Bt Brinjal Event EE-1 developed indigenously by Mahyco in collaboration with the University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Dharwad and the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore. This is a penultimate step to commercialize Bt brinjal hybrids and varieties in the country (MOEF, 2009). The insect-resistant Bt brinjal hybrids and varieties were developed through close and harmonious cooperation between public and private research institutions. The joint contribution of the two sectors is of critical importance, given that national food security is a strategic issue. The adoption and acceptance of Bt brinjal by farmers and consumers in India will be a very important event from which the country and the world can benefit enormously.

References Choudhary, B & Gaur, K. 2008. The Development and Regulation of Bt Brinjal in India (Eggplant/ Aubergine), ISAAA Brief No. 38, ISAAA: Ithaca, NY. James, C. 2008. Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops 2008. ISAAA Brief No.39. ISAAA. Ithaca, New York, USA

Krishna, V.V. & Qaim, M. 2007. Estimating the Adoption of Bt Eggplant in India: Who Benefits from PublicPrivate Partnership?, Food Policy, pp. 523-543. Krishna, V.V. & Qaim, M. 2008. Potential Impacts of Bt Eggplant on Farmers’ Health in India. Agricultural Economics, pp. 167-180. Indian Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF). 2007. Development of Fruit and Shoot Borer Brinjal. http://www.envfor.nic.in/divisions/csurv/ geac/macho.htm Accessed November 21, 2008. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Agriculture Database.  2007. http://faostat. fao.org/site/567/default.aspx#ancor Accessed November 21, 2008. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR). 2008. Annual Report 2007-08 and Vision 2025 Document. Bengaluru, India. George, S., Singh, H.S. & Naik, G., 2002. Brinjal Shoot and Fruit Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) Status in Coastal Districts of Orissa. In Resources Management in Plant Protection During the 21st Century, Plant Protection Association of India, Hyderabad, India. Soberon, M. & Bravo A. 2008. Avoiding Insect Resistance to Cry Toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis. Information Systems for Biology. http://www.isb. vt.edu/articles/may0803.htm. Accessed November 20, 2008. ABSP II. 2007. Fruit and Shoot Borer Resistant Eggplant- Fact Sheet, Cornell University, N e w s l e t t e r, A g r i c u l t u r a l B i o t e c h n o l o g y Support Project II, South Asia, July 2007. Genetic Engineering and Approval Committee (GEAC). 2008. Biosafety Data of Bt Brinjal containing cry1Ac (EE1) event developed by M/s Maharashtra Hybrid Seeds Co. http:// www.envfor.nic.in/divisions/csurv/geac/bt_brinjal. html  Accessed November 24, 2008. Ministry of Environment and Forest (MOEF), 2009. Press Statement by Mr. Jairam Ramesh, Minister of State for Environment and Forest (MOEF), Government of India dated 15th Oct 2009 available at: http://moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/ Press_Bt%20Brinjal.pdf 

NOTE: Commercial Cultivation of Bt Brinjal in India is awaiting approval of Govt. of India Source: Pocket 35, ISAAA Reproduced with the permission of Mr. Bhagirath Chaudhary, ISAAA.

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Indian Seed Congress Indian Seed Congress 2011 (ISC’11) organized by the National Seed Association of India (NSAI) at Hyderabad, the seed capital of India, on 22-23 February 2011, witnessed the largest congregation of the seed men of the country. It confirmed the belief of the industry that ISC provides an appropriate platform for the seed industry to get together to discuss issues related to the industrial policy for the sector, provide a business development forum, and to expose the participants to new knowledge and technologies. This second edition of ISC, with the theme ‘Partners in Agricultural Growth’ saw better participation (600+ participants representing 372 companies / organizations; from 18 countries); larger exhibition space (81 stalls) to showcase our products and technologies; and well structured technical sessions with a good mix of eminent industry leaders and technical experts to share new knowledge. ISC’11 was inaugurated by H.E. Mr. E.S.L. Narasimhan, Hon’ble Governor of Andhra Pradesh. Mr. Y.S. Vivekananda Reddy, Hon’ble Minister for Agriculture, Government of Andhra Pradesh, presided over the Inaugural Session. Padma Shri Dr. E.A. Siddiq, presented the key note paper on the status of the Indian seed industry. NSAI President, Dr. M. Ramasami; Mr. A. Praveen Reddy, MLA; Mr. Bhaskar Rao, Chairman, National Organising Committee, and Mr. M. Harish Reddy, Convener, ISC’11, were also present.

H.E. Mr. E.S.L. Narasimhan

Mr. Y.S. Vivekananda Reddy

Dr. E.A. Siddiq

The Congress technical programme coordinated by Dr. P. Sateesh Kumar, was structured to include three sessions to deliberate on ‘Government policy and New Legislation: Impact on Seed Industry’;

President NSAI: Dr. M. Ramasami

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‘Research and Development with Special Focus on Transgenic Technologies’ and ‘New Frontiers in Indian Seed Business’. These sessions were chaired by Dr. P.L. Gautam (S.M. Khan as Rapporteur); Dr. A.R. Reddy (V.S. Dagaonkar) and Mr. Rurik B. Halaby (K. Niranjan Kumar). A

Dr. P.L. Gautam

ISC’11 NOC Chair: Mr. G.V. Bhaskar Rao

Dr. A.R. Raddy

Dias

Mr. Rurik B. Halaby

Conference Coordinator: Dr. P. Sateesh Kumar

panel of eminent persons representing different stakeholders groups (Uday Singh / Harish Reddy / Ajay Jakhar / Chengal Reddy / Murahari Rao / P. Sateesh Kumar) participated in an ‘Interactive Session on Seed Industry and Social Responsibility’. The presentation areas included

57


in these sessions included, ‘Seed Industry and National Food Security’ (M. Prabhakar Rao); ‘The Role of Government in seed sector and the New Seed Bill- Industry Perspective’ (Paresh Verma); ‘PPV & FR Act – Indian experience with IP Rights in Agriculture’ (Bala Ravi); ‘The Future Outlook

Dr. Paresh Verma

Mr. M. Prabhakar Rao

Dr. S. Bala Ravi

Dr. Richard Broglie

Dr. S.R. Rao

Mr. S.K. Roongta

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of Public Seed Sector in Indian Agriculture’ (S.K. Roongta); ‘Indian Agribiotech Research- Are we Ready for the Future’ (S.R. Rao); ‘Global Overview of Current and Emerging GM Traits and Technologies in Field Crops (Richard Broglie);


‘The Eight Year Journey of Bt Cotton and Future of GM Technologies in India’ (Jagresh Rana); ‘Global Overview of Current and Emerging GM Traits and Technologies in Vegetable Crops’

Mr. Jagresh Rana

Dr. Arvind Kapur

Interactive Panel ISC’11 Convenor: Mr. M. Harish Reddy

A view of the participants

A view of the participants

A view of the participants

(Arvind Kapur); ‘Advances in Seed Enhancement and Quality Assurance Technologies’ (Malavika Dadlani); ‘Capital Market and Private Equity Interest in Indian Seed Industry’ (Manish Jain); ‘Size and Growth Potential of Indian Seed Industry’ (Kumar Aditya); and ‘Young Entrepreneurs in Seed Industry: Challenges and Future Outlook’( C. Hanumanth Rao).

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A special attraction at the ISC’11 was the Exhibition showcasing the products and technologies driving the seed industry. More than 80 Indian and Global companies participated in this exhibition.

The guests visiting the Exhibition

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Besides sharing new knowledge through the Conference sessions and the exhibition, the ISC’11 delegates used the trading sessions for business development and networking. ISC’11, besides the large trading halls, also allotted premium exclusive and private trading rooms to the ISC platinum and gold sponsor companies.

The ISC’11 delegates were also entertained with specially designed cultural programmes with artists from across the country displaying their talents.

An important component of the ISC’11 Inaugural Session was felicitation of three of the senior members of the Indian seed industry for their outstanding contributions to the development of the seed sector in the country. The industry members honoured were, Dr. Kuldeep Raj Chopra, Founder, promoter and Director of Mahendra Hybrid Seed Co. Ltd.; Mr. Mandava Venkatramaiah, Founder and Chairman Emeritus of Nuziveedu Seeds Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad; and Mr. M. Narasimha Reddy, Founder of Ganga Kaveri Seeds, Hyderabad. The Chief Guest, H.E. Mr. Narasimhan and Chairman of the Session, Mr. Vivekananda Reddy honoured these luminaries. A special ‘Souvenir’ brought out on the occasion was also released by the Chief Guest at the Inauguration.

Trading Table

M/s Vibha Seeds were the Platinum Sponsor for ISC ’11. The Gold sponsors for the event were Bayer / Nunhems; GSP Crop Science; INCOTEC; Krishidhan; Mahyco; Monsanto; Nuziveedu Seeds; Pioneer; Rasi Seeds; Syngenta and Tulasi Seeds; while the Silver sponsors were AgTechnix; Bioseed; Ganga Kaveri; Indo American Hybrid Seeds; Kaveri Seeds; Namdhari Seeds; Prasad Seeds; R & R and SGS Group. M/s Ankur Seeds were the Event Welcome Dinner sponsor.

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National Seed Congress The National Seed Research & Training Centre (NSRTC), Varanasi (Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Govt. of India), in collaboration with Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, organized the Third National Seed Congress on 29-31 January 2011 at College of Agriculture, Pune. The Congress attended by a large number of delegates representing researchers (ICAR & SAUs), policy makers (Central & State Govts.), the seed industry personnel and service providers, deliberated on the advances made in seed research and ways to integrate them into the development of the seed sector. The National Seed Congress was inaugurated by Shri Vijayrao Kolte, Hon’ble Vice Chairman, Maharashtra Council of Agricultural Education & Research in the presence of Dr. T.A. More, Vice Chancellor, MPKV, who presided over the Inaugural Session; Mr. Ashish Bahuguna, Additional Secretary, DAC; Mr. Anindo Majumdar, Joint Secretary (Seeds), DAC; Dr. Y.S. Nerkar and Dr. R.B. Deshmukh, former Vice Chancellors of MPKV, Dr. J.S. Sandhu, Asstt. Director General (Seeds), ICAR; Dr. Malavika Dadlani, Joint Director (Research), IARI, New Delhi, Dr.M. Bhaskaran, Director, NSRTC, among others. The technical programme of the Congress was structured over five (5) sessions, devoted to indepth discussions on:

Chief Guest Shri Vijayrao Kolte lighting the lamp to inaugurate the National Seed Congress

Guest of Honour, Shri Ashish Bahuguna, Addl. Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India, addressing the Inaugural Session

a. The role of plant breeding and variety protection for the livelihood, profitability in Agriculture and seed industry. b. The importance of seed quality assurance and regulations for national and international movement of seeds. c. Advances in seed production and post harvest handling. d. Advanced technologies for seed quality enhancement, testing, seed health, including GMOs and SPS issues. Dr. T.A. More, Vice Chancellor, MPKV addressing the National Seed Congress

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e. Panel Discussion on Public Private Partnership for building viable partnerships and ensuring seed security. These scientific sessions were chaired / co-chaired


by eminent seed researchers / administrators, including Dr. S. A. Patil; Dr. T. A. More; Dr. Y. S. Nerkar; Dr. R. B. Deshmukh; Mr. A. Majumdar; Dr. J.S. Sandhu (ADG, Seeds, ICAR); Dr. Malavika Dadlani (Jt. Director, IARI); Dr. K. Ramamoorthy (TNAU, Coimbatore); Dr.L. Krishna Naik (UAS, Dharwad); Dr. R.K. Chaudhary and Dr.N.K. Dadlani (Director, NSAI). In each of these sessions, leading scientists were invited to present lead papers on the subject, besides selected oral presentations by other scientists. The lead speakers included, Dr. R. K. Chaudhary; Dr. G. Harinarayana; Dr. Bharat Char; Dr. A.S. Ponnuswamy; Dr. M. Bhaskaran; Dr. Govind Garg; Mr. V. Shankaran; Dr. Vilas Tonapi; Shri S. Selvaraj; Dr. Arnab Gupta; Dr. Gurjeet J. Randhawa; Dr. K. Ramamoorthy; Dr. K. Vanangamudi; among others. The other resource persons included Mr. S.K. Roongta (CMD, NSC) and Mr. V.K. Gaur (CMD, SFCI). Eminent agricultural scientist, Dr. M.V. Rao also addressed the Congress.

iv. Sensitize concerned officials with the procedures of international movement of seeds. v. Introduce regular capacity building programmes for up gradation of technical expertise of officials engaged in seed regulations enforcement. vi. Establish at least one model seed testing laboratory following internationally acceptable procedures, in each state. vii. Seed health research and testing should receive greater focus. viii. Set up GM detection laboratories in each region. ix. Use of new technologies (including organic seed treatments) for seed quality enhancement and assurance. x. Revisit the existing field and seed germination standards and protocols and revise them to conform to current international norms. xi. Strengthen the public private partnership for seed research, germplasm sharing and production and distribution of seeds. A small exhibition showcasing technologies developed by the Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth was also organized along with the Congress.

Eminent agricultural scientist, Dr. M. V. Rao, addressing the participants

Following main recommendations emerged from the discussions in different technical sessions: i. To ensure uniformity in enforcement of seed laws and regulations, the notifications of Seed Act and Rule, and Seed Control Order, 1983 to be kept in mind. ii. Harmonize seed testing methods for quality assurance.

Chief Guest Shri Vijayrao Kolte inaugurating the exhibition

iii. Accept use of molecular markers in grow out tests.

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NSAI – PPV & FRA Interface on “Implementation of Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act” National Seed Association of India (NSAI) organized an interface with the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Authority (PPV&FRA) on the implementation of the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act. This interface was organized on 21 February 2011 at Hyderabad, as a Pre Congress activity for the Indian Seed Congress 2011 (ISC’11). Nearly 75 participants representing more than 30 companies interacted with the senior officials of the PPV & FRA to seek clarification on various issues related to the act and its implementation. Dr. P.L. Gautam, Chairperson, PPV & FRA chaired the Interface. He was joined by Dr.A.K. Malhotra, Registrar General; and Dr.P.K. Singh, Registrar in clarifying the industry’s points. The industry was led by the NSAI President, Dr. Ramasami. The industry members included among others, Mr. Prabhakar Rao; Mr. Raju Barwale; Mr. Uday Singh; Mr.M.G. Shembekar; Mr. Harish Reddy; Dr.P.S.Dravid; Dr. Paresh Verma; Dr.F.B.Patil; Mr. Rajvir Rathi; Mr.G.S. Gill, etc. A presentation on the guidelines of the PPV & FR Act by Dr.P.K. Singh, Registrar, provided the backdrop for the discussions. Dr. Arvind Kapur briefly highlighted the major points on which the industry had certain doubts. These mainly related to registration of extant varieties; EDVs; new varieties; VCK; and farmers’ rights. Most of the discussions in this very interactive session related to the confusion about what actually qualifies as EDV. Also, the industry was keen to understand the registration process. Some of the other issues which engaged the minds of the participants related to registration of

64


parental lines of hybrids; provision of varieties identified only for qualitative trait like suitability for mechanical harvesting; the difficulties in parallel registration process for new and extant varieties; and development of database. Dr. Gautam appreciated this opportunity to discuss the issues related to the implementation of the PPV & FR Act, and mentioned that the

implementation has given insight into several practical operational problems, which need to be sorted out. Implementation of such an act is a dynamic process, which will throw up issues at each step and can have a smooth operational sailing only with the cooperation of all stake holders. He desired regular interactions to take the process of implementation of the Act further.

Views of attentive participants

Participants seeking clarifications

Dr. P.L. Gautam explaining a point

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Awards and Honour National Seed Association of India (NSAI) honored three of its senior members for their contributions to the growth and development of the Indian seed industry at the Indian Seed Congress 2011 at Hyderabad on 22 February 2011. The recipients of this special honor were Dr. K.R. Chopra; Shri M. Narashima Reddy and Shri M. Venkatramaiah. The citations for these special awards are given here:

Dr. Kuldeep Raj Chopra

P

opularly known as Dr. K.R. Chopra, Dr. Kuldeep Raj Chopra was born on November 7, 1933. He received his doctorate from the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA in 1964 following his Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in agricultural sciences from Allahabad University. He was actively involved with all India coordinated Maize and Sorghum crop improvement programs of ICAR from 1957 – 61 and 1964 – 66 respectively and later with all facets of Indian Seed Industry development since 1966. He was the founder, promoter and director of Mahendra Hybrid seed Co. Ltd., one of the leading research based companies in private sector specializing in crop improvement, production, processing and marketing of proprietary and public bred hybrids in crop like Sorghum, Pearl Millet, Maize, Wheat, Sunflower, Castor, Cotton and many tropical and temperate vegetable crops. He was associated with the company from 1971–2002.

66

He has been a consultant to FAO, World Bank and its affiliates in the field of seed industry development since 1973. He was associated with over 30 consultancies and other assignments globally in seed sector, the most recent being those concern with setting up of R & D systems, privatization of government controlled seed systems, on-farm seed production, establishing effective seed production and marketing networks in both public and privately oriented seed economics. He has been associated with the conduct of training programmes for FAO sponsored trainees from Sri Lanka, Ethiopia and many other Asian and African countries primarily in the field of establishing efficient seed production & marketing systems. He is at present the Managing Director of Biostadt MH Seeds. Biostadt MH Seeds is a joint venture with Biostadt India Ltd. an associate company of Wockhardt group, to breed superior, value added hybrids and improved verities in important cereal, pulses, and fiber and vegetable crops. He is a member of several professional bodies related to seed industry and Dr. Chopra played a very vital role in the establishment of APSA (Asia and the Pacific Seed Association) in the year 1995. He served as president of Seed Association of India (1998 – 2004) and President of APSA (1995 – 1996). He has authored seven monographs on seed. National Seed Association of India is proud to honour Dr. Kuldeep Raj Chopra for his outstanding contributions to the Indian Seed Industry.


