Regional Guide on Equivalency Programmes
Table of Contents Module 1Concepts of Equivalency Programme ....................................................2 Module 2Equivalency Programs Policy and Framework .......................................8 Module 3Curriculum for Learning Materials for EPs ........................................... 24 Module 4Capacity Building and Development for Equivalency Programmes ...... 36 Module 5Equivalency Programme Facilitators : Qualification Standards and Capacity Building Needs...................................................................... 57 Module 6Delivery Mechanism ........................................................................... 67 Module 7Assessment, Accreditation and Evaluation .......................................... 74 Module 8EP Resource Mobilization and Financial Management ........................ 79 Module 9Community Participation, Networking and Partnership Building for Equivalency Programmes .................................................................... 85 Module 10Monitoring and Equality Program Evaluation...................................... 94
Regional Guide on Equivalency Programmes
Module 1 Concepts of Equivalency Programme (EP)
Module 1 Concepts of Equivalency Programme (EP) Introduction All children, young people and adults have the human right to benefit from an education that will meet their basic learning needs in the best and fullest sense of the term, an education that includes learning to know, to do, to live together and to be. Word Education Forum (Dakar 2000) Education is a human right and is the key for human resource development It encourages individuals to contribute to effective participation in society and community and contributes to economic growth of the country. Education is essential for sustainable development, peace and stability within and amongst countries. The EFA Global Monitoring Report 2009 shows that: an estimated 776 million adults or 16% of the world‟s adult population lack basic literacy skills, in some countries, children from wealthiest 20% of households are five times more likely to attend pre-school programmes than those from the poorest 20%, in 2006, some 75 million children, 55% girls, were not in school, Governments are not giving priority to youth and adult learning needs in their education policies in 2006, of the 176 countries with data, 59 had achieved gender parity in both primary and secondary education, at the primary level about two-thirds of countries had achieved parity. However, more than half the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, South and West Asia and the Arab States had not reached the target there are large national and regional disparities in pupil/teacher ratios with marked teacher shortages in South and West Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, but it is within countries that the greatest disparities exist with teachers unevenly distributed across regions. According to the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2009, there are many children in the region who do not go to school, among which about 17 millions, including minorities, are in South Asia and 3 millions in East and Pacific region. Even when children go to school, many donot complete secondary level education. In fact, the enrolment rate in secondary education, which is less than 50%, is one of big concerns in the Asian region. Adult literacy rate is high (??) particularly in South and West Asia which is home to half of the world‟s illiterate adults including minorities. It is also found that number of unemployed youth is dramatically increasing in Central Asia. In order to achieve the EFA goals, there is a need to put in place all strategies that would allow greater educational access and support retention in education for those who are presently outside the school system. While the formal school system has a major role to play, yet it is necessary for educators at all levels to provide alternative educational channels for all target groups.
To meet the goal of Education for All (EFA), it is necessary to provide education not only through formal education programmes, but also through non-formal education programmes to children, youth and adults who have not completed their basic education. Schools can cater education to only children and youth while non-formal education (NFE) is a way to compensate for the lack of full formal schooling by giving opportunities to those who cannot continue their formal education. (UNESCO, Bangkok. 2007) Over the last twenty years, the concept of non-formal education has emerged as an alternative dimension of education. Today it is globally recognized that learning does not begin and end with a childâ€&#x;s entry into and graduation from the formal schooling system. Rather, learning begins at birth or even at pre-natal stage and continues throughout an individualâ€&#x;s life. It is recognized that learning can be take place through formal, non-formal and informal methods. In order to establish a relationship between the various systems, some countries in the region have developed equivalency programmes (EPs) under Non Formal Education. These EPs promote flexibility for learners to enter and re-enter from formal to non-formal channels of education at primary and secondary education levels and vice versa. EPs can develop systematic linkages between various NFE programmes and the existing formal basic and vocational education systems. These programmes can play an important role in expanding the learning time and space of learners by providing them with appropriate recognition and certification of their achievement as incentives for them to continue learning throughout their lives. (UNESCO, Bangkok. 2007)
Another reason for developing EPs is that each country in the region has its own unique contexts. While some countries have limited resources in terms of budget, materials and teachers or facilitators, others like India, China, Indonesia and Bangladesh have huge populations. In some countries, social and economic constraints often influence the rate of school dropout and become barriers for parents to send their children to school. While many parents realize that education is necessary for job placement or labor-market, they cannot afford to send their children to school on a full time basis. Hence there is a need to provide educational fast-tracks or alternative channels for all target groups who cannot access to education, or who are school dropouts and the disadvantages. In view of this, synergies between formal and non-formal education need to be systematically developed. Hence, Equivalency Programmes (EPs) can serve these needs and present demands. However, countries have to ensure that EPs offer quality education that is comparable to formal education in all aspects i.e. in curricula, certificates as well as in terms of policy support, delivery mechanism, educational standards and quality assurance, capacity building and development, monitoring and learning assessment. Principles of EPs Every country forms its own rationale for initiating any programme. In the case of EPs too, there could be varying reasons for developing this programme. However there are some
common principles that can help policy makers who are formulating EPs. The following principles can prove to be useful: 1. Equity and access – EPs must provide equity and access to all target groups. 2. Relevance and responsiveness - EPs must be relevant and responsive to national goals, local and individual needs. 3. Inclusion and participation - EPs must be based on pedagogy and andragogy depending upon the target group and must promote participatory approach at all levels. 4. Culture and gender sensitivity - EPs need to integrate culture and gender sensitivity aspects in an suitable proportions so that uniqueness of the culture be preserved and gender equity be recognized. 5. Nationalism and citizenship – Like all other educational programmes, EPs too must promote nationalism and good citizenship of the population. 6. Comparability - EPs must be comparable to formal education in all aspects namely; curricula, certificates but also in terms of policy support, delivery mechanism, educational standards and quality assurance, capacity building and development, monitoring and learning assessment. 7. Credit transfer – All credits from EPs must be transferable to formal education and vice versa. 8. Flexibility - EPs must be flexible in terms of curriculum contents, learning and teaching process and evaluation. 9. Lifelong learning (LLL) – EPs must promote the principles of lifelong learning, in this case, variety of programmes must be carefully prepared to serve the needs of the individuals, for example, income generating programme, education for life skills development and education for social and community development and so on. Objectives of EP EPs as an alternate education channel have the following objectives: 1. To provide alternative educational programme equivalent to existing formal general/basic and vocational education to achieve EFA goal 2. To provide educational access to all target groups and thereby strengthen a basic human right 3. To promote and support human resource development by raising the educational levels of the total population of the country 4. To promote individual socio-economic benefits through comparable academic and vocational education and help learners to become productive citizens Standards of EP Education standards are indicators of desirable characteristics, quality and requisites necessary in all educational institutions providing both formal and non-formal education. These standards serve as benchmarks for the purposes of promoting and monitoring a certain threshold level of quality assurance. The standards set should be easily accessible, flexible and conducive to diversification of the different aspects of education provision i.e. type, form, method and party concerned. The EFA Global Monitoring Report 2009 highlights inequalities in terms of large achievement gaps between students in rich and poor countries. Within countries too,
inequality exists between regions, communities, schools and classrooms. Hence efforts need to be made to ensure that such gaps are reduced and no new gaps are formed. This is why achievement standards of formal schooling and EPs have to be equivalent in terms of quality curriculum, teaching and learning. EPs have to develop their own education standards which can serve as tools for strengthening, monitoring, assessing and carrying out quality assurance for improvement. They also serve as research instruments for measuring changes that have occurred, providing guidelines for development of EP. Nonetheless, EP standards assist in enhancing the quality of national education. Here are examples of EP education standards. Equivalency Programmes - Thailand National Education Standards: Standard 1 Desirable characteristics of the Thai people as both citizens of the Country and members of the World community Standard 2 Guidelines for educational provision Standard 3 Guidelines for creating learning society/knowledge society Note: 3 standards and 11 indicators NFE Education Standards: Standard 1 Philosophy, vision, goals, objectives, strategies and educational quality development plan Standard 2 Provision of NFE basic education Standard 3 Development of curricula and programmes for occupational development, life skills and social and community development Standard 4 Provision of informal education Standard 5 Administration Standard 6 Network parties Note: 3 standards and 22 indicators EP Education Standards at Institutional Level: Standard 2 Provision of NFE basic education Indicator 2.1 Institution-based curriculum Indicator 2.2 Teaching-learning materials and activities Indicator 2.3 Student-centred teaching-learning activities Indicator 2.4 Teaching competency of facilitators and educational staff Indicator 2.5 Quality of facilitators and educational staff Indicator 2.6 Quality of graduates Note:1) 1 standard and 6 indicators 2) NFE basic education in Thailand is EP
In practice, each institution conducting EPs will have to set up internal quality assurance teams that would be responsible for establishing criteria for evaluation and criteria for score allocation. Such internal quality assurance teams would be able to evaluate the
performance of education provision and other aspects on a annual basis and prepare selfassessment report (SAR) for dissemination to related units or organizations. Quality Assurance of EP Quality assurance indicates that a product possesses the quality it purports to have. In order to obtain quality of a certain level, the processes have to be of a certain standard. In the case of EP, the quality issue becomes even more significant as there is a constant danger of comparison to the formal schooling system. To make EP comparable to formal education and gain recognition from the society and community, it is necessary to set up EP education standards in terms of curriculum, learning, teaching, support services, evaluation and all other services. Quality assessment of EP needs to be undertaken at least once a year by the internal assurance team. Self-assessment report (SAR) must be documented and disseminated to relating units and organizations and improvement after each quality assurance evaluation must be identified in the next SAR. This will ensure that EPs are accepted as truly Equivalent in all aspects to formal schooling. Conclusion Equivalency Programmes can make a significant contribution to the goal of Education for All. They can overcome the barriers and help to bring people in difficult circumstances into the educational fold. These programmes should be strengthened so that people across the world can access education easily and in a flexible manner.
Regional Guide on Equivalency Programmes
Module 2 Equivalency Programs Policy and Framework
Module 2 EQUIVALENCY PROGRAMS POLICY AND FRAMEWORK
A. INTRODUCTION Non formal education is aimed at fulfilling the need of learning for society which cannot be afforded through formal education. Non formal education gives many educational services to all citizens in order to get long life education appropriate with the need of the era. One of non formal education is equivalency program. This program is meant to give as much chances as it can get for students to fulfill those needs by giving equity program. Through that program, students are expected to get knowledge and skill required in real life, and can live independently, in other words they are not only get certificate. This is appropriate with international commitment, such as Dakar Declaration in Education for all, MDG‟s, also global monitoring report 2009.
B. MISSION AND VISION Vision of Equivalency Program Vision of equivalency program in Asia Pacific region can be stated as: “TO BE EDUCATED, EXECELLENT, SKILLFUL, AND SELF-HELP HUMAN RESOURCES.”This vision described what to be achieved for the future equivalency program, better human resources, and able to be self-help in more competitive era nowadays. Mission of the program Along with its vision, the aim of this program is : “to provide equal, qualified, relevant service and to reach the unreached service through conducive learning environment, respect for differences, full of care, motivation, and innovation in order to encourage students to be more qualified by functional skill, and ICT.
C. THE AIM OF EQUIVALENCY PROGRAM a. to empower students‟ potential through the capacity‟s improvement and functional skill also professional personality. b. to give services to the disadvantaged community of education to support in the completion of nine years basic education and to expand secondary school access c. to improve life skill‟s community in order to make educated people, productivity improvement, standard of living, and self -help. d. To give the simple ICT to face global era
D. EQUIVALENCY PROGRAMS POLICIES Equivalency program policies includes: a. Distribution and the expanse of access to have service chances for all students especially to students from poor family, children who live in the street, people from isolated region, conflict, natural disaster. b. Quality improvement, relevancy, and competitiveness to achieve the improvement of equivalency program according to minimum standard of the program. c. Improvement of manageability, accountability, and public image to improve the success of the effective and efficient program and transparency. E. SPECIAL TARGET The target of equivalency program includes: 1. Group of people about 7 years to 17 or those who are in the age for elementary to high school who didn‟t go to school or drop-out from school. 2. Group of people of the age 17 and above who don‟t get educational service at from school. 3. Group of people who formed learning community through flexi learning such us home schooling or e-learning.
4. People who have problem to go to formal school because of: a. time, for example crafter, labour, and other workers, b. geography, for example minority ethnics of isolated tribe, c. economy, for example, poor people such as farmer, fishermen, slum area, house maid, and female workers, d. belief, for example â€žIslamic boarding schoolâ€&#x;s student with no formal education service in Indonesia e. having social/ law issue such as street children, drug addicted people, and prisoners. 5. The community with special talent such as a musician, athlete, painter and others. F. PROGRAMS a. Literacy (post literacy) Literacy program is conducted for illiterate society to develop literacy ability (reading, writing and calculating) as well as functional skills needed related with the literacy ability, so that they are able to master equal with basic education required.
