Lesson 3 - Dynamics

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Grant Llewellyn, Music Director

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LESSON 3

DYNAMICS

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NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY EDUCATION SUPPORTERS

Our Education Concert is created in partnership with the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction and is made possible by a generous grant-in-aid from the State of North Carolina, the Honorable Roy Cooper, Governor; the Honorable Susi H. Hamilton, Secretary for Natural and Cultural Resources. We express our gratitude to our Boards of Trustees: The Symphony’s mission to achieve the highest level of artistic quality and performance standards, and embrace the dual legacies of statewide service and music education, is led by the North Carolina Symphony Society, Inc., and the Symphony’s endowed funds are held by the North Carolina Symphony Foundation, Inc.

EDUCATION SUSTAINERS ($100,000+)

EDUCATION BENEFACTORS ($50,000+)

EDUCATION PATRONS ($10,000+)

Anonymous The Bastian Family Charitable Foundation William C. Ethridge Foundation, Inc Robert P. Holding Foundation, Inc.

EDUCATION PARTNERS ($1,000+) Alamance County Government Arts Council of Carteret County Arts Council of Wayne County The Harold H. Bate Foundation Beane Wright Foundation Bell Family Foundation Bertsch Family Charitable Foundation, Inc. BlueCross BlueShield of North Carolina The Borden Fund, Inc. R.A. Bryan Foundation, Inc. The DeLeon Carter Foundation Carteret Community Foundation Cherbec Advancement Foundation Chowan Community Funds Foundation The Cole Foundation Mr. and Mrs. Jeffrey A. Corbett Corning Incorporated Foundation Craven County Community Foundation Edna Williams Curl and Myron R. Curl Charitable Fund Emily Monk Davidson Foundation The Dickson Foundation, Inc. The Lundy Fetterman Family Foundation Trust George Foundation, Inc. Gipson Family Foundation Granville County Community Foundation Gregory Poole Equipment

The Hellendall Family Foundation of North Carolina Iredell County Community Foundation Jacksonville OnslowCouncil for the Arts Kinston Community Council for the Arts The Landfall Foundation Lenoir County Community Foundation Moore County Community Foundation The Noël Foundation North Carolina Community Foundation Onslow Caring Communities Foundation Outer Banks Community Foundation Poole Family Foundation George Smedes Poyner Foundation Prescott Family Charitable Trust The Florence Rogers Charitable Trust E.T. Rollins, Jr. and Frances P. Rollins Foundation The Norman and Rose S. Shamberg Foundation The Eddie and Jo Allison Smith Family Foundation, Inc. Southern Bank Foundation Swearingen Foundation The Titmus Foundation Joseph M. Wright Charitable Foundation, Inc. Youths’ Friends Association Inc.

MUSIC EDUCATION ENDOWMENT FUNDS, NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY FOUNDATION The Joseph C. and Diane E. Bastian Fund for Music Education The Ruby and Raymond A. Bryan Foundation Fund The Mary Whiting Ewing Charitable Foundation Fund The Hulka Ensemble and Chamber Music Programs Fund The Janirve Foundation Fund The Elaine Tayloe Kirkland Fund The Ina Mae and Rex G. Powell Wake County Music Education Fund

SCHOOL SYSTEM SUPPORTERS Chapel Hill-Carrboro Schools Cumberland County Schools Edgecombe County Schools Harnett County Schools Lee County Schools Lenoir County Schools New Hanover County Schools Orange County Schools Wake County Public Schools Sponsors are current as of March 18, 2020

Authors: Linda Good, Sarah Kronenwetter, Alexis Kagel, Andrea Perrone Designer: Kimberly Ridge Editors: Sarah Baron, Jason Spencer, Layla Dougani, Erin Lunsford North Carolina Symphony, 3700 Glenwood Ave., Suite 130, Raleigh, NC 27612, 919.733.2750 ncsymphony.org/education North Carolina Symphony Student and Teacher Handbook © 2017, 2020 by North Carolina Symphony Society, Inc. Reproduction of this book in its entirety is strictly prohibited.

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Samuel P. Mandell Foundation Gloria Miner Charitable Music Fund Simple Gifts Fund Mrs. Jennie H. Wallace


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Ludwig Van Beethoven

Born December 16, 1770, Bonn, Germany Died March 26, 1827, Vienna, Austria

Biography Beethoven began his musical schooling when he was a small child. Both his father and grandfather were musicians at the Court of the Elector of Cologne, which was based in Beethoven’s hometown of Bonn. Although Symphony No. 8, Ludwig’s father began his son’s musical education, Mvt. II. Allegretto it was clear that the boy had surpassed his father’s Scherzando abilities by the age of nine. By age 12, Beethoven had composed his first work of music. In his young adult life, Ludwig worked as a conductor and organist for the court band. Like many other composers, Beethoven traveled to Vienna, Austria, to find inspiration. Here, he played for famous musicians such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Joseph Haydn, who later became some of his mentors. Beethoven was very restless, always jumping from one composition to another. His musical ideas frequently became fused together in the chaos, Beethoven was known for having creating some of his most a hot temper and occasionally memorable works. As an lashing out at his fans. adult, he began to lose his hearing. Although this He was very fond of nature and often took long walks in the loss was devastating, he countryside to find inspiration. continued to compose for

Featured Work

Fun Facts

nearly 25 more years until he died in 1827.

