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SNPMS SUSTAINABLE NORTH PARK MAIN STREET


Sustainability Study & Implementation Plan

Acknowledgements This report is submitted by North Park Main Street to the State of California Office of Historic Preservation.

The report is the result of an initial vision initiative by North Park Main Street, which involved many volunteer hours by the following individuals: Alison Whitelaw Stephen Russell Thomas Brothers Anney Rosenthal Timothy Treadwell

Soeren Wegener Ryan Walker Yolanda Campbell Jillian Walker Alex Rojas

Alex Esquibel Kathy Tucker Rebecca Peterson Linda Glaze Christina Albert

Based on that effort, a grant application, to fund this report, was made to,and awarded by the California State Office of Historic Preservation. This grant relied on additional matching funds in the form of a grant from San Diego Gas & Electric and Pro Bono hourly effort from the following firms and individuals: Alison Whitelaw, Principal Platt/ Whitelaw Architects Christopher Brothers, Landscape Architect Stephen Russell, Platt/ Whitelaw Architects Thomas Brothers, Platt/ Whitelaw Architects Anney Rosenthal, OBR Architecture The authors of the report funded by the OHP grant are as follows: Soeren Wegener, Editor Yolanda Campbell, Art Director Ryan Walker, Illustrator Jillian Walker, Illustrator Alex Rojas, Energy Illustrator Jeanne Fricot, Energy Analyst Major in kind donations were provided by Platt/ Whitelaw Architects and Reprohaus. North Park Main Street is indebted to all these agencies, firms and individuals.


SNPMS

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Table of Contents 01 Background

02 Vision

03 Application

04 Appendix

The activity which is the subject of this sustainability study has bee financed in part with Federal funds from the National Park Service, Department of the Interior, through California Office of Historic Preservation. However, the contents and opinions do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of the Interior ot the California State Office of Historic Preservation, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation by the Department of the Interior or The California State Office of Historic Preservation.

05 Resources

Overview

Main Street Project pg.5

Energy

Efficiency pg.12

Water

Conservation pg.16

Open Space

Public Right of Way pg.18

Tenant Operation

Sustainable Practice pg.20

Introduction

Workshop pg.27

Existing Conditions

Step 1 Documentation pg.28

Stakeholder Input

Step 2 Identification pg.34

Focus Nodes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Step 3 Representation pg.36

Introduction

Handbook pg.59

Framework

Building Aspects pg.60

Index

Interventions & Buildings pg.62

Motor In Market

Historical Building 1 pg.64

The Lynhurst

Historical Building 2 pg.82

Claire de Lune

Historical Building 3 pg.102

Filter Coffee House

Historical Building 4 pg.118

Aloha Sunday

Historical Building 5 pg.134

Energy Model Analysis

Office/ Restaurant/ Retail pg.155

Energy Makeover Week

District Wide Event pg.185

References List of Images

Information pg191. Index pg.193


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01 Background


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Main Street Project

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Overview North Park Main Street (NPMS) has been a major catalyst for North Park’s emergence as one of the hippest, most colorful urban villages in San Diego. The business association has galvanized local volunteer efforts to preserve the business district’s historic character while helping to recruit exciting new entrepreneurs, bringing renewed energy to North Park’s downtown core. The Business Improvement District (BID) boundaries are legally defined and center around two primary corridors - University Avenue and 30th Street.

San Diego Region

North Park Main Street was established in 1996, and is part of a coast-to-coast movement overseen by the National Trust for Historic Preservation which promotes the revitalization of historic commercial districts and supports their small, independently-owned businesses. The national Main Street program advocates a philosophy of local empowerment and the preservation of unique assets including distinctive architecture and pedestrian-oriented environments. More than 50 local volunteers with a passion for the North Park community are actively engaged with NPMS.

City Limits

Mid-City

The Greater North Park community and the Main Street business district have experienced a rebirth within the last ten years with the emergence of a thriving new creative element. In 1998 North Park Main Street declared itself an “Arts, Culture & Entertainment” District to celebrate and promote this new economic and cultural trend. Over the past several years, a new professional class of artists, designers, musicians, architects, writers, entrepreneurs, and a broad array of imaginative cultural events have transformed North Park into a widely recognized “Creative Community”. North Park Main Street has approximately 500 members – businesses located within the BID district. Funding for the North Park Main Street program is generated from membership dues, City of San Diego grants, San Diego Redevelopment Agency contracts, foundation and other governmental grants, special events, and sponsorships.

North Park Main Street District


Main Street Project Sustainability Challenge In 2009, Wayne Donaldson, California’s State Historic Preservation Officer, challenged North Park Main Street to develop the state’s first Sustainable Main Street program. Community leaders embraced this challenge, and later that year convened a group of local stakeholders to develop the framework for a sustainability plan in North Park. The assembled group included transportation planners, environmental advocates, energy conservation experts, green building consultants, farm-to-table restaurateurs, elected officials, business owners, and residents working in partnership with volunteer professionals at Platt/Whitelaw Architects, NPMS was able to draft a set of goals & objectives for a Sustainable North Park Main Street (SNPMS) Program.The four over arching goals for SNPMS: •Maintain the cultural and historic integrity of the built and social environment; •Increase resource efficiency and conservation within the District; •Increase internal community connectivity; •Provide a setting for a sustainable green economy. SNPMS addresses the need for preservation of historically significant & contributing structures, and places heavy emphasis on reuse of materials, and reintroduction of business practices that require less energy & waste. As a business organization, these principles provide an opportunity to develop the future growth, identity, and success of North Park around a shared vision of localism, historic preservation, and environmental stewardship. Building on its local presence as an arts, culture, and entertainment district, the emergence of North Park as a center of sustainability is intended to further strengthen and broaden the district’s competitive position as a destination for new businesses. In this way, SNPMS will fulfill Main Street’s core mission of architectural and cultural preservation through economic development. The stakeholder group further decided that the guiding principles in the development of Sustainable NPMS key program objectives should include supporting the environment, strengthening the local economy, and promoting social equity. The developed key program objectives for SNPMS: •Create a Demonstration Project: Develop a program that is a model for other communities, •both in terms of the process and the results that it produces. •Maintain Cultural/Historical Integrity: Strengthen the existing historic fabric of North Park and •harness new development and investment to enhance the physical setting of this unique •urban village. •Resource Efficiency: Reduce the carbon footprint of the district, improve the efficiency of •water use, and reduce the districts contribution to the waste stream. •Increase Community Connectivity: Promote social activity in both public and private spaces. •Promote a Sustainable Green Economy: Increase opportunities for local employment and •local production & commerce, while increasing the diversity of goods and services available •within the community. •Mobility Efficiency: Increasing the effectiveness and desirability of transit, encouraging active •transportation, and improving accessibility of the district to all residents and visitors.

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7 Program Development The Sustainable North Park Main Street effort continued with an assessment of existing conditions. Teams of two Associates and two Mentors each, all working on a pro bono basis, were organized to assess existing conditions, propose measures of success, and identify opportunities for interventions in the following areas: •Food & Water •Transportation & Public Places •Energy & Materials The resulting exhibits and assessments were organized by the teams and presented to a group of community stakeholders, including environmental activists, historic preservationists, economic development specialists, design professionals, political representatives, business owners, and concerned residents. At this meeting the stakeholders discussed and added to the various issues and measures that had been identified in the analysis, and they proposed interventions to address each of the issues. The group discussed the efficacy of each proposal, amended the lists, and ultimately prioritized the measures that should be pursued. In many cases they also provided recommendation for specific sites for the application of these measures. The resulting work product was an itemized, categorized, and prioritized list of interventions to be applied to the project area. Using the menu of interventions and the existing conditions evaluations, the project team identified the set of measures that were applicable largely on a district scale and mapped them on the district plan. They then identified five focus nodes, which were selected to represent both typical commercial corridor conditions as well as unique site conditions. Using a workshop format, the team reviewed each focus area on a large scale plan and annotated the appropriate measures on each site plan. These plans were then taken away by the teams, each of which then began the process of applying the suggested measures within their sites. This design development process resulted in the Vision Plan - a series of site-specific illustrations of sites within the North Park community envisioned as a revitalized, sustainable district. This was widely distributed in a PDF format and presented in two community gallery showings, with project associates present to discuss the proposal with residents and to collect feedback from community representatives. The Vision Plan is included as part of the document (see Chapter 03)


Main Street Project

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Implementation Plan Using the results of the Vision Plan, this Implementation Plan refines these images of North Park and uses them as a basis for illustrative diagrams with explanatory notes that describe the possible interventions in very practical terms. The Implementation Plan is proposed to be used in a number of ways: •The process and structure of the Plan provide a model for other Main Streets to follow to develop their own Sustainable Main Street Vision & Implementation Plan

SNPMS SUSTAINABLE NORTH PARK MAIN STREET

•Using individual buildings as precise case studies, this Plan is intended to be used as a handbook for Main Street Sustainability Program Staff to educate and inspire building owners and business operators about how they can participate in the broader vision of a Sustainable North Park Main Street. •By demonstrating the discrete components of a sustainability program, the Plan can be used by North Park Main Street to generate interest in potential funders to implement the various components of the plan. •By illustrating the vision of coordinated infrastructure investments in the public areas, the Plan serves as a handbook for the public agencies and community advocacy groups who oversee and implement public works.

This logo can be made available and adopted to reflect other Main Street grids and district acronyms in an effort to link sustainable main street projects nationally.

•This report has been designed to be a model for other Main Street Districts to use as a model for their own Sustainable Main Street program. The process, structure and content are all considered open source and may be modified to suit the individual physical, economic and social characteristics of other districts. •Designed with “open architecture”, the publication is intended to be a living, growing document that can be augmented with additional interventions, digital building models, completed projects, or community proposals. •The appendices serve both as technical manuals and as ongoing records of the accomplishments of the district toward meeting its sustainability goals.

9 Future Program Components Full implementation of this plan will require a number of programmatic elements, some of which could be financed as discrete components; ultimately, the success of this effort will rely on North Park Main Street exercising a strong coordinating role between these efforts. Among the program components envisioned by this plan: •An Advisory Committee, whose formation is underway, will be tasked with strategic planing, monitoring, and recording progress of the implemention plan. Members of the Committee will include local business and community leaders with expertise in the dimensions of sustainability identified in the implementation plan. •A three dimensional digital model of the district has been created and detailed models of five focus buildings have been developed. Future efforts will be made to further enhance the district model through the development of additional building models, with emphasis on the historic structures in North Park. •Community-based GIS support to enable the district to map current conditions and monitor program performance. The uses of GIS in this setting can range from the most mundane – producing maps for volunteers to chart features of the community – to far more technical applications, such as calculating District wide impacts of applied sustainability strategies. •Internship Programs in urban studies, architecture, and environmental studies. Interns sponsored by various entities can continue to model the districts historic buildings, develop HABS drawings, provide design solutions, develop and maintain tracking tools, participate in community meetings, and develop outreach materials. •Information Technology to support the digital modeling and graphic capabilities of the program. In addition, an interactive web site will allow full accessibility to the program’s resources. •Outreach and Advocacy to the community. Using the tools and vision provided by the program, North Park Main Street will coordinate community input and outreach to building owners, business operators, prospective developers, and government agencies. Part of this outreach will include developing the Sustainable North Park Main Street page that already exists on the North Park Main Street website into a fully interactive online tool. •Information Resource to the community. Funding will be sought for the role of SNPMS Program Coordinator to implement the SNPMS program; this staff member will act as a resource and outreach coordinator, actively pursuing and facilitating efforts by both private and public sectors to implement the components of the program. •Development of a special Benefits District (“Green and Safe”) to help implement the public right of way portion of the plan by providing maintenance and operations support for green infrastructure components.


Main Street Project

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Main Street Designation Developed by the National Trust for Historic Preservation more than 25 years ago and administered by the non-profit National Main Street Center of the National Trust for Historic Preservation, the Main Street Program has utilized a public-private partnership of private investment, local government support, and local non-profit assistance to revitalize historic commercial districts. The locally-driven, grass roots, self-help Main Street Four Point Approach® focuses on the following areas: organization, promotion, design, and economic restructuring. California Main Street Program North Park, as a certified local Main Street program meets stringent criteria set forth by California Main Street. Focused on enhancing the economic, social, cultural, and environmental well-being of historic and traditional commercial districts located in California’s diverse cities, towns, and neighborhoods, California Main Street has helped communities build strong broad-based organizations to implement and manage the revitalization process. Since August 2004, the Main Street Program has operated from within the Office of Historic Preservation (OHP), more recently in partnership with the California Main Street Alliance (CAMSA). History & Role in the Community The community of North Park is located in the central portion of the City of San Diego within five miles of downtown San Diego and adjacent to Balboa Park. North Park is approximately 1,466 acres in area and has a population of approximately 40,500 residing in about 22,000 dwelling units. North park is one of the older urbanized communities in San Diego with original subdivisons being recorded just after the turn of the 20th century. The community is traversed by two major east-west streets, University Avenue and El Cajon Boulevard. Park Boulevard, 30th Street and Texas Street are north-south streets of significance. With the exception of Texas Street, these streets are characterized by strip commercial zoning and development dating back to the 1920s and 1930s. The commercial corridor along University Avenue is one of five sites city-wide that has been designated as a Pilot Village under the City of Villages strategy for smart growth in San Diego. The City of Villages strategy seeks to promote development that mixes housing, retail, jobs, schools, and civic uses within walkable communities that have ready access to transit.

North Park Main Street Boundaries

The following is a list of documents with additional information on the community of North Park: •City of San Diego General Plan •2030 San Diego Regional transportation Plan •North Park Community Plan •North Park Redevelopment Plan •The Greater North Park Public Facilities Financing Plan •Mid-City Planned District Ordinance •North Park Historical Survey •University Mobility Plan


Efficiency

Energy In any Main Street district, there are historic buildings constructed before modern energy efficiency standards, which may not have been upgraded with energy saving retrofits. These inefficiencies results from a number of issues: due to low insulation values and high infiltration rates, low performing building envelopes allow passage of heat or cold into and out of the building, increasing the loads on the cooling and heating equipment; older heating & cooling equipment and lighting are inefficient and consume significantly more power than their modern equivalents; and legacy process equipment can consume large amounts of energy and give off heat, contributing to the loads imposed on the building cooling equipment. In order to determine the most appropriate energy efficiency interventions in North Park Main Street, it is important to evaluate the variety of building types and uses found within the district. Building Characteristics The North Park Main Street district is composed predominantly of one and two story buildings, ranging in size from 3,000 to10,000 ft2. They vary in construction type from wood framed walls with exterior plaster finish to concrete masonry to concrete structural frame with hollow clay tile infill. Roofs are predominantly wood framed and most buildings are concrete slab on grade, with a few exceptions of wood framed floors over crawl spaces. Commercial building use in the district is quite varied. In recent years, an increasing number of restaurants, bars and coffee shops have been established in the Main Street district; however the district also hosts retail shops, service establishments (beauty salons, dance & yoga studios, laundromats, and dry cleaners), professional offices, artist studios and galleries and food stores, ranging from small markets to a few larger chain markets and drug stores. There are a small number of buildings that were originally built as department stores (such as JC Penney and Woolworth) which are now being adaptively redeveloped. The limited number of multi-story buildings are primarily mixed-use, with residential uses on the upper floors. Energy Efficiency Strategies To understand the potential for energy efficiency across the district’s varied building types, sizes and uses, efficiency improvements were evaluated across the following areas: •Building envelope upgrades: Insulation, Reflectivity, Infiltration, Shading, Window performance •Building systems upgrades: Heating, Cooling, Lighting & Control Systems •Process equipment upgrades: Food service equipment, Laundry equipment, etc. •On-site renewable energy generation: Photovoltaic Building envelope Upgrading the thermal performance of existing building envelopes can significantly decrease loads on heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment, reducing on-site energy usage and its associated costs; it also means that when replacing HVAC equipment, those systems can be down sized to meet the smaller loads.

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13 For the purposes of this report, a representative structure was modeled in EnergyPro, based on a 5,000 ft2 single story building. This does not represent a specific building in the District, it is however a representation of a large numbers of the buildings in the area. For this representative building, a number of base models were created, based on combinations of construction types and building orientation found in the District. Envelope-based eefficiency interventions were then applied to the various base models and their resulting impacts on interior heat and cooling loads analyzed. The relative impacts of each of these interventions were then tabulated and graphically depicted (see 04 Appendix). Building owners can refer to the comparative results of this modeling to draw preliminary conclusions about the types of interventions that might most benefit their particular building, based on its type of construction, use and orientation. These conclusions should be viewed only as a starting point, as further investigation is required by individual owners/occupants to validate and quantify the actual benefits for their particular building. Building Systems In a building whose exterior envelope has been upgraded for thermal performance, full replacement of older, inefficient HVAC, control and lighting systems will provide significant and immediate energy savings, often paying for themselves within three years. The economic performance of these retrofits can be bolstered by various financial incentives that offset a portion of the installation costs; new systems may qualify for utility company and other financial incentives, attractive financing programs and tax benefits. More modest upgrades, such as components replacement of heating, ventilating and air conditioning equipment, control systems, and lighting systems can also provide immediate energy efficiency benefit. The electric utility serving the Main Street district, San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E), conducted an “energy makeover week” in 2010. The twenty-seven businesses that participated were provided adjustment and deferred maintenance of existing mechanical systems and replacement of light bulbs at no cost and resulted in an estimated annual energy savings of: Total kWh: 80,257.48 Total Kw: 19.03 Therms: 16.20 A summary of the North Park energy makeover week is provided in the Appendix. Process Equipment The growth in food service in the North Park Main Street area has been significant in recent years. There are many good restaurants and bars that attract customers from all over the San Diego area. Food service equipment is expensive and uses significant amounts of energy. Although the restaurant economy in North Park is robust, nationally, it is known that a significant number of restaurants fail and there is, therefore, a wide market for used food service equipment, however, new food service equipment is typically more energy efficient and food service owners are well advised to compare life cycle and payback costs between used and new equipment prior to making purchasing decisions. Information about energy efficiency resources related to food service equipment is provided in intervention E-4 (see 03 Application).