The contents of learning program for literacy (post literacy) consist of three patterns of learning, namely independent learning, peer-group learning and guided learning, the materials of post literacy programs were given in the form of modules, hence reinforcing independent learning process. After learning process, the learners should be got competence of minimum standard of the literacy program. Finally, a leanerâ€&#x;s of literacy program are expected to develop the literacy capability and they can obtained equal to basic education level. So that, if the learners can complete the post literacy, they can continue to basic education. Literacy Level consists of (1) Basic literacy/Level 1, (2) Intermediate literacy/level 2 and (3) Advance literacy/level 3
b. Primary Education 1. Purpose To develop and exploration of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor (skills) of learners to enable improve their basic competence. 2. Target Age 7 -12 years ( Child) Primary/elementary/Packaged A Age 12-15 years ( Lower SS/Packaged B) 3. Curriculum and Evaluation 90% Academic (compulsory subject matters) 10% Life skills (Vocational) Evaluation (Pre test, Formative test, Summative test, Practice test, Assignment, National Examination) 4. Learning material and learning process Learning Subject Module Module of functional , professional, life skills Learning process by face to face, tutorial, and self learning 5. Qualifications of Tutor Min. Senior High School (priority of Graduate University) Having competency in subject matters and life skill Having experience as a educator 6. Outcome Primary/elementary/ Packaged A Certified learners Lower SS/Packaged B Certified learners Upper/senior SS/Packaged C1 Certified learners c. Secondary Education 1. Purpose To develop and exploration of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor (skills) of learners to enable improve their functional competence. 2. Target Age 15 -18 (Upper/senior SS/Packaged C1 ) Age + 18 years (Adult) 3. Curriculum and Evaluation 70% Academic (compulsory subject matters) 30% Life skills (Vocational) Evaluation (Pre test, Formative test, Summative test, Practice test, Assignment, National Examination) 4. Learning material and learning process Learning Subject Module Module of functional , professional, life skills Learning process by face to face, tutorial, and self learning Practice of vocational
5. Qualifications of Tutor undergraduate or diploma graduation Having competency in subject matters and life skill Having experience as a educator 6. Outcome Upper/senior SS/Packaged C equals Senior High School Certified learners c. Vocational equivalency education 1. Purpose Improvement of academic quality and working competence To develop the personal and social skills (life skill) of learners to enable use the resources and potential within environment effectively in order to improve their standard of living 2. Target Age 15 -18 (Upper/senior SS/Packaged equal vocational school Age + 18 years (Adult) 3. Curriculum and Evaluation 20% Academic (compulsory subject matters) 80% vocational skills Evaluation (Pre test, Formative test, Summative test, Practice test, Assignment, National vocational Examination) Integrated of curriculum between subject matters with Vocational Skills 4. Learning material and learning process Learning Subject Module Module refers to Vocational, functional , and special competence standard Learning process by face to face 30%, and Practices 70% 5. Qualifications of Tutor Min. undergraduate university Having competency in subject matters Competence in vocational skills Having experience as a educator 6. Outcome Upper/senior vocational equivalency program /Packaged C equals Senior Vocational School. d. Models of EP General and Vocational education The execution of equivalency programs requires improvement in line with the progress of basic human needs and the purpose of human resource quality
improvement. This can be done through the models development of equivalency programs. The models of equivalency programs that describe of educational activities with special content, i.e., academic (general) and vocational education, and the integration of both of them. Those three models (alternative services) can be described below: 1. Model of Academic/General Academic (general) equivalency programs, with regular open system, intensive learning. The model of General (academic) equivalency programs. This spectrum delivers equivalence education for learners who want to have intellectual competence and get certificate to continue their study to higher level of education. This spectrum is suitable to school-aged learners and in supporting the completion of compulsory basic education and secondary education program. Hence, the proof of study completion is certificate equal to basic education and secondary education. 2. Model of Integrated Academic Vocation Equivalence. This spectrum integrates two â€œmenusâ€? into a kind of educational service, and this is the best form of equivalence education. The spectrum delivers educational service for those who want to get intellectual and vocational competence at the same time as well as personality that is useful to their daily lives and to get a job or to develop private enterprise (small business). The learners get certificate to continue their study to higher education. Beside that learners also get certificate of competence in a certain skill. Hence the proof of study completion is certificate. 3. Model of Pure Vocation Equivalence. This spectrum will provide education services to those who want vocational skill competence only as well as mental preparation prior to enter a job or to start a private business. Learners who have finished equivalence programs will be eligible for this spectrum, either they are general or vocational education or learners who originally come from formal education system. Therefore, the proof of their education result will be Certificate of Competence in a certain skill and Certificate of Completion
Operationally, the first model will be delivered through a learning transformation technique of regular, opened, and accelerated academic system. The second models will be served through an integration or combination between academic learning transformation and vocational skill learning, either through regular or accelerated education system. The third model will be provided specially through regular skill training (learning transformation), on the basis of pre-selected vocational skill competence standard.
4. Types of Learning Process a. Teaching for Regular Learning Group This teaching system focuses on the individual capability of regular learners through a regular face-to face meeting between learners and tutors or skill training instructor. Intensive meetings can be made either individually or by group, for the sake of achieving competence standard, especially competence in subjects of equivalency programs. The purpose of the use of modules in regular teaching is to ensure that all learners have the acquisition of the expected competence level in certain chapter(s) of a subject, prior to the following subject(s). The face-to-face meeting is held regularly until they are ready to have exam and they will get certificate when they have passed the final (national) exam. The purpose of regular teaching:
Reduce the variation of learning speed of each learner so that they can meet certain competency level in line with the learning objectives that have been drawn up systematically and in a certain structure.
Increase the academic qualification of learners.
Provide regular teachings in subjects of evaluation
b. Teaching for Intensive Learning Group This is a teaching system that emphasizes on learning with tutorial and the usage of modules. This system appreciates learning experience of a learner prior to join in the system. The experience and competence are subject to be assessed using Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR). Learner‟s portfolio can be adapted
and the conversion can be used as a part of requisites to join intensive study group of a higher level. Teaching strategy for equivalency programs, that uses models as the way to meet the basic competence as well as standards of basic and secondary education competence, includes planning, assessment on education implementation and process, education result and effect of teaching activity. The teaching strategy is focused on learners. The strategy provides broad access to planning and assessment on education implementation and process. This strategy emphasizes that every learner has important roles in the perspective of whole teaching, and tutors or instructors are just the facilitators and motivators in the execution of teaching activity. c. Teaching for “Open” Learning Group This is a teaching system that emphasizes on independent learning, and learners have free choices in many aspects of learning to meet the expected competence. For example, learners are free to determine his or her learning materials, classroom, time schedule, and also the tutor(s). Learners can adjust their own requirements, use chances, and finishing and completion of competence achievement, under supervision of tutors or other person(s) in order to meet the set-up standard of competence in equivalency programs.
The structure of curriculum equivalency Models General/academic, Integrated Vocational, Pure Vocational is meant to meet the graduate outcome competence standard, especially the development of working mechanism to result in functional skills. This is the uniqueness of three Models of equivalency programs, encompasses:
Learners may have vocational skill that is useful for their daily lives;
Learners may have vocational skill that is useful to meet working qualification;
Learners may have vocational skill that is useful to start a private business or enterprise.
Therefore, equivalency programs comprises three patterns. It is expected that those three patterns will result in a fundamental reform in equivalency programs. Formerly, equivalence programs was aimed at resulting in graduate outcomes of equivalent to Primary School, Junior Secondary School, and Senior Secondary
School, respectively, without paying attention to their needs. Now, with the new patterns, it is expected that alumnus of three models have special skills that enable them to make competition with their colleagues or alumni of formal school. The models of General equivalency programs provides 100 % academic skills to meet its requirement to finish the program; provision of vocational skills is delivered as an introduction only. The models of Integrated Academic Vocational Equivalency programs
provides 50% academic and 50% vocational skills; it means 50 % of
teaching process provides learners with knowledge that will be useful for them to get into a higher education, and another 50% provides learners with â€œbasic abilityâ€? or working skills that will be useful for them to get into job market. The Models of Pure Vocational Equivalency program provides academic and vocational skills at the proportion 20% : 80%. Placement of learners at a level or type of equivalency programs is quite dependent on the result of placement test. In brief, it can be described that the delivery of three models are emphasized on the acquisition of knowledge and vocational skills. Moreover, it is expected that once at learner finish the program, they will be able to have income without dependency on someone else. As an illustration, the development of three models equivalency programs is described in the diagram below.
Notes: PGNEP = Pure General EP, IAVEP = Integrated Academic and Vocational PVEP = Pure Vocational EP. Diagram shows that generic skill obtained by learners from Pure General Equivalency Program (PGNEP) is used as the foundation for their studies in equivalency programs. It is good for learners who are interested in the continuation of their study to a higher education level, or even to a university. Integrated Academic Vocational Equivalency Program (IAVEP) is the most ideal model of equivalency education service. This is good for learners who want to obtain two menus at the same time, i.e., academic competence and vocational skills as well as personality that are useful in daily life, or useful as pre-requisites to obtain a job or start a private business. Meanwhile, Pure Vocational Equivalency Program (PVEP) is good for those who solely need vocational competence and personality to enter job market or start a private enterprise. PVEP provides academic and vocational skills in the proportion 20% : 80%, for supporting that models are needed development or improvement in equivalency programs, it is done in the form of diversified equivalency programs services: 1) Learning station (home base). This is an educational service system that connects home base and hinterland in specific areas such as border zone or isolated small islands. 2) Direct learning. This is a learning service model that is delivered directly. 3) Resource warehouse. This is educational service with community based orientation. 4) Mobile education service or Mobile Classroom. This is a door-to-door educational service. 5) E-Learning. This is an equivalence education that is delivered online (e-learning), as an alternative of learning technique for those who have difficulties in direct engagement.
Cases in some Countries
G. Planning and management from Central to Community 1. Central/National Level: a. to prepare general planning
b. to propose the plan of program to the planning bureau c. to discuss the plan with legislative and monetary department and national board plan d. to coordinate with province government and „district/town‟ for the preparation of program e. to arrange the references of application for provincial, „district/town level f. to socialize to local government and non government organization g. to distribute budget and reference of the program h. to do monitoring and evaluation i. to administer national examination 2. Provincial Level a. to plan the program in provincial level b. to propose the plan of program to the local government c. to discuss the plan with legislative and Local Board Plan d. to coordinate with „district/town government for the preparation of program e. to arrange the references of application for district/town level f. to socialize for local government and non government organization in provincial level g. to distribute budget and reference of the program h. to do monitoring and evaluation i. to prepare national examination
3. District Level c. A head of non-formal and informal education at district/town and NFIE implementer invite stake holder and public figure to communicate and discuss how to develop the certain program/activities. d. A head of non-formal and informal education at district /town and NFIE implementer with public figure to give socialization to whole community.
e. A head of non-formal and informal education at sub district identify a certain program, the place for learning, learnersâ€&#x; candidate and tutors. f.
The program implementer makes MOU with tutor, learners for teaching learning process.
g. The program implementer provides the learning place, module, material and tool for practice and education of skill, etc.
4. CLC Level a. to prepare the implementation of the program b. to prepare criterion of the program c. to prepare target of the program d. to prepare the place and location e. to prepare the facility f. to prepare the curriculum g. to prepare the learning material h. to prepare teacher and tutor i. to prepare learning and teaching media j. to prepare lesson plan k. to prepare the fund l. to prepare learning teaching evaluation m. to conduct teaching learning process n. to do learning evaluation o. to report the result of teaching learning process p. to administer the whole teaching learning process
H. Organizational Structure 1. Central Level The Organizational Structure can be described in the chart below: -…
NATIONAL PLANNING BOARD
NATIONAL NFE INSTITUTION
CENTRE OF NFE
NATIONAL EP INSTITUTION
REGIONAL NFE INSTITUTION
NATIONAL CLC FORUM
2. Provincial Level
PROVINCIAL PLANNING BOARD
LEGISTATIVE OF PROVINCIAL
PROVINCIAL EDUCATION INSTITUTION
PROVINCIAL OF NFE CENTER
PROVINCIAL EP DIVISION
PROVINCIAL CLC FORUM
3. District Level
DISTRICT PLANNING BOARD
HEAD OF DISTRICT
LEGISTATIVE OF DISTRICT
DISTRICT EDUCATION INSTITUTION
DISTRICT NFE DIVISION
DISTRICT CLC FORUM
DISTRICT EP SECTION
4. Sub-District Level
HEAD OF SUBDISTRICT EDUCATION
SUMMARY Education has a strategic role in human resource development, since it makes a
significant contribution to the conception of people who has good morale, productive personality, and competitiveness. For that reason, it is believed that it will result in the increase in peopleâ€&#x;s prosperity and welfare. Every citizen has the right to have self development through the fulfillment of basic human needs, to get education, and to get advantage of science and technology as well as art and culture in order to increase their quality of life and community welfare. Equivalency programs should be serving the education needs of certain disadvantaged people who otherwise have no access to education due to poverty, or the discontinuation of schooling, and include those of productive age who wish to improve their knowledge and skills as well as those who require particular educational services in order to cope with rising economic standards and changes. Responding to and anticipating to the dynamic changes, policy maker and implementers of equivalency programs have to be able to intensify their minds and views dynamically and continuously. Equivalency programs have a strategic position in anticipating and monitoring essential problems.
Regional Guide on Equivalency Programmes
Module 3 Curriculum and Learning Materials for EPs
Module 3 Curriculum and Learning Materials for EPs Introduction In the previous module, we have read about the concept and Framework of Equivalency programmes. The most important aspect of EPs is that they are comparable to formal education. Undoubtedly in order to be equivalent, EPs have to have a curriculum and learning materials that can be of the same standard as that of formal schooling. This is why equivalency programmes (EPs) while maintaining their flexibility must be able to design a curriculum that will allow their learners to have easy entry to and from the formal education system. EP curriculum and learning materials must be specially designed to meet the real needs of the learners from all walks of life and the EP curriculum must be acceptable to both formal and non-formal education system. Such a curriculum will accelerate individual and societal development and at the same time promote a more learner centred system of education. Principles of EP Curriculum Each country has its own unique contexts so curriculum development varies from country to country. Most countries design national curriculum framework and all educational systems work as per its guidelines. In the case of EPs, the following principles are note worthy: 1. Principle of relevance – EP curriculum must be relevant to the national goals, local and individual needs. 2. Principle of flexibility – EP curriculum must be flexible in content areas, time allocation, learning and teaching approach and evaluation. 3. Principle of participation –The development of the EP curriculum should be participatory with experts, stakeholders and local wisdom contributing and sharing ideas to make the curriculum appropriate and relevant. Moreover, the curriculum must promote learner-centred activities. 4. Principle of comparability - EP curriculum must be comparable or equivalent to formal education curriculum in all aspects, for example comparable in learning outcomes, content areas, scheme of teaching and evaluation and certification. 5. Principle of transfer credits – Knowledge, skills and learning experiences obtained from EP curriculum must be able to be transferred to formal education or other non-formal education programmes and the reverse practice should be acceptable also. 6. Principle of diversity – There must be variety of EP curricula to meet diverse needs and interests of EP target groups, for example, curricula for basic education, income generating programmes, life skills development, and vocational skills training and so on.
Goals of EP Curriculum EP curriculum should aim at developing balanced and individuals who can contribute to society and to nation. Besides enhancing knowledge, it must also teach them skills of learning and positive attitude so that they are well equipped to deal with the fast changing world. It must teach them skills for critical thinking and problem-solving to deal with real life situations. The curriculum must also have impart positive human values and develop skills for learning to live harmoniously. It should enhance community participation, good citizenship and international understanding. The curriculum should be able to elevate the quality of life of the learners and help them to adjust the societal changes. EP curriculum should also open opportunities for higher education as well as prepare learners for livelihood. The curriculum should be functional and relevant providing knowledge, attitude and skills for self-development, self-reliance and helping learners to become productive workers. EP curriculum can be defined as the planned educational experiences offered by an educational institution which can take place anywhere at any time. An effective EP curriculum must be relevant to the national curriculum framework, socio-economic situation, and must meet the needs of the learners and the society. The main purpose of the curriculum is to develop the desirable characteristics of the population as stipulated in the national education plan. Curriculum Development As has been stated earlier, EP curriculum design and construction may differ from country to country depending on the needs of the target groups, needs of the society and the national education plan of the country. However, EP curriculum should have the following components: 1) Objectives 2) Learning experiences(Content) 3) Organizing the Content and arranging the Learning and teaching process 4) Evaluation EP curriculum can be organized and developed at central level and/or local level. However, decentralization and participation are now more preferred approaches. Curriculum development should include stakeholders,eg. Teachers or facilitators, experts, learners, school committee, local leaders, local wisdom and so on. While organizing the content, the possibility of “Core Curriculum” that can be developed at the central level may be explored, while the operating institutions can be encouraged to develop what we call “Educational Institution Curriculum” or Local based curriculum to meet the real needs of the learners and to promote localization or uniqueness of the community. In different countries the weightage of core versus local is different. In Thailand, the proportion between core curriculum and educational institution curriculum is 70:/30.