Shri. Muppidi Narasimha Reddy

S

hri Muppidi Narshima Reddy garu is a doyen among the seed producers of Andhra Pradesh and of the country. Born on 14th Dec 1920 in a large and progressive agricultural family he imbibed the techniques of farming early in his life. His education under the Indraprastha Gurukul System and the teachings of Maharishi Dayanand Saraswathi had a great influence on him. Asa person who always dreamt of doing good to the farming community he realised the value of quality seed to improve farm productivity and devoted his life time in the quest of quality seed. Shri. Narshima Reddy entered the seed production space during the early 1960s at the beginning of the Green Revolution era, he pioneered the production of parental lines and hybrids of Maize, Sorghum and Pearl Millets in association with Rockefeller Foundation and Indian Agricultural Research Institue. It were these hybrids and their wide adoption that helped step up significantly the

farm productivity of not only the drought prone Telengana region of Andhra Pradesh but also the similar agro-ecologies of the country. Shri. M. Narshima Reddy garu worked relentlessly in the early days to popularise and promote the use of hybrids and the techniques of seed production through his association as the founder member of the Telengana Society and later entered the commercial seed production and distribution in 1977 by forming and developing what today is known as Ganga Kaveri Seeds.His endeavour which started with production of hybrid seeds of cereals has enlarged and diversified into production and marketing of quality seeds of all major crops while remaining committed to serving the farming community across the country. National Seed Association of India is proud to honour Shri. Muppidi Narshima Reddy garu for his outstanding and pioneering contributions to the Indian Seed Industry.

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Shri Mandava Venkatramaiah Founder and Chairman Emeritus of Nuziveedu Seeds Private Limited, Hyderabad

S

hri Mandava Venkatramaiah was born in a farmer’s family on 1st March 1931 to Shri. M. Subbaiah and Smt. M. Sukavani in the village Chiluvuru, Guntur District which is close to the river Krishna falling in its delta region. He completed his Graduation in Agriculture from Benaras Hindu University in the year 1954 and Post Graduation in Agriculture with specialization in Agronomy from B R College, Agra, Uttar Pradesh in the year 1956. The Union Public Service Commission selected him in the cadre of class I Officer, soon after his post graduation. He joined Agmark Department in the Ministry of Agriculture. He has done pioneering work in grading of agriculture produce and marketing them so that the farmers could realize better value to their produce. It also goes to his credit that, when he got posting in Andhra Pradesh, he has pioneered the grading of Flue Cured Virginia (FCV) Tobacco and was one of the architects in creating a brand image for FCV Tobacco of Andhra Pradesh across the world. His endeavour has always been that the farmers get better price for the tobacco crop produced by them. To ensure this, he assisted farmers in establishing a cooperative society for exporting their produce abroad. He used to be reverently referred as “Society Venkatramaiah” by the farmers of Ongole, Prakasam District. He has also served in Tobacco Board, Ministry of Commerce as Manager (Marketing & Market Research) and rendered yeomen service to the farmers by introducing auction system, which ensured prompt payment to farmers, thereby the farmers were saved from the trauma of indefinite waiting to receive sale proceeds ranging from 6 to 12 months. Due to open auction system, the farmers could come out

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of the clutches of unscrupulous traders. He, as a representative of Tobacco Board, toured intensively other tobacco growing countries in the world and evolved and implemented the best system of marketing of Tobacco through auctions in the interest of the farmers. His heart has always been with the farmers. He was always restless to improve the farmers’ lot. He resigned from the Central Government – a bold decision indeed in those days took up large scale cotton farming, when cotton crop was newly introduced in Coastal Andhra Pradesh. He started hybrid cotton seed production in a humble way initially to meet his own farms needs. A visionary that he was, he saw the need to establish a seed company primarily to meet the needs of the farmers of Guntur and neighbouring districts and, thus, NSL came into existence. Now the Seed Company has grown into one of the largest seed companies in the country and has also diversified into several businesses like Textiles, Sugar, Power Renewable Energy, Infratech; to name a few. Shri. M. Venkatramaiah has now handed over the reins of the business to his illustrious son Mr. M. Prabhakar Rao but still he is the guiding force for the company as Chairman Emeritus and is also actively involved in philanthropic activities. Like; 1.

Restoration of a complete block of a High School “Shri Patibandla Seetharamaiah High School, Ashok Nagar, Guntur”, which was damaged in riots.

2.

Construction of a temple in Brindavan Gardens, Guntur along with several other like minded people.

3.

Development of a Hindu Cremation Ground with serene and clean atmosphere, which is now a model project in the entire South Coastal Andhra Pradesh.

4.

Liberal contributions to several colleges in Guntur and Krishna Districts.

5.

Liberally contributing for development of a block in Girls Hostel, established for the purpose of educating poor rural girls in Guntur.

6.

Shri M. Venkatramaiah & his wife Smt. M. Ramadevi are blessed with two illustrious sons and a daughter.

National Seed Association of India takes immense pleasure and pride in honouring this legendry personality of Indian Seed Industry and wishes him a great success in his endeavour & philanthropic activities, which are so dear to his heart.


Besides, these special awards, some of our distinguished members were honored by organizations, national and international for their contributions to the industry. These included:

M

r. Vidyasagar Parchuri, CMD Vibha Seeds Group has been awarded with the “Outstanding AgBio Leadership Award” at AgBio Global Summit, 2011 at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore. This recognition comes for his outstanding commitment and leadership vision in promoting Research & Innovation and Development of quality hybrid seeds and crop genetics programs for the benefit of farmers and to uphold our national pride in food security and agriculture education and the welfare of the Indian farming community at large. The award has conferred by Maryland India Business Round Table Inc. (MIBRT), USA.

I

ndo- Thai Friendship Summit, Global Achievers Foundation presented “Glory of India International Award for Young Entrepreneur” to Mr. Kollipara Niranjan Kumar, Managing Director, Garc Seeds pvt. ltd., for his outstanding contribution & Lifetime Achievements in the field of seeds nationally and internationally. The award was presented in Bangkok, Thailand.

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M

r. Gubba Nagender Rao, Managing director ,Gubba Cold storage Ltd. has been felicitated with a prestigious award for contribution to the cold storage industry. This award was given by GCCA(Global Cold Chain Alliance).

NSAI congratulates them on their achievements and is proud to have them as our members.

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New Nsai Members S. No.

Name & Address of Company

MD/CEO

1

Mayur Seed Corporation H. No 1886, Near Devi Mandir MG Road, Pachora - 424 201, Dist. Jalgaon

Ramesh Shankar Lal Mor

2

Sundaram Infotech Solutions limited Deshbandhu Plaza, 47 Whites Road Chennai - 600 014

Malli J Sivakumar

3

Gill Seed Farm Dhudike V.P.O Dhudike distt. Teh Moga, Punjab

S. Balwinder Singh Gill

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Annexure : 1

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Vegetable Map of India


Annexure : 2

All India Area & Production Estimates of Vegetable Crops

Crops

2009-10

Major Producing States

Area (‘000 ha)

Prod. (‘000 MT)

Prductivity (‘000 MT/ha)

Cauliifiower

338

6410

18.96

Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam, Haryana & Maharashtra

Cabbage

331

7291

22.03

Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar, Assam, West Bengal, Maharashtra & Karnataka

Tomato

634

12433

19.61

Bihar, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh & Assam

Okra

452

4803

10.63

Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Assam

Brinjal

590

10165

17.23

Orissa, Bihar, Karnataka, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra & Uttar Pradesh

Potato

1835

36577

19.93

Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Punjab, Karnataka, Assam & Madhya Pradesh

Onion

756

12159

16.08

Maharashtra, Bihar, Karnataka, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh

Peas

348

2916

8.38

Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Orissa and Karnataka

Vegetables

(Sources : National Horticulture Board)

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Annexure : 3

Popular Vegetable Varieties/Hybrids from Major Vegetable Seed Companies Tomato

Advanta

Ankur Seeds

Bejo Sheetal Seeds

1

Super-1500

ARTH- 1001

2

GS-1897 Saathi

3

GS-3435

4 5

Century Seeds

Indam

JK Seeds

BSS 834

Yash

Akash  

JK Varsha

ARTH-1023

BSS 488

Supriya-235

Indam 519  

JK Asha

ARTH-2075

BSS 802

C-1742 (Virus Tolerent)

Indam 531 

JK Desi

Amulya-1744

ARTH-2110

BSS 803

Lehar

Indam 534 

GS-3310

ARTH-2000

BSS 844

Shivam (BW)

Indam 535

6

GS-1814

ARTH-2104

Sartaj

Rohini - I

7

GS-3440

ARTH-2231

Tolstoi

Rohini -II

ARTH-2286

8

74

Biostadt

BSS 846

D-4 -

9

BSS 908

Ramya

10

BSS 778

Indam 1116

11

BSS 684

Indam 2107

12

BSS 731

Vaishali 

13

BSS 825

Rupali

14

BSS 768

Rupali Improved

15

BSS-420

Indam 9501

16

Indam 9502

17

Indam 9802

18

Indam 9714

19

Indam 4101

20

Indam 2102 

21

Indam 2103 

22

Indam 2110

23

Indam 100

24

Indam 615

25

Indam 616

26

Indam 617

27

Meghana

28

Ruchi 

29

Indam 88-2 

30

Indam 88-3 

31

Chandini 

32

Rashmi Improved 

33

Rajani  

34

Rashmi 

35

Indam-15  

36

Indam-13  


Krishidhan

Mahyco Seeds P. Ltd

Namdhari Seeds P. Ltd

Nath Bio Gene

Nunhems

Nuziveedu Seeds

Rasi Seeds Pvt Ltd (Hyveg)

Seed Works

Sinnova

Syngenta

Kundal

S-41(Gotya)

NS 6237

NTH-882

NUN 7704

F1 Soumya

S-22

US 618

Angel

Abhinav

Mahalaxmi

S-72

NS 6336

NTH-671

NUN 7610

F1 Samba

PKM-1

US 1080

Lyco

Anup

Mahaveer

S-75

NS 6424

NTH-2000

NUN 5024

F1 N4545

US 1196

Gem

Avinash 2

Ameya

S-77

NS 1359

NT-670

Badshah

F1 Sania

US 2175

Jewel

All Rounder

Yashika

MHTM-84

NS 566 (6677)

Super Lakshmi

F1 Shriya

US 04

Syno

Trishul

MHTM-203

NS 562(6802)

Dev

F1Bhagya

US 3381

Euro

Rocky

MHTM-204

NS 6970

Avtar

F1 NS-3425

US 3383

TO-017

MHTM-207 (Arvind)

NS 547(6475)

Lakshmi

F1 Desi

US 3140

Heemsohna

MHTM-234 (Ramratan)

NS552 (6526)

F1 No. 842

US 4545

TO-1827

MHTM-256 (Suparna)

NS 565 (6504)

F1 Sona

US 800

TO-1458

MHTM-280 ( Abhinandan)

NS574 (904)

F1 Abhijay

US 3380

TO-848

MHTM 301

NS575(907)

F1 Rambo

US 2853

TO-1387

MHTM 401

NS563 (9863)

F1 Unat Bhagiya

US 3031

Abhiruchi – 1 to 11

NS 9290

F1 1005

Spurthi

NS 88

F1 1032

NS 77 NS 195 NS 64 NS 722 NS 1230 NS 966 NS 527(CAS17) NS 815 NS 812 NS 816 Utsav NS 2535 NS 681 NS 504 (104) NS 521 NS 516 NS 526(6H 16) NS 530(6H 17) NS 503(T 395)

75


Advanta

Ankur Seeds

Bejo Sheetal Seeds

Biostadt

Century Seeds

Indam

JK Seeds

1

Alankar

ARCH-226

BSS 213 (Siddhi)

Ragini

CCH-1

Indam 6

JK CHH 27

2

GS-484 Shubham

ARCH-32

BSS 267 ( Zankar )

Jhakash

CCH-2

Indam 9

JK HPH 207

3

GS-409

ARCH-930

BSS – 445(Jyoti)

CCH-13

Indam 54

JK HPH 208

4

Golden Wonder

ARCH-099

Garima BSS 378

CCH-14

Indam 5

JK HPH 555

5

GS-777 Shree

BSS 375 (SHABARI)

CCH-15

Indam 42

6

GS-2700

Anmol BSS 273

Indam 50

7

BSS 304 (Suraj)

Indam 67

8

BSS-602 (SUPER DABBI)

Indam Jwala-OP

9

BSS-657

Indam Kaddi-OP

10

BSS 414

Indam Dabba-OP

11

Bhagirath (BSS502)

12

BSS 675

13

BSS 606 (Trilok)

14

BSS 355

15

BSS 644

16

BSS 654

17

BSS 676

Chilli/Hot Pepper

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Okra

1

GS- 123

AROH -218

BSS 898

Payal

CBHH-203

Varsha (Improved)

JK Haritha

2

GS-124

AROH- 221

BSS 893

Prabha

Panchaali

Vijaya (Improved)

JKOH 045

3

AROH- 465

BSS 828

Poonam

Indam 102

JKOH 3017

4

AROH- 113

Indranil

5

AROH-10

Indam 29

6

Indam 1967

7

Indam 9821

8 9

76

Indam 23


Krishidhan

Mahyco Seeds P. Ltd

Namdhari Seeds P. Ltd

Nath Bio Gene

Nunhems

Nuziveedu Seeds

Rasi Seeds Pvt Ltd (Hyveg)

Seed Works

Sinnova

Syngenta

Manaswini

MHP-1(Tejaswini)

NS 1701

Dhanashree NCH-1

Narmada

F1 Siri-1233

K2

US 341

Blaze

Roshni

Tufan

MHP-62

NS 1101

Jaishree (NCH-3)

Ujala

F1 Trisha-873

Byadgi Local

US 635

Capci

Red Diamond

Japanese Hot

MHP-63

NS 1072

Soldier

F1 Arun-99

US 4

Spicy

Agnirekha

Ayesha

MHCP-159

NS 227

Kranti

F1 Sunny-2277

US 323

Benz

Hot Line

Rutuja

MHCP-306 (Suhasini)

NS 230

Devanur Deluxe F1 Nuzi delux-055

US 214

Spark

HPH-117

Tejal

MHCP-307(Vaishnavi)

NS 211

Preeti

F1 NCH-057

US 170

Supreme

Volcano

Green Spice

MHCP-308 (Bhagyalaxmi)

NS 222

Ramya

F1 Nuzi-61

US 612

Picalo

HPH-1900

Hot Spice

MHCP-310 (Teja-4)

NS 238

Indira

F1 Tara

US 611

Joy

HPH-404

Rujala

MHCP-315

NS 343

Garuda

F1 Nuzi-15

US 720

Mugdha

MHCP-317(Sierra)

Goli

Sreenath

F1 Nuzi-72

US 730

Suteja

MHCP-318

NS 275

Supriya

F1- Ninad-056

US 189

Shivangi

Spectacular

NS 264

Veerji

F1 Nuzi-61

US 12

Ronny

Fire Cracker

NS 7510

Priyanka

US 18

Isha

Hot Summer

NS 208

Angel

US 60

Sizzler

NS 250

New Vardhan

US 344

Fire Camp

NS 727

Nandi

US 349

Hot Club

NS 221

Somnath

Green Supper

NS 220

Fire

Rapid Fire

NS 300

Indu

Cool Dark

NS 794 NS 436 Pragati AKASH NS 201 NS 203 NS 205

Anjali

MHOK-10

NS 801

Emerald (NOH7080)

Shakti

F1 Prabhava-225

Rasi 20

US 7109

Slender

OH-016

Selection 328

MHOK-12

NS 810

NOH-7100

Sonal

F1 Mridula-251

Arka Anamika

US 419

Sleek

OH-152

Selection 329

Green Tender

NS 818

Super Lady Luck

Sarika

F1 Smrithi-16

US 7136

Novel

KVOKH RT 215

Green Energy

NS 819

Tulsi

F1 Sonali

US 7962

Glory

KVOKH RT 171

Green crown

NS 531

F1 Nuzi 2039

US 7909

77


Radish

Advanta

Ankur Seeds

Bejo Sheetal Seeds

1

Ketki

Navin

Koren

2

Spring Wonder

Chandni

3

A.P.Express

Biostadt

Century Seeds

Indam

JK Seeds

CRH-11(h.q.type)

Indam 4

JK Shweta

Mino Long

Indam 7 Indam 8

4

Brinjal/Egg Plant

Cabbage

1

GS-8

Ankur Ajay

Jahak

Nisha Improved

Suphal

2

GS-9

Ankur Kaustubh

Vieky

Green Long

Supriya

3

Pratibha 94631

Ankur Vijay

Kalyan

Mahadeva

Indam 451

4

Preethi

Ankur Abhishek

BSS465

Kokila

Sourabh

5

GS- 310

Ankur Utkarsha

BSS-630

BW-1

6

Krishna

Ankur Neelam

BSS-332

BW-2

7

PK 321, Sweekar

Ankur 786

BSS-631

Suchitra

8

Ankur Shreerang

Panna

BLH-2

9

Ankur Panna

BSS-427

INDAM- 504

10

Ankur Kirti

BSS-789

INDAM -540

11

Ankur Sachin

BSS-127

INDAM- 509

12

Ankur-1055

BSS-457

INDAM- 35

13

Ankur-1093

BSS-914

Hybrid Green

14

Ankur-797

BSS-791

Green Ground

15

Ankur-1205

BSS-793

Mysore Green Long -OP

16

BSS-619

RB-63 -OP

17

BSS-788

Purple Long Cluster -OP

1

Bhima

Manas

Gonzales

CH-666

Indam 296

JK Greenwonder

2

Pramukh

Regal

Fieldman

CH-2200

Indam 1299

JK Oxford

3

GS-67

Invento

Krishna

4

Supperball-50

Gideon

Ramkrishna

5 6 7 8

78

Bombay Long White

Bronco


Krishidhan

Mahyco Seeds P. Ltd

White House

Namdhari Seeds P. Ltd

Nath Bio Gene

Nunhems

Nuziveedu Seeds

Rasi Seeds Pvt Ltd (Hyveg)

Hybrid No-11

F1 White Prince

Imp Chetki

Hybrid No-841

F1 Summer Queen

Hill Queen

White Wonder

F1 Spring Queen

EMW

CVK

Seed Works

Sinnova

Syngenta Ivory White

White Early

Ankush

MHB-4,9,10,11,39,56,80,82

NS358

NBH-03

Ananya

F1 Kanak Durga601

Royal

Namrata

MHBJ-99,100,110,111,112,114

Sunder

NBH-13

Sandhya

F1 Amla-08

Crown

Revati

Ruby

NS 317

NBH-21

Rajni

F1Jagrti -696

Arnav

Sarika

Mukut

NS 320

NBH-249

BE-707

F1 Gayatri-756

Regal

Sagarika

Parinda

NS 314

NBH-272

Chhotu

F1 Asta-776

Jumbo

Mamta

Purple White

NS 329

NBH-317

Pratap

F1 Gulabi Long

Slim

Anurag

Green Slender

NS 302

Hariya

F1 Arjun

Real

Chaman

Spiny Prince

NS 381

Nun-1539

F1 Karan

Green Beauty

Purple Princes

NS 797

Chhaya

F1 Gulabi Round

Sahana

Dark Superior

NS 1538

Harshita

F1 No.744

Suchitra

Purple Green

Arka Kusumakar(OP)