Continued On-site Renewable Energy Generation The State of California has set ambitious greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction goals to protect public health and the environment. AB 32, the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, requires that the state reduce GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Executive Order S-3-05 goes further, requiring emission levels of 80% below 1990 by the year 2050. These goals are being addressed through a mix of code changes for new construction and programs designed to support the retrofit of legacy building stock. The State’s Long-Term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan states that all new residential buildings be zero net energy by the year 2020 and all new non-residential development be net-zero energy by the year 2030. The City of San Diego’s General Plan mirrors the state law and also requires net-zero energy for new residential buildings by the year 2020 and new commercial development by the year 2030. For existing buildings, policies are focused more on supporting and incentivizing retrofit activities. On the residential side, the State’s major electric utilities have worked local governments to launch Energy Upgrade California, a program that provides direct incentives to homeowners for energy efficiency retrofits. For non-residential buildings, the utilities and non-utility partners provide an array of technical support, rebates and incentives designed to support efficiency retrofits and peak demand reduction. SDG&E has gone a step further, offering non-residential customers On-Bill financing. This program provides zero-percent financing for qualifying energy efficiency projects, which are paid back through electricity bills. Despite these efforts, energy efficiency measures alone are typically not sufficient to meet some of the more challenging State goals such as net zero energy buildings; achieving this goal requires at least a portion of building load to be met with on-site renewable energy generation. In recent years, the state has experienced significant growth in on-site renewable energy generation, particularly in solar photovoltaics (PV). Since early 2007, California’s three large investor-owner utilities have seen over 2,700 non-residential systems installed, equal to more than 355 DC MW of capacity. This growth is due to a combination of factors, including net energy metering, utility rebate programs, federal tax benefits and alternative ownership structures. With this array of incentives and options, customers can either purchase systems, taking advantage of rebates and tax incentives to buy-down the upfront cost of solar, lease solar systems from a third party, which takes advantage of the rebate and tax benefit, or enter into a power purchase agreement (PPA), where a third party system owner sells PV output to the host customer at a price lower than the utility alternative. In addition to these standard options, purchasing and ownership models have emerged that leverage customer aggregation to lower system costs through bulk purchasing.

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Maximize use of roof - community wide photo voltaic installation over North Parks flat roof structures as seen from the public parking structure at 30th Street and North Park Way.


Conservation

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Water The San Diego region is essentially a coastal desert and thus, water supply and conservation is a never ending concern. As noted by the San Diego County Water Authority, approximately 80% of San Diego’s water supply is imported. Groundwater supplies are less plentiful in the San Diego region than in other areas in California and our soils are rich with clay, which translates to poor storm water filtration and more frequent possibilities of overflow and ponding. To offset the need for import, local authorities are continually working to balance water demand and collection. Part of this process includes the incorporation of “local supply development” through ocean water desalination, new groundwater supplies, recycled water and conservation. Approximately 30,000 acre feet of recycled water are beneficially reused within the Water Authority’s service area annually and this number is projected to increase to over 45,000 acre feet per year by 2020. While authorities are at work to reuse/recycle/conserve countywide, how can we affect change and work with our given desert-like environment on a local level? North Park has a history of water main breaks, old cast-iron pipes bursting, high levels of ground water and flooding. Pipes are fixed for the interim, only to burst again two years later. The inability to replace old lines due to insufficient public funds is alone an incentive for business owners and tenants to take water management into their own hands. Areas within the business district are prone to storm water flooding due to the clayey soils as well. District-wide, rainwater collection should be implemented to manage damage due to storm water flooding AND offset demand from the County’s water supply. Taking on program changes to a building or site’s operations seems like a daunting task this document strives to educate the local community and provide direction through several interventions related to water conservation, collection and recycling - interventions that are simple and feasible. Some local businesses have already taken water conservation into their own hands and serve as excellent examples for the community. A couple of local architecture firms and art studios have maximized the open space behind their buildings by installing raised planters for vegetables and landscaping. Not only does this transform an otherwise unused paved area into a more comfortable, outdoor space, but it allows storm water runoff ‘green’ places to go. In addition, one office has installed two, five hundered gallon tanks for rain water collection. Three, six foot deep sub grade sumps pump excess ground water into the above ground storage tanks, giving the business access to water for landscaping and maintenance, which otherwise would have come from City supply. Another local business transformed their asphalt parking lot into a permeable surfaced lot, which now functions as a flexible parking lot, garden and gathering space. Rain water passes through the permeable surface and is stored below grade for reuse. All overflow water is pumped and stored in an above grade collection tank.

View shows proposed 30th Street revitalization of public walk by increasing sidewalk width, providing distance between pedestrain and vehicle, improving shading and softening hardscape while filtering and decreasing the amount of rain water that goes to the public storm drain system.

It is the intent and goal of SNPMS to help maintain this Main Street for years to come, by offering suggestions for attainable interventions for the community. Tenants, business owners and property owners have the power to contribute and create a neighborhood that is not only sustainably beautiful but is less reliant on outside public sources. Water will always be a resource in demand and it is in our best interest to take responsibility and act now for future generations.


Public Right of Way

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Open Space Public Open Space—streets, sidewalks, alleys, and parks large and small—have the potential to be one of the most significant contributors to the sustainable urban community and can amount to 30 or more percent of the total developable land. Multiple methods can serve to mitigate environmental challenges in these public spaces, while simultaneously contributing to the economic and social vitality of the community. Plant material, in particular trees, can be one of the most significant contributors to the amelioration of the heat-island-effect: the relative rise in average temperatures in urban settings. By absorbing sun light, trees and other plants capture and convert heat to bio-mass, storing energy while shading surrounding surfaces, and introducing color and texture to the streetscape. Simultaneously, plants, especially trees, sequester carbon, the primary pollutant implicated in climate change. Yet the urban setting can be a harsh environment for plants, and careful selection of varieties that can withstand the initial heat and glare, potentially restricted root zones, and air quality is critical. Trees that can be pruned as they mature, to lift their canopies above trucks and buses and promote views to storefronts, are most appropriate. Techniques exist to increase rooting zone below paving, whether “manufactured soils” or structural geometries, promoting growth to optimal size. A range of materials, color, and surface textures can introduce patterns and accents into the paving, to enhance visual interest, and reinforce the image of North Park as a special place. Clear demarcation of pedestrian areas from those of vehicular-use, and barrier free travel from disembarkment to destination, will make improvements universally accessible to all. A technique increasingly used in communities to calm traffic and enhance the pedestrian experience is the use of “pop outs”, places at intersections or mid-block where the sidewalk expands out into the former parking bays to create pockets of seating and planting, creating places to pause, or stay and converse. These have the added benefit of reducing crosswalk length, contributing further to a pedestrian-friendly community. Another contributor to the vibrancy of the street experience, where sidewalk width allows it, is the introduction of outdoor eating or retail displays. A selection of well designed street furnishings which share a theme—common elements of character and color—will contribute to the identity and sense of place of North Park. These pieces of furniture—seating, information kiosks, planters, bicycle racks, bollards, etcetera— provide essential functions while contributing to the visual amenity. Banners become a source of color and interest; many pedestrian and street lights incorporate systems for the attachment of permanent and transitional banners. Conveniently located trash and recycle containers managed on a district-wide basis will promote point-of-source sorting, contributing to the goal of sustainability. Increasingly efficient lighting fixtures, such as LEDs are becoming available. More than just the minimum required for pedestrian and vehicular safety, sufficient lighting will contribute to an inviting and vibrant evening setting. The incorporation of power outlets coincident with street furniture or tree locations will provide opportunities for “festival” or “event” lighting, whether twinkle lights in trees or other embellishments.

Public Open Space—streets, sidewalks, alleys, and parks large and small— about 30 percent of the total developable land.

The handling of storm water runoff is a continuing concern in San Diego. Reducing the volume of runoff, and filtering out the pollutants, are twin goals for a sustainable North Park, and indeed, the region and State. Permeable pavements, which provide pedestrian or vehicular use while allowing rainfall to percolate into the soil to reduce runoff, are available. Additionally, permanent or temporary storage of storm runoff in above-or-below-ground containment, whether tanks and vaults or porous gravel beds, are potential approaches. Alleyways, in particular seem likely candidates for these techniques. Alternatively or additionally, street runoff can be diverted from the ubiquitous curb-and-gutter, through openings into abutting planting bays in the parkway, absorbing and filtering the storm water through the plants and groundcovers, before returning excess runoff back to the gutter. Alleys in North Park, as in many communities, are underutilized merely as barren shortcuts for “those in the know”, and routes for trash pickup or other utility services, and access to back lot parking. Yet there is the potential, here, to enhance these forgotten corridors as pedestrian amenities, links to the North Park fabric, and components of significant environmental mitigation—from pleasant pedestrian throughways, to greenways, or use of permeable pavements and/or below-grade storm water storage.


Sustainable Practice

Tenant Operations An important component of a sustainable Main Street program is the development of resources for the sustainable operations of the business district. A successful program helps to maximize social, economic and environmental benefits. These operations occur at the individual business level as well as through programs that can be operated by the Main Street administration for district wide benefit. Areas to be addressed include cultural amenity, universal design, environmentally preferred products and practices for cleaning and maintenance, sustainable purchasing policies, and waste stream management. Cultural Amenity Cultural amenities are opportunities that draw the public to the business district and enhance economic opportunity and community pride. These amenities can include public and private infrastructure such as plazas and pocket parks, public art and creative signage, walkable sidewalks, activated alleys, street furniture, trees and landscaping, traffic calming measures and effective public transportation. Also included are special community events that contribute toward the economic, social and environmental goals of the North Park Main Street district. Currently, such events include the weekly Farmers’ Market, monthly events such as Ray at Night, and 30th on 30th, the annual Toyland Parade, Taste of North Park, and the Festival of the Arts. Many individual businesses also organize community events that are promoted through NPMS and meet these same goals. For example, Olive Branch, a green building materials store holds free classes on energy efficiency and green materials and Art Produce, an artist studio and gallery profiles exhibits that embrace social advocacy, education and community building. Universal Design Universal design is a concept that embraces and goes beyond the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and facilitates access to all amenities by all people to the greatest extent possible; regardless of their age, ability or status in life. The demographic profile of North Park and its surrounding communities includes singles, multi-adult households, families with children of all ages, empty nesters, and seniors, as well as people from many cultures and nationalities. Physical design that goes beyond ADA standards, the use of visual symbols or multi lingual text on signage, and amenities and activities that appeal to all demographic groups will ensure there are no barriers that will prevent any sector of the population from being fully involved in the North Park Main Street community.

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21 Environmentally Preferred Cleaning Products & Practices In order to reduce the exposure of building occupants to potentially hazardous contaminants, businesses should establish environmentally safe cleaning practices. Green cleaning products and practices create a healthier work place at the same time as improving the environment. Criteria and standards have been established to ensure that purchasers of cleaning materials are making appropriate choices. Examples include Green Seal GS-37, for general cleaning purposes, Environmental Choice CCD-110 for degreasing compounds, and Environmental Choice CCD-148 for carpet and upholstery cleaning The operations of green cleaning practices also entail staff training for safe handling, dilution and storage of any chemicals used in the building, including a plan for the management of hazardous spills; and the use of grills, grates and walk off mats at building entries, to prevent dirt and pollutants from entering the building through public entry ways. Exterior building, hardscape and sidewalk cleaning also require the use of green cleaning products and practices. Use of cleaning products with the Green Seal certification will ensure that hazardous chemicals are not washed into the storm drain, and the use of electric or manual power for equipment, rather than gasoline, will help reduce air and noise pollution. In the public sector, the North Park Maintenance Assessment District (MAD) provides very basic tree trimming, median planting maintenance, graffiti removal, and litter abatement services. Due to the limitations placed on it when it was formed, the MAD is prevented from providing additional services that would support green infrastructure identified in the plan. North Park Main Street is moving toward creating a “Green and Safe” program to enhance these services based on green maintenance practices. Sustainable Purchasing Policies A Sustainable Purchasing Program can save money, engender employee pride, increase a business’s profile and facilitate responsible environmental practices in the general community. Such policies promote the use of environmentally preferable choices in the acquisition of goods and services. In purchasing decisions, businesses should consider life cycle effects from pollution, waste generation, energy consumption, recycled material content, depletion of natural resources, and potential impact on human health and the environment. In order to embark on a sustainable purchasing program, businesses are encouraged to consider what they are currently buying and target those items known to have recycled or environmentally preferable alternatives. These items may include the following categories: products with recycled content; energy efficient products; green cleaning products; green computers and office equipment; locally produced products, organic farm produce and certified sea food. Specific examples include: environmentally preferable papers (high percentage of recycled content); water or vegetable based Ink; products with minimal or recyclable packaging; products that can be taken back or traded in for repurposing when they have reached the end of their useful life for the business. North Park Main Street can promote sustainable purchasing practices among their member businesses by promoting a cooperative buying program. Participation in the program, by businesses across the District will mean that bulk purchasing cost benefits can accrue to all the participants. In addition, the traffic volume and pollution from delivery trucks will be reduced through the fewer numbers of delivery trips required.


Continued Waste Stream Management In order to reduce the volume of waste that is directed to landfills, and to capture discarded materials that can be recycled, purchasing choices should favor reusable, compostable and recyclable products and careful on site sorting of waste should be practiced by all businesses. Currently in the district, businesses contract with various waste collection contractors to pick up their recyclable and non recyclable waste. The market for recyclables varies and the City recycling center takes some categories at no charge (TVs, computer monitors and computer processing units, non CRV glass containers, non CRV types 1 and 2 plastics as well as narrow neck plastic containers, clean plastic tubs, non CRV steel cans, ferrous metals like barbecues, wrought iron, etc., mixed paper, and used cooking oil (residential only, maximum 30 quarts). Some categories have refundable value, (aluminum, plastic, glass and steel beverage containers for which a CRV deposit was charged, as well as some types of metals, newspaper and cardboard) Some categories require a fee in order for the City to accept them (Refrigerators, freezers, air conditioners and other appliances that contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Large household appliances, tires, mattresses and box springs, household electronics including printers, keyboards and mice) In addition, the City has now established a food waste collection system for some of its larger food service customers. Food waste is collected by private contractors and composted at the city’s recycling center. There is already an extensive yard waste composting program that produces mulch that is available for the public to pick up and use for landscape purposes. A District wide program facilitated by North Park Main Street, that would pick up trash and sorted recyclables from public as well as private business collection points would reduce the number of vehicle collection trips, thereby reducing traffic congestion, and air and noise pollution and would also reduce costs for individual businesses based on the benefits of bulk contracting.

22

23

The view from North Park Way shows a transformation of Ray Street into a meandering driveway with added benches, street lights, trees and outdoor spaces for events.


24

25

01 Vision


26

27

Workshop

Introduction 30th Street

University Avenue

I

2

The goal of the SNPMS vision phase of was to develop a framework for the sustainability of San Diego’s Historic North Park Main Street District that can act directly as a catalyst for sustainable development of the North Park community and as a model for other similar urban communities. For this initial phase, a project team of volunteer design professionals and volunteer associates explored the potential of implementing various sustainable strategies within the north Park district in both the public and private realms. Step 1 Document Collect, examine, and map existing conditions baseline data for the district. Step 2 Identifiy Identify focus nodes with both typical and unique site conditions for further analysis. Identify opportunities for sustainable measures that address aspects of food, water, transportation, public places, energy, and materials. Conduct a stakeholder workshop to prioritize interventions to be applied to the focus nodes and project area. Step 3 Illustrate Develop a graphic representation of the envisioned sustainable measures applied to the selected focus nodes. The graphic outcome can be utilized to support fundraising efforts and engage community members and other stakeholders in the evolving vision of a sustainable urban community. 3 Step Workshop excerpt are depicted on the following pages.

Sustainable North Park Main Street Art Produce Gallery Showing August 13, 2011


Step 1 Document

28

Existing Conditions Commercial Residential Mixed-Use Historical Bike Lane Markets Parking

University Avenue

29


Step 1 Document

30

31

Existing Conditions Community Resources

Sidewalk Conditions

District Event Locations

Flooding and drainage

Bicycle path

Pedestrian Crossing

Historical Buildings


Step 1 Document

32

33

Existing Conditions

Roof Planes

White

Light-Colored

Medium-Colored

Dark-Colored

Pitched-Colored

Flat/ Polymer Coated

Asphalt Shingles


Step 2 Identify

34

35

Stakeholder Input Focus Nodes

4

3

2

1

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

3 32nd Street & University Ave.

Ped. Crossing Improvements

X

X

X

X

Pedestrian Lighting

X

4 30th Street & Polk Ave.

X

X

Utility Box Removal

5 30th Street & Upas Street

X

New Curb Cut

5

1 Texas Street & University Ave. 2 30th Street & University Ave.

Categories Transportation & Public Places Food & Water Energy & Materials

X X X

4

Cont. Ped. Path Improvements

3

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

New Bike Storage/Corral

X

New Public Space

X

X

Shade Tree Canopy

X

X

X

X

New Street Furniture

X

X

X

X

Electric Car Recharge Station

X

Smart Car Parking Space

X

Common Parking Reservoir X

Multi-fuel Station

2

1 X

X

X

X

X

X

Retrofitted Business Recycling/Reuse Program

Outdoor Dining

Recycled Materials Bank X

X

X

Interact. Public Spaces & Art

X

Entry Signage/Gateway

X

X

Public RR with Changing Tables

X

Composting Program

X X

X

Heat Island Reduction X

Family Friendly Environment

X

Acres in Food Production

X

Locally Sourced Food

Recycled Infrastructure

Reduction in Waste Stream

X

Concentr. of Cultural Amenities

Improved Bus Stop X

X

X

3

New Public Event

Special Event Infrastr.