Steps of Curriculum Development In order to develop a relevant EP curriculum, curriculum developers may consider the following steps: Identify needs of the learners and the society Identify target groups – who they are, where they are and what are their real needs
Study national education law/act, national education framework, national education standards and socio-economic trends- Make a comparative matrix for outcomes of formal education and EP curriculum Identify learning and teaching contexts, i.e. infrastructure and existing learningteaching materials Review pedagogy and andragogy Set goals and objectives Organize contents Select appropriate learning and teaching activities Develop comparability matrix between EP and FE curriculum Develop the evaluation scheme Try out the curriculum Review and revise the curriculum Publish and disseminate curriculum Follow up to get feedback for improvement
Levels of EP Curriculum EP programmes in different countries are conducted at varying levels, depending upon the existing formal education system. However they can be broadly categorized into the following four levels - literacy curriculum, primary curriculum, secondary curriculum and vocational curriculum. 1.
Literacy level is mainly focused on the literacy programme and its stated outcomes. In most countries, the literacy programmes is divided into different stages of achievement. For instance, in Indonesia, there are 3 levels of literacy programme namely; literacy level 1 which is the basic literacy programme for the illiterate learners or beginners, literacy level 2 – intermediate literacy programme for those who finish level 1 and literacy level 3 – advanced literacy programme for those who would like to continue primary education. In India, the National Literacy Mission also used to conduct 3 levels of literacy campaigns – Total Literacy Campaign (TLC), Post literacy Campaign (PLC) and Continuing Education programme, which was considered equivalent to Grade 3. In Thailand, there is only one level of literacy programme called „Functional Literacy‟ which is equivalent to Grade 3. Those who finish functional literacy can continue primary education level and can finish primary education level (Grade 6) within 2 years.
A Case of Thailand Structure of Functional Literacy Curriculum 2009
Subject Groups 1. My life 2. Happy Home and Happy Community 3. Dangers of Drugs 4. Sustainable Economy 5. Sustainable Environment 6. Community Development 7. Law in our Daily Life 8. Ethic and Morality 9. More learning More Knowledge 10. Technology in our Daily Life 11. Energy 12. In-country Touring Total
Learning Topic 6 4 3 6 8 5 3 5 3 6 4 6 59
Condition: Functional literacy composes of 12 subject groups. Each subject group has a set of Learning topics of 59 topics. Learners must finish and pass 80% or 47 topics before they can graduate this level. Duration of learning is not less than 6 months. This level is equal to Grade 3, if learners would like to continue their education; they can apply for EP primary level but cannot transfer to formal school yet. EP learners can go to formal school after they finish EP primary level. 2.
Primary Education Level
The coverage of Primary education level also varies in countries. In India Primary education is upto Grade 5 , while elementary education is upto grade 8 in the formal schooling system. As far as EPs are concerned, India offers an Open Basic Education which has three levels- A,B and C which are equivalent to Grade3, 5 and 8. In Indonesia, primary education is „Package A‟ in which learners have to spend 3 years before they can finish while in Thailand it is only for 2 years and it is equivalent to Grade 6.
Secondary Education Level
As regards secondary education, here too there is a variation in different countries. In some countries, like Indonesia, lower secondary education level is equivalent to „Package B‟ in which learners have to spend 3 years. In Thailand lower secondary education lasts only for 2 years and is equivalent to Grade 9. Upper secondary education level in Indonesia is „Package C‟ and learners have to spend 3 years before they can finish it, while in Thailand it lasts only for 2 years and it is equivalent to Grade 12. In India the secondary education is equivalent to Grade 10 and is a terminal stage for some learners. However there also exists a +2 stage which for 2 28
years duration is equivalent to Grade 12. Here the learners choose different streams such as humanities, engineering, medicine, commerce, and completion of this level is the entry point for university and technical/ professional studies in engineering, medicine, etc. The lower secondary level is compulsory in many countries, so the curriculum should be be able to provide a complete terminal stage education. The goals of upper secondary curriculum are to prepare the learners to pursue higher education or to get a job. Hence the curriculum should be arranged to respond the needs of the learners. It is suggested that curriculum could even be developed for 3 categories: curriculum for further study, curriculum for career development, curriculum for quality of life improvement. A Case of Thailand Structure of EP/NFE Basic Education Curriculum 2008
1. Learning Skills 2. Fundamental Subjects 3. Vocational Subjects 4. Life skills 5. Social Developments Total Quality of Life Development Activities
EP Primary level core 5
EP Lower Sec. level core elective 5
EP Upper Sec. level core elective 5
12 8 5
16 8 5
18 8 5
Condition: All learners must finish and pass all subjects and requirements set for each level before they can graduate. However, it is compulsory for all learners to choose the elective entitled â€œproject workâ€? for 3 credits. The study time is 4 semesters or 2 academic years except, for those who apply for equivalency transferring channels, after the equivalency transferring process, they must enroll for at least one semester before they could graduate. After finishing each level, all learners can apply for higher level of EPs or go to formal schools as they like it. Furthermore, after finishing upper secondary level, all EP learners can apply to take entrance examination to study in a university or they can go to Open University or private university.
A Case of the Philippines
116 core modules for the Elementary Level and 164 core modules for the Secondary Level. A&E Core Modules LS 1 LS 2
Learning Strand Communication Skills Science Math Problem Solving Sustainable Use of Resources and Productivity Development of Self and Sense of Community Expanding Oneâ€&#x;s World Vision Total No. of Core Modules
Elementary Level 10 34 6 28
Secondary Level 32 34 14 26
Supplementary and multi-media materials are also utilized in the conduct of ALS learning sessions for additional information and innovations. To date, the Bureau has developed 50 radio scripts for Radio-based Instruction and digitized the 120 modules for the eskwela. 4.
Vocational Education Level
Vocational education may vary from country to country. In Thailand, vocational subjects are introduced at all levels as part of the curriculum. However, Thailand has adopted the lower vocational education certificate of the Office of the Vocational Commission for NFE learners. It takes 3 years, the same length of study time, to finish the programme. The graduates can continue upper vocational education certificate in the commercial or technical colleges of the Office of the Vocational Commission or they can enter universities like those who finish upper secondary education level. In India, vocational education is offered through technical institutes where specialized training in skills is given. EP programmes also offer vocational subjects in combination with academic subjects from the primary stage itself (For adults). There is also a growing concern to include work and education so that the importance of work is realized from early schooling stage.
A Case of Thailand Structure of EP/NFE Vocational Education Curriculum 2004
Subjects 1.General Subjects 2. Vocational Subjects 3. Elective Subjects
Credits 26 66 10
one semester 4. Apprenticeship 5. Enrichment Activities Total
â‰Ľ 200 hrs
Condition- This course is specially designed for workers in companies or factories to upgrade the workersâ€&#x; knowledge and skills. Moreover, learners who drop out from formal schools and vocational and technical college can transfer to EP/NFE vocational education curriculum. However, all learners must finish and pass all subjects and requirements, their GPA must not be less than 2.2 point before they can graduate. However, it is compulsory for all learners to pass vocational standardized test of the Office of Vocational Education Commission. The study time is 6 semesters or 3 academic years. After finishing this level, all learners can apply for higher level of vocational education of vocational and technical college or they can take entrance examination to study in a university or they can go to Open University or private university. Target Groups The EPs have been set up to reach the unreached and to bring them into the educational fold. The target group of EPs is diverse and includes the following: 1. children and youth who drop out of formal education system 2. children and youth who cannot access school system 3. adults who are illiterate 4. labourers who have not completed compulsory education 5. street children 6. those in prisons 7. differently abled 8. workforce (aged 15-59) 9. rural persons 10. local leaders 11. tribal including hill people 13. nomadic people 12. minority groups 13. slum dwellers 14. overseas citizens
In India, the focus is on girls and women as well as on those who belong to persons belonging to schedules castes and scheduled tribes. Others who are categorized as Living below the Poverty Line are also included in the EPs. Learning and Teaching Process of EPs Learning and teaching process of EPs is different from that of formal education. Since it is a flexible, EPs facilitators must be knowledgeable in designing learning and teaching activities and in selecting appropriate learning and teaching methods to facilitate learners to learn efficiently. Learner-centred approach must be employed in the learning and teaching process while activities like group interaction, project work, portfolio development, and role play, field trip, learning from local wisdom and learning sources outside the classroom must be properly integrated into the learning and teaching process. In connection to this, authentic assessment and paper test must be administered in the right proportion. Skills in learning how to learn must be firmly established because this potential must be identified as dominant characteristic of EP learners. Learning and teaching methods of Equivalency Programmes could be;
Self-directed learning –learners design their learning plans and study by themselves with assistance and guidance of facilitators. Group meeting - there are schedules of meeting between learners and facilitators. Facilitators operate group process in order to let the learners exchange knowledge and concepts of learning until they can meet the solutions. In addition, facilitators can provide tutorial lessons. Distance learning – the educational institution sends learning materials to the learners for self study. Learning is supported with educational radio and television programmes that supplement learning. Facilitators arrange some lecture classes as an option for the learners to attend, where face to face teaching takes place.
Effective EP learning at all levels should include: 1) adult learning concept or andragogy 2) participant-centred environment
3) participant-centred management of learning, possibly with learning contact made between learners and teachers 4) a competency- based framework for learning, complete with objectives, the learning outcomes expected and flexible timing 5) acknowledgment of formal prior learning and learning experiences 6) cultural sensitivity 7) assessment and evaluation in line with EP learning must be transparent in administration, informative in diagnosis and nonranking in publication 8) teachers/facilitators were trained to provide the learning process.
(Source: Contribution of Equivalency Programmes to achieving EFA Goals and lifelong Learning page 17) The EP Facilitator has to be well trained in both teaching such diverse learners as well as managing them. Some suggested common learning practice for most EP facilitators are as follows: 1) classes to be small in size â€“ more like tutorials 2) modular learning progressively, with entry, exit and re-entry points available 3) leaner-based lesson plans to provide individualized attention â€“ emphasis on self-paced and portfolio structure learning 4) direct interaction between teacher and learner 5) learners interacting with otherâ€&#x;s knowledge bases 6) recognition of previous learning experiences 7) relating teaching with skills required 8) relevant continuous assessment, primary diagnostic for remediation 9) mutual respect for academic competence and attainment 10) culture sensitivity (Source : adapted from Contribution of Equivalency Programmes to achieving EFA Goals and lifelong Learning page 17-18)
EP Materials EP materials refer to learning and teaching materials or instructional media used by facilitators to help learners learn efficiently and obtain learning expectations or goals. Instructional media can make learning more informative, interesting and relevant to learners. They encourage learners to actively participate in the lessons. Moreover, they motivate learners to continue learning, sustain and enhance literacy skills. Learning materials can be in different mediums and formats. They could be either print or non print based. Printed/ written materials would include textbooks, periodicals, magazines, newspapers, handouts, posters, booklets, leaflets, flip charts, etc. Non print could include Audio-visuals such as videos, audio tapes, radios, TV programmes, slides,CDs etc. Yet another format is ICTs, which include computer based instruction, digitalized materials, virtual classes etc. Learning could also take place through real objects/ situations, local wisdom/ experts, nature and environment, exhibitions, learning sources like public library, cultural centre, museums etc. Materials Development The development of material depends upon many factors, of which the objectives for the materials, the teaching levels, age group to be taught, evaluation strategy etc. Although usually in view of the flexible learning processes of EPs, the teaching materials have to be self-instructional, yet in some cases facilitators prefer to use the same textbooks as the ones used in formal schools. This is because it is felt that such 33
a practice would help in mainstreaming the children into formal schools. In some cases, facilitators can obtain learning materials from network parties like public health centre, agriculture extension station and public library. However in countries like Indonesia, India and Thailand course materials are textbooks specifically developed for EP learners. Materials Developer EP materials development can be organized and developed at central level and local level, depending upon the level for which they are to be produced and the existing In India, the curriculum framework is developed at the national level and all educational institutions- formal, non formal and open learning- follow it. However, course materials for EPs are produced both at national level and also at the state level. Educational institutions are also encouraged to develop their own materials which are local specific. These involve local teachers, experts, learners, members of school committee, and so on. Steps of Material Development 1) Needs Assessment – material developers must identify real need of the learners and objectives of the curriculum and the lesson before developing materials. 2) Material Preparation – material developers can select and adapt the existing materials for the learners or they can develop new materials by themselves or with the learners. 3) Pre-test – this stage is important for material developers to judge the effectiveness of the materials for further improvement. 4) Revision and Finalization – this stage help save cost and make materials more effective before duplication. 5) Duplication – there are many ways of duplication, textbooks can be published by the publishers while handouts or information sheets can be photocopied. 6) Application – it is very exciting to use the prepared materials with the learners to facilitate learning and to obtain feedback for improvement. 7) Evaluation – evaluation helps improve of the materials as well as improving the skills in preparing the materials. However, in preparing or producing EP materials, EP developers must consider the following aspects: 1) Simplicity – materials must be simple and easy to understand, level of the language used must be relevant to the level of learners. The contents must start from less complicated to more complicated. 2) Illustration – materials for children must have more pictures and more colorful. Moreover, charts and tables should be used because they help learners to understand the contents easily. 3) Practicality – materials must be easy to practice at the field level. Evaluation Evaluation is a process and a tool for achievement of learners and both teachers and learners benefit from this. The main purpose of evaluation is for assessing outcomes achieved against the stated objective. Normally, after a lesson, facilitators must measure learners‟ outputs in terms of knowledge, attitude and skills; they can
evaluate learners through quiz, test, exercise, other assignments like project work or report, demonstration, performance, quizs and so on. In some countries, facilitators provide formative test after finishing each lesson and by the end of the semester or term, they provide final examination, then scores obtained from formative tests and final exam are summed for evaluating the learnersâ€&#x; performance. While in some countries, facilitators provide formative test after finishing each lesson, mid-term test and final exam, then the obtained scores are summed for evaluating the learnersâ€&#x; performance. To pass one educational level, in some countries, learners have to pass the national test before they can go for higher level while in the country like Thailand, learners who pass the final examination provided by the institution can go for higher level. National test in Thailand is administered only to provide feedback for school administrators for improvement of the quality of learning and teaching. Completion and Certification In general, the institution or organization should be set up criteria for completion and certification while the operating institutions could add necessary aspects in corresponding to the locality. After learners finish the course/ programme or each education level if their academic and behavioral performances meet the requirements of the level they enrolled, learners have privilege to obtain certificate which is equivalent to formal education. In some countries, some institutions organized graduation ceremony to gain public recognition of EPs and to do public relations of the EP programmes. Conclusion The highlight of EPs is their flexibility and this allows EPs to be made appropriate to the needs of the local people. The curriculum of each region can be different and yet equivalent to the formal schooling system.