Shilpa

F1 Green Star (No.833)

Shalin

Blossum Stripe

Arka Nidhi (OP)

Manjula

F1 Kranti

Sushmita

Green Splash

NS 1538

BE-706

F1 Hansa

Black Club

NS 787

F1 Unat Anand

Purple King

F1 Utkal Green

Purple Gem

F1- Gagrti

Black Giant

Durga

Hybrid No 18 (Kranti)

NS 43

Barkha-3002

Improved Bahar

F1 Unnat Pawan (IMP)

Super Red Globe

Acent

BC-64

Harnil

Hybrid No 139

NS 35

Nath Laxmi101

Alisha

F1 Prabhat

Golden Acre

Remo

BC-73

Green Shot

Hybrid No 261(Wonder Boy)

NS 195

Nath Laxmi201

Yash

F1 Early Ball

Linda

BC-79

Sourav

Hybrid MHCB 600 (Navkranti)

NS 151

Pragati Plus

F1 Green Champion-23

Summer Queen

Hybrid No 602 (Hariyali Express)

NS 183

Unnati

F1 Chitra-25

Green Globe

Hybrid MHCB 680 (Haripriya)

NS 160

F1 Nuzi Green

KS-Cross

Hybrid No 682

NS 163

F1 Autam

BC-76

Hybrid No Hari Rani

NS 165

F1 319

Equatoria

79


Advanta

Ankur Seeds

Bejo Sheetal Seeds

Biostadt

Century Seeds

Indam

JK Seeds

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Cauliflower

1

Shigra

Amazing

Ageti Himlata

Indam Early-OP

2

Basanti 956

Deepa

Early Himangini

Indam 88-52

3

GS-312

Himpriya -60

Indam 2435

4

GC-80

Mayuri

Indam 9803

5

Sharmilee-85

6

GS-277

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Sweet Pepper

1

Ankur -19

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Watermelon

1

Disco - 287

Kashish

Bejo-2000

Uttam

CWMH-1

Pata Negra

JK Lekha

2

GS- 286

Saras

BSS Swapnil

Sugar Black

Black Gem

Indam 369

JK Vimal

3

GS- 285

Big Boy

Indam 9307

4

GS- 22

CWMH-7

Sugar Baby -OP

5 6 7 8 9

80

CWMH-8


Krishidhan

Mahyco Seeds P. Ltd

Namdhari Seeds P. Ltd

Nath Bio Gene

Nunhems

Nuziveedu Seeds

Rasi Seeds Pvt Ltd (Hyveg)

Seed Works

Sinnova

Protective Green

NS 22

Big Globe

NS 25

Tekila

Small Wonder

Saurav

BC-305

Green Queen

Gaurav

BC-300

F1 505

Syngenta Quizer

Wonder Girl Green Globe Green Wonder Green Express Aprima

Atishighra

Juliana

Grershma

White Magic

Sarita

F1 Hot queen

Poosi

US-5010

Pawas

Shwetangi

F1 Summer White

Maghi

US-178

Suhasini

US-5002

Octinova

NS 60 N

Poornima

F1 Contessa

Aghani

Prathama

Basant

NUN-2801

F1 White Diamond

Kartiki

Snow Heart

Dwitiya

NS 120

Tushar

F1 Rani

Kimaya

Tritiya

NS 131

F1 Raja

Barsati

NS 133

F1 Riya

Lucky

NS 60

F1 Milki

Suhasini+

NS 555

F1 Snow White

Snow Cloud

Tetris

NS 66 NS 94 NS 84 NS 90 NS 106

Indian

NS 631

F1 Rachita

US 181

Lario

NS 632

Nuzi Wonder

US 26

Indra

US 119

Bomby

NS 291 NS 292

Orobelle

NS 274

Picador

Sindhoori NS 280 NS 281 NS 33 (OP) California wonder (OP) Tambola

MHW-4 (Santrupti)

Mayur

Prince

MHW-5 (Amrut)

Black Sugar Black Honey

Ranjeet

Madhubala

F1 Katrina-117

NS 295

Madhuri

MHW-6

NS 750

MHWM-285

NS 296

Rasraj

Fortuna

Savita

Stripped Gulliver

Julie

Summer Friend

Sweety

US 2144

Ria

Augasta

F1 Rakhi

US 2146

Candy

Sugar King

Pakeeza

F1 Sweet Baby

US 2157

Slice

Sugar Dragon

Khushboo

F1 Nano

Pluto

Shahenshah

NS 252

Ayesha

F1Tahir-44

NS 20

Nina

F1-87

NS 246

Pemium

Crimson Beauty

NS 116

NUN 8674

Sweet Summer

NS 92

81


Advanta

Ankur Seeds

Bejo Sheetal Seeds

Biostadt

Century Seeds

Indam

Sona

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Muskmelon

1

GS- 10

BSS-361

CMMH-4

2

GS- 141

BSS-362

Madhubala

3

Hariya

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Bittergourd

1

Vijayanthi

Ankur Shreya

Prachi

Green Star

Tijarti

Indam 1124

2

Vinay

Ankur Reshma

BSS-690

Proud

Lakshya

Indam 49

3

Vishesh

Ankur Parag

BSS-691

Bahaar

Indam 711

4

Kohinoor

5

Indam 4625

6

Indam Green Long

6

Indam White Long

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

82

Ankur Hema

JK Seeds


Krishidhan

Mahyco Seeds P. Ltd

Namdhari Seeds P. Ltd

Nath Bio Gene

Nunhems

Nuziveedu Seeds

Rasi Seeds Pvt Ltd (Hyveg)

NS 910

Madhuraja

F1 Pranav

Madhuras

NS 904

Madhurima

F1 Yellow Crown

Abhijeet

Capsule

NS 7455

Nayla

NS 89

Rose May

Seed Works

Sinnova

US 6205

Croma Roma

Syngenta

Tejas NS 200 NS 217 NS 423 NS 170 NS 1004 NS 751 NS 710 Chetan (NS 700) NS 701(IB 4) NS 760(IB 6) NS702(NSX34)

NS 923 NS 929 NS 930 NS 931 NS 934 NS 972 Nikita

MBTH 101

NS 1018

NBIGH-05

Sarkar

F1 Vinay

Hita

MBTH – 102

NS 424(6142)

NBIGH-07

Amanshri

F1 Vineet

US 6207

Ishita

MHBI – 7

NS 1020

Sarita

Chaman

F1 Harita

US 6214

Parinita

MHBI – 10

NS 451

F1 Amrapali

US 33

Ruchita

MHBI – 13

NS 452

F1 Sarita

US 205

MHBI – 15

NS 453

F1 Malini

US 316

MHBI – 17

NS 454

F1 Vivake

US 26

MWL

NS 1024

MGL

NS 1026

Ventura

NS 434

Sharp Blaze

NS 435

Light ‘N’ Slender

NS 463

Sharp White

NS 469

Sharp Bite

NS 497

Sharp Green

NS 473

Straight Jack

NS 487

Rasi Zeena

Slender Star

83


Bottlegourd

Advanta

Ankur Seeds

Bejo Sheetal Seeds

Biostadt

Century Seeds

Indam

JK Seeds

GSH-2

Amit

Akash

Vinayak

CBH-3

Indam 204

JK Uttara

2

Vikrant

Shramik

Bhola

CBH-8

Indam 320

3

Vivek

BSS - 687

Indam 9720-OP

BSS 333 (PRATIK )

PSPL-OP

1

4 5 6 6 7 8

Ridgegourd

1

Haritha

Latika

Anamika

Nidhi

Indam 1222

Supriya

Bss 582

Harsha

Indam -1

1

Shilpa

BSS-838

Utsav

Indam 65

2

Rupa

Geeta

White Seeded

3

Maitri

Seeta

2016 (Light Green)

2 3 4 5 6 7 Spongegourd

4

Neela

5 6 7

Snake gourd

1 2 3 4

84

Golden Show

BDS-694


Krishidhan

Mahyco Seeds P. Ltd

Namdhari Seeds P. Ltd

Nath Bio Gene

Nunhems

Nuziveedu Seeds

Rasi Seeds Pvt Ltd (Hyveg)

Seed Works

Sinnova

Santosh

MHBG-4 (Warad)

Kaveri

Prasad-4000

Anokhi

F1 Anurag

Merina

US 15

Reena

Shambhu

MHBG-8

NS 421

F1 Nuzi Round

US 58

Nutra

Ramdev

MHBG-10

NS 422

F1 Shanku

US 112

Nova

Shashi

Green Major

NS 439

F1 Unat Anurag

Green Golu

NS 433

US 6001

Liza

Green Sergeant

Mridula

Green Long

Bhumika

Hybrid MGH-1

Nutan

Syngenta

NS 482 and NS 477

Murali

MRGH - 1 (Surekha)

NS 3

MRGH - 3

NS 484

F1 Saurav

US 134

Carina

MRGH – 6

NS 401

F1 1001

US 66

Celina

MHRG – 7

NS 403

Ridge Queen

NS 471

Ridge Long

NS 474

Ridge King

NS 475

Nivedita

MSGH-1

NS 441

 Nandita

MSGH-6 (Harita)

NS 442

MHSP-8

NS 445

Praveen-5000

F1 Nishant

Amoha

US 276

Komal

F1 Sahil

US 3

F1 Sonal

US 39

MHSP-10 Green Splendour Green Delight Emerald

MSSG-1 MHSN-1 Mahyco Short Sequoia

85


Advanta Ash gourd

Ankur Seeds

1

Bejo Sheetal Seeds

Biostadt

Sownya

CAH-1

2

Century Seeds

Indam

CAHZ

3 4 5

Carrot

1

GH-176

Samson

Indam - Kuroda

2

Indam-13

3

Early Nantes Indam 459  

Onion

1 2 3

Commandar

Parade

Indam DR-1-OP

Lucifer

Hybrid 3

Orinet BSS 858

Source: Compiled by NSAI, 2011 Note: The list of varieties/hybrids and the companies is not exhaustive. The information presented here is prepared based on information available and is not a recommendation.

86

JK Seeds


Krishidhan

Mahyco Seeds P. Ltd

Namdhari Seeds P. Ltd

Nath Bio Gene

Nunhems

Nuziveedu Seeds

NS 854

Alamada

Desi Red

Super Kuroda (OP)

Choctaw

Early Nantes

Rasi Seeds Pvt Ltd (Hyveg)

Seed Works

Sinnova

Syngenta

MAH-1 MAH-2 MHAG-2 Power Wonder Power Giant

Nantes

New Kuroda

Ruby

NO-1067

Matahari

Nuzi Selection

Gota

NO-1068

Juni

Nuzi Dark Red

NO-1069

Nuzi Light Red

87


Annexure : 4

Notified Vegetable Varieties/Hybrid in India Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre

2007

26/12/2008

2978(E)

Gujarat

JAU (ARS), JUNAGADH

Bulb Vegetables Garlic 1

J-99-213 (GUJARAT GARLIC)

2

YAMUNA SAFED-4 (G-323)

25/04/2006

597(E)

Central

NHRDF, KARNAL

3

VL GARLIC-1 (VLG-7)

31/05/2004

642(E)

Central

VPKAS, ALMORA

4

YAMUNA SAFED-3

26/10/1999

1052(E)

Central

NHRDF, KARNAL

5

GHC-1

10/02/1996

115(E)

Central

CSKHPKV, PALMPUR

Central

NHRDF, KARNAL

6

YAMUNA SAFED-2

10/02/1996

115(E)

7

GODAWARI (SEL. 2)

17/08/1993

617(E)

MPKV RAHURI

8

YAMUNA SAFED (G-1)

16/08/1991

527(E)

NHRDF, KARNAL

ONION

88

1

Hisar Onion-3(HOS-1)

12/08/2010

1979(E)

Central

HAU, HISAR

2

BHIMA RAJ (B-780-5-2-2)

26/12/2008

2978(E)

CENTRAL

NRC FOR ONION AND GARLIC, RAJGURUNAGAR, PUNE

3

ARKA BINDU

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

4

ARKA PITAMBAR ‘

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

5

NHRDF RED

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

NHRDF, NASHIK

6

AKOLA SAFED (PKV SELECTION WHITE)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

PDKV, AKOLA

7

PHULE SAMARTH(S-l)

25/04/2005

597(E)

CENTRAL

MPKV RAHURI

8

APRITA (RO-59)

11/05/2005

664(E)

CENTRAL

RARS, DURGAPURA

9

RO-1 (RAJASTHAN ONION-1)

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

RARS, DURGAPURA

10

PHULE SUVARNA (RHR-87015)

19/04/2001

348(E)

11

PUNJAB WHITE

21/09/1998

S43(E)

CENTRAL

PAU, LUDHIANA

12

AGRI. FOUND LIGHT RED

10/02/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

NHRDF, NASHIK

13

PUNJAB NAROYA

10/02/1996

115CE)

CENTRAL

PAU, LUDHIANA

14

VL PIA2-3

22/ IV 1991

793(E)

VPKAS, ALMORA

15

BASWANT (N0.780)

06/11/1989

915(E)

IIHR, BANGALORE

2000

MPKV RAHURI

16

PUSA MADHVI

06/11/1989

915{E)

IARI, NEW DELHI

17

AGRI FOUND DARK RED

01/12/1988

1135(E)

NHRDF, NASHIK

18

CO. 4

1981

13/08/1984

596(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

19

KALYANPUR RED ROUND

1982

03/01/1983

2(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

CSAUA&T, KANPUR

20

CO. 3

1979

14/01/1982

19(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

21

MDU-1

1979

14/01/1982

19(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

22

CO. 2

19/12/1978

13

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

23

PUNJAB-43

19/12/1978

13

PUNJAB

PAU, LUDHIANA

24

PUSA RATNAR

19/12/1978

13

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

19/12/1978

13

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

19/12/1978

13

UTTAR PRADESH

VPKAS, ALMORA

02/02/1976

786

HARYANA

HAU, HISAR

30/06/1973

361(E)

PUNJAB

PAU, LUDHIANA

25

PUSA RED

26

V.L PIAZE-67

27

HISSAR-2

28

PUNJAB SELECTION

1978

1973 1973


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre

29

ARKA KALYAN

MAHARASHTRA

IIHR, BANGALORE

30

ARKA NIKETAN

MAHARASHTRA

IIHR, BANGALORE

31

ARKA PRAGATI

MAHARASHTRA

IIHR, BANGALORE

32

EARLY GRANO

CENTRAL

33

NIPHAD-53

CENTRAL

34

PATNA RED

CENTRAL

35

PUSA WHITE FLAT

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

36

PUSA WHITE ROUND

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

37

RED GLOBE

CENTRAL

COLE CROPS BROCOLLI 1

PALAM HARITICA

11/05/2005

664(E)

CENTRAL

HPKV, PALAMPUR

CABBAGE 1

KINNER RED

26/10/1999

1052(E)

CENTRAL

HPKV, PALAMPUR

2

COPENHAGEN MARKET,

19/12/1978

S.O.13

CENTRAL

IARI, RS, Katrain

3

EARLY DRUM HEAD

19/12/1978

S.O.13

CENTRAL

IARI, RS, Katrain

4

PRIDE OF INDIA

30/06/1973

S.O.361(E)

CENTRAL

YSPUHF, Solan

5

GOLDEN ACRE

20/02/1970

716

CENTRAL

IARI, RS, Katrain

20/02/1970

716

6

PUSA DRUM HEAD

CENTRAL

IARI, RS, Katrain

7

KALIMPONG ENGLISH BALL

CENTRAL

-

8

LATE DRUM HEAD

CENTRAL

IARI, RS, Katrain

CAULIFLOWER 1

KASHI AGAHANI (1VRMC-12)

26/12/2008

2978(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

2

NUDB-26-11

16/10/2008

S,O. 2458(E)

CENTRAL

-

3

KASHI KUNWARI (IVCE-2)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

4

RC-JOB-1

25/04/2006

597{E)

CENTRAL

-

5

PALAM KANCHAN

11/05/2005

664(E)

CENTRAL

HPKV, Palampur

6

PALAM VACHITRA

11/05/2005

664(E)

CENTRAL

HPKV, Palampur IARI, New Delhi

7

PUSA MEGHNA (DC/98-2)

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

8

PUSA SHARAD (SEL-309-1-2)

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

IARI,New Delhi

9

PUSA SNOWBALL (K~25(KT-25)

04/02/2004

161(E)

CENTRAL

IARI,New Delhi

10

PANT GOBH1-4

04/05/1995

408(E)

CENTRAL

GBPUA&T, Pantnagar

11

PUSA HYBRID-2

02/09/1994

636(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

12

PUSA HYBRID-2 (F)

02/09/1994

636(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

13

PUSA HYBRID-2 (M)

02/09/1994

635(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

14

PUSA EARLY SYNTHETIC

17/08/1993

617(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

15

NARENDRA GOBHI-1

16

PUSA SHUBRA

17

PUSA SNOWBALL K- 1

18

PANT SHUBHRA

04/11/1992

814(E)

1985

01/01/1988

10(E)

01/01/1988 1985

09/04/1985

NDUA&T, Faizabad CENTRAL

IARI,New Delhi

10(E)

CENTRAL

IARI,RS, Katrain

295(E)

CENTRAL

IARI,New Delhi

19

PUSA DEEPALI

1977

23/03/1978

1004

CENTRAL

IARI,New Delhi

20

PUSA SNOWBALL- 1

1977

23/03/1978

1004

CENTRAL

IARI,RS, Katrain

21

PUSA SNOW BALL- 2

1977

23/03/1978

1004

CENTRAL

IARI,RS, Katrain

22

HISSAR-1

02/02/1976

786

HARYANA

HAU, Hisar

89


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre

23

D-96

21/08/1975

440(E)

DELHI

IARI,RS, Katrain

24

EARLY BHAGOT

21/08/1975

440(E)

HIMACHAL PRADESH

IARI,RS, Katrain

25

PUSA KATKI

21/08/1975

440(E)