X

New Streetcar

X

X

4

Infrastr. for Décor

Public Space Network X

5

1 Farmer's Market Infrastr.

X

New Bike Lane Network

X

2

X

X

X

X

5

Shade Canopy/Deciduous Trees Heat Gain Reduction Seismic Retrofit

X X

X

X

Historic Structure Preservation

X

Maximized Roof

X

Small Food Retailer

Local Manufacturing

X

New Performance Space

Local Purchasing Co-op

X

Rain Water Harvesting

Biodegradable Take-out Containers

X

Pervious Pavement

X

Stormwater Mgmt. Structure Business Water Efficiency


Workshop Excerpt

36

Step 3 illustrate

37

Texas St.

Focus Node 1 30th Street

University Ave.

University Avenue

I

2

Texas Street & University Ave. The presence of a particular pair of overlooked historic structures in this focus area – the former Humpty Dumpty Motor In Market and the Wolfe’s Filling Station (now San Diego Collision Center) - highlights the fact that North Park has historical fabric throughout, not just within its core. At this intersection University Avenue carries over 22,000 cars per day. Both Texas and University are highly used by vehicles traveling into the community but University Avenue carries a even a greater burden of vehicles passing through. The proposed changes in this focus area do not ignore the car but try to bring back a balance between the car and all other travel modes – pedestrian, bike, etc. A series of modest interventions in the public and private realm restore a great deal of the area to its non-vehicular inhabitants.


Workshop Excerpt

38

39

Step 3 illustrate

Texas Street & University Ave.

Vision of University Avenue as a place that safely welcomes the pedestrian back to the streets through the use of landscaping, crosswalks and park space

Proposed pocket parks offer a place to relax and also mitigate the heat island effect and rian water runoff

Key Strategies Adaptive reuse. Pedestrian-scale lighting. Greening the street and the parking lots. Pocket parks and outdoor cafĂŠ seating. Permeable/paver surfaces for alleys and parking spaces. Solar panels on large roofs. Roof water catchment system. Electric car charging station Implementation of the University Avenue Mobility Plan. Traffic calming with pop outs, pedestrian ramps. Midblock pedestrian crossing with warning lights.

Adaptive re-use of a filling station into an electric vehicle charging station that offers a place to wait while you charge


Workshop Excerpt

40

Focus Node 2

41

Step 3 illustrate

University Ave.

30th St.

30th Street

University Avenue

2

30th Street & University Ave. The historic North Park Theatre and the adjoining parking garage together form one of the most dynamic activity generators in the district. The activity of the University front and 29th Street side are counteracted by the undeveloped back half of the lot. Because of present efforts underway to design the North Park mini-park, the present study does not intend to design this plaza but to strategically define the public right of way leading up to it. A central concept in this vision is to re-shape North Park Way as a one-way vehicular procession (west of 32nd Street) that leads to North Park’s center. Complemented by a dedicated bike lane and several interventions such as tree planting and side walk pop outs, North Park Way is envisioned to be a directed arterial that provides a safe mode of travel to pedestrians, bicycles and vehicles. 29th Street gains importance as a drop off zone to visitors of the theater and its new plaza. It is organized with a roundabout to coordinate both entries to the parking garage and the bank and signifies the alley between them.


Workshop Excerpt

42

43

Step 3 illustrate

30th Street & University Ave.

Curb swales within the community lessen storm water runoff

View of 29th Street drop-off outside theatre's ticket office

Perspective showing dedicated bike lanes along North Park Way and 30th Street

Vision of park and event space at the North Park Theatre parking lot

Key Strategies Define public right of way leading up to the Parking Garage. Support the proposed mini-park behing the North Park theater. Integrate a dedicted bike lane on North Park Way. Transform North Park Way into a one-way street. Engage the theater’s ticket sales office on 29th Street. Utilize alleys to connect street blocks. Employ storm water mangement strategies. Improve sidewalks with pop outs and trees. Implementation of the University Avenue Mobility Plan


Workshop Excerpt

44

45

Step 3 illustrate

Focus Node 3 30th Street

University Avenue

2

32nd St.

University Ave.

32nd Street & University Ave. The area surrounding 32nd & University presents a perfect picture of the devastation of the urban landscape. An almost treeless carpet of asphalt covers the site from sidewalk to sidewalk, so that there is no barrier between cars moving about the parking lot and pedestrians navigating through and around it. More than just harsh – it is desolate. Except for the one day a week that it is occupied by a Farmers’ Market, the southernmost lot is rarely even used. To address these conditions, an aggressive program of asphalt reclamation is called for. In this vision, portions of the lot remain, full-time, as parking. Another portion serves double duty – part-time as Farmers’ Market space, the rest of the time as parking. The final third of this lot is converted, full-time, to a community park and gathering space.


Workshop Excerpt

46

47

Step 3 illustrate

32nd Street & University Ave.

Pedestrian light with decorative banners, benches and murals help to identify Herman Street as the location for the Farmers Market

Sinage used to identify and brand the community

Key Strategies Support the Farmers’ Market: power, lights, water, restrooms. Pedestrian-scale lights, street trees. Retractable bollards - easy closure of the street for events; Introduction of a performance space in to the new public park. Softening the edge of the building with greenery. Memorializing the site of the Farmers’ Market with public art. Providing photovoltaic power generation on large roof areas. Collecting and infiltrating rainwater on the site.

Rethinking the alleys- permeable asphalt, pedestrian lights, benches and landscaping are used to generate activity along the alleys and create secondary places for the district


Workshop Excerpt

48

Step 3 illustrate

49

Focus Node 4 30th St.

30th Street

University Avenue

Polk Ave.

30th Street & Polk Ave. Just to the north of Main Street North Park, lies the intersection of Polk Avenue and 30th Street. Here, discovering the potential for poetic opportunity within the grid becomes the key challenge: how do we improve the public flow between existing uses in way that strengthens them? The interventions here focus on the quality and accessibility of public spaces that engender a notion of place an on interlacing North Park’s culture of performance art within the context of the urban grid. Additionally, opportunities for passive systems that support infrastructure and vegetation are identified to establish a more pleasing setting and create settings for social interactions strengthen the imageability of this presently indistinct landscape.


Workshop Excerpt

50

51

Step 3 illustrate

30th Street & Polk Ave.

Widening sidewalks with pop outs provide for more activity adjacent to the building, Filter Coffee House at Polk Street and 30th Street

Pocket parks can be a resource to the community by providing a place to garden and compost

Key Strategies Transformable public use spaces Pocket gardens Permeable paving Crosswalk pop-outs Midblock pedestrian crossings Bioswales Photovoltaic Bicycle loop along Polk Avenue


Workshop Excerpt

52

Step 3 illustrate

53

30th St.

Focus Node 5 30th Street

Upas St.

University Avenue

2

30th Street & Upas Street This intersection represents a series of collisions – between land uses, between transportation modes, and between urban grids. It is a high volume gateway, but one that has no overriding directionality: people travel through in cars, on bikes and on foot in every direction, as if it were a corridor with doors in every direction. The challenges here are to establish a sense of place – a center to serve as a guidepost, marker, and point of reference, to create a place at the center of movement that has a moment of calm at its center, and to provide clear paths and directionality for all modes of travel. The historical building fabric here is mixed – a combination of the precious and the banal. Special efforts have to be made to create a better setting for one of North Park’s fine historic structures while creating a context for future, context-sensitive redevelopment.


Workshop Excerpt

54

55

Step 3 illustrate

30th Street & Upas Street

View of proposed open space behind the Lynhurst building showing a mural wall, cafe seating and bike corrals

Curb cuts and landscape pop outs at crossing in front of the Lynhurst building at Upas Street and 30th Street

The flexible open space can serve as event space

Key Strategies Reclaim street right-of-way for pedestrians. Creating family-friendly streets. Introduce corner pop-outs for traffic calming Provide prominent pedestrian crossings. Reclaim alley space as public gathering places. Return the sidewalk to the pedestrian realm.


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57

03 Application


58

59

Handbook

Introduction At its core, the Main Street movement is a comprehensive historical preservation strategy. On its face, the preservation of historic structures may seem to be at odds with certain common sustainability strategies (as outlined in the 2008 Pocantico Main Street Symposium White Paper, see references), especially in popular representation of sustainability as a series of technological interventions. This perspective ignores or overlooks the value of the historic urban fabric and its role in supporting the social, political, physical, and economic framework of a sustainable business district. This study rises to the sustainability challenge by hewing to two of the bedrock principles of Main Street: that programmatic progress must be both comprehensive and incremental. So, while the long-term, sustainable revitalization of North Park will inevitably include the creation of new buildings and new uses within the district’s core, this implementation plan is concerned with the successful integration of the existing architectural, cultural, and infrastructural framework.

Location of the selected focus nodes

To illustrate this approach, five historic structures – one from each of the earlier focus areas – were selected for further analysis and for the theoretical application of sustainability measures. The five buildings were selected to represent the range of building types found within the district so that the majority of building owners and operators within the district could identify viable and applicable strategies for their own buildings in the illustrated examples. It is anticipated that as SNPMS moves forward in its implementation that these examples will be augmented with additional proposed and built examples of sustainability strategies in North Park. The following section illustrates the five examples, utilizing a total of 35 different strategies that were identified in the visioning process. Each building and each intervention is presented as a stand-alone section of the publication in order to lend itself to the reproduction of pages that may be particularly relevant to a particular building, owner, or operator. The indexes guide the reader to the location of each of the five buildings as well as to the individual interventions.


Building Aspects

60

61

Framework E

nergy is fundamental to a building because it is embedded forever and transformed daily. Embedded energy accounts for energy used in the process of making and changing a building. Transformed energy is a function of a buildings performance - buildings use and lose energy. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, Retail & Service accounts for 20% of total energy consumed by commercial buildings and tops all other categories including Office, Education, Health Care and Lodging. Other statistics from the same source suggest how much energy is used for different applications within commercial buildings. For the purpose of this study the following aspects were considered: Heating & Cooling, Ventilation, Lighting and Equipment. Energy loss is linked to energy gain, which refers to environmental loads upon the building such as heat gain from the sun. If such a load can be reduced and less energy is required to provide cooling, for example, then energy is not lost but the building design contributes to energy conservation. This can be studied by evaluating the building envelope, which for the purpose of this study is categorized into Roof, Facade, and Fenestration. The presented energy interventions aim to conserve energy by responding to energy usage and energy loss with efficiency measures and preventive design strategies.

W

ater is fundamental to a building because it is consumed and discarded on a daily basis. Buildings and their occupants - consume and reject water. The San Diego region depends on the import of freshwater. Depending on rain and snowfall the region including the North Park Main Street district may experience shortages. Water conservation measures reduce the amount of freshwater consumed within buildings. This study evaluates Plumbing Fixtures and Equipment. Surface water collection and infiltration contribute to ground water recharge and watershed protection. The Rejection of water to off site locations can be reduced and is studied through Rainwater Infiltration, Storm Water Management and Water Recycling. The presented water interventions aim to conserve water by responding to water consumption and water rejection through water-use efficiency and systematic retainment.

O S

pen pace is fundamental to a building because of the environmental and physical access it requires. Environmental access concerns light and air. Physical access relates a building to the user and its surrounding. Within the urban fabric buildings relate to and activate open space. The North Park Main Street district presents a dense urban environment consisting of build and unbuilt spaces. Historically a town’s main street consisted of a passage lined by buildings that can be described as barns with billboards – the saloon, for example. While every building was different, a coherency was maintained through continuous access – a raised sidewalk made of wood planks, lined by tethered horses. Similarly this study investigates a buildings relation to its surrounding through Sidewalk and Parking. A building that activates its adjacent public space draws attention to it and integrates the user. Public space includes the sidewalk, alley, parking lots, and the street. Opportunities that activate these spaces are categorized into Lighting, Signage, Public Art, Furniture, and Vegetation. The presented open space interventions aim to improve access by responding to a buildings relation with its context and its ability to activate open space through improving and defining the public right of way.

T O

enant perations are fundamental to a building because of the resulting impact on the neighborhood and community. Occupants conduct activities that give a building purpose and meaning. North Park Main Street has its origin as a Business Improvement District and attracted many business operations to date. Their purpose is to support the economic vitality of the district. All business operations can also support a sustainable future by considering Waste Management and Green Purchasing. Business operations generate jobs and income for the community. Retail and Service depend on the community for continuous business and it is this interdependence that is meaningful. To support meaningful connections between business operations and community members this study considers Transparency and Promotions. The presented operational interventions aim to support building activities by amplifying their purpose and meaning through environmental and cultural stewardship.


Interventions & Buildings

62

Index

Motor In Market pg.64

Energy intervention

Water intervention

E-1

W-1 Water Efficient Laundry pg.22

Energy Efficient Laundry pg.11

E-2 Storefornt Shading pg.14

W-2 Graywater System pg.28

E-3 Air Infiltration & Insulation pg.16

W-3 Water Efficient Kitchen pg.32

E-4 Energy Efficient Kitchen pg.19

W-4 Water Efficient Fixtures pg. 38

E-5 Applied Window Film pg.11

W-5 Permeable Surface pg. 38

E-6 Green Roof pg.14

W-6 Green Roof pg.22

E-7 Solar Tubes & Sktlights pg.16

W-7 Curb Bioswales pg.32

E-8 Vent Stacks pg.19

W-8 Porous Asphalt pg. 38

E-9 Cool Roof pg.19

W-9 Rainwater Cistern pg. 38

E-10 Mechanical System pg.11

Open Space intervention

Tenant Operation intervention

OS-1 Electric Vehicle Stations pg.44

TO-1 Preferable Products pg.88

OS-2 Curb Cuts & Pop Outs pg.56

TO-2 Composting CoOp pg.112

OS-4 Pedestrian-Scale Lighting pg.72

TO-3 Take-Out Food pg.128

OS-5 Wall Mural pg.44

TO-4 Recycling pg. 144

OS-6 Bike Corral pg.44

TO-5 Validations & Discounts pg.88

OS-7 Tree Wells pg.56 OS-8 Dumpster Shed pg.64 OS-9 Midblock Crossing pg.72 OS-10 Infrastructure for Decor pg.72 OS-11 Street Benches pg.72

63

The Lynhurst pg.82

Claire de Lune pg.102

Filter Coffee House pg.118

Aloha Sunday pg.134


64

Historical Building 1

65

Motor In Market 2502-2510 University Avenue Built: 1926-1928 by: Charles M. Williams Style: Mission Revival Original Use: Market Current Use: Laundromat, Nail Salon Square Footage: 3498 sf. Lot Size: 9000 sf. (90’ x 100’) Structure: Wood Frame Facade: Stucco

Motor In Market, building 3-d model

Motor In Market building, 2011


Motor In Market

Building History

66

Motor In Market

67

Site Observations Envelope: Awnings too small to be effective. Curtains and infill wall used to mitigate heat gain. Single pane windows. No windows on north and east facade. East facade features vent openings. Roof drainage via roof spout (falling water damaged sidewalk) Unsightly electrical connections on west facade.

In the mid 1920’s University Motor In Market was one of the most innovative multi-unit shopping centers. Charles M. Williams and Waite & Archibald designed the building in the common style of the period, Mission Revival. Typical of the style was the arcade like window openings and the featured red tiled roof visors. This shopping center was unique because it was designed as one of the first developments intended to serve the new and growing automobile culture. The building allowed for vehicles to park directly in front of the shops along the outer segment of the lot. The building is a forerunner to what is now one of the most common (and vilified) building types - the strip mall. In the 1920’s the building housed nine retail spaces. A Humpty Dumpty grocery store occupied the larger central space and it was flanked on either side by four other shops.

Motor In Market, 1920's

Site Features: Expansive surface lot parking. No trees. Public Right of Way: South: 6’ sidewalk damaged, bus stop, utility box. West: 6’ sidewalk damaged. Corner: No pop out but curb ramp, 2 large utility boxes Alley: Connects to back lot parking.

Scarce landscaping

Closed off storefront

Insufficient shading

Inefficient top load washers

Expansive asphalt parking

Unsightly alterations


Motor In Market

Facade

68

69 Motor In Market

E-1

E-1 Storefront Shading Commercial buildings most often have large window openings on the ground floor to expose the tenant’s operations to the outside. Also referred to as storefronts, this fenestration of the facade causes unwanted heat gain from sunlight entering the space. To allow for a visual indoor-outdoor connection without the heat gain, all fenestration that is exposed to the sun should be shaded. It is important to consider the building’s orientation as the sun rises and sets low in the sky. Therefore east facades are best treated with a vertical shading device such as louvers and the west facade is most effectively shaded by a horizontal shading device such as an awning. Without direct sunlight entering the space the cooling load on the building is reduced, glare is prevented, and windows are more likely to be opened. Consequently, less energy is required to operate the air conditioning and occupant comfort is improved. Currently the Motor In building features awnings on all facades regardless of their orientation, causing unwanted heat gain and increased energy demand of the cooling system. This problem may have been the reason why one of the historic sections of the storefront has been walled in - to block the sun. However, without observability or window shopping, visibility and walkability are reduced. A solution specific to this building would call for effective awnings to the south and would utilize the extensive parking lot for planting deciduous trees along its west facade. Deciduous trees would shade the storefront and parts of the roof during the summer and allow sun to filter through during the winter. The trees would also shade the walled in section, which could than be reopened to restore its original storefront. Review intervention E-3 and E-5 for a discussion on window air infiltration and window films respectively.

Incentive July 31 2011 Storefront Shading Summer sun

Winter sun

Sun's effect on building

MOTOR IN MARKET

University Ave.

Site Plan along Univeristy Ave. and Arizona St.