Regional Guide on Equivalency Programmes
Module 4 Capacity Building and Development for Equivalency Programmes
Module 4 Capacity Building and Development for Equivalency Programmes Introduction The Equivalency Programme is a parallel system of education, offering education at all levels and having learning outcomes that are comparable to the formal education system. It is a well known fact that the eduface created for formal schooling is huge and there is a well designed system for teaching-learning, prescribed qualifications for teachers and provisions form their periodic training and growth. In the same way, there is aneed for such capacity building for EP functionaries also. This is especially necessary as EP have a flexible learning and the clientele learners are far more advanced in their educational levels, have higher learning needs and aspirations. In EP delivery mode, besides being learner-centered, the delivery system is different and facilitators have to be trained to understand the system and act as mangers of learning rather than direct teachers.
Why Capacity building? In order to succeed, any programme must have a strong component of Capacity Building. The delivery and implementation of EPs calls for the highest degree of quality assurance from both the Government Programme holders and the community-based implementing Partners. The complexity of EP implementation, the diverse requirements for accreditation and equivalency, the higher learning goals of its learners, are just a few of the major challenges that need to be considered for developing a strong capacity building programme. Being a new initiative, versatile and complicated to undertake, implementation of Equivalency Programs faces many requirements and challenges that need to be addressed through the upgrading of skills and competencies. These include training for: Education Planners who will design and develop the Policy Framework and the delivery modalities of the Equivalency Program; Well-qualified Curriculum Developers whose orientation is geared towards nonformal education, and understanding why an equivalency program need to be developed and sustained; Instructional Material Developers who need to be oriented on development learning materials that are practical, simple, easy to understand and responsive to the learning needs of the diverse groups of EP learners; Government and Implementing Partners who need to be aware, understand and accept the significance of the EP in responding to the educational needs EP learners, who traditionally have been excluded, unserved and marginalized because of poverty, disabilities, gender and isolation;
ďƒź EP implementing Partners, from the Government and the private sectors like NGOs, CSOs, CLCs of enabling their organizations and personnel to understand, internalized and put into action quality delivery mechanisms of EP projects; ďƒź Adult EP facilitators who are the service front liners, direct providers of the instruction, who need to be made aware of their roles, functions and responsibilities in effectively discharging their diverse functions of teaching and learning processes in educating their EP learners and as a contributing member of the Equivalency Program. In the process of developing and implementing Equivalency Programmes, many skills and competencies will need to be built, training and indoctrination to be conducted, new structures, policies and procedures developed and even behavioural and attitudinal changes required, for the educative and transformative processes the EP stakeholders must undertake for and in behalf of the long-neglected sectors of school leavers, illiterates and neo-literates, unemployed and deprived population, the poverty groups. What is capacity building and development? Capacity building is a process of enabling an individual or groups to develop, improve and strengthen their knowledge, skills, competencies and attitudes in the performance of their roles, duties and responsibilities in their assigned work. In the case of EPs, achieving a proper match between job requirements and staff capabilities is critical at all levels of EP management and for all types of jobs within the organization. Capacity building is long-term, continuing process in which all stakeholders, participate (ministries, local authorities, women groups, NGOs, professional organizations, academics, and others) of creating an enabling environment, with appropriate policy and legal frameworks, institutional development with community participation, for human resource development and empowerment. (UNDP, 1991). Capacity building and development is a form of human resource development. It is the process of providing individuals with the understanding, skills and access to information, knowledge and training that enables them to perform more effectively. It is a process of enhancing individual and institutional capacities to perform to the best and to their best capability. Capacity building and development cannot be a one-time activity, or just a mere conduct of a training for a day, two days or even ten days. It has to be a continuing collective effort, participatory, regular and flexible. EP capacity building needs to be at all stages - pre-service i.e. before the start of a job and in-service i.e. during the period of employment and other ways of upgrading so that an employed persons get a chance to further enhance their knowledge, skills, competencies.
What are the 4 Ds/Steps in Capacity Building for Equivalency Programme? Capacity building is a four-fold process of determining the current level of skills and competencies of individuals to requirements (roles, functions, responsibilities and authorities) of their jobs. Capacity building is determining the “what is the current level of skills and competencies” and determining “what ought to be done to developed, improved and strengthened” in order to bring about the desired level of efficient performance amongst the EP practitioners. EP capacity building calls for the active participation and involvement of all concerned in the design and execution process. The CLC Planning and Management Handbook (UNESCO Bangkok), mentions the 4 Ds of Capacity Building Training Cycle, as: Diagnose; develop and Design; Deliver and Conduct; and Discern and Evaluate step: 1. Diagnose or Determine the Capacity Gaps and Needs The first step in any Capacity Building programme is Assessment of Training Needs. This is an activity that determine, define, job requirements to the level of a workers‟ current knowledge, skills and competencies and what needs to be focused on to improve and strengthen. The Needs Assessment also identifies the deficiencies, difficulties or generally called as capacity gaps, in the performance of one‟s assigned task or work. The initial task then is to diagnose or conduct a task analysis of institutional or individual group needs for specific skills and competencies related to their roles and responsibilities in order to determine the capacity gap/s. To identify capacity gaps of individuals and even in some cases institutional gaps, it is required that an in-depth task analysis and diagnosis of roles and responsibilities must be undertaken, sometimes individualized, to determine, and find out the capacity gap/s for knowledge, skills, competencies of identified EP personnel and staff.
Job or task analysis is the orderly study of job requirements and facets that can influence performance results. It is the beginning point in any systematic effort to identify staffing needs. Correctly done, a task or job analysis will cover: Work or job analysis would mean what is done.
Work tools; would refer to machines, tools, and other work aids;
Job-related tangibles or intangibles such as knowledge applied, materials processed, products or services performed.
Job Context refers to work schedules. Physical conditions. Social relations and compensation;
Performance Standards would refer to expected output in quantity and quality.
Personal Requirements would include requisite education, training, skills, experience and other attributes.
The basic purpose of a CBD Assessment is to respond to the primary question of “what needs to be done and for whom?” In order to implement Equivalency Programmes, there are individuals and groups that need to be equipped, trained and capacitated to perform their assigned task and responsibilities. The function of supervision is to always play a proactive role of preventing capacity gaps that may eventually cause performance failures or pitfalls within and outside organizations. Capacity building needs assessment can come in many forms and the end goal is to determine the capacity gaps of individuals or groups so as to be able to develop, design and prepare a relevant, responsive and appropriate Capacity Building Plan for the organization, focusing and customizing to the target individuals/ work groups. Capacity gaps are the deficiencies in meeting the requirements for productive and efficient performance in jobs. These are temporary in nature and if address adequately with interest and determination can be corrected for the benefit of all. To cite an example, for possible capacity gaps: Issue of Appropriate and Adequacy and Appropriateness of EP Learning Materials: Learning Materials Developers or textbook writers are professionally trained to do and developed instructional materials designed purposely for the formal education and are termed as “textbooks”. As specialist, they have been trained for specific subject areas in the formal delivery mode, often following the Principle of Pedagogy and therefore “teacher-centered” materials. They have their inherent knowledge and skills, recognized for their expertise and long years of experience in educational formal textbook writing. Often they are engaged for EP learning materials development work. However NFE and particularly EP learning materials are modular, self instructional, self-directed, simple, practical and appropriate that must relate to life situations, experiences and needs of the learner-user, which often are quite different from prescribed formal textbooks. Hence there is a need for a re-orientation, indoctrination, exposure and further enhancement to NFE modalities and adult learning methodologies or the Principle of Andragogy. 2. Design or Develop the CB program The CBD design process will always be guided by the results of the task/s or job/s diagnosis with objectivity and clarity of objectives. As mentioned earlier capacity building is not t simply the conduct of training or a series of trainings, it is more than that. There are many delivery modes of capacity building. The next D in the capacity building cycle is to develop or design the Capacity Building Program or at times called the Capacity Building and Development Plan.
For the Equivalency Program, many major changes occur because of the multiplicity of the delivery modes, and new ways of EP implementation compared to the traditional NFE delivery of literacy and post-literacy education. The diversity of learners, from neo-literates, to literate out-of-school children and youth, and even adult learners who have higher learning needs requires more professional delivery modalities, comparable to formal education. Therefore the need for intensive training and capacitating Equivalency Program holders, at all levels, from policy and decision-making to the community-based implementation call for a more focus and extensive orientation, design and planning to ensure correctness and appropriateness of training delivery mechanisms of EP. A Capacity Building Plan can only be prepared after a thorough conduct of a detailed diagnosis or tasks analysis of the roles and responsibilities of the target groups to be trained and served. A EP Capacity Building Plan can be prepared either for an institution or an groups of individual EP practitioners of like functions and responsibilities. Capacity building is a continuing process, a regular and continuing responsibility of EP project management. It is an important function of any organization wanting to strengthen and improve the delivery of their mandated tasks and responsibilities. The Capability Building Plan may include but the following : o Objectives of the EP Annual Capacity Building and Development Training Plan; o The Types and Methods of the CBD, indicating therein the target groups for each group; o Time Frame and Milestones of each CBD activity; o
Processes and Methodologies of CBD activities;
o The Resources needed in the conduct of the different types of CBD. o Monitoring processes undertaken to measure the impact of the ongoing CBD Plan. o Evaluation of the CBD Outputs and Outcomes. o Reporting Systems, Feedback and Utilization 3. Deliver or Conduct Capacity Building Activities The active involvement of the trainee with the trainer is needed to ensure greater impact and relevance of the capacity building activity. The design of any capacity building activity must involve those who are to be trained and capacitated to those
who will provide assistance in the process of learning new skills, sharing of information for knowledge and need for attitudes/behaviour modification and or changes which need to be learned so as to meet the complex needs of EP and its learners. In the design and conduct of any capacity building in any mode, it is important to realized the empowering dimension of capacitating institutions and individuals, particularly the local people, of actively involving them in the own institutional and personal growth and development that is customized to the demands of their jobs and their capacities as EP workers that will ultimately contribute to EP and in its delivery of services. Unlocking the potentials of collective partnerships with target individuals, communities, institutions and EP stakeholders to work collectively through capacity building activities in the delivery of effective and efficient Equivalency Program for and in behalf of the EP learners is the very reason why there is an urgent need for intensive capacity building. The design process of the CBD may include data gathering and needs assessment through, participatory and involvement of the target groups, indicating therein in, their preferences on:
Objectives and types of CBDs; Scheduling and timelines; CBD Methodologies and Approaches; Resource Persons and specialization; Monitoring and Follow-up Activities; Evaluation Processes and Utilization
4. Discern or Measure (Evaluate) the Results As mentioned earlier, capacity building is long-term, regular and continuing process. Training activities will require immediate and continuing evaluation of outputs and outcomes. Trainee achievement or measuring results of any capacity development activity in any form is important. In Equivalency Program management, it is necessary to see if the trainee/s has increased their knowledge level or developed a change in behaviour or attitude. It is a question of whether “the trainee/s has achieved the training objectives?‟. Questions like “was the training cost-effective?‟ and “is the EP organization now better equipped?‟ need to be answered. This process of evaluation must first be shared, discuss with the trainee/s before being reported to the immediate supervisor or head. Post-training evaluation and other follow-up activities is a requirement to ensure that the capacity building have impacted in terms of
more knowledge, increased skills proficiency and behavioural and attitudinal changes of those who have under gone training, thus enabling them to perform according to the work standards set for EP. Monitoring and evaluation of CBD both by the EP management and those that are being trained is compulsory to verify and validate whether the planned capacity building is effective and useful or it is necessary to change the plan for corrective measures. Inability of EP top management program and project holders to detect institutional performance deviation and dysfunctional work behaviour of project staff can caused project pitfalls and ultimate failure in the delivery of quality learning sessions and activities. Proactive and regularity of monitoring of personnel and staff performance, assessment need to be conducted to determine the variance or deviation to the expected work standards of the organization.
Evaluation is the periodic, in depth assessment of programs, project and component activities. While monitoring provides a steady flow of indicators on how much activity is going on, evaluation is a discrete activity that allows management, learners and other stakeholders to decide how appropriate the activity under study and how well it is meeting goals. Evaluation entails the systematic collection and analysis of site-specific qualitative data. Evaluation often results in making major management interventions and may be an important contribution to policy making. What are the Roles and Responsibilities of Equivalency Program Personnel? Every occupation, whether in government or private sector, individuals employed have specific job roles, responsibilities and authorities with specific job requirements. The Personnel Manual of any organization clearly defines the qualification standards and requirements that individuals must possess to be able to fit the job and get hired. Still even when qualified and trained for the job one was hired for, there comes a time for the employee or worker to upgrade his/her knowledge, skills and competencies to be able to perform more effectively because of changing demands due to additional responsibilities and assignments, or technical innovations introduced or getting promoted to a higher position. In Equivalency Program implementation, there are a number of new roles, responsibilities and even authorities that need to be considered for successful implementation. While still within the mode of Non-Formal Education, there is now a need for a higher level of implementation which is comparable to formal education because the focus of EP is accreditation, equivalency and certification. Tasks Analysis or needs assessment is necessary for benchmarking purposes of the current situation of knowledge, skills and competencies relative to the requirements of the job at hand. We are providing herewith you a summary listing of possible Roles and Responsibilities of institutional and individual EP stakeholders as a reference point for sources of inadequacies in delivery and performance because of capacity gap/s.
