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by Tony L. Blair

Upon completion of this presentation, the attending audience will be able to: •

Define curriculum development Define internal barriers to curriculum development Define external barriers to curriculum development Define ways to overcome these barriers.

The processes of assessing needs, formulating objectives, and developing instructional opportunities and evaluation.

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Fear of losing control of the curriculum Misunderstanding due to lack of information or confusion about new vocabulary and jargon Perception of lack of ability to progress because of new time and energy demands Different views about the study change Lack of motivation to study the change Lack of perception of a need for change (“If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.”)

(Billings & Halstead, 2009)

• • • • • nge_stopsignsm.jpg

Too many changes and too many demands related to the change process Desire to be vindictive and make the leader look bad Idea that “no one can tell me what to do” Threat to current social support systems Lack of resources View that formal methods used to facilitate change are a barrier rather than a help Lack of rewards


(Billings & Halstead,

Technical Challenges (Changes in technology)

Cultural Challenges

Political Challenges

Insufficient Control Over Personnel (Jerald, 2005)

Rapid changes in technology

Rapid changes in healthcare systems

Rapid changes in healthcare delivery

Economic changes

A growing diverse population (Billings & Halstead, 2009)

Plan for a regular review of the curriculum

Incorporate cultural diversity

Incorporate academic majors that cultivate thinking skills

Use technology in the classroom and beyond the four walls

Internationalize the curriculum

Assess student learning, provide feedback

Design interdisciplinary studies

Use group work to enhance the learning of students and faculty together

Facilitate innovative ideas in curriculum change

Develop more holistic, experimental models of learning

(Billings & Halstead, 2009)

Anderson, T. R. and Rogan, J. M. (2011), Bridging the educational research-teaching practice gap: Curriculum development, Part 1: Components of the curriculum and influences on the process of curriculum design. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 39: 68–76. doi: 10.1002/bmb.20470 Barriers picture (2011). Slide # 1. Retrieved from Conclusion picture (2011). Slide # 10. Retrieved from Healthcare reform picture (2011). Slide #8. Retrieved from Introduction picture (2011). Slide # 4. Retrieved from :&imgrefurl=

Jerald, C. (2005). Helping schools overcome barriers to change. Retrieved from Laptop and books picture (2011). Slide # 7. Retrieved from Learning objective picture (2011). Slide # 2. Retrieved from Question picture (2011). Slide # 3. Retrieved from Resistance to change picture (2011). Slide # 5. Retrieved from Stop sign picture (2011). Slide # 6. Retrieved from

Curriculum development