Commercial A shaded storefront reduces the need for air conditioning because no direct sunlight heats up the space. The reduced utility cost is beneficial to the tenant. No direct sunlight also reduces glare, which creates a comfortable environment for customers and employees. Tax Credits and Rebates The Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a new tax incentive, backed and advocated by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), to improve the energy efficiency of commercial buildings. The “Commercial Building Tax Deduction” establishes a tax deduction for expenses incurred for energy efficient building expenditures made by a building owner. The deduction is limited to $1.80 per square foot of the property, with allowances for partial deductions for building envelope systems. The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 extends the benefits of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 through December 31, 2013.

Resource Website www.dsireusa.org www.nema.org www.nrdc.org

Info Motor In Market site with green space and trees to provide natural shading to west facade

Motor In Market overhangs - West and South facades

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Motor In Market

Equipment

70

71 Motor In Market

E-2

E-2 Energy Efficient Laundry

Incentive

The Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) promotes the purchase and use of energy efficient washers for laundromats, multi-family buildings and institutions. Approximately 2-3 million commercial washers are operated in the United States and laundromats share 20% of that market. On a daily basis washers in laundromats are the most frequently used commercial washers. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency high-efficiency commercial washers save up to 50 percent of energy costs. 90 percent of the energy used for washing clothes in a conventional top-load washer is for heating the water. To reduce the amount of energy used for washing clothes high-efficiency washers use less water and use cooler water. New washing machine technology automatically weighs a wash load and adjusts water volume to suit the amount of clothes. Front-load washers hold more clothes than older, topload models and they spin more water out of the clean clothes. Consequently dryers take less time to complete a cycle because the clothes have less moisture as they come out of the washer. New dryers sense when the load is dry and continue to tumble without adding heat. Currently the major tenant of the Motor In conducts a laundromat business and the described intervention will reduce its energy demand. Review intervention W-1 for a discussion of laundromats and water conservation.

Commercial Energy efficient machinery reduces utility costs for owners and could attract customers if fewer quarters are required to operate the equipment. New machines operate quietly creating a pleasant environment to wait and converse.

July 31 2011 Energy Efficient Laundry

Front loading washer designs save energy and water by utilizing a horizontal drum axis instead of a vertical drum axsis.

Tax Credits and Rebates California’s program offers rebates on ENERGY STARŽ qualified clothes washers. Currently no rebates are available due to exhausted funds. Manufacturers are eligible for tax credits for qualifying models of dishwashers, clothes washers, and refrigerators. The credits are available for models produced in 2008, 2009 and 2010. While consumers cannot take these credits directly, they may see promotion of these models by manufacturers, or by state or utility efficiency programs, during the next two years.

Resource Website www.dsireusa.org www.cee1.org www.epa.gov www.energystar.gov

Info Green Laundry - EV charging service combined with quiet, energy and water efficient laundry service

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Motor In Market

Equipment

72

73 Motor In Market

W-1

W-1 Water Efficient Laundry

Incentive

The California Urban Water Conservation Council identifies High Efficiency Clothes Washers (HEWs) to utilize technological advances that deliver excellent wash performance while saving both water and energy. According to the U.S. Department of Energy most full-sized ENERGY STAR washers use 15 gallons of water per load, compared to the 32.5 gallons used by a new standard machine. This is a reduction of water usage of more than 50 percent. New washing machine technology automatically weighs a wash load and adjusts water volume to suit the amount of clothes. Front loaded washers utilize a wash action that conserves water when compared to the top loaded washing machines. The front-loading design has the inner basket mounted horizontally and clothes are lifted up by paddles on the inside of the drum and then dropped. This motion forces water through the weave of the fabric. This action does not require clothes to be suspended in water, as is the case with top loaded models. Only enough water is needed to moisten the fabric and the tumbling action produces more foam, which results in a reduced need for detergent. The water efficiency of clothes washers is rated using the term “water factor� to describe and compare its water use. Water factor is measured in gallons used to wash each cubic foot of laundry. A lower water factor represents greater water efficiency. Currently the major tenant of the Motor In conducts a laundromat business that utilizes top loaded equipment. An upgrade to front loaded washing machines will conserve water and reduce the use of detergent. Review intervention E-1 for a discussion of laundromats and energy conservation.

Commercial Water efficient machinery reduces utility costs for owners and could attract customers if fewer quarters are required to operate the equipment. Less detergent is required to wash clothes with front loaded machines, which provides savings to customers. New machines operate quietly creating a pleasant environment to wait and converse.

Greywater volume diverded

July 31 2011 Water Efficient Laundry

Top Loading Machines vs. Front Loading Machines The latest technologies offer features that detect leaks and offers multiple programmable water levels

Water Levels

Community/ City At a regional scale a reduction of water usage of up to 50 percent would greatly reduce the need for water supply and sewer treatment, which requires energy and costs the Main Street district. Tax Credits and Rebates The California Urban Water Concervation Council offers a rebate up to $400 for High Efficiency Clothes Washers.

Front Load washers can save 50% water since items do not need to be fully submerged to launder

Sewer volume reduced

Resource Website www.cuwcc.org www.energystar.gov

Supply volume

Washers turn supply water into greywater. The greywater diversion reduces the sewer water volume

Info

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Motor In Market

Water Recycling

74

75 Motor In Market

W-2

W-2 Greywater System

Incentive

Common sources of greywater include showers, baths, sinks, and clothes washers. Water from kitchen sinks and dishwashers is sometimes referred to as dark greywater due to the high concentration of organic matter. In both cases the water has not come in contact with sewage. Two types of greywater systems can be considered depending on whether local greywater codes allow the water to be stored. A diversion system reuses greywater directly without treating or storing it. It diverts greywater into toilet tanks or to outdoor irrigation. The second approach allows for storing greywater on site and may involve a physical, chemical or biological greywater treatment system. Treatment techniques include disinfection with chlorine, ozone, or ultraviolet light, activated carbon filter, sand filter, aerobic biological treatment, and membrane bioreactors, all of which have advantages and disadvantages related to effectiveness, capital cost, and ease of operation. The Laundromat at the Motor In could benefit form any systems due to the daily high volume of greywater currently discharged. Potential savings arise from free irrigation and less sewer discharge. The greywater technology considered for the Motor In building is commercially available and works as follows. The laundromat’s greywater is discharged to an underground tank that is of size equal to a minimum of 50 percent of total daily discharge. This would require a very large tank that is subsurface in the extensive parking area and potential tank overflow is dealt with a connection to the sewer system. From the initial holding tank an external solar powered pump sends greywater into a secondary holding tank while an ozone generator injects ozone for the purpose of disinfection. A centrifugal pump sends the gray water through a spinning disk reducing suspended solids. Additional pressurized filters are used to continue this process. The final process sends the filtered water directly back to holding tanks for the purpose of irrigating fruit and other trees, as well as vegetables. In California greywater can be used in an approved subsurface drip network as recommended by the Center for Irrigation Technology and required by California law.

Commercial According to the Coin Laundry Association (CLA) laundry owners are facing increases in both water and sewer fees in many areas of the country. One of those is the usage fee, which is based on the theory that the amount of water taken in to a facility is equal to the amount discharged. The problem with that theory is that some of the water evaporates during the drying process and is not discharged to the sewer system. The same logic applies to greywater that is reused and not discharged. Some sewer districts have formal rate reduction schedules, especially in their commercial rate schedules. In California, state law requires that the rate they charge must consider the actual amount and type of wastewater they have to treat. Additional utility savings occur through the reduction of potable water used for irrigation.

July 31 2011 Greywater System

Back feed to washers & toilets

To irrigation

Greywater to storage Overflow to sewer

Section shows the path of recycled greywater for use in washers, toilets and for irrigation.

to sewer

Community/ City At a regional scale a reduction of water usage and discharge would greatly reduce the need for water supply and sewer treatment, which requires energy and costs the Main Street district.

Resource Website www.coinlaundry.org www.cit.cati.csufresno.edu

Info

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Motor In Market

Parking

76

77 Motor In Market

OS-1

OS-1 Electric Vehicle Station

Incentive

Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are becoming popular, resulting in a growing need for publically available charging infrostructure. Their design ranges from cable connectors to parking places equipped with inductive charging mats. Private sector companies offer to install the station to the property and maintain it at no cost to the property owner. Currently only utility companies can sell electricity, however renting the parking space while the car charges up or charging a fee for the charging station service can provide revenue. The laundromat business conducted at the Motor In requires customers to wait and together with the oversized parking lot the use of Electric Vehicle charging stations may be supported.

Commercial The coming electric vehicle market will benefit real estate owners who can exploit the demand for EV charging stations. A charging station is an amenity that will attract customers and consequently retain tenants. It presents public relations value by providing a service to the community and burnishes the owner’s environmental image. Charging station providers give property owners a percentage of their revenues or give owners rights to LED advertising space visible on the station equipment.

July 31 2011 Electric Vehicle Station

Charge while you wash at the Motor In Green Laundromat

Community/ City The integration of infrastructure for electric vehicles provides the community with a network of accesible power points. Supporting the use of electric vehicles leads to a reduction of inner city air pollution. Industry A growing demand for electric vehicle charging technology may attract businesses to the Main Street district.

Resource Website www.epa.gov

E

Info

E

BUS

Proposed charging stations at parking stalls

Siteplan indictes location of electric vehicle charging station

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Motor In Market

Sidewalk

78

79 Motor In Market

OS-2

OS-2 Curb Cuts & Pop Outs

Incentive

A curb cut is a concrete ramp graded down from the top surface of a sidewalk to the surface of the adjoining street. A curb cut can be designed for pedestrians to provide a gradual transition and accommodate wheelchairs. Incorporating ADA accessibility requirements provides better pedestrian environments that accommodate seniors and those with disabilities. A curb cut designed for vehicles allows for access to a property. In the case of the Motor In parking lot the curb cut had been designed to be very wide to not impede vehicular traffic. This is a safety concern and interrupts the sidewalk experience. Reducing its width and eliminating one of the two vehicular curb cuts reduces conflict points between vehicles and pedestrians and renders North Park Main Street as a walkable community. Pop outs are curb extensions that widen the sidewalk at the point of crossing. They shorten the distance a pedestrian has to cross and improve pedestrian visibility. As a traffic calming technique a pop out narrows a street, which slows vehicular traffic and consequently improves pedestrian safety. This is especially important as the Motor In sidewalk features a bus stop and access needs to be considered. At the intersection of the Motor In building a pop out can be combined with street furnishings and landscaping to improve the visual appearance of the neighborhood and to reduce the visual width of a long and straight street leading onto the commercial corridor. As such, the suggested pop out has a gateway effect.

Commercial Traffic calming techniques have posetive impacts on business exposure to vehicular bypassing. Pedestrian friendly environments provide opportunities for window shopping. Accordingly the improvments impact building value and lease rates.

July 31 2011 Curbs Cuts & Pop Outs

Community By improving the sidewalk conditions the building becomes more accessible and part of a walkable community. Walkable streets encourage activity with associated health benefits. Traffic calming provides for a safe pedestrian environment.

ARIZONA ST.

Local example of curb cuts and landscaped pop outs at University Avenue and Vermont Street

MOTOR-IN MARKET

Resource Website www.sandiego.gov

Info

UNIVERSITY AVENUE Site Plan showing curb cuts and landscaped pop outs

Example of landscaped pop out in La Jolla, CA

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Motor In Market

Green Purchasing

80

81 Motor In Market

TO-1

TO-1 Preferable Products

Incentive

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency defines green purchasing as the environmentally preferable method to “products and services that have a lesser or reduced effect on human health and the environment when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose.� Green purchasing is an aspect of environmental stewardship and can be applied to all products used and services rendered. In the case of the laundromat business conducted at the Motor In building the operational rules that customers comply to can specify the use of biological detergent. It also applies to environmentally neutral chemicals for cleaning and to toilet paper and paper towels made with recycled material.

Commercial Green purchasing adresses safety and health concerns of employess and customers. Consequently it reduces liabilities. As part of environmentsal stewardship green purchasing has marketing potential and helps public relations.

July 31 2011 Perferable Products

Industry Green Purchasing supports the availability of environmentally preferable products in the market place. A growing demand for such products may attract businesses to the Main Street district. Local purchase of environmentally preferable products supports local business.

Green product selection

Paper Towels

Boxes

Detergents

Bags

Containers

Toilet Paper

Conceptual rendering

Resource Website www.epa.gov

Info

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com Green products include products made from recycled content and products that are non-toxic


82

Historical Building 2

83

The Lynhurst 3382-3396 30th Street Built: 1909, by: Eugene Weathers Style: Original Use: Retail & Housing Current Use: Retail, Restaurants, Apartments Square Footage: 12,030 sf. Lot Size: 127500 sf. (1275’ x 100’) Structure: Wood Frame Facade: Stucco Extension: 2965 Upas Street Built: 1923, by C.M. William

The Lynhurst building, 3-d model

The Lynhurst building, 2011


The Lynhurst

Building History

84

The Lynhurst

85

Site Observations Envelope: Operable windows. South facade features small windows – no overhang. Glazed storefront on east side - morning heat gain. Roof drains to street. Vents suggest attic space. HVAC retrofit. South side of building utilizes cross ventilation from east (storefront) to west (doors to alley parking lot). Some commercial units have step up access only.

One of the oldest remaining buildings in the community is the Lynhurst building. City records show that the wood structure building was built in 1909. The building had seven retail spaces on the ground floor and five residential apartments on the second floor. The Lynhurst was always a mixed-use retail and residential building and has changed little today with the exception of an annex addition along Upas Street in 1923 by Charles M. Williams.

Site Features: Alley access surface parking lot. Parallel parking at sidewalk. Public Right of Way: East side :14’ sidewalk damaged, 2 trees, 2 bike stands. North side:10’ sidewalk damaged, 2 trees, bus stop, 1 bike stand, trashcan, outdoor seating. Corner: no pop out but curb ramp. Alley: Pedestrian and vehicular circulation impacted by adjacent Jack In Box and multiple driveways.

The Lynhurst building,1921

No Storefront shading

Step up entry to units

A/C retrofit

Expansive asphalt parking

No shading at South Wall

Damaged sidewalk


The Lynhurst

Roof & Facade

86

87 The Lynhurst

E-3

E-3 Air Infiltration & Insulation

Incentive

Balancing historic preservation and energy efficiency is challenging. The first recommendation made when looking to conserve energy is to add insulation. However it is not always advisable because installing wall insulation requires permanently altering the historic fabric of the building or introduces potentially destructive forces the building was never engineered to manage. A core tenet when adding any new material or feature to a historic structure is that it is capable of being removed without damaging the historic fabric. Adding wall insulation, either in the wall cavity or over the building exterior, adversely impacts the historic, architectural, and structural integrity of an historic building. According to the U.S. Department of Energy a building’s energy efficiency depends on maintaining a balance between four elements: air sealing, insulation, moisture control, and ventilation. Focusing on the primary use spaces is the key to achieving a higher standard of energy efficiency in historic buildings. Conditioning the main use spaces requires minimizing air leakage and reducing heat flow from the interior to the exterior in heating season and to the interior from the exterior in cooling season. Minimizing air leakage requires caulking and sealing both inside and outside the building. Reducing heat flow involves containing heat or coolness within the building by adding insulation to attic floors and sometimes to basements and crawlspaces. The ventilation openings close to the parapet suggest that the Lynhurst building has an attic space and additional insulation could be fitted.

Residential/ Commercial When insulation is added and air infiltration is prevented the energy loads required to provide heating and cooling is reduced. This lowers utility cost, improves occupant comfort, and reduces the need for mainatnance and replacement.

July 31 2011 Air Infiltration & Insulation

Insulation in attic

Caulk ducts - prevent air leakage

Ventilation gaps 15%

Roof 25%

Resource Caulk all potential air gaps Walls 25%

Windows 10%

Heat loss diagram

Floor 15%

Tax credits and Rebates The Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a new tax incentive, backed and advocated by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), to improve the energy efficiency of commercial buildings. The “Commercial Building Tax Deduction� establishes a tax deduction for expenses incurred for energy efficient building expenditures made by a building owner. The deduction is limited to $1.80 per square foot of the property, with allowances for partial deductions for building envelope systems. The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 extends the benefits of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 through December 31, 2013.

Website www.dsireusa.org www.eere.energy.gov www.nema.org www.nrdc.org

Info

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


The Lynhurst

Equipment

88

89 The Lynhurst

E-4

E-4 Energy Efficient Kitchen

Incentive

Restaurants account for a major part of the commercial activity in North Park and the following is applicable to the commercial kitchens of the Lynhurst building as well as other food service operations within the the Main Street district. The Energy Star guide for Restaurants “Putting Energy into Profit” identifies Sanitation (18%), Refrigeration (6%), Lighting (13%), HVAC (28%), and Food Preparation (35%) to be energy consuming aspects of a full service restaurant. Restaurants require 2.5 times more energy per square foot when compared to other commercial buildings. Food service providers that buy new equipment or replace old units save significantly on energy and utility costs. A suite of ENERGY STAR qualified CFS equipment could save operators about 350 MBtu, a capital savings of $3,600 and 19 tons of greenhouse gas emissions averted. Energy Star approves kitchen equipment including dishwashers, fryers, griddles, hot food holding cabinets, ice machines, ovens, refrigerator & freezers, and steam cookers. New and old equipment need maintenance to perform efficiently. This involves adjusting and calibrating the equipment, and resetting appliances to the correct operating temperature. Other strategies to lower a kitchen’s energy usage are to evaluate the restaurant menu and match the cooking method with the most effective appliance – griddles are more efficient than broilers for example. Energy is saved when the equipment idle time is cut back according to a startup/ shutdown plan. This plan can include the startup and shutdown schedule for the heating and cooling system as well. 12 to 15 percent of cooling costs can be saved if the temperature set points for central cooling are adjusted by 3 degree Fahrenheit. This adjustment can be mitigated by use of ceiling fans to change the perceived temperature. Sources of heat can be mitigated as well. Lighting fixtures and high-efficiency lamps, such as a Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) can reduce energy consumption and heat output by 75 percent. Other energy saving tips recommend the use of L.E.D. exit signs, to replace strip curtains for walk-in refrigerators, and to turn off door heaters of reach-in refrigeration. Energy consumption for water heating can be cut in half by specifying equipment that uses less hot water, such as a pre-rinse spray valve, and by increasing the efficiency of water heaters and its distribution system – pipe insulation for example. Advanced systems use waste heat or solar to preheat the supply water. The design guide “Energy Efficient Water Heating” by the Food Service Technology Center identifies the food service sector to consume 15 percent of the total gas used in commercial buildings in California. Their guide as well as the Energy Star guide explains in great detail the energy savings for commercial kitchens using tabulations and charts, all of which can be downloaded using the stated resources. The web sources provide interactive tools to get recommendations on how to save energy, offer consultation services, and identify rebates. Review W-3 and E-2 for a discussion on water efficient kitchens and storefront shading respectively.