Table No. ---- Equivalency Program Roles and Responsibilities of Stakeholders
Equivalency Program Stakeholders Government: National
Roles and Responsibilities
Highest level in the EP Structure which reviews and approves policies, guidelines and framework in the operationalization of the Equivalency Program. Policy Formulation and Approval EP Program Management and Development Approval Annual Budgetary Approval Resource Generation and Allocation Program Development Implementation Plans Resolution of major problems and concerns relative to EP others EP Program They are directly under the office of the Ministry of Education and Administration: within the NFE Department. National EP Program Development and Management Regional Curriculum and Instructional Materials Development Provincial Prepare EP Standards and Policy Guidelines Local EP Service Contracting of Implementing Partners Technical Assistance on EP System to partners EP Program Planning and Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation Financial Management, Audit and Controls Advocacy and Social Mobilization Technical Reports and Documentation Technical Review and Approval of Project Proposals Capacity Building for National EP Personnel and Implementing Partners others EP Program These group may represent actual Service Providers which are Implementers either governmental and or from the Private Sector like CLCs, NGOs, CSOs, Peoples‟ Organizations, Local Government Units. Their fund requirements are either sourced from Grant Agreements form the Government and Ministries, International Donor Agencies, Corporate Grants, Endowments, etc. Project Implementation: Planning, Organizing, Directing, Monitoring and Evaluation Project Proposal and Technical Writing Development of EP Project Systems and Procedures
Recruitment, Selection, Hiring and Training of Project Staff and Adult EP Facilitators Capacity Building of Personnel and Staff Monitoring and Evaluation Reports and Documentation Instructional Materials Development, Reproduction and Distribution Financial Management and Controls Resource Generation and Mobilization Partnership Building and Linkages Advocacy and Social Mobilization Adult The EP Facilitator/s are employed by the Service Providers (from the Government or the Private Sector). They are the front liners in the service delivery of the EP learning modules. They are contracted to provide learning support to each learner under their class responsibility. Advocacy and Social Mobilization for EP, community-based Recruitment and Motivation of Potential EP Learners Enrolment interview and Levelling of prior learning Identification of learner‟s learning goals Conduct of EP learning group sessions Supervision of self-learning activities One-on-one tutorial support activities Conduct of guidance and counselling sessions Class Session/Lesson Planning Learners‟ Assessment Learners‟ Portfolio Preparation and Assessment Home Visitation Group Activities and Field Trips Resource Generation and Mobilization Conduct of Community-based Assembly with parents and community leaders
What are the Capacity Building and Development Methods for EP Stakeholders? A Capacity Building Program is a plan of action usually a responsibility of the Human Resource Development Department or Division of any organization, concerned in upscaling, upgrading, strengthening and improving the performance of their employees and institutions. When designing the capacity building plan, we have to consider the nature or the type of training that may be employed. There are instances that Mentoring and Coaching or a one on one teaching-learning process can best serve the purpose for competency-based
skills training. Other modes, formal or informal, can be mixed or merged to have greater learning outcomes.
Capacity building involves the two aspects of instruction, that of “teaching” and “learning”. Instruction in the EP capacity-building context is concerned with the setting of the training environment, the preparation and organization of the learner participants, the provision of resources and experiences in order to optimize learning outcomes. Teaching is the responsibility of the teacher/trainer, a professional, an expert, a specialist of a field of endeavour and trained for the job. Teaching involves intelligent arrangement of the training environment, and resources of learning that will evoke the right kind of response from amongst its learnerparticipants. The Trainer is a facilitator of learning.
Learning as defined by the Dictionary of Education defines learning as a “change response or behaviour caused partly by or wholly by experience…” Learning is done by the learner-participants. It is an internal activity; it is the learner who learns. It is what the learner does which enables her to learn not so much on what the teacher/trainer does.
Learning occurs when subsequently the learner consciously, wilful repetition of a positive response results in the change of behaviour that may be in the form of new knowledge gained, a new skill acquired or a new attitude or value imbibed. To quote an old Buddhist proverb “it is more important to learn than to be taught”. In Equivalency Program capacity building, training would always infer the teachinglearning process of building up, strengthening and improving the competencies and skills and knowledge of a particular individual or groups of individuals. EP skills and competency building aim is to have the trainee/s or participants improve and strengthen their performance for proficiency and productivity. Organizations like those in the Equivalency Program implementations have several ways of building and upgrading the level of knowledge, skills and competencies of their employees and partners, these may be in the following capacity training methods:
Training Workshops- is usually short-term, two, three or at the most ten days duration, with a mix of training methods integrated with in a definite set of training objectives, guided by a fixed training design for a specific group of identified participants, purposely to train on pre-selected topics, methodologies defined and materials developed and distributed with an end-of-training evaluation packaged therein; On the Job Training- as the name implies, the EP teaching-learning process is undertaken on site, on the job, and training is undertaken through observation, continuing demonstration of specific skills and job routines, duties and responsibilities. The trainer is usually an employee recognized for the specialization and expertise of specific job. This may also be referred to as Apprenticeship training;
Mentoring and Coaching- the process involves a mentor/trainer task to teach and facilitate the learning of a new employee, constantly giving advice and counsel to the trainee on the important phases of doing a job or work, continuously demonstrating a competency and skill, monitoring the learning progress of the trainee and give feedback in the process; Peer Counselling- this is usually done with two individuals holding similar job tasks, duties and responsibilities. An each one teach one concept, of sharing work methods and sharing expertise and experience with each other while doing a job, both have specific skills and competency to contribute in the learning situation; Team Teaching- a method of facilitating learning of two EP practitioners/facilitators, where specific lessons of interest are handled, taught, facilitated shared by any one of the pair, giving preference to one‟s field specialization. Observations and Field Visits- or “outdoor-based learning” is any teachinglearning activity, exercise or simulation that can be conducted outside the traditional learning environment. Designed to provide a particular group of individuals‟ actual exposure on a specific field of interest through actual visitation, observation and field visitation integrated therein group discussions and interviews for information and new knowledge acquisition. Meetings and Dialogues- informal or formal, structured or unstructured meetings of a group of people, with the same work responsibilities and task. Sharing their work methods, experiences, problems faced and ways of performing difficult duties can be a good source of learning for other facilitators doing like functions and duties. Done regularly with proper documentation and recording can be a good venue for improving skills and work performance. Documentation and Report Writing- a job responsibility that can be a major means of developing skills and competencies in writing and communication and upgrading of EP facilitators in their report writing skills. Learning is facilitated by discussion of substance/subject matter presentation, on reporting styles, construction (grammar) and sequential arrangement of ideas and topics. Feedback and follow-up support must persistently provide for application and improvement. Attendance in Forums and Conference/s- teaching-learning on EP is always facilitated in being a participant to a specially designed fora or conference with identified leaders of the field, share their field of specialization and field experiences. These information and data shared are rich sources of learning which can be replicated, modified or customized by the learner or participant, according to their needs. Requiring written reports on the activity for lessons learned and planned application must be required and need for follow-up activities. ICT and E-Learning-the latest trend in teaching-learning process in human resource development, of enabling individuals to learn alone with the use of self-directed modular learning packages using computer, videos and technical innovations. Modular in nature, these are self-phased, with selfevaluations integrated within. Study Grants and or Scholarships- this type of capacity building involve a longer term of training and usually undertaken with a formal education provider, usually a
university and or an institute of higher learning. Academic credits and degrees are often given to successful students.
In any type and form of capacity building, we must be guided by the principle of making our CBDs: simple, practical, easy and enjoyable means of developing competencies of EP workers. The ways we train and capacitate our trainee, either on an on-the job training or in a training workshop, the ways we train will always be a model, an example which they will use and apply when they are in their own jobs. Correctness and appropriateness of technique need to focus on to be flexible. Why Capacity Building and Development Trainee/s Achievement, Measurement and Evaluation? In any Equivalency Program activity, as provided in the Capacity Building and Development Framework in this module, Performance-based Monitoring and Evaluation is a major function and responsibility. It is a never ending task for the EP holders if they are determine and serious in quality delivery of the Program. When we talk about measuring trainee achievement (or non-achievement), we are concerning ourselves with a number of concerns and issues. We are not only concern whether the training objectives have been achieved, or that the trainee has achieved the desired level of knowledge or skills, we are likewise interested to know whether the training activity identified was appropriately designed, the correctness of the delivery mechanism chosen, the cost-implications of the activity, the benefits that the organization will enjoy because of the activity and many more. Before we discuss the process, we need to define and find the difference between “measurement (or assessment)”, and “evaluation”. Measurement (or assessment) indicates the things that we can observe and count. It is more quantitative and should be directly related to the things we measured during the training needs assessment. It is simply the collection of relevant information and data. Relative to the Equivalency Program, it is their background knowledge and skills in NFE facilitating and teaching methodologies, their awareness, understanding and acceptance of the EP as an educational program and many more skills requirements needed. The information collected during the training needs analysis or task diagnosis would determine the entry level of the capacity building activity. Measurement or testing should be carried out in four different stages: a). the first measurement should be made when we do our training needs analysis. We need to establish that we have a need or a capacity gap and we have to prove that need; b). the second measurement is usually taken during the training itself. This data will tell us whether we are meeting our capacity building goals during the training and whether the session objectives are being met. Also it will allow corrective measures if there are deviations to our training plans; 48
c). the third measurement is made immediately upon the end of the training period. This is practically a pen and paper test or a series of practical demonstration of a task or a combination of both; d). the fourth measurement is done and collected when the trainee has returned to the workplace. Follow-up or post-training measurements is done through observation/s. assessment of work performance and productivity, efficiency and effectiveness in carrying the task assigned.
Evaluation refers to the assumptions or judgements we make from the results of the measurement. At the end of the training course you would have some form of scale against which to measure trainee achievement. This scale would be comparable to the scale used during the training needs analysis, to allow comparison and therefore an evaluation (judgement) of how effective the training had been. It is important that a final check of trainee achievement back on the job must be made, as only then can we say that the participant/s or trainee/s are applying their new knowledge. The end-of-training evaluation tells us that the trainee/s can apply the new knowledge, but at that stage we did not know if they will. There are three stages in the evaluation of a capacity building activity for EP. Each consist of activities and questions that can guide us in evaluating our training and capacity building activities. This will cover the 5 W‟s of what, why, when, where, whom and the how questions covering the activity being evaluated: a). Focusing- this is the stage that concerns on the areas on what and why we want to evaluate, (amount of improvement in the trainee, level of skills and competence acquired, the effective ness of training and mentor, relevance and cost-effectiveness of the training, results and outcomes of the training, the adequacy and appropriateness of scope and coverage of the training). b). Analysing is the second stage of evaluating the training activity on the information and data needed to make a good evaluation of the entire training process. It covers the information needed and answered by the questions of what, how, from where and from whom should data be sourced, on (level of knowledge before and after the course, expectation training outcome, sources of information, methods of collecting the information and data needed). c). Managing is the final stage which is concern on interpretation and final analysis of information and data gathered. It is answered by the 49
how, when and whom questions, on ( analysis by comparison or paired data, statistical analysis of results, use of consultants or outsiders, reporting format and style, levels of management and groups that reports and documentation will be submitted). We now realized that measurement and evaluation of trainee assessment is a time consuming process and an urgent one. Measuring trainee achievement (or nonachievement) can be undertaken in a number of times, before, during and after training and beyond. You need to still ascertain from time to time whether the capacity had been adequately addressed and filled up. After capacity building activity and evaluation is finalised, the information should be reported to the Equivalency Program management to show them how effective the activity has been. The management report is important but we must not forget the report of the trainee and participant. We must ensure as a priority of enabling the trainee or participant to see, understand, accept and confirm the evaluation report. Reflection on the Module and Summary CAPACITY BUILDING AND DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK
Target Groups of EP holders. CBD Training Needs Assess. Capacity Gap Identification CBD Plan CBD Resources
EP Delivery of Capacity Building and Development Activities
Functionally Trained and Competent EP Holders:
Efficient Effective Productive Committed Functional CBD Resources
Improvement Quality Delivery of NFE – EP
QUALITY of LIFE EQUITY of ACCESS RELEVANCE and RESPONSIVE Program Delivery
Performance – Based Monitoring and Evaluation The Capacity Building and Development Framework as presented above details the completeness of the various steps essential to capacitating and empowering Equivalency Program stakeholders through their new knowledge, improved and strengthened skills and competencies. It is developmental in character because capacity building is continuing, regular. Persistence is required in determining the quality of inputs, process, outputs and outcomes of capacity building and development of EP institutions through Performance-Based Monitoring and Evaluation. In keeping track of any CBD activity or activities being undertaken or will still be pursued, it is important and necessary to keep and maintain a functional records management: 50
1. Keeping an adequate record of all CBD information, activities, achievements, and expenditures, so that it is possible to maintain control over the work and to plan with some certainty. 2. Periodically analyzing the recorded or reported information in order to see how much progress is being made and identifying tasks that may need extra attention. 3. Making accurate and timely reports. Reports should be the by â€“ products of the analysis of records, which is the most important activity in monitoring and evaluation. Consolidation, analysis and reporting are required activities. 4. Ensuring that appropriate action are taken on the basic of monitoring and evaluation information and analysis. This includes checking the accuracy and validity of data, providing feedback and calling for immediate action for areas that need immediate attention. Capacity-building for EP stakeholders is an urgent need for quality implementation. New skills and competencies need to be developed, upgraded and up scaled, as EP is a new NFE intervention for some governments and their countries. EP implementation and its delivery mechanisms are quite diverse and complex compared to the traditional NFE delivery modes. It is a new model of serving the marginalized sectors for more advanced progression in their learning and education
Annual Capacity Building and Development Plan Equivalency Program Service Provider (NGO) (Sample) CBD Type of CBD Activity & Objectives CBD Approaches & 1st Q 2nd Q Target Methodologies Groups J F M A M J 1. Project Manage ment Team
1. EP Project Orientation Meeting a). Orientation EP National Policy Framework and procedures b).To inform, disseminate, orient project officers and staff on the objectives, details of implementation and deliverables of the project; c). to present and explain project implementation activities; d). to present details and tasks of monitoring and evaluation. e). Monitoring and evaluation of EP Program Implementation and activities from main office to fieldbased monitoring. 2.. Conferences or Forum for new concepts and approaches strategies for NGOs on o Advocacy and Social Mobilization o Social Marketing
2-days orientation meeting for top & middle management levels on EP Project and Implementation Needs: o Orientation o Discussion o Group workshop
A S O N D Budgets as determined by the Institution. Schedules and resources determined by the divisions responsible.
Trained monitoring staff will be responsible.