CENTRAL

IARI,New Delhi

26

EARLY KUNWARI

30/06/1973

361(E)

CENTRAL

IARI,New Delhi

27

GIANT SNOWBALL

30/06/1973

361(E)

PUNJAB

-

28

PUSA KATKI-7

20/02/1970

716

CENTRAL

IARI,New Delhi

20/02/1970

716

CENTRAL

IARI,RS, Katrain

29

PUSA SNOWBALL-16

30

E-314

CENTRAL

-

31

IMPROVED JAPANESE

CENTRAL

IARI,New Delhi

32

PUNJAB GIANT-26

CENTRAL

PAU, Ludhiana

33

punjab giant-ss

CENTRAL

PAU, Ludhiana

34

PUSA SYNTHETIC

CENTRAL

IARI,New Delhi

KNOL-KHOL 1

PALAM TENDER KNOB

11/05/2005

664(E)

CENTRAL

HPKV, PALAMPUR

2

EARLY PURPLE VIENNA

19/12/1978

13

CENTRAL

IARI,RS, Katrain

3

EARLY WHITE VIENNA

19/12/1978

13

CENTRAL

IARI,RS, Katrain

4

KING OF MARKET

19/12/1978

13

CENTRAL

IARI,RS, Katrain

5

LARGE GREEN

21/08/1975

440(E)

HIMACHAL PRADESH

IARI,RS, Katrain

6

WHITE VIENNA

21/08/1975

440(E)

CENTRAL

IARI,RS, Katrain

CHINESE CABBAGE 1

PUCH-3 (PALAMPUR GREEN)

10/02/1996

115(E)

2

CHINI SARSON

01/01/1988

10(E)

28/11/2006

2035CE)

HPKV, PALAMPUR

CUCURBITS BITTER GOURD 1

PANT KARELA-2 (PBIG-2)

CENTRAL

GBPUA&T, PANTNAGAR

2

PHULE GREEN GOLD (RHRBG-5)

2000

19/04/2001

348(E)

MPKV RAHURI

3

PHULE PRIYANKA (RHRBGH-1)

2000

19/04/2001

348(E)

MPKV RAHURI

4

PREETHI

21/09/1998

843(E)

CENTRAL

KAU, VELLANIKKARA

5

KALYANPUR SONA

02/10/1996

H5(E)

CENTRAL

CSAUA&T, KANPUR

6

KONKAN TARA (DPL-BG-2)

02/10/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

KKV, KONKAN

7

ARKA HARIT

26/11/1986

867(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

8

M.D.U.I

1984

24/07/1985

S.O.540(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

9

KALYANPUR BARAHMASI

1982

03/01/1983

S.O.(E)

UTTAft PRADESH

CSAUA&T, KANPUR

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

CENTRAL

TNAU, COIMBATORE

10

KASHMIRI LONG

21/08/1975

S.O.440(E)

11

LONG YELLOW

21/08/1975

S.O.440(E)

12

CO-1(MC-77)

13

COIMBATORE LONG

14

MC-23

15

PRIYA

16

PUSA DO MAUSAMI

1978

CENTRAL 1982

KERALA

KAU, VELLANIKKARA

CENTRAL

IARI,NEW DELHI

CENTRAL

GBPUA&T, PANTNAGAR

BOTTLE GOURD 1

90

PANT LAUKI-3 (PBOG-61)

28/11/2006

2035(E)


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name 2

Year of Release

PANT SANKAR LAUKI-2

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

GBPUA&T, PANTNAGAR

3

KASHI BAHAR (VRH-1)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, VARANASI

4

KASHI GANGA (DVBG-1)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, VARANASI

5

LAUKI AZAD SANKAR-1

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

CSAUA&T, KANPUR

6

NARENDRA DHARIDAR (NDBG-208-1)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

NDUA&T, FAIZABAD

7

NARENDRA JYOTHI (NDPG-104)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

NDUA&T, FAIZABAD

8

NARENDRA RASHMI

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

NDUA&T, FAIZABAD

9

NARENDRA SANKAR LAUKI-4

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

NDUA&T, FAIZABAD

10

PANTSHANKER LAUKM

26/10/1999

1052(E)

CENTRAL

GBPUA&T, PANTNAGAR

11

PUNJAB LONG (LC-2-1)

26/10/1999

1052(E)

CENTRAL

PAU, LUDHIANA

12

ARKA BAHAR

26/11/1986

867(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

13

KALIANPUR LONG GREEN

03/01/1983

S.O.2(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

CSAUA&T, KANPUR

14

PUSA SUMMER PROLIFIC LONG (PSPL)

21/08/1975

S.O.440(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

15

PUSA SUMMER PROLIFIC ROUND (PSPR)

21/08/1975

S.O.440(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

16

SINGAPURI LONG

21/08/1975

S.O.440(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

17

ARKA

18

CC-1

19

PUNJAB LONG

20

PUNJAB ROUND

21 22

1982

IIHR, BANGALORE 1982

PUNJAB

PAU, LUDHIANA

CENTRAL

PAU, LUDHIANA

PUSA MANJARI

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

PUSA MEGHDOOT

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

2035(E)

CENTRAL

GBPUA&T, Pantnagar

.

CUCUMBER 1

PANTKHIRA-l

28/11/2006

2

SWARNA AGETI

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, Ranchi

3

SWARNA SHEETAL

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, Ranchi

4

GUJARAT CUCUMBER-1

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

GAU, Anand

5

SWARNA POORNA (CH-20)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, Ranchi

6

PHULE SHUBHANGI (SEL 75-1-10)

19/02/2001

348(E)

MPKV Rahuri

7

SHEETAL

06/11/1989

915(E)

MPKV Rahuri

2000

8

KALIANPUR GREEN.

9

JAPANESE LONG GREEN

1982

03/01/1983

S.O.2(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

21/08/1975

S.O.2(E)

CENTRAL

IARI,RS, Katrain

10

POINSETTE

CENTRAL

11

PUSA SANYOG

CENTRAL

12

STRAINGHT EIGHT.

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

PUMPKIN 1

AZAD PUMPKIN-1

25/04/2006

597(E)

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

2

KASHI HARIT (IVPK-226)

25/04/2006

597(E)

IIVR, Varanasi

3

NARENDRA ABHOOSHAN(NDPKH-l)

25/04/2006

597(E)

NDUA&T, Faizabad

4

NARENDRA AMRIT

25/04/2006

597(E)

NDUA&T, Faizabad

5

NDPK-24

25/04/2006

597(E)

NDUA&T, Faizabad

6

SARAS

25/04/2006

597(E)

7

SOORAJ (CM350)

27/12/2003

448(E)

8

AMBILI

01/12/1988

1135(E)

2003

KAU,Vellanikkara TAMILNADU

KAU,Vellanikkara KAU,Vellanikkara

91


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name 9

CO. 2 (CM-32-1-1)

10

ARKA CHANDAN

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre

19/12/1978

13

TAMILNADU

TNAU, Coimbatore

CENTRAL

IIHR, Bangalore

CENTRAL

MPKV Rahuri

SMOOTH GUARD 1

PHULE PRAJAKTA (GFE-SMG-108)

19/04/2001

348(E)

MUSK MELON 1

PUNJAB ANMOL

2005

18/07/2008

1714(E)

PUNJAB

PAU, Ludhiana

2

GUJARAT MUSKMELON-3(GMM-3)

1975

25/04/2006

597(E)

GUJARAT

GAU, Anand

3

NARENDRA MUSKMELON-l(NDM-2)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

NDUA&T, Faizabad

4

KASHI MADHU (IVMM-3)

28/01/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

5

MHY-5

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

RARS, Durgapura

6

RM-50

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

RARS, Durgapura

7

MHY-3

26/10/1999

1052(E)

CENTRAL

RARS, Durgapura

8

RM-43

02/08/1997

98(E)

CENTRAL

RARS, Durgapura

9

MH-10(MHI-10)

02/10/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

PAU, Ludhiana

10

PUNJAB RASILA (MR-12)

02/10/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

PAU, Ludhiana

11

PUSA RASRAJ

17/08/1993

617(E)

IARI, New Delhi

12

ARKAJEET

26/11/1986

867(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, Bangalore

13

ARKA RAJHANS

26/11/1986

867(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, Bangalore

13/08/1984

S.O.596(E)

GUJARAT

13/08/1984

596(E)

14

GUJARAT MUSKMELON-2 (SEL-74)

15

GUJRAT MUSKMELON-1 (SEL.-262)

1975

GAU, Anand GAU, Anand

16

PUNJAB

1978

19/12/1978

S.O.13

PUNJAB

PAU, Ludhiana

17

PUSA SHARBATI

1977

23/03/1978

S.O.1004

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

18

LUCKNOW

21/08/1975

S.O.440(E)

CENTRAL

PAU, Ludhiana

19

DURGAPURA MADHU

21/09/1974

566(E)

CENTRAL

RARS, Durgapura

20

HARA MADHU

1977

20/02/1970

S-O,716

PUNJAB

PAU, Ludhiana

21

PUNJAB HYBRID

1981

22

PUSA MADHURAS

PUNJAB

PAU, Ludhiana

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

LONG MELON 1

PUNJAB LONG MELON NO. 1 (H-10)

10/02/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

PAU, LUDHIANA

2

ARKA SHEETAL

26/11/1986

867(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

IIHR, BANGALORE

3

KARNAL SELECTION

CENTRAL

RIDGE GOURD 1

ARKA SUJAT

28/11/2006

2035(E)

IIHR, BANGALORE

2

SWARNA MANJARI

28/11/2006

2035(E)

HARP, RANCHI

3

SWARNA UPHAR

28/11/2006

2035(E)

HARP, RANCHI KAU, VELLANIKKARA

4

DEEPTHI

25/04/2006

597(E)

5

ARKA SUMMET (HHR-7)

11/05/2005

664(E)

6

KONKAN HARITA (DPL-RG-1)

02/10/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

KKV, KONKAN

7

CO-2

1984

24/07/1985

S.O.540(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

8

CO-1(LA-3-2-l)

1978

19/12/1978

S.O.13

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

9

PUNJAB SADABAHAR (S-10)

1978

19/12/1978

S.O.13

10

PUSA NASDAR

IIHR, BANGALORE

PUNJAB

PAU, LUDHIANA

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

POINTED GOURD (PARWAL)

92

1

KASHI ALANKAR (VRPG-1)

01/06/2007

858(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

2

SWARBA ALAUKIK

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, RANCHI


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre HARP, RANCHI

3

SWARNA REKHA

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

4

RAJENDRA PARWAL- 1

02/09/1994

636(E)

CENTRAL

RAU, PUSA

5

RAJENDRA PARWAL-2

02/09/1994

636(E)

CENTRAL

RAU, PUSA

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

KAU,VELLANIKKARA

SNAKE GOURD 1

BABY

2

MANUSREE

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

KAU, VELLANIKKARA

3

KONKAN SHWETA

02/09/1994

636(E)

CENTRAL

KKV, KONKAN

4

CO.2

26/11/1986

867(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

5

PKM-1

1979

14/01/1982

S.O.19(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

6

CO-1 (TA-2-6-1)

1978

19/12/1978

S.O.13

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

SPONGE GOURD 1

AZAD TORAI CHIKNI-1

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

CSAUA&T, KANPUR

2

GUJARAT SPONGEGOURD-l(JSGL-55)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

GAU, ANAND

3

SWARNA PRABHA (CHSG-1)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, RANCHI

4

PUSA SNEHA

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

5

PUSA SUPRIYA (SEL 99)

08/02/1997

98 (E)

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

6

KALIANPUR HAR1 CHINKNI

7

PUSA CHIKNI

1982

03/01/1983

S.O.2(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

CSAUA&T, KANPUR

21/08/1975

S.O.440(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

12/08/2010

1979(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

ASH GOURD (PETHA) 1

PUSA UJWAL

2

KASI UJWAL (IVAG-90)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

IIVR, VARANASI

3

KASHI DHAWAL (IVAG-502)

25/04/2006

597(E)

IIVR, VARANASI

4

PUSA UJWAL (DAG-1)

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

5

CO-2

13/08/1984

596(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

26/11/1986

867(E)

BUSH SQUASH 1

PATTY PAN

IIHR, BANGALORE

INDIAN SQUASH (TINDA/ROUND MELON) 1

HISAR TINDA

25/04/2006

597(E)

HAU, HISAR

2

ARKA TINDA

26/11/1986

867(E)

IIHR, BANGALORE PAU, LUDHIANA

3

PUNJAB TINDA (S-48)

19/12/1978

13

4

TINDA (KIND)

21/08/1975

441(E)

24/07/1985

540(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

13/08/1984

596(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

RIBBED GOURD (KALI TORI) 1

CO-2

2

PKM-1

1981

SUMMER SQUASH (VEGETABLE MARROW) 1

PUNJAB CHAPPAN KADDOO-1

08/07/1983

499(E)

2

EARLY YELLOW PROLIFIC

21/08/1975

440

PAU, LUDHIANA

WATERMELON 1

DURGAPURA LAL (RW 177-3)

31/05/2004

642(E)

RARS, Durgapura

2

ARKA MANIK

15/05/1990

386(E)

IIHR, Bangalore

3

ARKA JYOTI (HYBRID)

26/11/1986

867(E)

IIHR, Bangalore

4

DURGAPURA KESAR

19/12/1978

13

RARS, Durgapura

5

DURGAPURA MEETHA

19/12/1978

13

RARS, Durgapura

6

SHIPPER

19/12/1978

13

PAU, Ludhiana

7

WATER MELON (KIND)

23/03/1978

1004

93


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre

8

CHARLESTON GREY

21/08/1975

440

NBPGR, New Delhi

9

SUGARBABY

21/08/1975

440

IARI, New Delhi

IVY GOURD 1

INDIRA KUNDRU-05

28/11/2006

2035(E)

IGKVV, Raipur

2

INDIRA KUNDRU-35

28/11/2006

2035(E)

IGKVV, Raipur

3

SULABHA

25/04/2006

597(E)

KAU, Vellanikkara

31/05/2004

642(E)

IARI, New Delhi

12/08/2010

1979(E)

SNAP MELON 1

PUSA SHANDAR (DSM-1)

FRUIT VEGETABLES CAPSICUM 1

VL SHIMLA MIRCH-2

2008

2

NISHAT-1(CAPSICUM SELECTION-2)

2001

15/11/2001

3

PUSADEEPTI (KT-1)

08/02/1997

UTTARAKHAND

VPKAS, Almora

1135(E)

CENTRAL

SKUAS&T, Srinagar

98(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, RS, Katrain

4

SOLAN HYB-1

10/02/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

HPKV, Solan

5

ARKA BASANT

26/11/1986

867(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, Bangalore

6

ARKA GAURAV

26/11/1986

867(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, Bangalore

7

ARKA MOHINI

26/11/1986

867(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, Bangalore

8

BULL NOSE

19/12/1978

13

CENTRAL

IARI, RS, Katrain

9

CALIFORNIA WONDER

21/08/1975

440(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, RS, Katrain

10

CHINESE GIANT

21/08/1975

440(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, RS, Katrain

11

HUNGARIAN

21/08/1975

440(E)

HIMACHAL PRADESH

IARI, RS, Katrain

12

YOLO WONDER

CENTRAL

-

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

BRINJAL 1

94

ARKA ANAND (BWBH-3)

26/12/2008 2006

2978(E)

2

JBGR-99-5

26/12/2008

2978(E)

GUJARAT

JNKVV, JABALPUR

3

SWARANA NEELIMA(HABH-17)

18/07/2008

1714(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, RANCHI

4

SWARNA ABHILAMB (HABL-1)

01/06/2007

858(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, RANCHI

5

ARKA KESHAV (HHR-21)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

6

ARKA NIDHI (IIHR-12)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

7

KASHI SANDESH (VRBHR-1)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, VARANASI

8

PHULE HARIT (RHRB-16)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

MPKV RAHURI

9

SWARNA AJAY(HABH-3)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, RANCHI

10

SWARNA SHREE-

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, RANCHI

11

SWARNA SHYAMALI

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, RANCHI

12

GUJARAT OBLONG BRINJAL (GOB-l)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

AAU,ANAND

13

KASHI PRAKASH (VIBR-1)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, VARANASI

14

KASHI TARU (IVBL-0)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, VARANASI

15

NARENDRA HYBRID BRINJAL-3

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

NDUA&T, FAIZABAD

16

SWARNA SHOBHA (HABR-4)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, RANCHI

17

BRINJAL HYBRID-2 (GBH-2)

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

GAU, ANAND

18

SWARNA MANI (CHBR-1)

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, RANCHI

19

SWARNA PRATIBHA (CH-309)

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, RANCHI

20

UTKAL JYOTI (BB-13)

31/05/2004 -

642(E)

CENTRAL

OUA&T, BHUBANESHWAR

21

GUJARAT BRINJAL LONG- 1

21/04/2003

448(E)

CENTRAL

AAU,ANAND

2002


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release 2001

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

22

PLR-1

15/11/2001

1135(E)

23

AZAD (HYBRID)

26/10/1999

1052(E)

CENTRAL

24

KKM-1 (KSM-107)

26/10/1999

1052(E)

CENTRAL

Developing Centre TNAU, COIMBATORE CSAUA&T, KANPUR

25

PUSA ANKUR(DBSR-91)

26/10/1999

1052(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

26

BRINJAL SWETHA (SM-6-6)

21/09/1998

843(E)

CENTRAL

KAU, VELLANIKKARA

27

JC

21/09/1998

843(E)

CENTRAL

JNKVV, JABALPUR

28

JC-2

21/09/1998

843(E)

CENTRAL

JNKVV, JABALPUR

29

UTKAL KESHARI (BB-26)

1998

21/09/1998

843(E)

CENTRAL

OUA&T, BHUBANESHWAR

30

UTKAL MATHURI (BB-44)

1998

21/09/1998

843(E)

CENTRAL

OUA&T, BHUBANESHWAR

31

PUSA BINDU (DBSR-44)

08/02/1997

98(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

32

PUSA UPKAR (DBR-8)

08/02/1997

98(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

33

PUSA UTTAM (DBR-31)