Commercial The capital cost of commercial kitchen equipment is significant, and the best opportunity for costeffective energy savings occurs when a facility is buying new equipment or replacing units that have exceeded their useful life. Outfitting an entire kitchen with a suite of ENERGY STAR qualified CFS equipment could save operators about 350 MBtu, or the equivalent of approximately $3,600, and could prevent 19 tons of greenhouse gas emissions.

July 31 2011 Energy Efficient Kitchen

A "combioven" (convection/ steamer oven) can bake, roast, fry, boil and steam thus reduce needed equipment. Example at SDG&E Innovation Center, San Diego, CA.

Retrofitting hood vents with ones that offer temperature and smoke sensors can save 90% fan energy and 50% in conditioned air

Tax credits and Rebates California’s program offers rebates on ENERGY STAR® qualified refrigerators, freezers, and dishwashers. Manufacturers are eligible for tax credits for qualifying models of dishwashers, clothes washers, and refrigerators. While consumers cannot take these credits directly, they may see promotion of these models by manufacturers, or by state or utility efficiency programs, during the next two years. Review the sources listed below to identify current rebates.

Resource Website www.fishnick.com www.gfen.com www.dsireusa.org www.energysavers.gov www.energystar.gov

Info

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


The Lynhurst

Equipment

90

91 The Lynhurst

W-3

W-3 Water Efficient Kitchen

Incentive

According to the Environmental Protection Agency commercial dishwashers and pre-rinse spray valves account for the most water consuming application in restaurants. A dishwasher’s energy efficiency is impacted by the amount of energy used to heat water. Similarly an efficient pre-rinse spray valves uses less hot water and effectively conserves energy. Energy Star qualifies equipment that uses hot water efficiently. Connectionless food steamers also yield significant reductions in water use. Air-cooled icemaker machines are more water efficient than water-cooled machines. Water brooms clean more efficiently using multiple spray nozzles. Aerators for hand sink faucets are inexpensive and reduce water and energy costs. Food service operations can be highly water efficient and thus have an impact on water and sewer utility costs as well as the cost of water heating. The Lynhurst building has multiple food service tenants that can benefit from water related savings.

Commercial Food service operations can be highly water efficient and thus have an impact on water and sewer utility costs as well as the cost of water heating. Energy Star qualifies equipment that uses hot water efficiently. Buy an ENERGY STAR qualified connectionless steamer and save $1,000 for water and sewer costs annually and $1,100 in gas or electricity annually.

July 31 2011 Water Efficient Kitchen

Ventless dishwasher condenses the steam to water and drains it requiring no ducts or hood vents

Gas tankless water heater at SDG&E Food Service Demonstration Kitchen

Tax credits and Rebates Metropolitan Water District of Southern California rebates: Water Broom $110. Connectionless Steamer $485. Ice�Making Machine $300. Dry Vacuum Pump $125.

Cost benefits of pre-rinse spray valve. Graph shows results based on spray valve water savings of 1 gallon per minute, water cost of $2.00 per unit (748 gallons). sewer cos of $3.00 per unit (748 gallons), and gas cost of $1.00 per therm. units = therms / day

Resource

units = gallons / day

3 hrs/day $900 - $1050 2 hrs/day $600 - $700 1 hr/day

$300 - $350 Gas

Low flow regulators on faucets at SDG&E Innovation Center use only 2.70 gpm.

Water

Cost benefits of pre-rinse spray valve

Waste Water

Annual $ Savings

Website www.fishnick.com www.gfen.com www.epa.gov www.bewaterwise.com

Info

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


The Lynhurst

Plumbing Fixtures

92

93 The Lynhurst

W-4

W-4 Water Efficient Fixtures

Incentive

A San Diego Grand Jury established to investigate local government agencies released its report on San Diego water supply issues in June 2011. The key findings were that rates must remain high in order to keep up with costs. There are many opportunities to conserve water, especially in a mixed-use building like the Lynhurst with its residential units on the second floor and retail & service units on the ground floor. By upgrading fixtures such as toilets, urinals, showerheads, faucets, a substantial amount of water can be saved. If every household in the United States installed WaterSense labeled showerheads, it would save Americans more than $1.5 billion on their water bills, saving more than 250 billion gallons annually. A WaterWise Business Survey is a free service that provides all City of San Diego Water Department commercial, industrial and institutional customers with a customized review of their water usage, including an on-site visit to identify areas where water use efficiencies can be achieved and effectively implemented. Review W-2 for a discussion of greywater systems.

Community/ City At a regional scale a reduction of water usage and discharge would greatly reduce the need for water supply and sewer treatment, which requires energy and costs the Main Street district.

July 31 2011 Water Efficient Fixtures

Industry California’s 20 X 20 Water Conservation Plan requires urban water suppliers to set reduction targets for 2015 and 2020. As a result California became home to more than 300 WaterSenseŽ partners, committed to increasing the use of water-efficient products. Water conservation in North Park can attract business ventures to Main Street that provide employment opportunities. Tax credits and Rebates Metropolitan Water District of Southern California rebates: High Efficiency Toilet $50. Ultra Low Water Urinal $200.

9

1

7 2 4

3

5

6

8

1. Sink Drain 2. Cleaning 3. Filter 4. Reservoir 5. Pump 6. Water Inlet 7. Fill Valve 8. Valve Restricter 9. Leveling Clip Providing efficient upgrades to the many water fixtures can add up in savings

Greywater toilet system captures used water from bathroom sink drains then filters the water for reuse in toilets.

California Urban Water Conservation Council rebates: High Efficiency Toilets $200 High Efficiency Urinals $300

Resource Website www.cuwcc.org www.sandiego.gov www.bewaterwise.com

Info

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


The Lynhurst

Rainwater Infiltration

94

95 The Lynhurst

W-5

W-5 Permeable Surface

Incentive

Rainwater infiltration can be achieved by changing a solid concrete surface to a permeable surface. 
For example Grasscrete is an alternative to standard concrete surfaces for parking lots, driveways, and access roads for vehicles or fire trucks. The surface area of Grasscrete is 47 percent concrete and 53 percent voids, which can be filled or covered with crushed stone, seashells, and a wide variety of other drainable materials in cases where grass or other planting is not desired. Other systems with even higher proportion of permeability, and which support occasional vehicular use, are available. Rainwater that is allowed to infiltrate prevents urban runoff and consequently protects surface and groundwater resources. It also sustains the conveyance capacity of a city’s storm water system. The Lynhurst building features an on site parking lot. It is mainly used for the employees of the commercial units and for the tenants of the residential units. The residential units have their outdoor space facing the parking lot and a lawn like surface would improve the the tenant’s outdoor experience. The commercial units may benefit from the change in visual appearance of their parking lot and could expand their outdoor seating capacity. Review W-9 and W-10 for a discussion on porous asphalt and rainwater cisterns respectively.

Residential The residential units have their outdoor space facing the parking lot and by enhancing it with planted grasscrete the units become more attractive, which implies an increase in leasing rates or tenant retention.

July 31 2011 Permeable Surface

Permeable surface system

Commercial The improved visual appearance of the parking lot surface could provide for an expansion of the outdoor seating area of the present restaurants which implies increased revenues.

Grass-Crete provides a permeable surface suitable for vehicles

Community/ City Rain infiltration by means of permeable surfaces prevents urban runoff and protects surface and groundwater resources. It also sustains the conveyance capacity of a city’s storm water system. A reduction in the area of concrete reduces the heat island effect, which contributes toward the surrounding buildings cooling loads.

Resource Website www.bomanite.com www.invisiblestructures.com

Info Potential permeable surface between the Lynhurst building and Jack 'n' the Box restaurant

Local example of parking lot turned into a permeable surface space

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


The Lynhurst

Lighting

96

97 The Lynhurst

OS-4

OS-4 Pedestrian-Scale Lighting

Incentive

Pedestrian-scale lighting provides walkway illumination and creates a pedestrian friendly environment. Pedestrian safety is of great concern as the distance drivers and pedestrians can see at night is significantly reduced when compared to daylight conditions. The Illuminating Engineering Society of America estimates that three times more accidents occur on unlighted roadways at night than on the same roadway during the day. The visibility by pedestrians of other pedestrians and their surroundings provides an overall sense of a comfortable and safe environment. The light fixture technically referred to as a luminaire can be free standing or mounted to existing street lighting poles with its lamp positioned above the sidewalk at about 12-15 feet high. To be effective, pedestrian lights cannot be buried in tree canopies. Pedestrian-scale lighting considers the aesthetic quality of lighting elements and the environment in which they are used. The type of luminaire should reflect the historic character of North Park Main Street or match the generally used acorn type light fixture utilized in the city of San Diego. To reduce energy and maintanance costs a luminaire can operate with a combination of solar power and Light Emitting Diode (LED) or induction lighting. Pedestrian luminaires can also be equipped with motion sensors to minimize the demand on the solar battery system. With motion detection employed, the luminaire switches between low light and high light levels based on whether pedestrian activity is present. At the Lynhurst building a bus stop is present and users of public transportation could benefit from increased safety provided by pedestrian lighting. The Lynhurst restaurants operate outdoor seating areas that could benefit form the atmosphere created by pedestrian-scale lighting.

Commercial Pedestrian-scale lighting enhances the storefront and provides increased business exposure.

July 31 2011 Pedestrian-Scale Lighting

Community/ City Pedestrian-scale lighting contributes to the feel of a place. It provides a pedestrian friendly environment and enhances community safety. The costs associated with operating and maintaining lighting in the public right of way can be kept low by using efficient luminaires and solar power.

Resource Acorn style lighting has been part of the community since as far back as the 1920's. Today it is a defining neighborhood characteristic.

Website www.iesna.org

Info Decorative, pedestrian scale lighting at crosswalk at Upas Street and 30th Street

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


The Lynhurst

Public Art

98

99 The Lynhurst

OS-5

OS-5 Wall Mural

Incentive

North Park Main Street is renowned as San Diego’s Arts and Culture district. Examples of this can be found at the Filter Coffee House, the Linkery, and the North Park Garage, where wall murals can be found. Such engagement with the surrounding public space provides a healthy example of fostering art within the community. Public Art is a reflection of a community’s value and its economic power is immeasurable. It transforms the public space into a more welcoming and beautiful environment and provides a backdrop to outdoor seating. The Lynhurst has the potential to support the local art culture and would improve the public space adjacent to a fast food restaurant.

Commercial Public art on buildings can call attention to the building and its business tenants. Supporting the local culture provides an opportunity to improve public relations.

July 31 2011 Wall Mural

Mural at alley between Illinois Street and Ohio Street

Community North Park Main Street is reknown as an art and culture district. Public Art is a reflection of a community’s value and supports local artists.

Mural located at Filter Coffee House on Polk Street and 30th Street

Info View to proposed open space between the Lynhurst building and Jack 'n' the Box

Mural at Undisputed Boxing Gym - Ohio St. behind University Ave.

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


The Lynhurst

Waste Management

100

101 The Lynhurst

TO-2

TO-2 Composting CoOp

Incentive

Composting provides us with the best natural example of zero waste operations. Composting is the controlled biological decomposition of organic matter, such as food and yard wastes, into humus, a soil-like material that can be used to grow new product. Recovering and composting this portion of our waste stream is key to improving our ability to reduce waste. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency yard trimmings and food residuals constitute 26 percent of the waste that U.S. households generate. Composting can greatly reduce the amount of waste that ends up in landfills or incinerators. Building zero waste programs requires that we restructure waste mangement at the local level. A local cooperative, in which restaurants from the area join into a composting program can facilitate waste recovery. In San Diego an estimated 50,000 tons of food waste can be recovered from commercial kitchens instead of filling the local land fill where it generate greenhouse gases. San Diego’s Environmental Services launched a pilot program that establishes pick up routes for specialized food hauling trucks. Customers are charged less for food waste than for regular trash at the landfill. The collection of food scraps and kitchen trimmings reduce the weight and volume that is usally added to the non organic portion of a business waste stream. The collective approach to composting may justify a food to energy plant as part of North Park’s infrastructure, which implies an economic stimulus to the Main Street district.

Commercial The collection of food scraps and kitchen trimmings reduces the weight and volume that is usally added to the non organic portion of a business waste stream. Disposal fees for food waste can be half the rate of regular trash. Using compost can reduce the need for water, fertilizers, and pesticides. It serves as a marketable commodity and is a low-cost alternative to standard landfill cover and artificial soil amendments.

July 31 2011 Composting CoOp

Composting restaurant waste helps to reduce waste and can provide organic compost for fresh grown produce

Compositing can be achieved at the smaller scale by simply altering a trash receptacle

Community/ City A reduction of waste that is landfilled lowers green house gasses. A local food to energy plant may provide an economic opportunity for the North Park Main Street district.

Resource Website www.epa.gov www.sandiego.gov

Info Possible location for community composting at alley behind the Lynhurst building

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


102

Historic Building 3

103

Claire de Lune 2906 University Avenue Built: 1929, by Edward W. Newman Style: Mission Revival Original Use: Department Store Current Use: Restaurant, Retail, Community Center Square Footage: 8640 sf. Lot Size: 9000 sf. (90’ x 100’) Structure: Steel Frame Facade: Stucco

Claire de Lune building, 3-d model

Claire de Lune building, 2011


Claire de Lune

Building History

104

Claire de Lune

105

Site Observations Envelope: Single pane windows Deep overhang to south and west – clerestory unprotected. Operable windows in clerestory. Small windows on north side. HVAC retrofit. Roof drains to street.

In 1929 Edward W. Newman and William E. Gibbs got a permit to build a four-story steel and concrete structure along University Avenue. After laying down a reinforced concrete and steel foundation and a full basement for the four-story building the plan changed to the current two story building. The building was designed in a Mission Revival style which features a series of arched windows reminiscent of a Roman arcade, a tower, and red tile roof visors. One of the earliest tenants was also North Park’s first department store, the E. N. Mudd Department Store. Norman F. Maw Music Company also occupied the building.

Claire de Lune (the Newman) building, 1940's

Site Features: Diagonal parking along west sidewalk – parallel along south. Recycle dumpster present. Public Right of Way: West side :14’ sidewalk damaged, 2 trees (4’ tree well), painted utility box, outdoor seating. South side: 14’ sidewalk improved, 3 trees (4’ tree well), bike stand, trash can, outdoor seating, acorn light, elec. outlet. Corner: no pop out but curb ramp.

South facing overhang

Clerestory facilitates heat gain

Inadequate street trees

Rainwater is directed to street

Insufficient bicycle parking

Outdoor seating


Claire de Lune

Fenestration

106

107 Claire de Lune

E-5

E-5 Applied Window Film

Incentive

In order to improve the thermal performance of a historic building envelope, the existing fenestration must be upgraded. Achieving this can be done by retaining and retrofitting or through replacement with high performance windows. The latter requires the new windows to match the original windows in appearance. Under the standards set forth by the Secretar of the Interior, retaining windows must be considered before taking up replacement. This standard upholds an environmental and preservation perspective in that waste is reduced and original materials are preserved and reused. Often historic windows offer superior durability in comparison to new windows because they were made from old growth wood. There is a resistance to the replacement of original historic windows, so the use of window film may be considered a more acceptable solution. The issue with the historic windows of the Claire de Lune building relates to solar heat gain. All windows are single pane and the clerestory windows are not shaded by the non-historic addition of awnings to the lower level. Applying a window film can save energy by reflecting unwanted infrared radiation, which cuts summer heat gain. The selection of the right film is important. A window film product with a low Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) will reduce heat gain but may also reduce adequate day lighting levels. Ideally the product value of the SHGC is lower than the visual transmittance (VT) value. However a window film shall be accompanied by another investment toward energy savings. To reduce heat gain and heat loss due to air infiltration all fenestration needs to be checked for weather stripping and sealing of gaps between walls, window frames and sash. Review E-3 for a discussion on air infiltration. Currently the clerestory windows of the Claire de Lune building are unprotected and could be improved by the application of window film.

Commercial Applying a window film can save energy by reflecting unwanted infrared radiation, which cuts summer heat gain and complements other energy efficiency measures. A reduced cooling load of the building decrease energy demand and lowers utility costs.

July 31 2011 Applied Window Film

West Elevation- Extensive existing storefront windows

South Elevation- Extensive existing storefront windows

Solar heat & UV rays - up to 79% heat & 99% UV light blocked Interior Temperature (stays comfortable)

Visible Light (can still be transferred) Window film diagram

Info

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Claire de Lune

Roof

108

109 Claire de Lune

E-6

E-6 Green Roof Infrared aerial photographs can show the temperature differential between green roofs and conventional roofs and suggest that green roofs improve the thermal performance of a building. Because less heat flows across the roofing system less energy is required to heat the interior in winter or cool it in summer. Green roofs reduce the heat island effect by limiting solar reflection and consequently reduce the cooling load on surrounding buildings. The structure of the Claire de Lune building was designed to support a third story. The capacity to support additional weight suggests the possibility to install an intensive green roof. Intensive (as opposed to extensive) green roofs are heavier because of greater planting medium depth and are often accessible to people and activities. In the case of the Claire de Lune building, a green roof accessible to people becomes a public display of the community engaging with its historic buildings because such activity is seen from the taller parking structure across the street. To preserve the historic fabric of this building the green roof may be installed as an addition that can be easily reversed.