2-day Forum and Conference of core Division Officers and Project Technical Group
Schedules will depend on 52
o Project Proposal & Technical Writing
2. Project Implem entation Team
Orientation and Installation of EP Financial Management Audit and Controls a). to present FinMan Audit and Controls Policies, Procedures and Responsibilities; a). information on policies and procedures of Donor Agency and audit requirements; b). presentation of accounting forms, recording and disbursement procedures; c). Financial Reports, types and schedules of submission d). On-the job supervision, training and monitoring and regular audit
2-days orientation of Financial Mgnt Team with Project officers with ď‚ˇ
actual demonstrations and workshop;
Audit and Review
Orientation and training workshops shall be conducted by the Granting agency in cooperation with the Institutional FinMan team.
review/s of financial records and operations for accuracy and correctness 2. On-the-Job training on EP Filing and Records Management Team a). to train current and new staff on proper filing of documents and EP records under the supervision of their supervisor; b). to demonstrate procedures and actual practices; c) .provides immediate feedback and corrective action. 3. Basic EP Adult Facilitators Training a). to present, discuss and explain the EP project objectives and activities; b). to explain and discuss the contract of work as EP facilitators, their roles, functions and responsibilities; c).to train EP facilitators on EP adult learning principles and methodologies as compared to formal education;
Coaching and Mentoring Peer Teaching
On-the-job training for secretarial personnel and newly hired staff in the work setting and during actual job performance: o Job rotation o Coaching o Apprenticeship o Modeling
8 days capacity building training workshop with 3 days field work. The CBD will include:
Peer Counseling Team Teaching Group Monthly Meetings 54
c). to present and discuss the monitoring and evaluation methods and approaches; d). Field-based monitoring and evaluation of EP facilitators workperformance. 3. EP Monitoring and Evaluation Training Workshop for Project EP Coordinators, Field Monitors and Community-based Partners: a). to present and discuss the theories and practices of EP M & E; b). to explain the importance of quality EP M & E using the developed monitoring forms and documents; c). Conduct an actual monitoring through EP class visitation, observation and demonstration; d). Conduct of regular M & E feedback and discussion of M & E findings and recommendation. 4. Performance-Based Monitoring and Evaluation will be conducted for: a). to regularly check and reviewing training needs analysis on an organizational-wide basis and to
M & E Reports
5-days training workshop with 3 days of field work and observation of EP classes: o Training workshop o lass demonstration o Field visitation of actual EP classes; o Practice demonstration of M & E forms and documents; o Actual M & E feedback of findings and results
reviewing them on an single job or individual; b). Review CBD plan and monitor its implementation and determine desired end results of every CBD activity; c). Evaluate CBD implementation regular and continuing to take corrective action for possible deviations or inappropriate or inadequate CBD activities. d). Undertake stop-gap measures for training and development of all EP holders as they are required. e). Regular submission of reports and documentation of CBD activities and its dissemination and utilization.
Performance-based Monitoring and Evaluation will be undertaken the whole year to check, review, and ensure that the CBD Plan is being implemented accordingly and the desired outcomes and end-result are being achieved and accomplished.
Regional Guide on Equivalency Programmes
Module 5 Equivalency Programme Facilitators: Qualification Standards and Capacity Building Needs
Module 5 Equivalency Programme Facilitators: Qualification Standards and Capacity Building Needs Introduction A critical issue and concern of any Equivalency Programme implementation is the need for qualified and trained adult facilitators and personnel. The Facilitator is at the key person upon whom the success of the programme is dependent. In most countries the facilitators are individuals belonging to the local community, usually with limited training and preparation and who therefore need to be oriented for this task. Most if not all are volunteers who receive very minimal compensation and therefore need to be kept motivated through the programme. There is also no doubt that Equivalency Programmes need a certain standard of proficiency of teaching so that their credibility is established. Further the facilitators also need to be trained in adult education principles and NFE methodologies. They need to be familiar with the techniques and approaches of adult learning so that they are able to manage the adult learners and teach them using the latest methodologies. Facilitators and Teaching of Adults The target audience of EPs is usually adults, who are either dropouts from school or who are continuing their education after a time gap. These adults are those who probably have a rich experience of life even though they may not have formal education. Adult learners are to able to decide what they want and need to learn based upon their life situations. They are motivated to learn only if that learning satisfies their needs and interests. Adult learning is a process of problem-finding and problem-solving to discover “where we are now” and “where we want to go.” In general, adults will respond to a subject that is specific, practical, current and is able to involve them. Hence, learning is “problem-centered” rather than” subject centered.” It also needs to be “learner-centered” more than being “teacher-centered” . This is why non-formal educators are called facilitators and not teachers. It has been seen that adults follow a relatively predictable pattern or cycle while undertaking any new learning. Some features of this pattern are as follows: a). Awareness or Activity of the learning lesson that focuses on a situation or condition that is desirable or undesirable, that needs to be addressed to improve the situation and bring it to the desirable level. This is the initial step towards active learning of adults b). Exploration and Analysis is the process of figuring out the causes, elements or components of what is being learned. In the EP learning class, lessons are based upon actual life experiences and are presented for discussion and further learning c). Inquiry and Abstraction is that phase of learning where adults inquire into, critically reflect upon and compare their own behaviour or attitudes to what is observed in their situation and take a decision based upon different options d). Utilization or Application takes place when learners are able to use what they have learned for multiple purposes When learners have the opportunities to become aware and develop interest, explore and inquire, the learning becomes functional for them. In short they own it. 58
Research has shown that adults have a deep need to be self-directing, and therefore, tend to resent being put into situations that violate their selfconcept of maturity, such as being talked down to or treated like children. Facilitators need to recognize that life experiences of adult learners are the richest resources for adult learning. Hence the core methodology for teachinglearning is the analysis of the experiences and relating it to current lessons and learning. Facilitators need to be well trained before they are inducted into the programme. They should be able to conduct experimental forums, multidirectional techniques such as group discussions, simulations and role playing, buzz sessions. Facilitators should be able to devise appropriate content for adults that will be the starting points for organizing adult learning activities. Critical Issues that Affect Training of NFE-EP Adult Facilitators As has been stated earlier, facilitators are the front liners and vital to the success and delivery of quality Equivalency Programme implementation. Their performance will define whether adult learning will occur and be sustained beyond the conduct of EP learning classes. Unfortunately their preparedness to handle, organize, manage and conduct literacy learning classes is based on their limited orientation, skills and competencies. Many have no previous training and experience and may lack knowledge of educational programmes, learning theories and teaching techniques. The performance of Facilitators is also affected by their circumstances. As compared to formal school teachers, facilitators receive very low compensation and at times only teach on volunteer basis. They have no job security and may be lack the formal qualifications that formal school teachers are required to possess. They also have minimal training opportunities and hardly receive any regular professional development support. Most training courses are short-term, often just for 3 to 7 days duration. The training format and the course content makes the facilitatorâ€&#x;s training of a lower order than other more rigorous formalised trainings that are mandatory for school teachers. Another problem that affects the performance of the facilitators is the low status and priority given by the educational authorities to non-formal education. The low status of NFE by even those in the formal education is a major constraint in raising the level of recognition and support for non-formal education and equivalency programs as more responsive and creative innovation of delivery education, of meaningfully providing access and equity for educational growth of all. Qualification Requirements of EP Facilitators The facilitators of Equivalency Programmes are the ones who have direct contact with the adult learners and will always provide the encouragement, motivation and inspiration for their learners to continue on learning for life. Facilitation skills are basic requirements for EP facilitators to ensure active participation and meaningful exchanges during all EP learning classes. The higher order learning needs of Equivalency Programme learners calls for 59
special qualifications, level of educational attainment, orientation and more particularly the Knowledge, Attitudes, Values and Skills (KAVS) of the facilitators. Qualification Requirements which are sometimes referred to as „Qualification Standard‟ indicates the basic requirements that an Equivalency Programme facilitator must possess to qualify for EP employment. As against this, one of the main tasks of the EP facilitator is to provide learning services to meet the basic learning needs of out-of-school youth and adults, who for various reasons, drop out and or have not been able to enrol in formal education. Their importance in the delivery of quality instruction can never be discounted and taken for granted. Most of the countries implementing Equivalency Programmes have identified specific qualification standards for those wanting to be engaged as EP facilitators. Different countries have different educational qualifications as well as experience that aperson must possess to be considered for the task. Given below is an example from Philippines: Qualification requirements or desired characteristics the Dept. of Education, Bureau of Alternative Learning System of the EP Adult Facilitators termed locally as Instructional Managers
Must be a 4-year degree holder preferably with education units; With experience in non-formal education or community organizing;
May be drawn from a range of professionals and background;
Most likely, they are elementary or secondary school teachers or guidance counsellors;
They could be retired school teachers or qualified community development workers;
If employed by DepEd, they must secure the approval of their school principal or their immediate superior.
Source: Dept. of Education, Bureau of Alternative Learning System, Accreditation and Equivalency Manual of Operations Some NGOs implementing the EP in the Philippines comply with the DepED requirement and have also included the following institutional requirements:
Must be a resident of the municipality where the EP project is to be implemented;
Preferably of the same ethnicity of the learners of the learning class;
Be fluent in the language of instruction (English and local language);
Must be willing to sign and be committed to the provisions of the Learning Contract and Employment as they are receiving compensation for their services as EP Adult Facilitators
Skills of EP Facilitators – Making Capacity Building As has been stated earlier, the task of facilitating is different from that of teaching. While dealing with adult learners, the principles of classroom conduct are different. However in practice, many NFE literacy facilitators/teachers fall back to the traditional teaching methods used in formal schools, which have discouraging effect on adult learners. A concentrated action to promote active and participatory experiential methods has to be taken in order to stimulate the interest of learners. Such methods actually exist; the problem is that they can only be successfully applied if the facilitators are properly trained and motivated. In EP learning classes, there are many learners who have higher order learning needs. Such learners may need to be taught a different set of topics from the EP learning modules. There may also be a mixture of learners from different grade levels in one learning class and facilitator may need to adopt a multi-grade approach of teaching and facilitation. This will call for unlearning what has been learned in the past and learning what needs to be learned to become a proficient and resourceful EP facilitator. Some of the qualities that an effective EP Facilitator needs to possess are as follows: Ensure active and participatory learning through the effective flow of communication within the group of learners for sharing information and life experiences; Encourage critical thinking by posing problems for group analysis; Motivate the learners to think critically and motivates them to take concrete action; Sensitive to the needs of EP learners, both verbal and non-verbal communication; Respectful and perceptive to the feelings, gender, attitudes, culture, interests and or any problem/s that may occur with any learner or group of learners; Understanding the value of Non-Formal Education and Equivalency Programme and its aim of giving educational opportunities to those who want to continue their studies. A good and effective EP facilitator is never content with the knowledge and skills he/she has and is fully aware that learning new knowledge, acquiring new skills for competency is a continuous process. Hence learning or capacity 61
building, to become a better facilitator is limitless and endless. Facilitators need to be open to all sorts of ideas and insights, be observant, absorb and learned from any activity they are faced with, be interested to test and try new techniques of facilitation and gain knowledge from their own life experiences and those of others. They always welcome opportunities to further their learning and never hesitate to try new ways to improve their trade and profession. Equivalency Programme Capacity Building and Development for Facilitators, whether in groups as in a training workshop or on a one-on-one peer counselling, or mentoring and coaching or in any mode of training, must be: Participatory – involvement of the trainee/s in the design and decision-making process as a source of information for the wealth of their cultural wisdom, richness of their culture, and diverse life experiences; Inclusivity – enabling all EP facilitators, irrespective of position/status, culture, religion, race and specially gender to have equal opportunity and access in availing of CBD activity; Practical – less of academics and high-sounding theoretical approaches that are best for formal education rather than for NFE and more particularly for EP practitioners; Doable – allows the learner-trainee to immediately apply, utilize and put into action the learning‟s gained and new skills acquired; Relevant – provides meaningful and competency-based training that are responsive to his/her job requirements and need for new knowledge and skills; Innovative - creative and interesting approaches that promotes handson participation in skills-building exercises; Experiential –choice of training topics for new knowledge and information are built from their field experiences as EP practitioners and from their personal lives. Enjoyable – learning must be educative, easy and enjoyable to promote better absorption, adaptation and utilization. Performance-based Monitoring and Evaluation of EP Facilitators A good capacity building and development process requires solid commitment on the part of Equivalency Programme top management. It is necessary that top management buy into and give importance to capacity building processes and this message of commitment will surely trickle down to all. The EP management concern for quality implementation through 62
continuing support for capacitating all involve in the delivery mechanism will ultimately benefit all. If the EP system is to work, it has to be administered in an orderly and consistent way. A continuing capacity building process must follow a wellconceived plan. What capacity gaps exist now? Who needs to participate? What CBD modes will they take and in what order? A well-structured CBD Plan can help EP organizations to provide a progressive education and training for their EP facilitators and other staff. By undertaking this process, organisations can equip their staff not only for their current jobs but also for the jobs that may be required to be done in the future. CAPACITY BUILDING AND DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK
Identified EP Facilitators CBD Tasks Analysis/Capacity Gaps CBD Methods CBD Plan CBD Resources CBD M & E
Continuing EP CBD Activities; Diverse CBD Methods and Approaches; Regular M &
Improved EP teaching-learning facilitation performance: ; Committed; Functional; Trained; Effective and Efficient; Adapted to NFE-EP Methodologies
Improved Quality Delivery of NFE-EP activities that promote: Quality of Life; Equity and Access; Relevance and Responsive and others.
Performance – Based Monitoring and Evaluation Performance-based monitoring and evaluation of EP facilitators is a continuous process, which does not stop when the formal training sessions end. Monitoring makes it possible to examine whether the training has been absorbed and the new knowledge is being applied to bring about changes in attitudes and to actuate new behaviours and skills. There is a need to continually ask the question: Is it working the way it is supposed to? That is why the need for performance-based monitoring and evaluation, of looking for what works and what does not? There is a constant need for reinforcement by repetition and recognition so that the programmes can be taken forward in the required direction. Since the importance and vital role of EP facilitators in the delivery of the programme is well accepted, it is essential that their work be constantly monitored and evaluated. It should cover everything that might have a bearing on effectiveness of instruction and performance. Some questions that can be inquired into are: Are the facilitators‟ skills and competencies properly matched with the task of teaching-learning of learning modules? Are they thoroughly prepared, familiar with the EP content and comfortable with EP methods of delivery of instruction? Is content instruction of the EP learning
modules correct, accurate and factual? These “little things” can make a big difference in the success of the EP system. As your Equivalency Program CBD system has been implemented, you will need to measure performance continuously to determine whether you are getting the results you want. You need to consider many ways and medium of measuring and assessing: such as the EP adult facilitators attitude towards the training, the amount of learning that has taken place, the actual on-the-job application of the learning and more particularly impact on your EP organization and impact on learning of EP learners. Performance-based monitoring and evaluation can be done in many ways: follow-up interviews, discussion groups, feedback sessions, questionnaires, and even surveys to measure the participants‟ attitudes. The process of measuring and evaluating trainees‟ learning of skills can be done before and after CBD training: class observations to determine impact of training. Actual class visitations and observation can be done to see how the facilitator functions in an EP learning class, it can also ask the adult learners to assess the performance of their facilitator, and also be done informally by asking the facilitator in an interview, or questionnaire how the CBD has affected their performance in the conduct of their EP classes. You can also ask the immediate head, other peers, learners, to assess whether the CBD have strengthened and improved the facilitation skills of the facilitator. Given below is an example from Philippines that shows how the monitoring is conducted for the Instructional Manager (IM).