08/02/1997

98(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

34

BH-1

10/02/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

OUA&T, BHUBANESHWAR

35

BH-2

10/02/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

OUA&T, BHUBANESHWAR

36

GBH-1

10/02/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

NDUA&T, FAIZABAD

37

NARENDRA BAIGAN-1

10/02/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

NDUA&T, FAIZABAD

38

NARENDRA HYBRID BRINJAL- 1

10/02/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

NDUA&T, FAIZABAD

39

HISAR PRAGATI

02/09/1994

636(E)

CENTRAL

HAU, HISAR

40

PANT BRINJAL HYBRID- 1

02/09/1994

636(E)

CENTRAL

GBPUA&T, PANTNAGAR

CENTRAL

41

PUSA HYBRID- 5

02/09/1994

636(E)

42

PUSA HYBRID-5 (F)

02/09/1994

636(E)

IARI, NEW DELHI

IARI, NEW DELHI

43

PUSA HYBRID-5 (M)

02/09/1994

636(E)

IARI, NEW DELHI

44

HISAR SHYAMAL

17/08/1993

617(E)

HAU, HISAR

45

PUSA HYBRID-6

17/08/1993

617(E)

IARI, NEW DELHI

46

UTKAL TARINI(BB-7)

25/11/1992

860(E)

OUA&T, BHUBANESHWAR

47

PUSA ANUPAM

16/08/1991

527(E)

IARI, NEW DELHI

48

ARUNA

06/11/1989

915(E)

PDKV, AKOLA

49

JAMUNI GOLA

06/03/1987

165(E)

PAU, LUDHIANA

50

PUNJAB- 14

06/03/1987

165(E)

PAU, LUDHIANA

51

ARKA KUSUMAKER

26/11/1986

867(E)

IIHR, BANGALORE

52

ARKA NAVNEET

26/11/1986

867(E)

IIHR, BANGALORE

53

ARKA SHEEL

26/11/1986

867(E)

IIHR, BANGALORE

54

ARKA SHIRISH

26/11/1986

867(E)

IIHR, BANGALORE

55

ANNAMALAI

1971

18/11/1985

S.O.832(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, Coimbatore

56

CO-1

1978

24/07/1985

S.O.540(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, Coimbatore

57

PANT RITURAJ (PBR-91-2)

1985

24/07/1985

S.O.540(E)

CENTRAL

GBPUA&T, Pantnagar

58

AZAD B-l ROUND

1983

09/04/1985

S.O.295(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

59

AZAD KRANTI

1983

09/04/1985

S.O.295(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

60

PANT SAMRAT (PBR-12-5)

1984

09/04/1985

S,0.295(E)

CENTRAL

GBPUA&T, Pantnagar

95


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre

61

GUJARAT BRINJAL-6

1976

13/08/1984

S.O.596(E)

GUJARAT

GAU, Anand

62

JUNAGARH LONG

1981

13/08/1984

S.O.596(E)

GUJARAT

GAU, Junagarh

63

JUNAGARH OBLONG

1981

13/08/1984

S.O.596(E)

GUJARAT

GAU, Junagarh

1982

64

KALINANPUR TYPE-3

65

KALYANPUR T-3

03/01/1983

S.O,2(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

03/01/1983

2(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

66

BHAGYAMATI

1980

14/01/1982

S.O.19(E)

ANDHRA PRADESH

ANGRAU, Hyderabad

67 68

MDU-1

1979

14/01/1982

S.O.19(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, Coimbatore

PUNJAB BAHAR (S-l)

1978

19/12/1978

S.O.13

PUNJAB

69

PUNJAB CHAMKILA (S-5)

PAU, Ludhiana

19/12/1978

S.O.13

CENTRAL

PAU, Ludhiana

70

JAMUNI GOLE BAINGAN(S-16)

71

PUNJAB HARYANA BRINJAL-4

1977

23/03/1978

S.O.1004

HARYANA

PAU, Ludhiana

1977

23/03/1978

S.O.1004

CENTRAL

HAU, Hisar

72

PUSA PURPLE CLUSTER (PPL)

1977

73

BLACK BEAUTY

23/03/1978

1004

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

21/08/1975

S.O.440(E)

CENTRAL

INTRODUCTION

74

PUSA PURPLE LONG (PPL)

21/08/1975

440(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

75

PUNJAB N0.8

30/06/1973

S.O.361(E)

PUNJAB

PAU, Ludhiana

76

R-34

30/06/1973

361(E)

CENTRAL

PAU, Ludhiana

77

PUSA PURPLE LONG (PPL)

20/02/1970

716

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

20/02/1970

716

78

PUSA PURPLE ROUND (PPR)

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

79

PUSA ANMOL

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

80

PUSA KRANTI

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

2978(E)

CENTRAL

RARS, LAM

CHILLIES

96

1

LAM-353 (LCA-353)

26/12/2008

2

LAM-334

01/06/2007

858(E)

CENTRAL

RARS, LAM

3

ARKA LOHIT

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

4

ARKA MEGHANA (MSH-172)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

5

KASHI SURKH (CCH-2)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, VARANASI

6

ANUGRAHA

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

KAU, VELLANIKKARA

7

ARKA SUPHAL (PMR 57/88K)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

8

AZADMIRCH-1

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

CSAUA&T, KANPUR

9

GUJARAT VEGETABLE CHILLI-101 (ANAND JYOT-101)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

AAU,ANAND

10

GUJARAT VEGETABLE CHILLI-111 (GVC111)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

AAU,ANAND

11

GUJARAT VEGETABLE CHILLI-121 (ACS 97-2-111)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

AAU,ANAND

12

KASHI ANMOL (KA-2)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, VARANASI

13

PRASANTH (LCA-334)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

RARS, LAM

14

RCH-1

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

RARS, DURGAPURA

15

UTKAL AVA (BC-14-2)

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

OUA&T, BHUBANESHWAR

16

CO. 3 (CA-586)

15/11/2001

1135(E)

TNAU, COIMBATORE

1999

17

KASHMIR LONG-1

2001

15/11/2001

1135(E)

SKUAS&T, SRINAGAR

18

PMK-1

1998

15/11/2001

1135(E)

TNAU, COIMBATORE

19

GAJARAT CHILLI-2

26/10/1999

1052(E)

CENTRAL

GAU, ANAND

20

JAWAHAR MIRCH-283

26/10/1999

1052(E)

CENTRAL

JNKVV, JABALPUR

21

PLR-1

26/10/1999

1052(E)

CENTRAL

TNAU, COIMBATORE


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre

22

JAYANTI (AKC-86-39)

10/02/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

PDKV, AKOLA

23

PARBHANI TEJAS

10/02/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

MAU, PARBHANI

24

PUNJAB GUCHHEDAR

10/02/1996

H5(E)

CENTRAL

PAU, LUDHIANA

25

PUNJAB SURKH (ELS-2)

10/02/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

PAU, LUDHIANA

26

LAM-305

04/05/1995

408(E)

CENTRAL

RARS, LAM

27

KONKAN KIRTI

17/08/1993

617(E)

CENTRAL

28

PKM-1

22/11/1991

793(E)

29

MUSALWADI

16/08/1991

527(E)

MPKV RAHURI

30

JAWAHAR MIRCH-2 18

06/11/1989

915(E)

JNKVV, JABALPUR

KKV, KONKAN TNAU, COIMBATORE

31

X.235

26/11/1986

867(E)

32

K-1

1964

18/11/1985

S.O.540(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

JNKVV, JABALPUR

33

K-2

1975

24/07/1985

S.O.540(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

34

M. D.U.I

1976

24/07/1985

S.O.540(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

35

CHANCHAL

1973

09/04/1985

S.O.295(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

CSAUA&T, KANPUR

36

CO.2

1981

13/08/1984

S.O.596

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

37

JWALA (PUSA)

1972

08/07/1983

S.O.499

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

38

CO.l

1979

14/01/1982

S.O.19(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

39

DH-76-6

1979

14/01/1982

S.O.19(E)

KARNATAKA

UAS, DHARWAD

40

PANTC-1

1978

14/01/1982

19(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

GBPUA&T, Pantnagar

41

SINDHUR (C.A.-960)

1978

19/12/1978

13

ANDHRA PRADESH

RARS, LAM

42

ANDHRA JYOTI (G.S)

1977

23/03/1978

S.O.1004

CENTRAL

RARS, LAM

43

HOT PORTUGAL

21/08/1975

S.O.440(E)

RARS, LAM

44

SANAURI

21/08/1975

440(E)

RARS, LAM

45

SWEET BANANA

21/08/1975

440(E)

RARS, LAM

46

G-3 (GUNTUR-3)

47

G-4

CENTRAL

48

GUJARAT

GUJARAT

GAU,ANAND

49

GUJARAT CHILLIES-1

GUJARAT

GAU,ANAND

50

LOCAL KASHMIRI

CENTRAL

51

NP - 46A

CENTRAL

52

PUSA SADA BAHAR

1984

IARI, NEW DELHI

BHENDI 1

GUJARAT OKRA HYBRID-2

26/12/2008

2978(E)

CENTRAL

GAU, Anand

2

ARKA ABHAY (IIHR-4)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, Bangalore

3

ARKAANAMIKA(IIHR-10)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, Bangalore

4

HISAR NAVEEN (HRB 107-4)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

HAU, Hisar

5

KASHILIKA (IIVR-11)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

6

AZAD BHINDI-2

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

7

HBH-142

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

8

KASHI BHAIRO (DVR-3)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

9

KASHI PRAGAT! (VRO-6)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

10

KASHI SATDHARI (IIVR-10)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

11

KASHI VIVHUTI (VRO-5)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

97


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre

12

PHULE UTKARSHIA (GK-1V-3-3-3)

25/04/2006

597{E)

CENTRAL

MPKV Rahuri

13

SUSTHIRA(AE-286-l)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

KAU, Vellanikkara

14

AZAD BHINDI-1 (AZAD GANGA)

1998

15/11/2001

1135(E)

15/11/2001

1135(E)

CENTRAL

GAU, Anand

2001

15/11/2001

1135(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

15

GUJARAT OKRA-2

16

SHITLAJYOTI (DVR-2)

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

17

SHITLA UPHAR (DVR-1)

15/11/2001

1135(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

18

PHULE KIRTI RHROH-4 (HYBRID)

19/04/2001

348(E)

CENTRAL

MPKV Rahuri

CENTRAL

TNAU, Coimbatore

19

CO-3 (HYBRID-8)

26/10/1999

1052(E)

20

CO-3 (HYBRID-8) (F)

26/10/1999

1052(E)

TNAU, Coimbatore

21

CO-3 (HYBRID-8) (M)

26/10/1999

1052(E)

TNAU, Coimbatore

22

CO-3 (HYBRID-8) (R)

26/10/1999

1052(E)

TNAU, Coimbatore

23

HISSAR UNNAT

08/02/1997

98(E)

CENTRAL

HAU, Hisar

24

VARSHA UPHAR

10/02/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

HAU, Hisar

25

UTKAL GAURAV

02/09/1994

636(E)

CENTRAL

OUA&T, Bhubaneshwar

26

PUNJAB-7

05/05/1988

471(E)

27

PARBHANI KRANTI

28

GUJARAT BHINDA-1

PAU, Ludhiana

26/11/1986

867(E)

1983

14/05/1986

258(E)

14/05/1986

258(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

24/07/1985

S.O.540(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, Coimbatore

29

SELECTION -2

30

M.D.U.M

1978 1982

MAU, PARBHANI GUJARAT

GAU, Anand

31

PUNJAB PADMINI

08/07/1983

S.O.499(E)

PUNJAB

PAU, Ludhiana

32

CO.l

19/12/1978

S.O‑,13

TAMILNADU

TNAU, Coimbatore

33

S-13

21/08/1975

S.O.440(E)

34

PUSA SAWANI

24/09/1969

S.O.4045

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

35

PARKINS LONG GREEN.

CENTRAL

36

PUSA MAKHMALI

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

PAU, Ludhiana

TOMATO

98

1

VL TAMATAR-4

12/08/2010

1979(E)

UTTARAKHAND

VPKAS, ALMORA

2

SWARANA VDAYA(HATH-S)

2008

18/07/2008

1714(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, RANCHI

3

NARENDRA TOMATO-4 (NDT-9)

01/06/2007

858(E}

CENTRAL

NDUA&T, FAIZABAD

4

NARENDRE TOMATO-7 (NDTS 2001-3)

01/06/2007

858(E)

CENTRAL

NDUA&T, FAIZABAD

5

UTKAL PRAGYAN (BT-116-3-2)

01/06/2007

858(E)

CENTRAL

OUA&T, BHUBANESHWAR

6

UTKAL RAJA (BT 20-2-1)

01/06/2007

858(E)

CENTRAL

OUA&T, BHUBANESHWAR

7

ARKA MAGHALI

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

8

MANI LEIMA

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

ICAR, RESEARCH COMPLEX, BARAPANI

9

SWARNA LALIMA

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, RANCHI

10

SWARNA NAVEEN

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, RANCHI

11

SWARNA SAMPADA (HATH-3)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, RANCHI

12

ARKA ANANYA (TLBH-9)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

13

AZAD T-6

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

CSAUA&T, KANPUR

14

GUJARAT TOMATO-2 (GT-2)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

GAU, ANAND

15

KASHI AMRIT(DVRT-l)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, VARANASI

16

KASHI ANUPAM

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, VARANASI


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre

17

KASHI HEMANT (IIVR SEL.l)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, VARANASI

18

KASHI SHARD (IIVR SEL2)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, VARANASI

19

KASHI VISHESH (CH-86)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, VARANASI

20

NARENDRA TOMATO- 5(NDT-96)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

NDUA&T, FAIZABAD

21

NARENDRA TOMATO- 6(NDT-4)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

NDUA&T, FAIZABAD

22

TH-1

11/05/2005

664(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

23

NANDI (TLB-130)

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

24

SANKRANTHI (TIB-11)

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

25

SWARNA BAIBHAY (CHTH-1)

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, RANCHI

26

VYBHAT(TLB-182)

31/05/2004

642(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, BANGALORE

27

PARBHANI YASHASHRI (SEL.14)

15/11/2001

1135(E)

MPKV RAHURI

28

VASUNDHARA (HY.28)

15/11/2001

113S(E)

MPKV RAHURI

29

MUKTHI (L79-5)

21/09/1998

843(E)

KAU, VELLANIKKARA

30

SOLAN VAJR

21/09/1998

843(E)

YSPUHF, SOLAN

31

TH802

21/09/1998

843(E)

IIHR, BANGALORE

32

UTKAL KUMARI (BT-10)

21/09/1998

843(E)

OUA&T, BHUBANESHWAR

33

PUSA DIVYA (KT-4)

08/02/1997

98(E)

IARI, NEW DELHI

34

PUSA HYBRID-4 (DTH-4)

08/02/1997

98(E)

IARI, NEW DELHI

35

NARENDRA TOMATO-2

10/02/1996

115(E)

NDUA&T, FAIZABAD

35

PUSA HYB.2

10/02/1996

115(E)

IARI, NEW DELHI

37

RAJASHREE HYB.2

10/02/1996

115(E)

UAS, DHARWAD

38

SELAN SAGUN

10/02/1996

115(E)

39

HISAR ARUN (SEL7)

02/10/1994

636(E)

40

HISAR LALIT (NT-8)

17/08/1993

617(E)

HAU, HISAR

41

UTKAL PALLAVI(BT-l)

25/11/1992

860(E)

OUA&T, BHUBANESHWAR

42

ATH-1

06/11/1989

915(E)

MPKV RAHURI

43

ATV-1

06/11/1989

915(E)

MPKV RAHURI

1986

YSPUHF, SOLAN CENTRAL

HAU, HISAR

44

SONALI (SELECTION-2)

06/11/1989

915(E)

kkv, dAPOLI

45

PANT-T3

01/12/1988

1135(E)

GBPUA&T, PANTNAGAR

46

PUSA GAURAV

01/01/1988

10(E)

IARI, NEW DELHI

47

PANT BAHAR (AC-238)

1985

24/07/1985

540(E)

CENTRAL

GBPUA&T, PANTNAGAR

48

PKM-1

1978

24/07/1985

S.O.540(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

49

PUSA EARLY DWARF

24/07/1985

540(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, NEW DELHI

50

PUSA RUBY

24/07/1985

S.O.540(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

51

AZAD T - 2

1983

09/04/1985

295(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

52

CO-3

1981

13/08/1984

S.O.596(E)

TAMILNADU

TNAU, Coimbatore

53

JUNAGARHRUBY

1981

13/08/1984

S.O.596(E)

GUJARAT

GAU, Junagarh

54

KALINANPUR T-1

1982

03/01/1983

S.O.2(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

55

KALINAPUR ANGOORLATA

1982

03/01/1983

S.O.2(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

56

NTDR - 1

1978

14/01/1982

19(E)

KARNATAKA

NDUA&T, Faizabad

57

CO. 2

19/12/1978

13

TAMILNADU

TNAU, Coimbatore

58

KEEKRUTH

19/12/1978

13

PUNJAB

IntRoduction

1978

99


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre

1978

19/12/1978

13

PUNJAB

IntRoduction

19/12/1978

13

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

S.O.13

PUNJAB

PAU, Ludhiana

59

KEEKRUTH AGETI

60

MARGLOBE

61

PUNJAB CHHUARA

1975

19/12/1978

62

PUNJAB TROPIC

1978

19/12/1978

S.O.13

PUNJAB

PAU, Ludhiana

63

H-S-101

1977

02/02/1976

S.O.786

HARYANA

HAU,Hisar

64

HA- 101

02/02/1976

S.O.786

HARYANA

65

PUNJAB SELECTION NO. 12

21/08/1975

S.O.440(E)

66

SOLAN GOLA

20/08/1975

440(E)

HIMACHAL PRADESH

YSPUHF, Solan

67

BEST OF ALL

30/06/1973

361(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

HAU, Hisar PAU, Ludhiana

68

S-12

20/02/1970

716

HARYANA

PAU, Ludhiana

69

S-120

20/02/1970

716

DELHI

IARI, New Delhi

20/02/1970

716

CENTRAL

IARI, RS, Katrain

CENTRAL

IIHR, Bangalore

70

SIOUX

71

ARKA SAURABH

72

ARKA VIKAS

CENTRAL

IIHR, Bangalore

73

HS-120

HARYANA

HAU, Hisar

74

JUNAGARH

75

OX HEART

76

PUNJAB KESRI

77

ROMA

GAU,Junagarh CENTRAL PUNJAB

PAU, Ludhiana

CENTRAL

GREEN LEAFY VEGETABLES FENUGREEK l

RMT-305(UM-305)