Incentive July 31 2011 Green Roof

Solar Protection

Solar Protection

Heat transmitted

Before Heat gets absorbed and transmitted into building

After Interior is kept cool by reducing heat transfer

Commercial Buildings with green roofs installedhave less heat flow across the roofing system, which results in less energy that is required to heat the interior in winter or cool it in summer. A business operator can benefit from energy savings because of how the building performs thermally. The building owner realizes the positive effects on real estate value because of the aesthetic and amenity value added. Community/ City Green roofs produce oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide, which reduces the green house effect. Green roofs reduce the heat island effect by limiting solar reflection and enabling urban ventilation. Adjacent to a green roof residents and employees benefit from cooler and more humid air. Vegetation binds dust and filters out pollutants. Accessible green roofs provide amenity space and are valued for their aesthetic impact on the urban environment.

Info Active green roof at Claire de Lune Coffee House can provide more useable space

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Claire de Lune

Rainwater Infiltration

110

111 Claire de Lune

W-6

W-6 Green Roof

Incentive

Building structures with the capacity to support additional loads allow for the installation of an intensive green roof. Intensive (as opposed to extensive) green roofs have greater planting medium depth in which a variety of vegetation may grow, from various ground covers to trees. A green roof keeps hold of storm water where a portion evapotranspirates and consequently only a flow-through portion is released. When captured, the excess water can be stored and used in times of drought or allowed to further infiltrate using swales and trenches. Green roofs produce oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide, which reduces the greenhouse effect. Green roofs reduce the heat island effect by limiting solar reflection and enabling urban ventilation. An extensive green roof is an alternative with lower installation and material costs and can be installed without structural modification. The extensive green roof is designed with minimum planting medium profiles or only mineral substrate and features vegetation such as succulents, herbaceous plants and grasses, which cannot be walked on. In the case of the Claire de Lune building, a green roof could help to reduce storm water volumes by allowing rainwater to infiltrate. Excess water could be captured and used for irrigation. Review W-9 for a discussion of rainwater cisterns.

Commercial A business operator may benefit from water savings because of the water that can be captured and stored to be used for landscape irrigation. The building owner realizes the positive effects on real estate value because of the aesthetic and amenity value added.

July 31 2011 Green Roof

Before Storm water runoff is discarded onto the street

After Storm water used and filtered through roof first

Community/ City A green roof helps to reduce storm water peak flow volumes on sewerage infrastructure generating cost savings. Green roofs produce oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide, which reduces the green house effect. Green roofs reduce the heat island effect by limiting solar reflection and enabling urban ventilation. Adjacent to a green roof residents and employees benefit from cooler and more humid air. Vegetation binds dust and filters out pollutants. Accessible green roofs provide amenity space and are valued for their aesthetic impact on the urban environment.

Green roof detail 1. Concrete Roof 2. Roof Membrane 3. Drainage System 4. Gravel 5. Soil 6. Vegetation

Section showing green roof and drainage structure at Claire de Lune Coffee House

Info

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Claire de Lune

Parking

112

113 Claire de Lune

OS-6

OS-6 Bike Corral

Incentive

Bicycle parking near desired destinations is an important element of active transportation. Both the bicyclist and the commercial establishments benefit from a bicycle corral. A bike corral provides bicycle parking in the parking lane and is not elevated above grade but is clearly differentiated from the road way through the use of paint, a small buffer, flexible bollards, or a combination of elements. The corral maintains the width of the parking lane and can be 1 to 2 spaces long. However, it does not extend into the pedestrian zone, like sidewalk bike racks. Off-sidewalk corrals consist of 6-12 bicycle staple racks (inverted U-shaped racks) that can be arranged perpendicular or diagonal to the street. University Avenue is one of North Park’s main streets and a commercial corridor to greater San Diego. Placing the bike corral on this street would support a corridor level planning instead of only addressing the individual business. The development of infrastructure, such as bike corrals, creates the conditions for individuals to frequent commercial corridors more often and potentially increase sales. This benefits commercial establishments such as the coffee shop of the Claire de Lune building as well as other businesses surrounding the corral. Food retailers may gain the most from bicycle parking because most often their services will not require the transport of goods on bicycles.

Commercial Improved bike amenities benefit patrons and employees, and have the potential for increasing the customer base and sales.

July 31 2011 Bike Corral

Community/ City Bike corrals as exemplars of sustainable transportation, which enhance the street and neighborhood identity, and increase foot and bike traffic. A reduction of vehicular traffic reduces air pollution and CO2 emissions.

Bike share program in Paris, France

Resource Website www.sunshineu-lok.com

Info Bike corral at Kansas Street and University Avenue

Bike corral in place of parking stall located in Seattle, Washington

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Claire de Lune

Vegetation

114

115 Claire de Lune

OS-7

OS-7 Tree Wells

Incentive

San Diego’s tree canopy is a major infrastructural element and provides numerous benefits to the quality of life in urban areas, such as beautification and energy conservation. Proper tree wells increase the survivability of trees and prevent the degradation of the functioning roots. Where the narrowness of the sidewalk or volume of pedestrian traffic preclude expansive tree wells, techniques exist to increase the rooting zone below the paving, whether “manufactured soils” or structural geometries. Permeable paving will promote water infiltration and aeration, where designed and installed to promote soil compaction. Soil restriction such as impervious pavements found at the Claire de Lune sidewalk restricts infiltration and aeration and may cause mold fungi to develop. The sidewalk and its established trees will benefit from an increased tree well that reflects the required root zone.

Community/ City Trees are a major infrastructural element and provide numerous benefits to the quality of life in urban areas, such as beautification and energy conservation. Property owners may benefit from increaed property values.

July 31 2011 Tree Wells

Existing tree wells are inadequate in size and visually unappealing

Tree Diameter

Critical Root Zone Tree well grates protect soil and roots

Info Tree well and root zone

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Claire de Lune

Waste Management

116

117 Claire de Lune

TO-3

TO-3 Take-Out Food

Incentive

According to the California Department of Resource Recycling and Recovery (CalRecycle) over 370,000 tons of polystyrene is disposed of or diverted in the State of California annually. Food retailers utilize expanded polystyrene (styrofoam), which is a petroleum-based product, to provide customers with takeout food packing. While it is not biodegradable, it can be recycled. However the Environmental Protection Agency estimates that 25 billion polystyrene cups end up as trash every year. Coffee cups are part of this equation and must be addressed in the context of the coffee shop at the Claire de Lune building. Customers can reduce their environmental impact by using reusable coffee cups and the business operator should encourage reuse with price breaks and offer eco-friendly take-out containers to carry out food. Many businesses strive to provide great customer service and provide an abundance of napkins, condiments and utensils, a practive that should be limited to actual need and provided upon request only.

Commercial Business will save money by giving out fewer napkins and plastic utensils and attract more customers by burnishing their environmental image in the public eye. Costs associated with the provision of eco-friendly food packaging can be lowered through collective purchasing with other businesses.

July 31 2011 Take-Out Food

Compostable products are made from corn, sugarcane and wheatstraw based fibers. These biodegradable products reduce waste by fully decomposing in just 45-60 days.

Resource Re-useable products can allow customers to purchase refills

Website www.calrecycle.ca.gov www.epa.gov

Info Many recycled products are just as strong and indistinguishable from the non recycled products

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


118

Historic Building 4

119

Filter Coffee House 4096 30th Street Built: 1949, by Style: Art Deco/ Moderne Original Use: Retail Current Use: Restaurant Square Footage: 4966sf. Lot Size: 7000 sf. (140’ x 50’) Structure: Wood Frame Facade: Stucco

Filter Coffee House, 3-d model

Filter Coffee House, 2011


Filter Coffee House

Building History

120

Filter Coffee House

121

Site Observations Envelope: East storefront features retractable awnings. Single pane windows. No AC. Roof drains to backyard on west side.

Following World War II a post war San Diego began to widely adopt the Moderne architectural styles. Similar to the Art Deco style but stripped of all its elaborate detailing, the Moderne Style was streamlined and Turners TV Theater building was exactly that. The building consists of a smooth stucco surface, curved and stepped parapets, large windows, geometric cornices and horizontal curved overhangs. Turners TV was a simple yet beautiful example of the small modern street front retail store.

Turner Tv Theatre, 1949

Site Features: Parallel parking along north. Public Right of Way: East side : 14’ sidewalk damaged, 1 tree (8’ tree well), outdoor seating, bust stop, mail box. North side: 14’ sidewalk damaged, no trees, bike stand, outdoor seating, newspaper boxes, unsightly dumpster. Corner: no pop out but curb ramp. Alley: no access.

Minimal outdoor seating

Curb lacks vegetation

Trash dumpster in right of way


Filter Coffee House Lighting

122

123 Filter Coffee House E-7

E-7 Solar Tubes & Skylights Day lighting can save energy and tend to our biological need to experience the natural rhythm of the day. Daylighting provides improved visual acuity, and 100% color rendition. Skylights or solar tubes can be retrofitted into existing buildings. Skylights are horizontal or slightly sloped glazed openings in the roof that transmit high levels of illumination. This top lighting method reduces the amount of energy required for artificial light sources but may cause unwanted heat gain and heat loss and consequently may increase energy use for conditioning the space. Skylights that are labeled by the federal Energy Star速 program and the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) minimize the aforementioned issue. Locating a skylight is equally important. A skylight placed near walls (especially the north wall) will reflect and diffuse light off it. The bright wall will make the space appear larger and more exuberant. To prevent veiling reflections, direct glare and puddles of sunlight the light should be diffused by reflecting it off the ceiling or by using baffles to shield the light source. Specifying translucent glazing can be appropriate since there is no view to be blocked. Solar tubes present another eco-friendly alternative to artificial lights and are easier to install in post construction than skylights. Solar tubes are conduits of sunlight. They are circular, duct-like tubes and commercially available with highly reflective specula inner surfaces that transmit 50 percent of the outdoor light through the attic. The reflective tube guides the sunlight to a diffuser lens that is mounted on the interior ceiling surface that spreads light evenly throughout the room.The Filter Coffee House has limited fenestration, which consequently causes inadequate day lighting levels and a higher use of electrical lighting to supplement.

Incentive July 31 2011 Solar Tubes & Skylight

Sun rays enter tube

Roof line

Commercial Energy savings are generated when less artificial light sources are powered to illuminate a space. Savings related to the reduced need for air conditioning are generated because light bulbs that are not in use do not give off heat and lighting components, such as ballast and lamp life last longer. Studies have shown that natural sunlight greatly contributes to increased productivity in the workplace and may offer health benefits to people as well. Improvements to the indoor atmosphere may encourage customers to stay longer.

Rays exit into interior of building Solar Tube detail - Sun rays enter the solar tube and are reflected and refracted by mirrors within the cylinder

Resource Website www.nfrc.org

Info Interior view of Filter Coffee House showing solar tube light wells

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Filter Coffee House Ventilation

124

125 Filter Coffee House E-8

E-8 Vent Stacks Natural ventilation relies on pressure differences to move air. The amount of ventilation depends on the size and placement of openings in the building and equal consideration must be given to supply and exhaust. To provide a way for air to escape a roof can be retrofitted with vent stacks that take advantage of temperature stratification as a passive cooling method. Warm air is less dense and rises only to escape through the vent stack drawing ambient air across the space. To work effectively indoor and outdoor air temperatures need to differ by 3 degrees fahrenheit. Temperature differences can be increased with a tall vent stack because of greater vertical stratification of temperatures. A ventilation stack that is glazed on its south facing wall allows for solar radiation to heat the air inside, therefore increasing temperature differences and airflow within the building. Building orientation does not affect how much air current is generated but a vent stack should not face the windward direction. Vent stacks induce natural ventilation and consequently reduce the energy used for air conditioning and improve the indoor environment. The Filter Coffee House currently does not feature air conditioning but its open floor plan would allow for adequate internal airflow between the fenestration and the proposed vent stacks.

Incentive July 31 2011 Vent Stacks

Hot air exits

Commercial Vent stacks provide natural ventilation and consequently reduce the energy use and improve the indoor environment. By cooling passively the cooling load of a building is reduced and consequently utility costs lowered.

Roof line

Hot air enters Combined Vent stack - Wind Scoop detail

View of Filter Coffee House from 30th Street

winward side permits wind infiltration

air stream enters interior

Info

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501

npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Filter Coffee House Storm Water Management

126

127 Filter Coffee House W-7

W-7 Curb Bioswales

Incentive

Storm water can be converted to a resource that replenishes ground water supplies. A curb bioswale is a public improvement project and as an engineered structure requires little maintenance, improves watershed health and sustains the conveyance capacity of a city’s storm water system. At the threshold of sidewalk and street storm water runoff can be diverted into a bioswale, where water is allowed to soak into the ground and is filtered from pollutants by plants and soil. A curb bioswale can be designed to accommodate various spatial conditions of the sidewalk. On the east side of the Filter Coffee House sidewalk space is limited and a tree well already exists. This well could be lengthened and two curb cuts for inflow and outflow would facilitate storm water diversion into the well. The north side of the Filter Coffee House features a wide and less busy street that could accommodate a curb extension with a bioswale into the street. This would place a landscaped storm water system as a buffer between outdoor seating and vehicular traffic.

Commercial Bioswales act as landscaped buffers between the vehicular traffic of the street and the outdoor seating of the sidewalk. The improved outdoor experience may attract customers or prolong the their stay.

July 31 2011 Curb bioswales

30th Street

Curb Swale on Hope Street in Los Angeles, CA

Community/ City A curb bioswale provides for an attractive streetscape and natural habitat. It cleans and cools air and water and enhances neighborhood livability. It improves pedestrian and bicycle access and safety. As an urban green space it increases community and property values. It protects surface and groundwater resources and meets regulatory requirements for pollutant reduction and storm water management.

Polk Street

Filter Coffee House View to curb swale from Polk Street

Site plan at Polk Street and 30th Street

Resource Website www.sdcounty.ca.gov

Info

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Filter Coffee House Furniture

128

129 Filter Coffee House OS-8

OS-8 Dumpster Shed

Incentive

Retail stores and restaurants generate garbage and store it in dumpsters, which often clutter the sidewalk. To store a dumpster inside does not adhere to the health code regulation. New York City for example, prohibits the storage of dumpsters on sidewalks and has launched design initiatives to develop a compromise. The developed shed designs accommodate dumpsters on sidewalks without being visible to the bypassing pedestrian. At the Filter Coffee House the location of the dumpster is unsightly effecting the sidewalk experience. The design of a shed for the dumpster would redefine its adjacent public space supporting an attractive streetscape and allow for a better outdoor seating experience. This is one example of a simple policy change at the local level which could facilitate the improvement of public space.

Commercial Businesses rely on their image to attract customers. By storing their dumpster in a shed their adjacent public space is improved and a walk able community supported. The public image of the building and the opportunity to provide more outdoor seating may increase the customer base and consequently sales.

July 31 2011 Dumpster Shed

Resource Website www.incubator.pratt.edu

Info Proposed solution and possibility for concealing trash storage

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Filter Coffee House Sidewalk

130

131 Filter Coffee House OS-9

OS-9 Mid-block Crossing

Incentive

Mid-block crosswalks provide pedestrians with convenient crossing locations where pedestrian concentration is high or other opportunities to cross streets are distant. Drivers are alerted whenever pedestrian activity is concentrated. To be safe mid-block crossings should be illuminated, ADA-compliant, and its surface should be of high contrast. The crosswalk can be signalized and an audible device should be installed. To calm excessive vehicle speed a pedestrian crosswalk can be raised and curb extensions can be utilized. Review OS-2 for a discussion on curb cuts and pop outs, which also incorporate street furnishings and vegetation into their design. OS-2 also provides another example of mid-block crossing. The Filter Coffee House is part of a 600’ long block, which is typical of most Mid-City blocks in San Diego. A mid-block crossing would facilitate safe pedestrian crossing and calm traffic, both of which increases business exposure.

Commercial Safe and walkable streets allow for window shopping and may increase the customer base.

July 31 2011 Mid-block Crossing

Cross walk combined with landscaping

Community The provision of mid-block crossings provide for safe pedestrian environments, make opposite sides of a street more accessible and are part of a walkable community. Walkable streets encourage activity with associated health benefits. Mid block crossings provide the opportunity to incorporate street furnishings and vegetation

Midblock crossing provides traffic calming

Resource Website www.sandiego.gov

Info View of midblock crossing on 30th Street

Reduced distance between points of crossing

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Filter Coffee House Waste Management

132

133 Filter Coffee House TO-4

TO-4 Recycling

Incentive

Recycling is key to modern waste reduction. It prevents the waste of useful material that provide a substitute to virgin raw materials. The separation of waste reduces the total amount of waste being land filled or incinerated consequently reducing energy use, water use and air pollution. San Diego’s Environmental Services provides curbside recycling for a fee to commercial customers and free to residential customers. The Filter Coffee House business could recycle all glass bottles and jars, empty aerosol cans, all plastic bottles and jars, cardboard, aluminum cans, paper bags, aluminum foil and foil trays, bagged shredded paper, newspaper, metal cans, phone books, paper or frozen food boxes, mail, magazine and catalogs, plastic food packing, plastic pots and toys. The City of San Diego passed a recycling ordinance that requires recycling at many residential and commercial facilities. The commercial operation at the Filter Coffee House should comply with this ordinance. The operator can encourage its customers to recycling by providing receptacles and signage.