Notre Dame Foundation for charitable Activities, Inc. Women in Education and Development Cotabato City Performance Evaluation Form The Rater should accomplish the section and then the IM/Facilitator will give some vital information. IM/Facilitator: ______________________________________________________________ Project Title: _______________________________________________________________ Learning Center: _______________________________________________________________ Literacy Level: _______________________________________________________________ Class Schedule: Day___________________________ Time: Start of Classes: ______________________________ Approx. End of Class________________ Total No. of Enrollees: ________________________ No. of Learnersâ€&#x; Attendance___________ Learning Materials Being Used: a.____________________________________________ b.______________________________________________ c.______________________________________________ d.______________________________________________
Learning Class Topic of the Day: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________
Rate the Facilitator‟s competency level based on your observations using following scale: 5- Excellent 4- Very Good 3- Good 2- Fair 1- Poor Level of Performance Performance Area 5 4 3 2 1 1. Motivation Sustains enthusiasm Generates Interest 2. Teaching-Learning Activities Integrates Content with learners‟ context Uses appropriate or structure facilitating strategies Uses appropriate or creative learning materials Encourages adequate discussion 3. Monitoring and Evaluation Keep learner‟s progress records, attendance Records including learner‟s portfolio Conducts follow-up (e.g., interviews, home visits) Uses appropriate evaluation tools 4. Group Organizing/Structuring Keeps group session as agred upon Allots adequate time for each activity Uses varied learner group structure schemes 5. Management-Related Tasks Files project documents systematically Coordinates with project officials regularly Discusses evaluation results with stakeholders (e.g., Service Provider, LGU, DepEd) Remarks: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________ IM‟s/Facilitator‟s Signature: ________________________ Date: ___________________ Rater‟s Signature: ________________________________ Date: ___________________ Confirmed by: ___________________________________ Date: ___________________ Barangay Captain/Contact Person The process of understanding, absorbing, and actualization. Each country could develop its own monitoring and evaluation formats for the purpose of periodic checking and improving the programme. 66
Regional Guide on Equivalency Programmes
Module 6 Delivery Mechanism
Module 6 Delivery Mechanism Introduction In the previous modules, you have learnt about the concept and objectives of the Equivalency programmes. You will recall that one of the objectives of the EPs is to ensure that all learners have access to an educational system of good quality which is most suitable to their needs and is flexible. The EP are an appropriate response to meet the needs of countries with large populations and scarce resources. Most of the countries that have adopted EPs are those whose learner population have varied needs and belong to heterogeneous backgrounds. Although these countries may have well established formal education systems, yet there are still many children, youth and adults who remain out of schools. Hence reaching out to these groups through a strong and well designed delivery system is an important aspect of EPs. Why is delivery system important?/ Need for Strong delivery System A programme may be conceived and have the best possible intentions. But ultimately it is the implementation that makes it a success. If the delivery mechanism is weak then the programme is will not be sustainable and will fail. This is why at every level the delivery has to be well designed. The policy maker must plan the implementation structures keeping in mind the national EFA goal and the available resources and the practitioner must be competent to conduct it at the ground level. Designing/Understanding the Delivery System: Revisiting the Target Group As a practitioner, you will find that learners who are a part of the EP are generally of two kinds: 1. Children who have dropped out of the formal school system and are re entering the educational stream or they may have never gone to school 2. Youth and adults who are school dropouts or have become literate under a national literacy programme and now want to continue/strengthen their education. While some of these persons are those who are seeking certification under EP so that they can either get back to the formal schools(usually children), others are looking for a degree to get a job(usually youth and adults). They maybe some who are attending EPs to study a particular topic but may not be looking for certification. Implementation Structure of EPs The first important aspect is that of setting up an implementation structure The decision regarding the type of implementation structure is one that has to be taken at the highest level. The government has to decide how the entire programme will be implemented and delivered as well as the agencies that would be involved in the delivery. In most countries where EPs are going on, it is seen that national, state and district/local governments are actively involved. Further there is also a close partnership between NGOs and community based organisation in the delivery of programmes.
ADD Structure of Indonesia /Chart of one country- page 46 from Trends of Equivalency education – in Brown Kingston pen drive of APS in Bhasa Indonesia file name Bokklet Tren Implementation Structure of OBE* • National level-NIOS, NLM, NCERT -Curriculum and exemplar materials development, accreditation, certification •
State Level-SOS, SLMA, SSA, SRCs -Material adaptation, training, programme monitoring and evaluation, linkages with NLM, NIOS)
District Level-ZSS, JSS, DIET, NGOs -Admission, material development and distribution, evaluation, training, linkages with NLM, NIOS
Block and Panchayat level-Block level Units, Panchayats -Admission, contact classes, internal evaluation
(*To be Improved) The type of responsibility to be carried out by the concerned level is also a policy statement. Once this has been done, then each person working at a particular level is aware of his/her role and responsibilities. Choosing an Appropriate Delivery Mechanism : Synergies between Organisations Once the decision to set up a particular type of implementation structure has been taken, the next question relates to choosing an appropriate delivery mechanism. The choice of a delivery mechanism lies in making use of the available resources and infrastructure. In some countries the structures build to support literacy and continuing education are strong while in others a vast network of institutions delivering non formal education have been created. A country that is planning to start its EPs has to take a considered decision regarding the delivery structure it would like to adopt. The basis for taking a decision can be some of the following: state of the existing infrastructure available to the government ,
cooperation and understanding of the government between its different departments to engage in such inter department sharing
willingness and resources available in the government to invest in a new structure exclusively for EP,
willingness of the government to experiment with non government partners,
strength of the community and its willingness to take on responsibility of EPs,
willingness of the government to take on new partners such as religious bodies, corporate houses, charitable trusts in EPs.
In many countries, successful models of delivery have been set up using a variety of partners. No one fixed/rigid approach can be taken. There is a need for openness and flexibility in selecting delivery partners as well as an need for being sensitive to local situations. The partners chsen have to be have astrong local network and should be able to take up advocacy of the programme in their areas. These agencies should have a positive understanding with the community as without this it would
be difficult to take the programme forward. Countries can formulate their own criteria for choosing partners so that the quality of the partners is maintained. In Philippines, there is a close inter-agency network and partnership between different government agencies and as well as NGOs. The Department of Education has contracted service providers like colleges, universities, NGOs, civil society organisations, umbrella organisations having National and regional networks to conduct the EP. In countries like India and Thailand, there is no separate organizational structure for EPs. The government uses Community Learning Centres build for literacy and continuing education as well as formal schools, NGOs, vocational centres for conducting EPs. Such partnership arrangements show the synergies between formal and NFE structures in the dissemination of EPs. In India the Open Basic Education Programme is conducted by the National Institute of Open Schooling which is an autonomous organisation under Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. NIOS works closely with NGOs and government agencies which are accredited to NIOS for registering learners and conducting the EPs. Most of these NGOs work for EPs for children. NIOS also accredits government agencies working in the field of adult literacy and continuing education for conducting EPs for neo literates who have completed for literacy levels. Further NIOS designates State Government agencies as Nodal agencies for conducting state level examinations. Case Study: Hunar, India - Partnership with Madarssas
Hunar is a project being conducted by National Institute of Open Schooling(NIOS), supported by Government of India and BEPC, Government of Bihar to reach out to young Muslim girls studying in Madarssas in an educationally backward state of India. The aim of the project is to provide skill training to these girls in additional to their religious education. The delivery of this programme is being done through community based organisations that have a strong presence in the state. The unique feature of this project is that NIOS has changed its accreditation criteria to enable madarssas /maktabs to become its accredited partners so that the educational needs of these groups can be serves. In doing this, it has expanded the access of the Equivalency programme under Open Basic Education and for the first time ensured that groups studying in madassas are able to have access to nationally recognised Certificates. Source: Bist, Dinesh Singh, 2008
Also read about: INDONESIA : Inam Bukhari Pesantren: A Model of EPs for Rural Religious Institutions
Delivering the Programme at Grassroot Level : The Facilitator The centre of all activities in the EP is the venue where the actual teaching-learning takes place – it may be the Community learning Centre/ Centre Education, or the formal school, or the community centre. The vital person at this centre is the Facilitator. Research has shown that in countries where their is a professional cadre of facilitators, the programme has been well sustained. The facilitator has to identify with the The facilitator has programme and create the needed environment at the grasssroot level so that learners feel safe, secure to identify with the and comfortable at the learning Centre. It is important to ensure that the local sensitivities are Programme kept in mind while engaging Facilitators. The facilitators should be able to identify difficult groups in the village and also be able to identify available resources so that these can be used to strengthen the EP. The role and responsibilities of the facilitator have been explained in detail in Module 5. Case Study of a Facilitator (To be Added – countries may give to me please ) The facilitator have to be selected by a well defined process. In some countries the Village Education Committee selects them. The Facilitator could be : Para Teachers
CLC Facilitators/ Instructional manager
Persons from other govt departments
Approach to Delivery Most of the learners coming to the EPs are those who are either coming back to education after a gap or those who have never been to a formal school. This is why the approach to their learning has to be a very sensitive one. It has to be different from that of formal schooling system. Some key features are as follows: 1. Learner Centred – The learning has to be conducted keeping the learner as the focal point. The learners needs are the priority. Moreover the learners have to be partners in the learning- They have to be taught how to become self learners and thereby have a control over their learning. The format of the EP is such that learners can decide what to learn, how to learn but the facilitator should be able to guide them through this difficult process. 2. Flexible learning Approach – The most attractive feature of the EP is that it is a flexible learning programme. The programme has multiple entry and exit points and learners can join it depending upon their level of prior learning. It is only due to this approach that the learning needs of so many different
learners can be met. As facilitators, it is important that learners have a basic understanding of this concept so that they can take advantage of the flexibility. In different countries, EPs are as per the needs of that country. In India, in the Open Basic Education Programme, learners have an integrated package of both academic and vocational subjects. But in Indonesia , learners can choose from different academic subjects for their Packet C examinations. 3. Interactive methodology of teaching-learning – In most EPs , the delivery mechanism is a combination of face to face interaction and self study. In many cases the learners are only part time students- many are working while others may also have limited time for studying. However the personal contact through face to face sessions is an essential part of the programme. During this time when the facilitator and learner are face to face, the facilitator has to adopt a different technique for teaching. Unlike the standard lecture method, here the facilitator has to adopt a dialogue style and establish a rapport with the learner. As the facilitator, you must be able to design activities that engage the interest of the learners- these could be “Hands On” or group activities that will lead to closer bonding and therefore help learners to overcome their hesitation. The facilitator can form tutorial groups which are small in size so that learners can solve their difficulties easily. 4. Horizontal and vertical transfer –The flexibility within the EP allows the learner to move between the different educational systems. A learner who completes a particular level from an EP can go the next higher level in a formal school. Similarly a learner who is a dropout from a formal school can enrol for a level under the EP. For example in India a learner who completes level A under open Basic Education programme can take admission in Class IV of a formal school. Similarly there are provisions by which a learner can also register for a vocational course while pursuing academic programme in a formal school.9give example from a country) 5. Recognition of prior learning – Another important aspect of EP is the recognition of knowledge and skills that a learner may have been obtained through some other system. For example in Thailand, the Office of the Non Formal and Informal education has launched different types of equivalence transfer of Educational results which allows learners to transfer their educational results that they have earned and accumulated in either formal school, or non formal education or informal education as well as through vocational and working experiences. By allowing such transfers and giving due credit for them, it is possible to recognize that different types of learning can take place even outside the school environment. Given below is the chart of the Steps by which the Equivalency Transfer of Educational Results takes place in Thailand.
(Take chart from Page 20 : Chart from Thailand Research report- Mr Wachai to provide ) 6. EPs are a part of Lifelong Learning- The delivery mechanism has to be a part of the entire cycle of educational systems. EPs cannot be seen in isolation â€“ they have to have linkages with existing educational systems. This will allow them to provide an opportunity of lifelong learning to all age groups and sections of society.
Regional Guide on Equivalency Programmes
Module 7 Assessment, Accreditation and Evaluation
Module 7 Assessment, Accreditation and Evaluation As you are aware evaluation is a very important part of the educational system. Evaluation is the process by which ( definition of evaluation----). Evaluation helps to make a judgement about a given situation. In the educational system, ateacher evaluated his/her learners with aview to helping them to improve their performance. Assessment is the process by which information is obtained relative to some known objective or goal. Assessment is a broad term that includes testing. We assess progress at the end of a school year through testing. Whether implicit or explicit, assessment is most usefully connected to some goal or objective for which the assessment is designed. A test or assessment yields information relative to an objective or goal. In that sense, we test or assess to determine whether or not an objective or goal has been obtained. Accreditation is ----In most countries of the Asia Pacific region, one of the goals of school level education is to enable children to acquire a degree that will allow them to enrol in institutions of higher learning or make them competent to take up employment in a decent manner. Most schooling systems therefore plan their programmes in mind the public examination that all students have to pass at the end of their learning. As you are well aware, the purpose of Equivalency programmes is to provide an alternate system of education to persons who are not able to go to the formal schools. In the recent past, the number of such persons who are outside school has risen to a very high number and has become a matter of global concern. Countries around the world have made a common pledge to commit themselves to providing quality Education for All. One of the Objectives of equivalency programmes is to ensure that education provided through these programmes is of a comparable standard. This means that the knowledge and skills acquired by a learner through the EP should have the same value and credibility as a learner from the formal education system. This is possible when the evaluation system and the certification that accrues after evaluation is recognized as equivalent both by the government and institutions of higher learner as well as by the market and industry. Levels of EPs and their Certification In most countries the Equivalency programme has been set up for different levels . The problems of out of school children and adults has led countries to think about alternative structures for achieving the goal of EFA. As a result, in most countries, the EP is almost like a parallel system to the formal education system. Countries like Indonesia, India, Thailand, Philippines already have a well established EP for the different levels. Others like Bangladesh have initiated a Junior Secondary programme through the Bangladesh Open School.