01/06/2007

858(E)

CENTRAL

RAJAU, JOBNER, RAJASTHAN

2

AZAD METHI-1

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

CSAUA&T, KANPUR

3

HISAR MUKTA (HM-346)

HAU,HISAR

4

SAHAS

2006

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

11/02/2006

110206

CENTRAL

5

SAMPLE060306

11/02/2006

11206

CENTRAL

6

SAMPLE349-6MAR06

11/02/2006

11206

CENTRAL

7

CO. 2 (CF-390)

1999

15/11/2001

1135(E)

TNAU, COIMBATORE

8

GUJRAT METHI-1

1999

19/04/2001

348(E)

GAU,ANAND

9

HISSAR SONALI(HM-57)

10/02/1996”

115(E)

HAU,HISAR

10

ML- 150

01/01/1996

1(E)

11

RMT-1

16/08/1991

527(E)

12

CO. 1

13/08/1984

596(E)

TAMILNADU

21/08/1975

441(E)

CENTRAL

RAU, DHOLI

CENTRAL

IARI,NEW DELHI

13

KASURI

14

PUSA EARLY BUNCHING (PEB)

1982

RAJAU, JOBNER, RAJASTHAN TNAU, COIMBATORE

ROOT VEGETABLES SWEET POTATO

100

1

RNSP-l

01/06/2007

858(E)

CENTRAL

ANGRAU, HYDERABAD

2

SREE KANAKA(X-80/168)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

CTCRI, TRIVANDRUM

3

SREE ARUN

11/05/2005

664(E)

CENTRAL

CTCRI, TRIVANDRUM

4

SREE VARUN

11/05/2005

664(E)

CENTRAL

CTCRI, TRIVANDRUM KKV, DAPOLI

5

KONKAL ASHWINI (PALGAR - 1)

15/11/2001

1135(E)

CENTRAL

6

CROSS-4(WHITE)

2000

26/10/1999

1052(E)

CENTRAL

-

7

SHREE RETNA

21/09/1998

843(E)

CENTRAL

CTCRI, TRIVANDRUM


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release CENTRAL

Developing Centre

8

SREE BHADRA

21/09/1998

843(E)

9

KIRAN

17/08/1993

617(E)

ANGRAU, HYDERABAD

10

RAJENDRA SHANKERKAND-35

17/08/1993

617(E)

RAU, DHOLI

11

RAJENDRA SHAKARKAND-43

12

RAJENDRA SAKARKAND-5 (X-5)

13

CO-3

14

V,L SAKARKAND-6

15

CO-1 (IB-3)

16

CO-2 (IB-81)

04/11/1992

814(E)

1985

18/11/1985

832(E)

13/08/1984 1974

19/12/1978

CTCRI, TRIVANDRUM

RAU, DHOLI CENTRAL

RAU, DHOLI

596(E)

CENTRAL

TNAU, COIMBATORE

13

UTTAR PRADESH

VPKAS, ALMORA

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

TAMILNADU

TNAU, COIMBATORE

1980

17

H-41 (2)

1971

CENTRAL

CTCRI, TRIVANDRUM

18

H-42(1)

1971

TAMILNADU

CTCRI, TRIVANDRUM

PUNJAB

PAU, LUDHIANA

CARROT 1

PC-34

2005

18/07/2008

1714(E)

2

SHALIMAR CARROT-1 (SKAU-C-50)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

SKUAS&T, SRINAGAR

3

OOTY-1

26/11/1999

1052(E)

TNAU, COIMBATORE

4

PUSA YAMDAGNI

01/01/1988

10(E)

IARI, RS, KATRAIN

5

EARLY NANTESE

24/07/1985

540(E)

IARI, RS, KATRAIN

6

NANTESE

24/07/1985

540(E)

IARI, RS, KATRAIN

7

PUSA KESAR

21/08/1975

441(E)

IARI, NEW DELHI

RADISH 1

HISAR SELECTION- 1

25/04/2006

597(E)

HAU, Hisar

2

KASHI HANS(VR-2)

25/04/2006

597(E)

IIVR, Varanasi

3

KASHI SWETA (IIVR-1)

25/04/2006

597(E)

IIVR, Varanasi

4

ARKA NISHANT

16/08/1991

527(E)

IIHR, Bangalore

5

PUNJAB AGETI

01/01/1988

10(E)

PAU, Ludhiana

6

PUSA CHETKI

01/01/1988

10(E)

IARI, New Delhi

7

CO-1

13/08/1984

596(E)

TNAU, Coimbatore

8

KALIYANOUR NO.l

03/01/1983

2(E)

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

9

PUNJAB SAFAID

19/12/1978

13

PAU, Ludhiana

10

CHINESE PINK

21/08/1975

440

YSPUHF, Solan

11

NADAUNI

21/08/1975

440

YSPUHF, Solan

12

RADISH (KIND)

21/08/1975

441(E)

YSPUHF, Solan

13

JAPANESE WHITE

30/06/1973

361(E)

IARI, RS, Katrain

14

S-WHITE

30/06/1973

361(E)

IARI, RS, Katrain

15

WHITE ICICLE

30/06/1973

361(E)

IARI, RS, Katrain

TURNIP (SALJAM) 1

L-l

19/12/1978

13

IARI, RS, Katrain

2

GOLDEN BALL

21/08/1975

440

IARI, RS, Katrain

3

PURPLE TOP

21/08/1975

440

IARI, RS, Katrain

4

TURNIP (KIND)

21/08/1975

441(E)

IARI, RS, Katrain

5

4-RED

30/06/1973

361(E)

IARI, RS, Katrain

6

4-WHITE

30/06/1973

361(E)

IARI, RS, Katrain

7

SNOWBALL

30/06/1973

361(E)

IARI, RS, Katrain

BEET ROOT {GARDEN BEET/STOCK BEET) 1

CRIMSON GLOBE

24/07/1985

540(E)

IARI, RS, Katrain

2

DETRICT DARK RED

24/07/1985

540(E)

IARI, RS, Katrain

101


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre

12/08/2010

1979(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

TUBERS AND RHIZOMES POTATO 1

102

KUFRI FRYSONA (MP/98-71)

2

KUFRI HIMSONA

26/12/2008

2978(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

3

KUFRI KHYATI (J. 93-86)

26/12/2008

2978(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

4

KUFRI GlRDHARI(SM/93-237)

5

KUFRI SADABAHAR(MS/93-1344)

2007

18/07/2008

1714(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

18/07/2008

1714(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

CPRI, SHIMLA

6

92-PT-27

01/06/2007

858(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

7

KUFRI ARUN (MS/92-2105)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

8

KUFRI CHIPSONA-3 (MP/97-583)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

9

KUFRI HIMALINI (SM/87-185)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

10

KUFRI PUSHKAR (JW-160)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

11

KUFRI SHAILJA (SM/87-185)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

15/11/2001

1135(E)

26/10/1999

1052(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

26/10/1999

1052(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

21/09/1998

843(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

12

KUFRI SURYA(HT/92-621)

13

KUFRI KANCHAN

14

KUFRI GIRI RAJ (SM/85-45)

15

KUFRI ANAND (MS182-717)

16

KUFRI CHIPSONA-1 (MP/90/83)

1999

1997

CPRI, SHIMLA

17

KUFRI CHIPSONA-2

1997

21/09/1998

843(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

18

KUFRI PUKHRAJ (JEX/C-166)

1997

21/09/1998

843{E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

19

KUFRI ASHOKA (PJ-376)

10/02/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

20

KUFRI JAWAHAR (JH-222)

10/02/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

21

KUFRI SATLEJ (JI-5857)

22

KUFRI LAUVKAR(A-7416)

23

KUFRI SHERPA

24

KUFRI LALIMA

25

KUFRI JYOTI

26

KUFRI SHEETMAN

27

KUFRI SINDHURI

28

UPTO DATE

29

KUFRI JYOTI

10/02/1996

115(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

13/08/1984

596(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

13/08/1984

S.O.596 (E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

03/01/1983

2(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

21/08/1975

440{E)

1968

30/06/1973

S.O.361(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

1966

30/06/1973

S.O.361(E)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

30/06/1973

S.O.361(E)

1973 1982

1963

CPRI, SHIMLA

CENTRAL

-

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

30

KUFRI ALANKAR

1968

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

31

KUFRI BADSHAH

1980

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

32

KUFRI BAHAR

1980

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

33

KUFRI CHAMATKAR

1967

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

1967

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

1973

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

34

KUFRI CHANDARMUKHI

35

KUFRI CHIPSONA-3

36

KUFRI DEWA (C-3084)

37

KUFRI HIMALINI (SLB/M-70)

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

38

KUFRI JEEVAN

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

39

KUFRI KHASIGARO

40

KUFRI MUTHU (MUTHA SLB/Z-785)

41

KUFRI NAVEEN

42

KUFRI SURYA

CPRI, SHIMLA

43

KUFRI SWARNA

CPRI, SHIMLA

CPRI, SHIMLA

1971

ASSAM

CPRI, SHIMLA

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA

CENTRAL

CPRI, SHIMLA


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre

44

KUFRI KUBER

CPRI, SHIMLA

45

KURFI PUSHKAR

CPRI, SHIMLA

COLOCASIA 1

INDIRA ARVI-1

2

BHAVAPURI (KCS-2)

2003

18/07/2008

1714(E)

01/06/2007

858(E)

3

SREE KARTHIKA (DA-199)

25/04/2006

597(E)

4

SREE KIRAIM (H-13)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CHHATTISGARH

IGKVV,RAIPUR 

5

MUKTAKESHI

31/05/2004

642(E)

6

SATAMUKHI

14/05/1986

258(E)

APHU, HYDERABAD

28/11/2006

2035(E)

Dr.BSKKV, Dapoli

GREATER YAM 1

KONKAN GHORKAND

2

ORISSA ELITE

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CTCRI, Trivandrum

3

SREE KEERTHI (DA-60)

18/09/1987

834(E)

CTCRI, Trivandrum

24/07/1985

540(E)

-

LESSER YAM (RAFULA) 1

DE-11

WHITE YAM 1

SREE PRIYA

01/01/1988

10(E)

CTCRI, Trivandrum

2

SREE SUBHRA

01/01/1988

10(E)

CTCRI, Trivandrum

16/08/1991

527(E)

APHU, Hyderabad

AMARPHOPHALLUS (SURANKAND/ELEPHANT FOOT YAM) 1

GAJENDRA

TURMERIC 1

PHULE SWARUPA (DTS-222)

25/04/2006

597(E)

MPKV Rahuri

2

SONA

11/05/2005

664(E)

KAU, Vellanikkara

3

VARNA

11/05/2005

664(E)

KAU, Vellanikkara

KASHI KANCHAN(VRCP-4)

01/06/2007

858(E)

2

KASHI UNNATI (VRCP-3)

01/06/2007

858(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

3

ARKA SAMRUDHI (IIHR-16)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, Bangalore

LEGUMES VEGETABLES COWPEA (VEGETABLE) 1

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

4

ARKA SUMAN

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

IIHR, Bangalore

5

SWARNA SUPHALA (CHCP-2)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CENTRAL

HARP, Ranchi

6

ANASWARA

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

KAU,Vellanikkara

7

KASHI GAURI (IVRCP-2)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

S

KASHI SHYAMAL (IVREP-1)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

IIVR, Varanasi

9

PUSA BARSATI

21/09/1974

566(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

21/09/1974

S.O.566(E)

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

10

PUSA PHALGUNI

11

BIRSA SWETA (CN 73-1)

12

PUSA DO-FASLI

CENTRAL

13

RITURAJ

CENTRAL

1985

BIHAR IARI, New Delhi

CLUSTER BEAN 1

DURGABAHAR

2

PUSA MAUSMI

1984

18/11/1985

832(E)

RAJASTHAN

RAU, Bikaner

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

3

PUSA NAV BAHAR

CENTRAL

IARI, New Delhi

4

PUSA SADABAHAR

RAJASTHAN

IARI, New Delhi

TAMILNADU

TNAU, Coimbatore

INDIAN BEAN (VEGETABLE) 1

CO-10

1983

13/08/1984

S.O-596(E)

103


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre

2

KALIANPUR T-2(POLE TYPE)

1982

03/01/1983

S.O.2(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

IIPR, Kanpur

3

CO-9 (BUSHY)

1980

12/08/1980

2103

TAMILNADU

TNAU, Coimbatore

4

PUSA EARLY PROLIFIC

CENTRAL

IARI,New Delhi

CENTRAL

VPKAS, Almora

PEA (VEGETABLE) 1

VIVEK MATAR 11 (VP 233)

12/08/2010

1979(E)

2

ARKA AJIT(FC-l)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

IIHR, Bangalore

3

AZAD P-5(KS-245)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

4

SWARNA MUKTI (CHP-2)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

HARP, Ranchi

5

AZAD P-5

25/04/2006

597(E)

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

6

JG-63

25/04/2006

599(E)

2006

CENTRAL

GAU,Junagarh

7

KASHI MUKTI (VR-22)

25/04/2006

597(E)

IIVR, Varanasi

8

KASHI NANDINl(VR-5)

25/04/2006

597(E)

IIVR, Varanasi

9

KASHI SHAKTI (VR-7)

25/04/2006

597(E)

IIVR, Varanasi

10

KASHI UDAI (VR-6)

25/04/2006

597(E)

IIVR, Varanasi

11

NARENDRA SABZI MATAR-4(NDUP-9)

25/04/2006

S97(E)

NDUA&T, Faizabad

12

NARENDRA SABZI MATAR-5(NDUP-250)

25/04/2006

597(E)

NDUA&T, Faizabad

13

NARENDRA SABZI MATAR-6(NDUP-12)

14

VL MATAR-42

25/04/2006

597(E)

25/04/2006

599(E)

15

VIVEK MATAR-9

11/05/2005

664(E)

16

AZAD P-I

1983

09/04/1985

17

HARA BONA

1980

IS

JAWAHAR MATAR-5

1980

19

DAISY DWARF

19/12/1978

13

20

ARKEL

1977

23/03/1978

S.O.1004

CENTRAL

IARI,New Delhi

21

JAWAHAR MATAR-1

1977

23/03/1978

1004

CENTRAL

JNKVV, Jabalpur

22

EARLY GIANT

21/08/1975

440(E)

HIMACHAL PRADESH

23

HARI CHHAL

21/08/1975

440(E)

HIMACHAL PRADESH

2005

NDUA&T, Faizabad UTTARAKHAND

VPKAS, Almora

295(E)

UTTAR PRADESH

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

13/08/1984

596(E)

PUNJAB

PAU, Ludhiana

14/01/1982

19(E)

MADHYA PRADESH

JNKVV, Jabalpur

VPKAS, Almora

24

BONNEVILLE

20/02/1970

716

CENTRAL

IARI,New Delhi

25

PERFECTION NEW LINE

20/02/1970

716

CENTRAL

Introduction

26

EARLY BADGER

CENTRAL

Introduction

27

HARBHAJAN

CENTRAL

JNKVV, Jabalpur

28

LINCOLN

CENTRAL

IARI,RS, Katrain

29

LITTLE MARVEL

CENTRAL

Introduction

30

MADHU

31

METEOR

32

PANT UPHAR (IP-3)

33

PUNJAB-87 (87-1)

34

PUNJAB-88

1973

UTTAR PRADESH CENTRAL

1984

1978

UTTAR PRADESH

GBPUA&T, Pantnagar

PUNJAB

PAU, Ludhiana

PUNJAB

PAU, Ludhiana

DOLICHOS BEAN

104

1

PHULE GAURI (RHRWL-1)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

MPKV Rahuri

2

SWARNA UTKRISHT (CHDB-1)

28/11/2006

2035(E)

HARP, Ranchi


Group Name/Crop Name/Variety Name

Year of Release

Notification Date

Notification Number

State of Release

Developing Centre

SPICES AND CONTIMENTS CORIANDER 1

APHU-DHANIA-l (LCC-170)

12/08/2010

1979(E)

CENTRAL

APHU, Hyderabad

2

RCR-728 (UD-728)

12/08/2010

1979(E)

CENTRAL

RAU, Jobner, Rajasthan

3

SUDHA

01/06/2007

858(E)

4

HISARSUGANDH (DH-36)

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

APHU, Hyderabad HAU, Hisar

5

RCR-435

25/04/2006

597(E)

CENTRAL

RAU, Jobner, Rajasthan

6

RCR-436

11/05/2005

664(E)

CENTRAL

RAU, Jobner, Rajasthan

7

CS-6

8

RCR-447

APHU, Hyderabad RAU, Jobner, Rajasthan

OTHER VEGETABLE CROPS KORONDA 1

KONKAN BOLD

25/04/2006

597(E)

11/05/2005

664(E)

TUMBA 1

MANSHA MARUDHAVA (RNT-59)(GP-59)

Source : www.seednet.gov.in

105


Annexure : 5

Vegetable-Varieties/Hybrids Identified through AICRP-VC (1975-2008)

Crop/Variety/Hybrid

Developing Centre

Year

Recommended* Zone

Remark

SOLANACEOUS VEGETABLES Tomato Variety

106

S-12

PAU, Ludhiana

1975

-

Small fruited

Pusa Ruby

IARI, New Delhi

1975

-

Small fruited

HS-101

HAU, Hisar

1975

-

Determinate

SL-120

IARI, New Delhi

1975

-

Large fruited

Sweet-72

Gwalior

1975

-

Large fruited

T-1

CSAUAT, Kanpur

1975

-

Large fruited

Pusa Early Dwarf

IARI, New Delhi

1977

-

Small fruited

Sioux

IARI, New Dehi

1977

-

Small fruited

Sel-12

PAU, Ludhiana

1977

-

Small fruited

Punjab Chhuhara

PAU, Ludhiana

1977

-

Small fruited

KS-2

CSAUAT, Kanpur

1985

IV

Determinate

AC-238

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

1985

-

Indeterminate

CO-3

TNAU, Coimbatore

I, IV, V, VI, VII

Determinate

Punjab Kesari

PAU, Ludhiana

1987

I, IV, V, VI

Determinate

La-Bonita

NBPGR, New Delhi

1987

I, IV, V, VII

Determinate

Pant T-3

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

1987

I, II, IV, V, VI, VII, VII

Indeterminate

Arka Vikas

IIHR, Bangalore

1987

I, IV, V, VI, VII, VII

Indeterminate

Arka Saurabh (Sel-4)