Commercial Recycling can be an income source if acceptable products are exchanged for cash at one of San Diego’s recycling centers. The implementation of a recycling program can lower trash bills because recycling dumpster pick up fees ($10.50) are lower than trash dumpster pick up fees ($21.50).

July 31 2011 Recycling

Trash and recycling provided side by side at Mesa College, San Diego

Community/ City Recycling reduces energy use associated with conventional waste disposal. It reduces air and water pollution associated with incineration and landfills respectively. A reduction in the landfill load lowers green house gases. Making products from recycled materials uses less ater and energy, and pollutes less than making products from virgin materials.

Resource Website www.sandiego.gov

Info Recycle bin at the Filter Coffee House

Side by side trash and recycling bins in San Diego's Little Italy community

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


134

Historic Building 5

135

Aloha Sunday 3118 University Avenue Built: 1946, by Style: Art Deco/ Moderne Original Use: Retail Current use: Retail Square Footage: 2800 sf. Lot Size: 3200 sf. (40’ x 80’) Structure: Wood Frame Facade: Stucco

Aloha Sunday, 3-d model

Aloha Sunday, 2011


Aloha Sunday

Building History

136

Aloha Sunday

137

Site Observations Envelope: South storefront features effective awnings. Single pane windows. No fenestration on east facade. Roof drains to alley. East unit controls AC for both units. Back doors provide cross ventilation south to north (confirmed by tenant).

The retail store along the main business corridor was built during the post war boom. At the time North Park was already a developed community and University Avenue was a robust corridor which featured events like the Toyland Christmas Parade. North Park Furs became an addition to the community in 1946 and helped to make up the core business district. The Moderne structure housed two retail spaces; North Park Furs and Slaven Hobby and Upholstery Shop. The wood structure was built in the increasingly popular Moderne style and had many of the characteristics of a Moderne retail stores. The smooth stucco finish is accented with tiles popular within the community and the building has large windows, geometric cornice lines, and horizontal curve overhangs.

North Park Furs, 1949

Site Features: Surface lot parking accessible through alley. Parallel parking along south sidewalk. Sidewalk: South side : 14’ sidewalk damaged, 1 tree, 1 empty tree well, bike stand, trashcan. Alley: connects to back parking lot.

Recessed windows and overhang

Alley under utilized

Insufficient landscaping

Damaged sidewalk

Backdoor - cross ventilation


Aloha Sunday

Roof

138

139 Aloha Sunday

E-9

E-9 Cool Roof

Incentive

A cool roof reduces roof temperatures, which consequently impacts the temperature of the interior. A cool roof reflects sunlight away from the building and, combined with the roofing material’s ability to release absorbed heat, the transfer of heat into the building is diminished. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a cool roof’s materials stays up to 50-60 degree Fahrenheit cooler than conventional materials during peak summer weather. This may prolong the roof life and reduces maintenance costs. The methods to apply a cool roof system include roll on (long lasting but requires some removal of the exisitng roofing materials), mop on (easy installation but has a shorter life span), and spray on (easy installation with an insulation benefit from the expansion of the spray material applied). A cool roof combined with increased insulation can effectively reduce the cooling load of the Aloha Sunday building. Here a cool roof can directly reduce the air conditioning use and generate energy savings when the demand for electricity is at its peak during the day’s hottest period.

Commercial A cool roof reduces air conditioning use resulting in energy savings. According to the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) energy savings range from 10-30 percent. It increases occupant comfort and through the reduction of ambient air temperatures improves air quality. A cool Roof decreases roof maintenance cost due to the prolonged life of its materials.

July 31 2011 Cool Roof

Community/ City Lower ambient air temperatures improve air quality and reduce the air conditioning use within urban areas for buildings and vehicles therefore reducing CO2 emissions. The mitigation of the urban heat island effect reduces smog formation and allows for air to cool down more rapidly at night.

Cool roof installed

Solar reflectance thermal emittance

Sun’s radiant heat

Heat absorbed by roof and transmitted into building

Reflectance diagram

Regular tile and asphalt roofs transfer heat into a building, a cool roof reflects most of the heat energy

Resource Website www.coolroofs.org www.epa.gov

Info

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Aloha Sunday

Heating & Cooling

140

141 Aloha Sunday

E-10

E-10 Mechanical Systems

Incentive

The use of a commercial building changes with different tenants and, accordingly, the mechanical system, the thermal zones and program need to be evaluated over time. Old mechanical systems are less efficient and require more maintenance. An upgrade to a highly efficient system can significantly reduce the energy required to heat and cool a building. An evaluation of interior activity and processes allow for the organization of thermal zones that can be matched with thermostats. Programing the thermostats to deliver heating and cooling only when and where it is needed can provided energy savings without replacing major pieces of equipment. Energy auditing is a consulting service that provides the evaluation of the heating and cooling system to commercial customers. The Aloha Sunday building currently operates one Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for two retail units.This unit controls the airflow for both units, limiting user control and causing efficiency issues. Currently each unit can utilize cross ventilation, which requires the front and back door to be open. If for any reason the controlling unit generates hot or cold air mechanically, all air supplied to the open door unit is lost. Because the two separate retail units have different heating and cooling demands an upgrade to highly efficient mechanical system that serves the two thermal zones independently is suggested. Each of the thermal zones can be matched with programmable thermostats that allow the user to supplement conditioned air only when needed. Commercial buildings have the unique challenge of balancing first cost with long term operating cost. There are many different choices on what type of system will meet this balance. The current system type utilizes a compressive refrigeration cycle and two main aspects can be improved for efficiency. Both the chiller and air handler are large energy consumers and can be upgraded for efficiency.

Commercial Energy-efficient equipment upgrades can be expensive, but can be offset by lower operating costs.

July 31 2011 Mechanical System

Using an HVAC system that uses water rather than air to cool the condenser coils is 40% more efficient than air cooled models

Example of dampers

System diagram

Tax credits and RebatesThe Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a new tax incentive, backed and advocated by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), to improve the energy efficiency of commercial buildings. The “Commercial Building Tax Deduction� establishes a tax deduction for expenses incurred for energy efficient building expenditures made by a building owner. The deduction is limited to $1.80 per square foot of the property, with allowances for partial deductions for improvements in interior lighting, HVAC and hot water systems, and building envelope systems. The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (HR-1424), approved and signed on October 3, 2008, extends the benefits of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 through December 31, 2013.

Info

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Aloha Sunday

Rainwater Infiltration

142

143 Aloha Sunday

W-8

W-8 Porous Paving

Incentive

Porous paving utilizes an air void mixture that permits fluids to pass through the pavement into a stone base and then into the soil below to recharge groundwater supply. Even in San Diego where, because of high clay content or impermeable substrate the ability to infiltrate stormwater is restricted, the benefits of infiltration are significant: the crushed aggregate base layer below the porous paving provides some pretreatment of runoff to reduce pollutants. And the temporary storage of water reduces the peak flow volumes on the city storm drains. Porous paving options include porous concrete, porous asphalt, and paving systems with openings for planting and gravel. Review W-5 for a discussion on paving systems. The Aloha Sunday building features a parking lot on its backside, which is accessible through the alley and used by employees of the two retail units. Porous paving is a suitable pavement for both the parking lot and the alley. The roof of the Aloha Sunday building may be connected to the stone reservoir below the surface via roof leaders increasing the amount of rainwater treatment.

Community/ City Porous pavements recharge the groundwater supply and filter contaminants from runoff. They reduce peak velocity and volume of storm water runoff carried to the storm water system.

July 31 2011 Porous Paving

Info View to proposed porous paved alley adjacent to Aloha Sunday

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Aloha Sunday

Water Recycling

144

145 Aloha Sunday

W-9 Rainwater Cistern A rainwater cistern is a collection device and part of a rainwater harvesting system. Rainwater that falls onto a buildings roof is channeled through gutters to a collection tank for storage until used for landscaping, ornamental fountains, or other non potable uses. The cistern can be an underground basin of water or an above ground barrel or tank. A rainwater cistern can hold large amounts of water and is sealed from external contaminants. Systems can range from as simple as rain barrels at down spouts, to more sophisticated systems including filtration, bypass and overflow features, and pumping equipment. The rainwater from the Aloha Sunday building is currently diverted to the city’s storm water system but could be captured and stored for later use to irrigate the proposed landscaping of the back parking lot.

W-9

Incentive July 31 2011 Rainwater Cistern

Downspout

Collection barrel

Commercial The collection of rainwater can lower utility cost because rainwater is used for irrigation. Plants flourish using rainwater as it is free of the chlorine and other chemicals, which most cities use to process drinking water. Community/ City The collected water is kept out of the storm water system helping to reduce its peak velocity and volume during storms.

Rainwater cistern detail

Info View to Aloha Sunday rear parking area showing large rainwater cistern collection tanks

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Aloha Sunday

Signage

146

147 Aloha Sunday

OS-10

OS-10 Infrastructure for Decor

Incentive

Infrastructure for decor facilitates signage. This may include any word, numeral, figure, flag, pennant, twirler, light, banner, balloon or other device of any kind used singly or in any combination to be viewed by the public from the outdoors. As such infrastructure for decor denotes items that serve a practical purpose to the business establishment. Infrastructure for decor also includes community kiosks and maps, banner hardware on lamp posts, planters to hold vegetation, and electrical outlets in tree wells. Active encouragement of theses features serves to portray a sense of district and business vitality, and provides a means of updating the appearance of historic buildings without changing their fundamental character. All decor infrastructure requires city approval and must be permitted when applied to the public right of way. The Aloha Sunday building has its east wall facing an alley, which makes it suitable to hold infrastructure for decor. The intention of the proposed infrastructure is not to advertise but to direct, identify or inform. Here community kiosks provide district information and facilitate the parking validation process proposed in TO-5 (validations & discounts). Kiosks can be combined with electrical outlets than allow for the installation of seasonal decoration such as Christmas lights.

Commercial Decor on buildings can call attention to the building and its business tenants. It provide the opportunity to improve public relations. The temporary aspect of decor infrastructure allows for display exchanges based on the season of the year for example.

July 31 2011 Infrastructure for Decor

Infrastructure for decor - signage

Info Infrastructure for decor in the alley adjacent to the Aloha Sunday building

Infrastructure for decor - lamp post hardware

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Aloha Sunday

Furniture

148

149 Aloha Sunday

OS-11

OS-11 Street Benches

Incentive

Street furniture preserves and maintain the fabric of the streetscape. The provision of street benches makes North Park Main Street a more comfortable street and supports general pedestrian activity. Street benches allow for pedestrians to rest, wait for others, encourage conversations, and facilitate people watching. The sidewalk in front of the Aloha Sunday building could be enhanced by a street bench that encourages pedestrians to linger and consequently draw attention to the building.

Commercial Walkable streets include street benches and allow for window shopping, which may increase the customer base.

July 31 2011 Street Benches

Community The provision of street benches provide for relaxed pedestrian environments and provide the elderly moments to pause. Street benches as part of a walkable community support sidewalk activity.

Street benches provide a relaxed environment

University Avenue

Street benches on University Avenue

Info Street view of University Avenue at Aloha Sunday showing a pedestrian friendly environment.

Street benches on University Avenue

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


Aloha Sunday

Promotions

150

151 Aloha Sunday

TO-5

TO-5 Validations & Discounts

Incentive

The central North Park parking structure acts as a parking reservoir for the Main Street district and enables automobilists to take advantage of the walkable business district. The parking rates could include carpool and carshare promotions for employees. Businesses could promote a validation service to discount parking rates of the parking structure. Similarly business operators can offer discounts toward merchandise and services if the customer arrived by bike. Business employees can receive free parking permits from employers as part of an agreement to use alternate modes of transportation on most working days. Review OS-5 for a discussion on bike corrals and OS-10 for a discussion on infrastructure that facilitates the public parking validation process..

Commercial The promotion of “bicycle use discounts” and “parking validation” as a financial incentive to customers is beneficial to commercial activities and may increase sales. Supporting alternative modes of transportation can burnish the environmental image of a business and supports the customer and employee base.

July 31 2011 Validations & Discounts

Community/ City Promoting alternative transportation leads to reductions in air pollution and CO2 emissions. Walking and biking has associated health benefits. Dependence on vehicular parking and traffic congestion is reduced.

Info The North Park parking garage acts as a reservoir to the district

Self service validation ticket machine at the Horton Plaza Mall, San Diego

Please contact NorthParkMainStreet (619) 294-2501 npbid@northparkmainstreet.com


152

153

04 Appendix


154

155

Appendix

Energy Model Using EnergyPro Version 5.1.6.0 (NR T24 - prescriptive overall envelope approach), a computer energy model was constructed based on a 5,000 sf single story building. This by no means represents a specific building, but it is prototypical of a large number of the buildings in the District. Variations on this building prototype were created, based on the most common types of construction and building uses to be found in the District. Various building envelope energy efficiency interventions were identified and they were then modeled to analyze the resulting benefit on the interior heat and cooling loads for the building. The relative benefits from each of these building envelope interventions are depicted in the accompanying charts. Building owners can use these comparative results to draw preliminary conclusions about the types of interventions that would most benefit their particular building, based on its type of construction, use and orientation. These conclusions will need further investigation by the individual building owners to validate and quantify the benefits by tailoring an energy model to each individual building. The three types of construction depicted in the base models are: 2x4 wood frame, 6” hollow clay tile and 8” concrete masonry units with half grouted and half empty cells. The models assume that the buildings have a basic R-11 level of roof insulation and that storefront windows are single pane with metal frames. The building uses modeled are commercial (office), retail and restaurant uses. The differences assumed by the energy modeling program are due to the different outside air code requirements and the amounts and types of activity of the people expected to be in these different types of buildings Energy analyses were prepared for each of the three base models and building uses, rotating the model through each of the four cardinal directions. These analyses calculated the building’s interior heating/cooling load which is expressed in Time Dependant Value (TDV) and in British thermal units/hour (BTUH). The same calculations were then run for each of the proposed energy efficiency interventions and compared to the values from the base model. The energy efficiency interventions considered are: (1) Upgrading from R-11 to R-30 roof insulation, (2) adding a “Cool” (reflective) roof finish, (3) adding R-11 wall insulation, (4) installing a 6’ deep canopy over south facing storefront, (5) installing a high performance window film to existing storefront windows (6) installing dual pane high performance storefront windows and (7) planting street trees to shade west and east facing storefront glazing. The results of the energy modeling are shown as graphic displays demonstrating how each of these energy efficiency interventions decreases the interior cooling and heating loads that are imposed on the building’s heating and air conditioning systems, thereby reducing the building’s energy use. It should be noted that, due to characteristics of the energy modeling program used, there was no method by which to model the benefits of street tree shading and there are inaccuracies in modeling shade canopies, therefore actual quantification of the benefits of these two interventions were not provided, however, the benefits are addressed in the accompanying graphic displays.


•Units are BTUH •Lower value is desired. •Color indicates storefront direction.

Dual Pane High Performance Window

West East South North

Window Film R-11 Wall Cool Roof R-30 Roof

0 00 0, 20

16

0,

00

0

0 00 0, 12

00 ,0 80

00 ,0 40

0

6” Hollow Clay w/ R-11 Roof

0 00 0, 25

0 00 0,

0 00 0, 25

0 0, 20

15

0,

00

0 00

0 00 0, 10

,0 50

6” hollow clay walls with R-11 wood framed roof

20

8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2

00

R-0 Wood Frame w/ R-11 Roof

0,

R-30 Roof

15

R-30 Roof

0

Cool Roof

00

Cool Roof

0

R-11 Wall

0

Window Film

R-11 Wall

Type 2

West East South North

0

Window Film*

Dual Pane High Performance Window

00

West East South North

0,

Dual Pane High Performance Window

Type 3

10

•Color indicates storefront direction.

8” Concrete Masonry walls, •Units are BTUH half grouted with R-11 wood •Lower value is desired. •Color indicates storefront direction. framed roof R-11 wood

00

R-O wood framed walls with •Units are BTUH •Lower value is desired. R-11 wood framed roof

157

,0

Type 1

156

50

Office/ Restaurant


Office/ Restaurant

Type 1

158

159

R-O wood framed walls with R-11 wood framed roof

Note Lower value is desired. Each cardinal direction indicates storefront facing direction.

R-0 Wood Frame

R-0 Wood Frame

R-11 Roof

Cool Roof

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

R-0 Wood Frame

R-11 Wall

R-30 Roof

R-11 Roof

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83


Office/ Restaurant

Type 1

160

161

R-O wood framed walls with R-11 wood framed roof

Note Lower value is desired. Each cardinal direction indicates storefront facing direction.

R-0 Wood Frame

R-0 Wood Frame

R-30 Roof

R-11 Roof

Dual Pane High Performance Windows U = 0.34, SHGC = 0.33

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Canopy Shading The addition of shading elements such as awnings and canopies over south facing windows and storefront reduces heat build up in the building interior due to solar heat gain. During the summer months, the sun passes higher in the southern sky and therefore it is a simple task to calculate the depth of an overhang that will prevent direct solar gain through windows into the building interior. Overhangs are less effective on east and west facing windows and storefront because the sun is lower in the sky during the morning and evening hours. Vertical fins and exterior louvers can help mitigate heat gain for these orientations.

6’ Canopy on South Face R-0 Wood Frame

R-0 Wood Frame

R-30 Roof

R-11 Roof

Window Film U = 0.75, SHGC = 0.23

Tree Shading Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Tree Shading Street trees contribute various benefits to the environment (reduction of urban heat island effect, carbon sequestration and oxygen emissions), and, when located appropriately, they can provide direct shading benefit to adjacent buildings. When the shade from the tree canopy falls on storefront windows on east, south or west elevations, it can provide significant reduction in solar heat gain through those windows, thus reducing the load on the building’s air conditioning system.


Office/ Restaurant

Type 2

162

163

6” hollow clay walls with R-11 wood framed roof

Note Lower value is desired. Each cardinal direction indicates storefront facing direction.