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Beethoven often dipped his head in cold water before composing!


BEETHOVEN’S LIFE • Although Beethoven’s exact birth date is not known, his family celebrated it on December 16, 1770. • When he was between the ages of eight and 11, Beethoven began taking organ lessons and then was sent to a monastery. The monks helped him learn how to write music, and he began composing pieces that he could not yet play. He could hear the music in his head and knew that one day he would be able to play the pieces. • At age 12, Beethoven’s first piece of music was published. It was called Nine Variations on a March. • Beethoven’s hearing was failing gradually for years. He had to crouch closer and closer to hear the orchestra as the volume diminished. • The premiere of his Symphony No. 7 in December 1813 marked Beethoven’s last public appearance as conductor.

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Featured Work: Symphony No. 8, Mvt. II. Allegretto Scherzando

During the summer of 1812, Beethoven obsessively worked on his Symphony No. 8. This was one of Beethoven’s most experimental symphonies. It is a very short piece and the final chord leaves the audience with unanswered questions. This symphony was premiered in 1814 in Vienna, along with Beethoven’s Symphony No. 7 and Wellington’s Victory. The Eighth Symphony didn’t have a great response from the audience because of its unusual structure. One of the strangest things about this symphony is that it doesn’t have a slow movement. Instead, the second movement, Allegretto Scherzando, is structured like an “intermezzo,” or an interlude. The entire symphony is filled with musical jokes and was viewed as “rude humor” by many people in Beethoven’s time.

CLASSROOM ACTIVITY #1: Conducting Dynamics Guessing Game North Carolina Essential Standards in Music:

4.ML.2.3 - Interpret standard symbols and traditional terms for dynamics, tempo, and articulation while performing music. 5.ML.2.3 - Apply understanding of standard symbols and traditional terms for dynamics, tempo, articulation, rhythm, meter, and pitch when reading and notating music. 5.MR.1.1 - Interpret through instruments and/or voice the gestures of the conductor, including meter, tempo, dynamics, entrances, cut-offs, and phrasing, when singing and playing music.

Objectives: Students will be able to conduct, play, and aurally identify changes in dynamics. Materials: Changing Dynamic Cards (provided on page 7), non-pitched instrument (a tabletop works fine), baton (optional) Process:

1. Review definitions for dynamics: pianissimo = very quiet, piano = quiet, mezzo-piano = somewhat quiet, mezzo-forte = somewhat loud, forte = loud, fortissimo = very loud 2. Students share their ideas about how the conductor communicates what dynamic level he or she wants the orchestra to play. 3. Watch this clip from the video “What Does a Conductor Do” to explain to students how a conductor changes dynamics. 4. Parents and teachers, now it’s your turn to become a conductor! Conduct a simple, steady beat as students follow along by drumming on a tabletop. 5. Practice changing the dynamic level. For example, change from forte (loud) to piano (soft) by switching from a big gesture to a small gesture. Students follow along, adjusting the volume of their drumming. 6. When they can follow the beat and dynamics given, let students become the conductor. They choose a Changing Dynamics Card (next page) and demonstrate how the conductor would change to match those dynamics with the class (you!) playing along. 7. Watch the North Carolina Symphony Education video (Dynamics) and have students comment on how the conductor demonstrates dynamic changes.

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CHANGING DYNAMICS CARDS

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CLASSROOM ACTIVITY #2: Plotting Dynamic Change North Carolina Essential Standards in Music:

4.MR.1.1 - Illustrate perceptual skills by moving to, answering questions about, and describing aural examples of music of various styles and cultures. 5.MR.1.2 - Use music terminology in explaining music, including notation, instruments, voices, and performances. 5.CR.1.2 - Understand the relationships between music and concepts from other areas.

North Carolina Essential Standards in Math:

4.MD.4 - Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (½, Ÿ). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots.

Objective: Students will aurally identify dynamic levels in a piece of music and represent what they hear on a line plot. Materials: North Carolina Symphony Education video, Plotting Dynamics Worksheet (provided on page 9) Process:

1. Review definitions for dynamics: pianissimo = very quiet, piano = quiet, mezzo-piano = somewhat quiet, mezzo-forte = somewhat loud, forte = loud, fortissimo = very loud 2. Students listen to beginning of the piece in the North Carolina Symphony Education video (Dynamics). Pause the video after the first large dynamic change and ask the students what dynamic levels they heard. Tally the dynamics on the chart at the top of the Plotting Dynamics Worksheet. 3. Continue the process a few times together, and then have students listen to the piece on their own, tallying when they hear changes. 4. Have students label the line plot at the bottom of the worksheet from pianissimo to fortissimo, making the connection that in math they would label the plot with fractions from least to greatest. 5. Students transfer their findings onto the line plot.

Example (following the markings in the score):

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PLOTTING DYNAMICS Name _____________________ Homeroom Teacher _________________________

STATE HEADQUARTERS 3700 GLENWOOD AVE, SUITE 130, RALEIGH, NC 27612 919.733.2750 ncsymphony.org North Carolina Symphony Student Handbook © 2020 by North Carolina Symphony Society, Inc. Reproduction of this book in its entirety is strictly prohibited.

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