IIHR, Bangalore

1987

I, IV, V, VI, VIII

Indeterminate

Sel-7

HAU, Hisar

1990

I, IV, V, VII, VIII

Determinate

Sel-1-6-4

PAU, Ludhiana

1995

I

Determinate

Se-32

HAU, Hissar

1996

II, VI, VII

Determinate

DT-10

IARI, New Delhi

1996

IV, VI

Indeterminate

BT-12

OUAT, Bhubaneshwar

1996

I, VI

Determinate

KS-17

CSAUAT, Kanpur

1998

IV

Determinate

BT-116-3-2

OUAT, Bhubaneshwar

2001

V, VI

Determinate

NDT-3

NDUAT, Faizabad

2001

IV, VII

Determinate

KS-118

CSAUAT, Kanpur

2001

IV

Determinate

DVRT-2

IIVR, Varanasi

2001

VI

Determinate

BT-20-2-1

OUAT, Bhubaneshwar

2001

IV VII

Indeterminate

NDT-9

NDUAT, Faizadad

2001

IV

Indeterminate

NDTS

NDUAT, Faizadad

2004

IV

Determinate

Mani Laima

ICARNEH, Barapani

2004

III

Determinate

IIVR Sel-1

IIVR, Varanasi

2005

V, VII

Determinate

BT-136

OUAT, Bhubaneshwar

2005

II, IV

Determinate


VLT-32

VPKAS, Almora

2005

IV

Determinate

IIVR Sel-2

IIVR, Varanasi

2005

IV

Indeterminate

ARTH-3

Ankur Seeds, Nagpur

1992

II, VII, VIII

Determinate

ARTH-4

Ankur Seeds, Nagpur

1992

IV, VIII

Indeterminate

MTH-6 (Gulmohar)

Mahyco Seeds, Jalana

1992

VII, VIII

Indeterminate

Pusa Hybrid-2

IARI, New Delhi

1993

I, IV, VI, VII

Determinate

NA-501

Nath Seeds, Aurangabad

1995

IV, VII

Determinate

DTH-4

IARI, New Delhi

1995

VII

Determinate

KT-4

IARI, RS, Katrain

1995

IV

Indeterminate

NA-601

Nath Seeds, Aurangabad

1996

VI, VII

Indeterminate

BSS-20

Beejo Sheetal, Jalna

1996

IV, VI, VIII

Indeterminate

Avinash-2

Novartis Seeds, Pune

1998

VI

Determinate

HOE-303

Novartis Seeds, Pune

1998

IV

Indeterminate

Sun-496

Sungro Seeds, New Delhi

1999

IV, II, VII

Indeterminate

BSS-20

Beejo Sheetal, Jalna

2001

All

Indeterminate

DTH-8

IARI, New Delhi

2001

IV

Determinate

CHTH-1

IARI, New Delhi

2001

IV

Determinate

ARTH-128

Ankur Seeds, Nagpur

2001

VII

Indeterminate

KTH-2

CSAUAT, Kanpur

2002

IV, V

Indeterminate

JKTH-3055

JK Seeds, New Delhi

2004

I, IV

Determinate

KTH-1

CSAUAT, Kanpur

2004

IV

Determinate

Nun-7730

Nunhems Seeds, Bangalore 2004

I, IV

Indeterminate

TH-01462

Syngenta Seeds, Pune

2005

I, II, IV, VI, VII

Determinate

ARTH-734

Ankur Seeds, Nagpur

2008

VIII

Indeterminate

HTH-5

HARP, Ranchi

2008

I

Determinate

BWR-5 (Arka Alok)

IIHR, Bangalore

1992

II

Bacterial wilt

FMH-1 (Arka Vardhan)

IIHR, Bangalore

1993

V, VII

Bacterial wilt

FMH-2

IIHR, Bangalore

1995

IV

Nematode

BT-10

OUAT, Bhubaneshwar

1995

V, VI

Bacterial wilt

H-24

IIVR, Varanasi

1997

V

TLCV

BRH-2

IIHR, Bangalore

1998

VII

Bacterial wilt

LE-415

KAU, Vellanikkara

2004

I, V, VIII

Bacterial wilt

H-86

IIVR, Varanasi

2005

I, IV, V, VIII

TLCV

Pusa Purple Long

IARI, New Delhi

1975

IV, VI, VII, VIII

Long

Pusa Purple Cluster

IARI, New Delhi

1975

IV, V, VI, VII

Long

Pusa Kranti

IARI, New Delhi

1977

IV

Long

PB-129-5 (Pant Rituraj)

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

1981

IV

Long

Hybrid

Resistant

Brinjal Variety

107


108

Pant Samrat

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

1981

IV, V, VI

Long

Arka Sheel

IIHR, Bangalore

1981

VIII

Long

Azad Kranti

CSAUAT, Kanpur

1983

VI

Long

Azad Kranti

CSAUAT, Kanpur

1983

I, VI

Long

PB-91-2 (Pant Samrat)

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

1985

-

Round

ARU-1

DARL, Pithoragarh

1985

I

Long

T-3

CSAUAT, Kanpur

1975

-

Round

H-4

HAU, Hisar

1987

-

Long

ARU-2C

DARL, Pithoragarh

1987

I, IV, VI, VIII

Long

K-202-9

GAU, Anand

1987

VI

Round

Aruna

PDKV, Akola

1988

VII

Small round

H-7

HAU, Hisar

1990

IV, VI

Long

NDB-25

NDUAT, Faizabad

1990

II, IV, VII

Long

H-8

HAU, Hisar

1990

II, IV, V, VI

Round

BB-26

OUAT, Bhubaneshwar

1993

V

Long

Punjab Barasti

PAU, Ludhiana

1993

IV

Long

Sel-4 (Gulabi)

ANGRAU, Hyderabad

1995

V

Long

DBSR-31

IARI, New Delhi

1995

Vi

Long

KS-224

CSAUAT, Kanpur

1995

I, II, IV

Round

DBR-44

IARI, New Delhi

1995

VI

Round

DBSR-44

IARI, New Delhi

1995

VI

Small round

AB-1

GAU, Anand

1996

III, VI, VII

Round

PLR-1

TNAU, Coimbatore

1996

IV, VI, VII

Small round

BB-26

OUAT, Bhubaneshwar

1996

V, VII

Long

BB-13

OUAT, Bhubaneshwar

1997

VIII

Long

KS-331

CSAUAT, Kanpur

1998

IV, V

Long

JB-15

JNKVV, Jabalpur

1998

I

Long

CHBR-1

HARP, Ranchi

1998

IV

Round

DBSR-91

IARI, New Delhi

1998

VII

Small round

JB-64-1-2

JNKVV, Jabalpur

1998

VII

Small round

Green Long

RAU, Samastipur

1998

IV

Green

Punjab Sadabahar

PAU, Ludhiana

2001

IV, VI

Long

NDB-28-2

NDUAT, Faizabad

2001

IV

Long

DBL-21 (Pusa Shyamala)

IARI, New Delhi

2004

IV

Long

KS-235

CSAUAT, Kanpur

2004

IV, V, VII

Round

ABSR-R

GAU, Anand

2004

VII

Small long

HABR-2

GAU, Anand

2004

VII

IVBR-1

IIVR, Varanasi

2005

IV

Round

HABL-1

HARP, Ranchi

2006

I

Long

PB-66

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

2007

VII, IV

Long


Hybrid Arka Kusumakar

IIHR, Bangalore

1981

VIII

Long

Arka Navneet

IIHR, Bangalore

1981

-

Round

Kat-4

IARI, RS, Katrain

1987

VIII

Long

Pusa Hybrid-6

IARI, New Delhi

1990

IV

Round

Pusa Hybrid-5

IARI, New Delhi

1992

IV, VII, VIII

Long

ARBH-201

Ankur Seeds, Nagpur

1993

IV, V, VI, VII

Long

NDBH-1

NDUAT, Faizabad

1993

IV, VI, VII

Round

ABH-1

GAU, Anand

1993

IV, Vi, VII

Smal round

MHB-10 (Kalpataru)

Mahyco Seeds, Jalna

1993

IV, VI, VII

Small round

MHB-39

Mahyco Seeds, Jalna

1993

IV, VI, VII

Small round

NDBH-6

NDUAT, Faizabad

1995

IV

Long

ABH-2

GAU, Anand

1995

IV, VI

Small round

ABH-2

GAU, Anand

1996

VII

Small round

Phule Hybrid-2

MPKV, Rahuri

1997

VII

Small round

Pusa Hybrid-9

IARI, New Delhi

1997

VI

Round

ARBH-541

Ankur Seeds, Nagpur

2001

All

Long

PBH-6

Pandey Beej, Faizabad

2001

All

Long

JBH-1

GAU, Junagadh

2001

All

Round

BH-1

PAU, Ludhiana

2001

IV

Round

BH-2

PAU, Ludhiana

2002

IV, V

Round

VRBHR-1

IIVR, Varanasi

2002

IV, VI

Round

IVBHL-54

IIVR, Varanasi

2004

IV

Long

ARBH-786

Ankur Seeds, Nagpur

2004

IV

Long

VNR-51

VNR Seeds, Raipur

2005

IV, VI

Small round

Navina

VNR Seeds, Raipur

2007

IV

Long

HABH-17

HARP, Ranchi

2007

IV

Round

BB-7 (Utkal Tarini)

OUAT, Bhubaneshwar

1990

II, V

Bacterial Wilt

BWR-12 (Arka Nidhi)

IIHR, Bangalore

1990

VIII

Bacterial Wilt

SM-6-7

OUAT, Bhubaneshwar

1992

VIII

Bacterial Wilt

SM-6-6

KAU, Vellanikkara

1996

I, VII, VIII

Bacterial Wilt

BB-44

OUAT, Bhubaneshwar

1996

V, VII

Bacterial Wilt

CHES-309

HARP, Ranchi

2001

I, VII

Bacterial Wilt

BB-64

OUAT, Bhubaneshwar

2004

IV, V, VII, VIII

Bacterial Wilt

G-4 (Bhagyamati)

RARS, Lam

1975

-

-

G-5 (Andhra Jyoti)

RARS, Lam

175

-

-

K-2

TNAU, RS,Kovilpatti

1985

-

-

J-218

JNKVV, Jabalpur

1987

I, IV, V, VI, VII

-

Resistant

Chilli Variety

109


X-235 (LCA-235)

RARS, Lam

1987

I, IV, V, VI, VIII

-

Muslawadi

MPKV, Rahuri

1987

V

-

Sel-1

IIHR, Bangalore

1990

V, VII, VIII

-

LCA-206-B (Prakash) RARS, Lam

1990

V, VI, VII, VIII

-

AKC-86-39

PDKV, Akola

2001

VII

-

BC

OUAT, Bhubaneshwar

2001

V, VI

-

RHRC-Cluster Erect

MPKV, Rahuri

2001

VII

-

PMR-57/88-K

IIHR, Bangalore

2002

VII

-

LCA-334

RARS, Lam

2002

III, IV, V, VII

-

ASC-2000-02

GAU, Anand

2004

VII

-

KA-2

IIVR, Varanasi

2005

IV

-

LCA-353

RARS, Lam

2007

IV, V, VII

-

BC-225

OUAT, Bhubaneshwar

2007

V, VI, VII

-

HOE-888

Sandoz Seeds, New Delhi

1997

IV, VIII

-

ARCH-236

Ankur Seeds, Nagpur

1997

IV

-

Sungro-86-235

Sungro Seeds, New Delhi

2001

IV, VIII

-

ARCH-228

Ankur Seeds, Nagpur

2002

IV, V, VI

-

CCH-2

IIVR, Varanasi

2005

II, IV, V, VI

-

KT-1

IARI, RS, Katrain

1990

I

-

Sel-II

SKUAT, Shalimar

1997

I

-

Lario

Syngenta Seeds, Pune

2001

I

-

DARL-22

DARL, Pithoragarh

2002

I, IV

-

KTCPH-3

IARI, RS, Katrain

2005

I, VI, VII

-

Hybrid

Sweet Papper Hybrid

LEGUME VEGETABLES Garden Pea

110

Bonneville

IARI, New Delhi

1975

-

Mid group

GC-141 (JC-141)

JNKVV, Gwalior

1975

-

Mid group

GL-195

JNKVV, Gwalior

1975

-

Mid group

Arkel

IARI, New Delhi

1975

-

Early group

Early December

JNKVV, Gwalior

1977

-

Early group

IP-3 (Pant Uphar)

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

1985

-

Early group

P-88

PAU, Ludhiana

1985

-

Early group

PM-2

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

1987

I

Early group

Lincoln

IARI, Katrain

1987

I

Early group

VL-3

VPKAS, Almora

1987

I, IV, VI

Early group

VL-7

VPKAS, Almora

1992

IV

Early group

Ageta-6

PAU, Ludhiana

1993

I, IV, VI

Early group

VL-6

VPKAS, Almora

1993

IV

Mid group

PH-1

HAU, Hisar

1993

VII

Mid group

PH-1

HAU, Hisar

1995

V

Mid group


NDVP-8

NDUAT, Faizabad

1997

IV

Mid group

NDVP-10

NDUAT, Faizabad

1998

IV

Mid group

VL-8

VPKAS, Almora

1998

I

Mid group

VRP-2

IIVR, Varanasi

2001

VI

Early group

NDVP-12

NDUAT, Faizabad

2001

IV

Early group

VRP-3

IIVR, Varanasi

2001

I

Mid group

Oregan Sugar

PAU, Ludhiana

2001

VI

Edible podded

VRP-5

IIVR, Varanasi

2005

I, IV, VIII

Early group

CHP-2

HARP, Ranchi

2005

IV, VI

MId group

VP-101

VPKAS, Almora

2007

I, IV

Early group

PC-531

PAU, Ludhiana

2007

I, VI, VII

Mid group

PRS-4

CSAUAT, Kanpur

1990

IV, VI, VII

Powdery mildew

JP-4

JNKVV, Jabalpur

1990

IV, VIII

Powdery mildew

JP-83

JNKVV, Jabalpur

1992

VII

Powdery mildew

NDVP-4

NDUAT, Faizabad

1995

IV

Powdery mildew

DPP-68

HPKV, Palampur

2001

IV

Powdery mildew

KS-245

CSAUAT, Kanpur

2001

IV

Powdery mildew

KDVP-250

NDUAT, Faizabad

2001

V

Powdery mildew

DPP-9411

HPKV, Palampur

2002

I

Powdery mildew

KTP-8

IARI, RS, Katrain

2005

I, IV, V

Powdery mildew

Sel-1552 (Pusa Komal)

IARI, New Delhi

1983

-

-

Sel-61-B (Arka Garima)

IIHR, Bangalore

1992

VII, VIII

-

Sel-263

PAU, Ludhiana

1992

IV

Sel-2-1

NDUAT, Faizabad

1993

IV

IIHR-6

IIHR, Bangalore

1998

IV, VII

NDCP-13

NDUAT, Faizabad

2002

II, III, IV, VII

IVRCP-1

IIVR, Varanasi

2004

IV

CHCP-2

HARP, Ranchi

2005

VIII

IIVRCP-4

IIVR, Varanasi

2007

IV, V, VII

VR-5

IIVR, Varanasi

2008

IV, V, VII

Swarna Hartia

HARP, Ranchi

2008

II, IV, V, VIII

-

VL Boni-1

VPKAS, Almora

1985

NEH Region

Arka Komal

IIHR, Bangalore

1987

I, VII, VIII

UPF-191

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

1987

IV, VIII

IIHR-909

IIHR, Bangalore

1997

I

CH-812

HARP, Ranchi

2001

VII, III

CH-819

HARP, Varanasi

2005

I, VII

Resistant

Cowpea

French Bean

-

111


IIVR, Varanasi

2005

I, VII

-

Deepaliwal

PDKV, Akola

1990

V, VII

CHDB-1

HARP, Ranchi

2004

IV

-

IVFB-1 Indian Bean

BULB VEGETABLES Onion Punjab Selection

PAU, Ludhiana

1975

-

More self-life

Pusa Red

IARI, New Delhi

1975

-

More self-life

Pusa Ratnar

IARI, New Delhi

1975

-

Red

S-131

IARI, New Delhi

1977

-

White

N-257-9-1

MPKV, Rahuri

1985

-

White

N-2-4-1

MPKV, Rahuri

1985

-

Red

Pusa Madhavi (Line-120)

IARI, New Delhi

1987

I, IV, VI, VII

Rabi season

Arka Kalyan

IIHR, Bangalore

1987

IV, VI, VII, VIII

Rabi season

Arka Niketan

IIHR, Bangalore

1987

VII

Kharif season

Arka Found Dark Red NHRDF, Nasik

1987

IV

Kharif season

VL-3

VPKAS, Almora

1990

IV

Rabi season

Punjab Red Round

PAU, Ludhiana

1990

IV

Rabi season

Agrifound Light Red

NHRDF, Nasik

1995

VI, VIII

Rabi season

PBR-5

PAU, Ludhiana

1997

VI

Rabi season

HOS-1

HAU, Hisar

2006

VI

Rabi season

B-780-5-2-2

NRCOG, Pune

2007

VI

Rabi season

G-41

NHRDF, Karnal

1988

IV, VII

-

G-1

NHRDF, Karnal

1990

IV, VI, VII

-

G-50

NHRDF, Karnal

1988

IV, VII

-

G-282

NHRDF, Karnal

1998

IV, VI, VII

-

VLG-7

VPKAS, Almora

2001

I

-

DARL-52

DARL, Pithoragarh

2002

I

-

G-323

NHRDF, Nasik

2002

VI

-

Garlic

COLE VEGETABLES Cualiflower

112

Early Kunwari

PAU, Ludhiana

1975

-

Early group

327-14-8-3

IARI, New Delhi

1975

-

September maturity

351-4-1

IARI, New Delhi

1975

-

October maturity

Improved Japanese

IARI, New Delhi

1975

-

November maturity

EC-12012

IARI, Katrain

1975

-

January maturity

Pusa Snowball

IARI, Katrain

1975

-

January maturity

K-1

IARI, Katrain

1979

-

January maturity

114-S-1

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

1981

-

January maturity

Line 6-1-2-1

IARI, Katrain

1985

-

December maturity

235-S

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

1990

II, VIII

November maturity


KT-25

IARI, Katrain

2001

I

Snowball group

IVREC-2

IIVR, Varanasi

2005

IV

Early group

IIVRMC-12

IIVR, Varanasi

2008

IV

Mid group

DC-76

IARI, New Delhi

2008

I, VI

Mid group

Synthetic-1

IARI, New Delhi

1975

-

December maturity

Early Synthetic

IARI, New Delhi

1990

IV, VIII

Early group

Pusa Hybrid-1

IIVR, Varanasi

1992

II, IV

Early group

DCH-541

IARI, New Delhi

2002

II, IV

Early group

SYCFH-202

Syngenta Seeds, Pune

2004

IV, VII

Early group

Summer King

Sungro Seeds, New Delhi

2004

I, IV

Early group

SYCFH-203

Syngenta Seeds, New Delhi 2005

IV, V, VII

Early group

Sel-8

IARI, New Delhi

1985

II, IV

Variety

Shri Ganesh Gol

Mahyco Seeds, Jalana

1992

V

Hybrid

Nath-401

Nath Seeds, Aurangabad

1993

I, IV, V, VI, VII

Hybrid

BSS-32

Beejo Sheetal Seeds, Jalana

1995

VII

Hybrid

Nath-501

Nath Seeds, Aurangabad

1997

VII

Hybrid

Quisto

Novartis Seeds, Pune

1998

IV

Hybrid

KGMR-1

IARI, RS, Katrain

2005

I, IV

Hybrid

Green Emperor

Tokita Seeds, Bangalore

2007

I

Hybrid

Pusa Synthetic

IARI, RS, Katrain

1992

IV, I, II

Synthetic

Synthetic

Hybrid

Cabbage

ROOT VEGETABLES Carrot Sel-5 (Pusa Meghali)