8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2

8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2

R-11 Roof

Cool Roof

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2 R-30 Roof

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

R-11 Wall R-11 Roof

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83


Office/ Restaurant

Type 2

164

165

6” hollow clay walls with R-11 wood framed roof

Note Lower value is desired. Each cardinal direction indicates storefront facing direction.

8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2

8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2

R-30 Roof

R-11 Roof

Window Film U = 0.75 SHGC = 0.23

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Canopy Shading The addition of shading elements such as awnings and canopies over south facing windows and storefront reduces heat build up in the building interior due to solar heat gain. During the summer months, the sun passes higher in the southern sky and therefore it is a simple task to calculate the depth of an overhang that will prevent direct solar gain through windows into the building interior. Overhangs are less effective on east and west facing windows and storefront because the sun is lower in the sky during the morning and evening hours. Vertical fins and exterior louvers can help mitigate heat gain for these orientations.

6’ Canopy on South Face 8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2

8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2

R-30 Roof

R-11 Roof

Dual Pane High Performance Windows U = 0.34 SHGC = 0.33

Tree Shading Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Tree Shading Street trees contribute various benefits to the environment (reduction of urban heat island effect, carbon sequestration and oxygen emissions), and, when located appropriately, they can provide direct shading benefit to adjacent buildings. When the shade from the tree canopy falls on storefront windows on east, south or west elevations, it can provide significant reduction in solar heat gain through those windows, thus reducing the load on the building’s air conditioning system.


Office/ Restaurant

Type 3

166

167

8” Concrete Masonry walls, half grouted with R-11 wood framed roof R-11 wood

Note Lower value is desired. Each cardinal direction indicates storefront facing direction.

6” Hollow Clay

6” Hollow Clay

R-11 Roof

Cool Roof

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

6” Hollow Clay

R-11 Wall

R-30 Roof

R-11 Roof

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83


Office/ Restaurant

Type 3

168

169

8” Concrete Masonry walls, half grouted with R-11 wood framed roof R-11 wood

Note Lower value is desired. Each cardinal direction indicates storefront facing direction.

6” Hollow Clay

6” Hollow Clay

R-11 Roof

R-11 Roof

Window Film U = 0.75 SHGC = 0.23

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Canopy Shading: The addition of shading elements such as awnings and canopies over south facing windows and storefront reduces heat build up in the building interior due to solar heat gain. During the summer months, the sun passes higher in the southern sky and therefore it is a simple task to calculate the depth of an overhang that will prevent direct solar gain through windows into the building interior. Overhangs are less effective on east and west facing windows and storefront because the sun is lower in the sky during the morning and evening hours. Vertical fins and exterior louvers can help mitigate heat gain for these orientations.

6’ Canopy on South Face 6” Hollow Clay

6” Hollow Clay

R-11 Roof

R-11 Roof

Dual Pane High Performance Windows U = 0.34 SHGC = 0.33

Tree Shading Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Tree Shading: Street trees contribute various benefits to the environment (reduction of urban heat island effect, carbon sequestration and oxygen emissions), and, when located appropriately, they can provide direct shading benefit to adjacent buildings. When the shade from the tree canopy falls on storefront windows on east, south or west elevations, it can provide significant reduction in solar heat gain through those windows, thus reducing the load on the building’s air conditioning system.


Retail

170

•Color indicates storefront direction. West East South North

Dual Pane High Performance Window

•Units are BTUH •Lower value is desired. •6’ Canopy needs further testing. •Color indicates storefront direction.

Dual Pane High Performance Window

Window Film

West East South North

Window Film

R-11 Wall

R-11 Wall

Cool Roof

Cool Roof

R-30 Roof

R-30 Roof

0

Dual Pane High Performance Window

R-11 Wall Cool Roof R-30 Roof

0 00 0, 16

0 00 0, 12

00 ,0 80

00 ,0 40

0

6” Hollow Clay w/ R-11 Roof

0 00 0, 16

0 00 0, 12

00 ,0 80

,0

West East South North

Window Film

00

00 0, 16

0 00 0,

•Units are BTUH •Lower value is desired. •Color indicates storefront direction.

40

6” hollow clay walls with R-11 wood framed roof

12

,0

00

8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2

80

00 40

,0

0

R-0 Wood Frame w/ R-11 Roof

Type 2

Type 3

8” Concrete Masonry walls, half grouted with R-11 wood framed roof R-11 wood

0

Type 1

R-O wood framed walls with •Units are BTUH •Lower value is desired. R-11 wood framed roof

171


Retail

172

Type 1

173

R-O wood framed walls with R-11 wood framed roof

Note Lower value is desired. Each cardinal direction indicates storefront facing direction.

R-0 Wood Frame

R-0 Wood Frame

R-11 Roof

Cool Roof

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

R-0 Wood Frame

R-11 Wall

R-30 Roof

R-11 Roof

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83


Retail

174

Type 1

175

R-O wood framed walls with R-11 wood framed roof

Note Lower value is desired. Each cardinal direction indicates storefront facing direction.

R-0 Wood Frame

R-0 Wood Frame

R-30 Roof

R-11 Roof

Dual Pane High Performance Windows U = 0.34 SHGC = 0.33

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

R-0 Wood Frame R-30 Roof

Window Film U = 0.75 SHGC = 0.23

Canopy Shading: The addition of shading elements such as awnings and canopies over south facing windows and storefront reduces heat build up in the building interior due to solar heat gain. During the summer months, the sun passes higher in the southern sky and therefore it is a simple task to calculate the depth of an overhang that will prevent direct solar gain through windows into the building interior. Overhangs are less effective on east and west facing windows and storefront because the sun is lower in the sky during the morning and evening hours. Vertical fins and exterior louvers can help mitigate heat gain for these orientations.

6’ Canopy on South Face R-0 Wood Frame R-11 Roof

Tree Shading Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Tree Shading: Street trees contribute various benefits to the environment (reduction of urban heat island effect, carbon sequestration and oxygen emissions), and, when located appropriately, they can provide direct shading benefit to adjacent buildings. When the shade from the tree canopy falls on storefront windows on east, south or west elevations, it can provide significant reduction in solar heat gain through those windows, thus reducing the load on the building’s air conditioning system.


Retail

176

Type 2

177

6” hollow clay walls with R-11 wood framed roof

Note Lower value is desired. Each cardinal direction indicates storefront facing direction.

8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2

8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2

R-11 Roof

Cool Roof

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2

R-11 Wall

R-30 Roof

R-11 Roof

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83


Retail

178

Type 2

179

6” hollow clay walls with R-11 wood framed roof

Note Lower value is desired. Each cardinal direction indicates storefront facing direction.

8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2

8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2

R-11 Roof

R-11 Roof

Window Film U = 0.75 SHGC = 0.23

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Canopy Shading: The addition of shading elements such as awnings and canopies over south facing windows and storefront reduces heat build up in the building interior due to solar heat gain. During the summer months, the sun passes higher in the southern sky and therefore it is a simple task to calculate the depth of an overhang that will prevent direct solar gain through windows into the building interior. Overhangs are less effective on east and west facing windows and storefront because the sun is lower in the sky during the morning and evening hours. Vertical fins and exterior louvers can help mitigate heat gain for these orientations.

6’ Canopy on South Face 8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2

8” CMU Grouted 1/2 & 1/2

R-11 Roof

R-11 Roof

Dual Pane High Performance Windows U = 0.34 SHGC = 0.33

Tree Shading Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Tree Shading: Street trees contribute various benefits to the environment (reduction of urban heat island effect, carbon sequestration and oxygen emissions), and, when located appropriately, they can provide direct shading benefit to adjacent buildings. When the shade from the tree canopy falls on storefront windows on east, south or west elevations, it can provide significant reduction in solar heat gain through those windows, thus reducing the load on the building’s air conditioning system.


Retail

180

Type 3

181

8” Concrete Masonry walls, half grouted with R-11 wood framed roof R-11 wood

Note Lower value is desired. Each cardinal direction indicates storefront facing direction.

6” Hollow Clay

6” Hollow Clay

R-11 Roof

Cool Roof

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

6” Hollow Clay

R-11 Wall

R-30 Roof

R-11 Roof

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83


Retail

182

Type 3

183

8” Concrete Masonry walls, half grouted with R-11 wood framed roof R-11 wood

Note Lower value is desired. Each cardinal direction indicates storefront facing direction.

6” Hollow Clay

6” Hollow Clay

R-11 Roof

R-11 Roof

Window Film U = 0.75, SHGC = 0.23

Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Canopy Shading: The addition of shading elements such as awnings and canopies over south facing windows and storefront reduces heat build up in the building interior due to solar heat gain. During the summer months, the sun passes higher in the southern sky and therefore it is a simple task to calculate the depth of an overhang that will prevent direct solar gain through windows into the building interior. Overhangs are less effective on east and west facing windows and storefront because the sun is lower in the sky during the morning and evening hours. Vertical fins and exterior louvers can help mitigate heat gain for these orientations.

6’ Canopy on South Face 6” Hollow Clay

6” Hollow Clay

R-11 Roof

R-11 Roof

Dual Pane High Performance Windows U = 0.34 SHGC = 0.33

Tree Shading Single Pane Windows U = 1.19 SHGC = 0.83

Tree Shading: Street trees contribute various benefits to the environment (reduction of urban heat island effect, carbon sequestration and oxygen emissions), and, when located appropriately, they can provide direct shading benefit to adjacent buildings. When the shade from the tree canopy falls on storefront windows on east, south or west elevations, it can provide significant reduction in solar heat gain through those windows, thus reducing the load on the building’s air conditioning system.


184

185

Appendix

Energy Makeover Week North Park Main Street, formed the appropriate partnerships and organized a week long event to help businesses in the District save money on their monthly utility bills and protect the environment through energy & water efficiency. In preparation for the event, North Park Main Street staff invited participation from all the business owners in the District; volunteer auditors then worked with each participating business to determine the most effective energy improvements that could be made for their particular business so that the Utility Company contractors could then perform the retrofits, at no cost to the business owners, during the designated Energy Makeover Week. To kick off the event, a press conference was organized featuring the Mayor, County Supervisor, Council member, representatives from SDG&E, the NPMS Executive Director and local business owners. Small upgrades can have significant results. The retrofits to 27 businesses, which included adjustment and deferred maintenance of existing mechanical systems and replacement of light bulbs, an estimated total energy savings of: Therms: 16.20 Total Kw: 19.03 Total kWh: 80,257.48 In addition to free upgrades, local utility companies offer many financial incentives as well as technical assistance for businesses to save energy. SDG&E’s programs include the following:

District wide event

Rebates: The easiest way for businesses to earn money on energy-efficient purchases is through SDG&E’s Energy Efficiency Business Rebates. Businesses can earn cash rebates with the purchase of new energy-efficient equipment such as lighting, refrigeration, ventilation, food service and more. Incentives: SDG&E offers cash incentives through our Energy Efficiency Business Incentives (EEBI) and Energy Savings Bid (ESB) programs for customers who replace existing equipment or install new high-efficiency equipment. The incentives are based on the amount of energy a project will save. For EEBI, incentives may pay up to 50% of a project’s total cost or 100% of the calculated incentive amount, whichever is less. For the ESB program, incentives may pay for as much as 100% of a project’s total cost or an amount based on the energy savings, whichever is less. On-Bill Financing: On-Bill Financing works in conjunction with our rebate and incentive programs, and offers eligible businesses zero-percent financing for qualifying energy-efficient business improvements. Qualified customers then repay the 0% loan on the improvements through their SDG&E bill. Demand Response: Demand response programs help to temporarily lower electricity use during high-use or peak times to help prevent strain on our system. Businesses that can lower their energy use or shift their electricity use to off-peak hours are eligible to receive bill credits, payments or other incentives depending on which program best suits their business type and potential demand reduction. kWickview: SDG&E has many services to help businesses get more out of the energy they use. Our analysis and online management tools include kWickview, a tool that provides energy use data online to businesses with special interval data recorder (IDR) meters. Benchmarking: In order to help customers get the most out of their energy-saving solutions, the Environmental Protection Agency offers the ENERGY STAR® Portfolio Manager as a benchmarking service. Benchmarking rates a facility’s energy performance on a scale of 1–100, compared with similar buildings nationwide. Once you have this score, businesses can quantify the impact of energy-efficiency improvements by watching the benchmark score go up and energy costs go down. Energy Waves: SDG&E also offers Energy Waves, where customers can view up to seventeen months of energy consumption, graphically display consumption history, view meter information, download usage data and more. Energy Challenger: The Energy Challenger is an online survey designed to help businesses find ways to improve energy management, reduce energy costs and understand energy patterns. This online survey only takes a couple of minutes find out how to reap the long-term benefits of energy savings. Seminars & Training: SDG&E’s educational and technical seminars for businesses include topics on HVAC, lighting, motors and more. Our seminars are targeted towards specific industries and associations so that attendees can learn alongside others in their industry. On-Site Energy Consultations: This service includes on-site facility evaluations. The consultations range from simple site assessments to comprehensive engineering studies and are designed to determine the potential for reducing electricity use while also identifying opportunities for energy efficiency.


Appendix

186

Energy Makeover Week 1 Local Business Leadership Business Improvement District Business Owner’s Association Neighborhood Association City/County Elected Officials Economic Development Environmental Planning Utility Electric Natural Gas Water

Create Partnership

Ask utility community relations and energy efficiency staff serving your members to meet. Introduce the makeover program partnership idea and ask for their commitment with: Outreach materials describing offerings. Focused audit and installation labor support. Tracking near and long-term benefits.

2

Determine Scope

Estimate district-wide dollar savings based upon expected energy and water savings from full participation. Identify businesses already saving on utilities to present as models. Develop program plan that presents enhanced value to each business from strong district wide participation.

Distribute makeover program idea to BID and other leaders with established small business rapport.

Assess overall interest and consider becoming local catalyst between region’s utilities and multiple business districts.

Initiate partnership meetings with business leadership and utilities serving the area.

Provide political and financial support to interested business districts.

Assess data describing small business participation in efficiency programs throughout the service territory. Locate areas expected to offer opportunity if local action improves access.

Look for opportunities to link in other local programs serving small business and picky-back on outreach.

Coordinate with city/county economic development staff and solicit business leadership participation.

Assess available resources and estimate the feasible number and timing of audits and retrofits. Provide BID with list of the types and numbers improvements that can be offered and any limits for accomplishing the needed audit work.

187 The California Air Resources Board has provided guidance on how to conduct a Small Business Energy and Water Makeover through a partnership between a Business Improvement District, local elected officials and local utility companies.

3

Sign-Up Businesses

Meet with each member faceto-face to present cost value of participation, leaving utility outreach materials to define program options. Develop list of members wanting audits and predisposed to efficiency upgrades offered by the area utilities. Provide city/county economic development or other resources to promote makeover in each BID launching a makeover program, e.g., city/BID/utility program logo, window signs and street banners, to promote participation. As soon as possible, conduct a few detailed energy and water audits in prominent businesses in the district and provide summary of economic benefits, rebates, incentives and financing options. Provide district with case study summary of findings to hand to members at signup.

4

Audits & Installations

Escort auditors and installation contractors as needed to maintain trust of members and continue their association of the benefits received with the business leadership supporting the program. Photograph and videotape as feasible and share images via websites and at district functions, e.g., farmer’s market. Arrange to photograph and videotape a sampling of district outreach, audits, installations and clips of supportive leaders. Use the business district’s listing of businesses expecting audits and perform the audits in an orderly and time efficient manner. Follow up on audits with a costsaving installation process aimed at deep efficiency improvements.

5

Follow Through

Quantify dollars retained in your local economy based on actual energy and water savings provided by the utilities. Check back with members in 1 – 3 months to ensure they are satisfied, are following through and to resolve issues. Check back annually on status and to provide updated information on any new offerings. Provide regular updates of makeover savings to all members, and offer to connect more businesses with utility programs. Produce webpage and handout materials to promote additional small business energy and water makeovers throughout the city/ county. Quantify energy and water savings as data become available and at regular intervals. Consider developing official business leader partnership outreach for deploying programs more effectively to small businesses in the future.

Estimate expected energy and water savings feasible with full participation of qualified businesses.

Information provided by the California Air Resources Board October 2010


188

189

05 Resources


190

Information

191

References LEED EB OM reference guide LEED ND reference guide “North Park - A San Diego Urban Village”, Donald Covington http://www.Universaldesign.com Main Street Now: The Journal of the National Trust Main Street Center May/June 2011 http://www.preservationnation.org/main-street/ “Green Building Practices and the Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Historic Preservation,” White Paper for the 2008 Pocantico National Main Street Symposium http://www.preservationnation.org/issues/sustainability/additional-resources/pocanticowhitepaper.pdf “Greening Main Street Buildings”, Kennedy Smith, Main Street News #260, April 2009, National Trust Main Street Center.


192

193

Index

List of Images Page 66 Motor In Market photo provided by the San Diego History Center Page 84 Lynhurst photo provided by San Diego History Center Page 87 Installation In Attic photo courtesy of Energy Star and North American Insulation Manufactures Association Caulking Ducts photo courtesy of Energy Star and The Family Handyman Magazine Caulk all Potential Air Gaps photo courtesy of Energy Star and The Family Handyman Magazine page 93 Greywater Toilet System diagram provided by Aqus and the Sloan Valve Company page 91 Cost saving graph - Source: http://www.fishnick.com/equipment/sprayvalves/ Page 104 Claire de Lune (the Newman) photo provided by the North Park Historical Society Page 113 Bike Share photo by Gilles Countaeu Bike Corral photo courtesy of the City of Seattle, Washington Page 120 Filter (Turners) photo provided by the San Diego History Center Page 136 Aloha Sunday (North Park Furs) photo provided by the San Diego History Center All other imagery are a product of the report authors

North Park Sustainability Study and Implementation Plan  

North Park, San Diego, CA, Sustainability and Implementation Plan

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