IARI, New Delhi

1975

VII

-

Pusa Meghali

IARI, New Delhi

1992

VII

-

SKAUC-50

SKUA&T, Srinagar

2006

I

-

Hybrid-I

Mahyco Seeds, Jalna

1992

I, VII

-

CUCURBITACEOUS VEGETABLES Bittar Gourd Variety Priya

KAU, Vellanikkara

1992

II, VII, VIII

-

RHRBG-4-1

MPKV, Rahuri

1998

IV, VII

-

PBIG-1

GBPUA&T, Pantnagar

2001

IV

-

Pusa Hybrid-2

IARI, New Delhi

2002

IV, V, VI

-

NBGH-167

Nirmal Seeds, Jalgaon

2004

IV

-

Vivek

Sungro Seed, New Delhi

2008

VIII

-

IARI, New Delhi

1992

VII

-

Hybrid

Bottle Gourd Variety Pusa Naveen

113


KBG-16

CSAUA&T, Kanpur

1998

IV

-

PBOG-61

GBPUA&T, Pantnagar

2001

IV, VI

-

NDBG-104

NDUA&T, Faizabad

2002

IV

-

NDBG-132

IARI, New Dehli

2008

IV, VII

-

PBOG-2

GBPUA&T, Pantnagar

2001

VII

-

PBOG-1

GBPUA&T, Pantnagar

2001

IV

-

NDBH-4

NDUA&T, Faizabad

2001

All

-

CM-14

KAU, Vellanikkara

1987

IV, V, VII

-

Pusa Vishwas

IARI, New Delhi

1987

I, VIII, IV, V

-

Arka Chandan

IIHR, Bangalore

1987

VIII

-

Arka Suryamukhi

IIHR, Bangalore

1987

VIII

-

CM-350

KAU, Veelanikkara

2001

VII, VIII

-

NDPK-24

NDUAT, Faizabad

2001

IV, VI

-

CHC-2

HARP, Ranchi

2001

IV

-

CH-20

HARP, Ranchi

2001

IV

-

PCUC-28

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

2001

I, VII, VIII

-

PCUC-1

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

2001

All

-

Hybrid No.-1

Century Seeds, New Delhi

2004

I, IV, VII

-

PCUCH-3

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

2005

I, IV

-

Pusa Sharbati

IARI, New Delhi

1975

IV

-

Hara Madhu

PAU, Ludhiana

1975

IV, VII

-

Sl-45 (Pusa Madhuras)

IARI, New Delhi

1975

IV, VI, VIII

-

Arka Rajhans

IIHR, Bangalore

1975

VIII

-

Arka Jeet

IIHR, Bangalore

1975

VIII

-

Durgpura Madhu

ARS, Durgapura

1975

IV

-

MHY-5

ARS, Durgapura

2001

VII

-

NDM-15

NDUAT, Faizabad

2002

IV

-

IVMM-3

IIVR, Varanasi

2006

IV

-

GMM-3

GAU, Anand

2008

IV, VII

-

IARI, New Delhi

1990

IV

-

IARI, New Delhi

2001

Recommended as a source of resistance for CGMV

Hybrid

Pumpkin

Cucumber Variety

Hybrid

Muskmelon Variety

Hybrid Hybrid M-3 Resistant DMDR-1

114


DMDR-2

IARI, New Delhi

2001

Recommended as a source of resistance for DM + CGMV

Durgapura Meetha

ARS, Durgapura

1975

IV, VI, VII, VIII

-

Sugar Baby

IARI, New Delhi

1975

V, VII, VIII

-

Arka Manik

IIHR, Bangalore

1987

IV, VII, VIII

-

MHW-6

Mahyco, Jalna

1999

-

-

Arka Jyoti

IIHR, Bangalore

1981

CHRG-1

HARP, Ranchi

2001

IV

-

PRG-7

GBPUT, Pantnagar

2001

VII

-

IIHR-7

IIHR, Bangalore

2001

VIII

-

Sel-99

IARI, New Delhi

1995

IV, VI

-

CHSG-1

HARP, Ranchi

2005

IV

-

JSGL

GAU, Junagarh

2005

VII

-

KSG-14

CSAUAT, Kanpur

2006

IV

-

PSG-40

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

2007

I, VII

-

IVAG-90

IIVR, Varanasi

2006

IV, VIII

-

PAG-72

GBPUAT, Pantnagar

2006

VIII

-

Pusa Ujjwal

IARI, New Delhi

2007

I

-

Watermelon Variety

Hybrid -

Ridge Gaour

Sponge Gourd

Ash Gourd

OTHER VEGETABLE Okra Hybrid DVR-1

IIVR, Varanasi

1998

IV, VII

-

DVR-2

IIVR, Varanasi

1998

VI

-

DVR-3

IIVR, Varanasi

2001

All

-

DVR-4

IIVR, Varanasi

2001

IV, V, VII

-

HBH-142

HAU, Hisar

2005

IV, V, VII, VII

-

SOH-152

Syngenta, Pune

2005

IV, VII, VII

-

SOH-1016

Syngenta, Pune

2007

IV, VII

-

NBH-180

Nuzivedu Seeds, Secunderabad

2007

VII

-

JNDOH-02-2

JAU, Junagarh

2008

II, V, VI, VII, VIII

-

P-7

PAU, Ludhiana

1990

All

-

PB-57

MAU, Parbhani

1990

All

-

Sel-10 (Arka Anamika)

IIHR, Bangalore

1990

All

-

Rssistant

115


Sel-4 (Arka Abhay)

IIHR, Bangalore

1992

II

-

HRB-55 (Varsa Uphar)

HAU, Hisar

1995

VI

-

HRB-9-2

HAU, Hisar

1996

IV, VI

-

VRO-3

IIVR, Varanasi

2001

-

-

VRO-4

IIVR, Varanasi

2001

IV, V

-

VRO-5

IIVR, Varanasi

2002

VI

-

VRO-6

IIVR, Varanasi

2002

IV, V

-

NDO-10

NDUAT, Faizabad

2002

IV

-

HRB-107-4

HAU, Hisar

2005

VI, VIII

-

IIVR-11

IIVR, Varanasi

2005

VI, VII

-

JNDOL-03-1

AAU, Junagarh

2007

VII, VIII

-

Agro-Climatic Zones of India and States under Each Zone Zone

Geographical region

State under the zone

I

Humid Western Himalayan

Jammu & Kashmir(J& K), Himachal Pradesh (HP) and Uttranchal

II

Humid Bengal – Assam Basin

West Bengal and Assam

III

Sikkim, Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Humid Eastern Himalayan and Bay Mizoram, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh and Islands Andaman & Nicobar Islands

IV

Sub-Humid Sutlej Ganga Alluvial Plan

V

Sub-Humid to Humid Eastern and South Chattisgarh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh Eastern uplands

VI

Arid Western Plain

VII

Semi Arid Lava Plateau and Central High Madhya Pradesh and Maharasthra Lands

VIII

Humid to Semi Arid Western Ghats and Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerla Karnataka Plateau

Punjab, U.P. and Bihar

Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana and Delhi

Source: Vegetable Varieties of india H.P. Singh; Mathura Rai, Sudhakar Panday, Sanjeev Kumar, 2009

116


Annexure : 6

GM Vegetable Research in India, (Lab. & Field Trials Status, 2008)

Crop

Botanical Name

Trait

Gene/Event

Developer

Brinjal

S. melongena L.

IR

EE-I

Mahyco

IR

EE-1

Sungro Seeds

IR

EE-1

TNAU

Cabbage

Cauliflower

Okra

Onion Potato

Tomato

Brassica olercea var. capitata

Brassica oleracea botrytis

Abelmoschus esculentus L.

Allium cepa L. Solanum tuberosum L.

Solanum lycopersicum L.

IR

EE-1

UAS

IR

Cry 1Fa1 gene

Bejo Sheetal

IR

Cry 1Fa 1 gene

Krishidhan Seeds

IR

Cry 1FA 1 gene

Nath Seeds

IR

Cry 1Fa 1 gene

Vibha Agrotech

IR

Cry 1Fa 1 gene

NRCPB/ICAR

IR

Cry 1abc gene

NRCPB/ICAR

DST

Ots B-A gene

IIHR/ICAR

IR

Cry1Ab gene

IIVR/ICAR

IR

Cry 1ia5 gene

Nirmal Seeds

IR

Vip gene

Nirmal seeds

IR

Cry 1Ba & cry 1Ca gene Nunhems

IR

Cry 1Ac gene

Mahyco

IR

Cry 1Ac gene

Sungro

IR

Cry 1Ac gene

Sungro

IR

Cry 1Ba & cry 1Ca gene Nunhems

IR

Cry 1Ac gene

Mahyco

IR

Cry 1Ac/vip gene

Bejo Sheetal

IR

Cry 1Ac gene

Mahyco

IR

cry 1Ac gene

Sungro Seeds

IR

Cry 1Ac gene

Bejo Sheetal

IR

CP-AV1 gene

Arya Seeds

DR

n/a

NRCOG/ICAR

DR

n/a

IIHR/ICAR

NE

Ama 1 gene

NIPGR/CPRI/ICAR

LBR

RB gene

CPRI/ICAR

LBR

Cry 1Ab gene

CPRI/ICAR

LCV

Cp sense gene

CPRI/ICAR

DST

Osmotin gene

NRCPB/CPRI/ICAR

IR

Cry 1Ac gene

Mahyco

LCV

Rep antisense gene

NRCPB/ICAR

DST

Osmotin gene

NRCPB/ICAR

117


AP

Watermelon

Legend AP : BR : DR : DST : FR : IR : LBR : NE : PRSV : ST : VR : CFTRI : CISH : CPRI : CSIR : CTCRI : IARI : ICAR : III-IR :

Citrullus lanatus

ACS gene

NRCPB/ICAR

AP

Expansin gene

NRCPB/ICAR

DST

DREB 1a gene

IIVR/NRCPB/ICAR

DST

DREB 1a gene

IIHR/NRCPB/ICAR

LCV

Truncated Rep gene

NRCPB/ICAR

LCV

Truncated Rep gene

IIHR/ICAR

IR

Cry 1Aa3 gene

NRCPB/IIHR/ICAR CFTRI/CSIR

AP

n/a

AP & NE unedited NAD9 gene

Avesthagen

VR & FR

n/a

Indo-American Hybrid

IR

Cry 1Ac gene

Bejo Sheetal

VR

n/a

IIHR/ICAR

VR

N gene

UAS/IISc

Agronomic Properties Bacterial Resistance Disease Resistance Drought & Salt Tolerance Fungal Resistance Insect Resistance Late Curl Virus Nutritional Enhancement Papaya Ring Spot Virus Submergence Tolerance Virus Resistance Central Food Technological Research Institute Central Institute of Subtropical Horticulture Central Potato Research Institute Council of Scientific & Industrial Research Central Tuber Crops Research Institute Indian Agricultural Research Institute Indian Council of Agricultural Research Indian Institute of Horticultural Research

Source : ISAAA : Brief 38, The Developmnet and Regulation of Bt Brinjal in India, 2009

118


Annexure : 7

Global Research and Development of Biotech/GM Vegetables (2008)

Vegetable

Botanical name Halics

Trait

Country

Brinjal

Solanum melongena

IR, DST

India, Bangladesh, the Philippines, Italy

Broccoli

Brassica oleracea var italica

IR, HT

New Zealand, Japan

Cabbage

Brassica oleracea var. IR capitata

India, Australia, New Zealand

Cassava

Manihot esculenta

PQ, MG, VR

India, USA

Carrot

Daucus carota

NR, PQ, HT

USA, New Zealand

Citrange

Citrus x poncirus

PQ

Spain

Cauliflower

Brassica oleracea botrytis

IR, HT

India, Japan, Australia, New Zealand

Cucumber

Cucumis sativus

AP, VR, HT, PQ, IR

USA, Poland, Japan

Garlic

Allium sativum

AP, PQ

New Zealand

Lettuce

Lactuca sativa

VR, HT, FR, PQ

USA, Japan

Okra

Abelmoschus esculentus

IR

India

Onion

Allium cepa

HT, FR, DR, AP

India, New Zealand, USA

Pea

Pisum sativum

OO, HT, VR, PMP, DR

USA, Germany, United Kingdom (UK)

Potato

Solanum tuberosum

FR, VR, OO, PQ, IR, AP, BR, HT

India, Canada, New Zealand, USA, Germany, Spain, UK, Netherlands, Czech Republic, France, Poland, Ireland, Sweden, Finland, Japan

Squash

Cucurbita spp.

VR

USA, Canada

Sweet Potato

Ipomoea batatas

HT, VR

USA

Tomato

Solanum lycopersicum PQ, FR, IR, VR, AP, BR, OO, HT, NR

India, Canada, USA, Italy, japan, China

Watermelon

Citrullus lanatus

USA

AP, OO, VR

LEGEND: AP-Agronomic performance, BR-Bacterial resistance, DR-Disease resistance, DST-Drought and salinity tolerance, FR-Fungal resistance, IR-lnsect resistance, HT-Herbicide tolerance, MG-Selectable marker, NR-Nematode resistance, OO-Co!d/drought resistance, PMP-Plant manufacturing pharmaceuticals, PQ-Product quality, VR-Virus resistance Source : ISAAA : Brief 38, The Development and Regulation of Bt Brinjal in India; 2009.

119


Annexure : 8

Vegetable Research Centres in India

120

No.

Institute/university

Division/ centre

Address

1

Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU)

Faculty of Agriculture

Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500030, Andhra Pradesh

2

Allahabad Agricultural Institute (AAI)

Department of Horticulture

Naini Allahabad-211007, Uttar Pradesh

3

Anand Agricultural University (AAU)

Vegetable Research Station

College of Agriculture Anand-388001, Gujarat

4

Assam Agricultural University (AAU)

College of Agriculture

Jorhat-785013, Assam

5

Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya (BCKVV)

Department of Vegetable Crops

P. O. Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252, West Bengal

6

Birsa Agricultural University (BAU)

College of Agriculture

P. O. Kanke Ranchi-834006, Jharkhand

7

CCS Haryana Agricultural University (CCS-HAU)

Department of Vegetable Science College of Agriculture Hisar-125004, Haryana

8

Central Agricultural University (CAU)

College of Horticulture and Forestry

Pashigat Arunanchal Pradesh

9

Central Agricultural Research Institute (CARI)

Vegetable Science

PB No. 181, Port Blair-744101, A&N Islands

10

Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture (CISH)

Crop Improvement and Production

Rehmankhera, P. O. Kakori, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

11

Central Institute of Arid Horticulture (CIAH)

Division of Crop Improvement

Sri Ganganagar Road, NH-15, Beechwal, Bikaner, Rajasthan

12

Ch. Sarvan Kumar H. P. Krishi Vishwavidyalaya (CSKHPKV)

Department of Vegetable and Floriculture

College of Agriculture, Palampur-176062, Himachal Pradesh

13

CS. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology (CSAUAT)

Department of Vegetable Science College of Agriculture, Kanpur-208002, Uttar Pradesh

14

Dr. B.S.K. Krishi Vidyapeeth

Faculty of Agriculture Science

15

Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Vegetable Crops Horticulture and Forestry

Solan-173230, Himachal Pradesh

16

G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology (GBPUAT)

Pantnagar, Nainital-263145, Uttarakhand

17

Horticulture and Agroforestry Department of Horticulture Research Program (HARP)

ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region Plandu, Ranchi-834 010, Jharkhand

18

Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)

Pusa, New Delhi-110012

Department of Horticulture

Division of Vegetable Science

Dapol Ratnagiri-415712, Maharashtra


19

Indian Council of Agricultural Horticulture Division Research (ICAR)

KAB-II, Pusa, New Delhi-110012

20

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR)

Division of Vegetable Crops

255, Upper Palace, Orchards, Bengaluru-56008U Karnataka

21

Indian Institute of Vegetable Research (IIVR)

Vegetable Crops

P. O. Jakhani (Shanshapur) Varanasi-221305, Uttar Pradesh

22

Indira Gandhi Krishi Vidyalaya (IGKV)

Department of Vegetable Science Krishaknagar, Labhandi, Raipur-492006, Chhattisgarh

23

Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya(JNKVV)

Department of Horticulture

Jabalpur-482004, Madhya Pradesh

24

Junagadh Agricultural University (JAU)

Division of Vegetable Research

Junagadh-362001, Gujarat

25

Kerala Agricultural University Faculty of Agriculture (KAU)

Thrissur-680656, Kerala

26

Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology (MPUAT)

Department of Horticulture

College of Horticulture and Forestry Jhalawar-326001, Rajasthan

27

Maharathwada Agricultural University (MAU)

Horticulture Research Station

College of Agriculture Parbhani-431 402, Maharashtra

28

Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth (MPKV)

Department of Horticulture

Phulenagar, Rahuri-413722, Maharashtra

29