Types of assessment You will recall that EPs are based upon the philosophy of flexible learning systems. Learners have the opportunity to choose their subjects as per their areas of interest and can also pace out their learning. The principle of flexibility is used in the designing of the assessment and evaluation systems. The assessment under EP is aimed at developing the same level of knowledge and skills that a student in the formal school obtains after he/she passes an examination of a particular level. The method of evaluation can be different . In most EPs around the Asia pacific Region, it is seen that assessment is of two types. Formative assessment is the process of giving feedback to the learner. It can be done on a weekly basis to help the learner understand and improve performance .Individual self assessment - internal / within the modules/ self check exercises/ project work Summative Evaluation is a process of identifying larger patterns and trends in performance and judging these summary statements against criteria to obtain performance ratings. Terminal- Public examination/Term end examination Nature of Examination Flexible â€“ In most countries, the principle of flexibility has been adopted for EPs. Generally it is seen that examinations are held two times a year . In Indonesia, the examinations for Packet A,B,C courses are held in June and November. In India examinations are held under an arrangement decided upon by the local agency and the learners. Learners can take examinations depending upon their state of preparedness. In case they are not able to clear the examination, they can take it in the next examination session. (ODES- On Demand Examination - India-box??) Credibility of Certificate /Certifying Agency- Most important as credibility of the certificate is dependent upon the agency. The type of assessment for EP is also based upon the existing examination system in the country. This is necessary as there has to be a close relationship between the formal school evaluation system and the NFE system. In order to recognise the equivalency of the two systems, they have to be seen as two paths leading to the same goal. In all EPs it is the government that gives the Certificate. In Indonesia it is the Assessment Centre, office of the Research and Development, Dept of national Education. It is interesting to note that the same agency ie national assessment Centre develops the Question paper for both formal and NFE(packet) courses. In Thailand it is the Office of the Non Formal and Informal Education (ONIE) , In Philippines it is NFE A & E while in India it is NIOS, which is a recognised national level Examination Board or the concerned State Government. Equivalence of the Certificate to allow credit transfers both to Formal schools and IndustryLinkages with Industry for recognition of certificate Transfer of vocational equivalency to technical and professional institutes
Additional Credits in Subjects In the world of constantly changing demands and needs of the industry, there are some students who may feel that they need to study subjects or add qualifications to the ones that they already have. For instance, in India following the opening of the Aviation Sector to private industry, there was a sudden spurt in jobs for Pilots. Since the qualification for studying to be a pilot required that candidates have Physics and Mathematics in the school level examination, many candidates took admission in the Senior Secondary courses. They were able to appear for the examination in these subjects and thereby enter the professional course for becoming Pilots. Examination Conduct The conduct of the examination is the most challenging aspect of EP. In some countries the EP is based upon levels while in others there is a classwise parity. The elarners have to study for aspecified period of time before they can appear fro an examination . Once they have done that, then they have the freedom to appear at regular intervals , ( ger\nerally of six months intervals). Case study of OBE examination _ to be changed – if got from Indonesia / Thailand Examination for OBE is conducted by the respective Accredited Agencies(AAs) AAs must inform NIOS about date of examination and number of registered examinees at least one month before the scheduled date of examination. Question papers are based on the design and blue print approved by NIOS. Medium of examination may be Regional Languages/Hindi/English. RD of respective region helps in monitoring. State level agency designated by the NIOS as the state-coordinating agency is also the monitoring agency for the OBE examination in their respective state. Academic Facilitators and staffs of NIOS Headquarters visits AAs during examination. 5% answer books, question papers, attendance sheets are procured from the AAs. OBE Unit does the comparison of result data with enrolment data alongwith verification and editing of the result data before certification. 5% Answer Books are evaluated by OBE Unit. State level agency/AA are to appoint evaluators for checking the papers. Result is signed by the authorised signatory of the accredited agency before sending to NIOS for printing certificates.
Answer books are preserved by the AA to make them available, if need be, for inspection by the authorized personnel of NIOS Headquarters/Regional Director. Agency sends the result in CD in the prescribed format for printing of certificates. Jointly signed certificates are issued by the concerned Agency and NIOS. AA distributes the OBE certificates free of cost to the students. NIOS prints and issues the certificates to the AA within a period two months from the date of submission of the result by the agency. Synergy between NFE & FE Infrastructure usage Teachers Decentralization of examination process Ensuring quality of examinations – issues of project work /internal assessment Maintenance of examination records and data management Right to Information issues(??) Monitoring of examinations Examination reforms – (see NCERT)
Regional Guide on Equivalency Programmes
Module 8 EP Resource Mobilization and Financial Management
Module 8 EP ROSOURCE MOBILIZATION AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Introduction It is necessary to improve the supporting of program implementation by driving human resources and financial management efficiently and transparently. There are some resources to support the program implementation namely:
1. Human resources
Centre Level a. Decision maker in the centre level b. Decision maker in parliament level c. Expert in the centre level d. Program planner in the centre level e.
Resource person in the centre level
Province level a. Decision maker in the province level b. Decision maker in parliament level of province c. Expert in the province level d. Program planner in the province level e.
Resource person in the province level District/town
a. Decision maker in the district/town level b. Decision maker in parliament level of district/town c. Expert in the district/town level d. Program planner in the district/town level e.
Resource person in the district/town level
Sub-district level a.
Tutor, education staff, resource person, and volunteers
2. Material/learning aids
a. Module, textbook b. Learning media c. Stationery d. Material for practice e. curriculum f.
g. Lesson plan h. Place and learning facilities i.
Place and tools for practice
The cost is taken from national budget, local budget, self cost and others. Financial management of equivalence education program in general follows the applicable financial management in the ministry of national education (MONE) and still on the basis of the effective regulations, MONEâ€&#x;s policy, and targeted programs and beneficiaries. The most countries in Asia, they have some problems with financial, especially the inadequacy of national and local budgets and manpower quality. The insufficiency of central government budget and the inadequacy
development result in a deficiency in finance of education development. Consequently, it needs the participation of public or community in financing the delivery of equivalency programs services.
Education financing has been set-up in the frame of the execution of the following functions: (1) to stipulate that equivalence education services are pro-poor and find ways to help other community members who have difficulties to access formal education, (2) to endorse and strengthen of education service, and (3) to expand, to escalate or to make education services accessible to any person, to enhance the quality, relevance, competitiveness and maintain its sustainability, as well as to strengthen the management, accountability and public image in education service delivery.
The cost is allocated for: a) Providing teaching materials and tool, writing module and stationery. b) Providing material for practice and tool and skill education c) Paying the fee the tutor, administrator and the implementer d) Training for tutor and administrator e) Evaluation and test f) Giving Scholarship for brilliant students g) Financial Aids; h) Vocational practice for life skill; i) The maintenance of facilities
The persons who have in charge of improvement and development for human resources are: 1.
(a) Directore General or as the same as (b) EP directorate or the same as (c) Regional centre of NFE (d) Provincial of NFE (e) District centre of NFE (f) Partnership to improve the quality of human resources
The board or institution which has in charge of material development is:
EPs Directorate or as the same as
The centre of material decelopment
Regional centre of NFE
d) Provincial of NFE
District centre of NFE
The board or institution which has in charge of financial for EPs is: a)
Directorate general of NFE or as the same as
EPs Directorate or as the same as
Regional centre of NFE
d) Provincial of NFE e)
District centre of NFE
To improve human resorces, to develop material, and to enhance finacial support are: 1. Human resources development a) To conduct trainning b) To improve the educational qualification c) To do apprentice program d) To do orientation e) To do benchmarking
2. Learning material development a. To develop module for each of subject; b. To develop some learning visual aids; c. To develop learning media; d. To make a learning guideline for tutors; e. To develop a guideline for assessment; f.
To develop teaching models;
g. To write syllabus and lesson plan.
3. To improve financial support for EPs a. To add financial support of national budget; b. To improve financial support of province, and distric/town; c. To improve sociaty participatory to finance EPs; d. To improve financial support of private sector; e. To improve tuation fee (cost) from learners.
Regional Guide on Equivalency Programmes
Module 9 Community Participation, Networking And Partnership Building For Equivalency Programmes
Module 9 Community Participation, Networking And Partnership Building For Equivalency Programmes Introduction The success of educational programmes at the grassroot level depends upon the level of participation of the community and their feeling of ownership of the programme. National governments recognize the importance of community and provide for educational programmes that are community based and are able to contribute to human development. Definitions Before we proceed to understanding the role of community in EPs , let us define each the commonly used terms:
Community - a group of people who live in the same area, or the area in which they live - a group of people with a common background or with shared interests within society Community Participation to play an active role by taking part in an event or activity and thereby having a significant control over decisionsNetworking -the process or practice of building up or maintaining informal relationships, especially with people whose friendship could bring advantages such as job or business opportunities Partnership - the relationship between two or more people or organizations that are involved in the same activity - an organization formed by two or more people or groups who work together for some purpose Governance - the system or manner of functioning of the government - the act or state of governing a place Management - the organizing and controlling of the affairs of a business or a sector of a business - the act of handling or controlling something successfully 86
- the skillful handling or use of something such as resources Leadership - the ability to guide, direct, or influence people - guidance or directions which form an important component in the existence, survival and functions of any group or organization. Empowerment -the process of building, developing and increasing the others power through cooperation, sharing and working together.(TOBE DONE) Community Participation And Its Importance Community participation is important as it allows the local people to be involved in the decisions that will affect their lives. These decisions could relate to education, health, environment, livelihood or any other programme. By being active in such decisions making, it is ensured that social and economic interventions are based upon the real community needs and challenges for the development. Through their involvement, the community can encourage the active participation of various agencies and also ensure the full participation of village. The community through its participation can also formulate the outcomes of a programme and can monitor and evaluate it aswell as check its transparency and quality aspects.
In the case of Equivalency Programmes, the community has an important role to play in their implementation. This is largely because EPs need social advocacy so that children, out of school youth, persons with disabilities, adults and all those who want to continue their education can avail of these programmes. In most cases, the largest participation in EPs is by girls and women. However in many cases, social and religious restrictions make it difficult to women to join continuing education programmes. The social motivation and proper advocacy by the community can help to bring these groups into EPs easily.
The participation of the community has a great role for Equivalency Programmes as it would contribute positively to the sustainability and support of group leaders, officials, government. The importance of the community lies in that it can function as a bridge between individual parents who lack the skills, knowledge and resources to interact effectively with teachers and facilitators and even EP implementers. The community through its Coordination Council, local groups such as parents, associations as Motherâ€&#x;s clubs, can help in supporting education of outof-school youths. Through cooperative organizing, parents can become effective advocates for improved standards and provisions. They can work to support EPs, monitor learning progress and hold to account the achievements. Clubs and organizations also play important role in capacity-building because they create opportunities to develop skills in organizing committees, fund-raising, public speaking and networking.
Aims Types of Community Participation The participation of the community can be in different ways – some of these are as below: a. Passive Participation – people participate by waiting and watching what is going to happen or has already happened. b. Participation in Information Giving – People participate by answering questions posed by researchers using questionnaire surveys or similar approaches. However such participation can be useful only if the community is later provided an opportunity to reflect upon the findings of the research. Participation by Consultation – People participate by being consulted, and external people listen to their views. These external professionals define both the problems and solutions and may modify them in the light of people‟s response. c. Participation for Material Incentives – People participate by providing resources, for example labor in return or food, cash or other material incentives. Functional Participation – People participate by forming groups to meet predetermined objectives related to the project that can involve the development or promotion of externally initiated social organization. d. Interactive Participation – People participate in joint analysis, which leads to action plans and the formation of new local institutions or the strengthening of new ones. Different methodologies are often used to elicit multiple perspectives and make use of systematic and structured learning processes. e. Self-Mobilization - People participate by taking initiatives independent of external institutions to change systems. They develop contacts with external institutions for resources and technical advice they need, but retain control over how resources are used. In present day democracies, participation of the people is the key to good governance. Community participation recognizes that people are informed and have opinions. When the community participates, then the local peopleare able to provide insight and knowledge which is not availbel to external decision makers. Enabling and Disabling Factors for Community Participation a. Enabling Factors Openness and cordial relations among sectors Positive cultural environment Establishment of appropriate structures Acceptance by NGOs of the need to deal with government b. Disabling Factors Mutual suspicion and mistrust Traditional politics Rivalry between sectors Non-institutionalization of programs and projects
Community Participation And EPs The EPs are implemenated through the Community Learning Centres(CLCs) . The CLCs are the focal point where a number of activities take place. The contributions CLC for community can be as mentioned below : 1. Providing EP, Vocational Skill Training, Early Childhood Education, Functional Literacy Programs, etc. 2. Providing a space or place for community activities like rural festival, awareness and health promotion programme, etc. 3. Providing consultant to solve community problems. CLC activist and volunteers can help the community in community problems by giving understanding, training and consultation.
The contributions from the community programmes(including EPs) can be as below :
1. Providing support for development of local learning material, in the form of printed, audio and visual material. 2. Identifying and providing facilitators/tutor as volunteers 3. Being involved in in monitoring and supervision 4. Recommending representative from local people to be part of CLC committee 5. Facilitating CLC with place, funds/ grants to support CLC operational activities
Social Mobilization -increased activity
Participation -increased involvement -increased knowledge
Consultation - information - participation in planning Collaboration -participation in decision-making
Partners - NGAs - NGOs - LGUs -IPOs/Pos - Private Sector
Enhanced Communication Skills - ability to communicate effectively - interpersonal relationships - confidence
a. Ensuring Effective Community Participation - In order to strengthen EPs, it is necessary that there is a healthy working relationship between the government and community. The community members have to be in regular touch with the representatives of the government so that they are constantly involved in the decision making related to their village. This decision making could be related to the identification of courses for the EP, skill development programmes or the implementation or monitoring of the EP. b. The government too has to understand that the success of the EP lies in making use of local insight and having a willing community to run the programme. This would also help to implement the EPs as a needs driven programme. The sharing of responsibilities between government and community would make the programme more sustainable as it would be responsive to the local needs. â€? c. Encourage the community to negotiate as equal partners with government. All sectors share responsibility to obtain better outcomes d. Recognize that everybody needs support to make things happen. e. Develop strategies for long term sustainable change.
How to Get support of the community
Proper advocacy and social mobilization before the start of the program. Selfless motivation, strong convincing power and patience Ability to accept suggetions . Recogniation of efforts of the persons whose efforts increased community participation Identification and presentation of Illustrations of concrete examples that have been successful Transparency of budgetary requirements and financial accountability 2. Networking And Partnership Building
Networking means developing linkages amongst stakeholders: the people in the community, government line agencies, non-government organizations, local government units, donors, agencies and others. Networking facilitates interaction between experts in different areas, and promotes the sharing of ideas and information and resources among stakeholders. In the context of EPs, in most countries the EP model is one based upon networking and partnership. This is done so that there is effective sharing of resources and reduction in infrastructural costs. Networking begins with knowing the people, organizations and agencies in your localities which have specific programs/ projects for specific communities, or which could provide resources for them. It is important to be familiar with the programmes and activities of the other organizations and agencies covering such communities to enable you to refer clients to appropriate agencies, coordinate better and maximize the agencies participation and sharing of data and other resources. In India, the Open Basic Education programme which is an equivalency programme is run with the help of NGOs who are working in the area of basic education. These NGOs have their own infrastusture and teachers and have a close rapport with the local community. The learners in these institutions are taught by the local teachers but are certified through a joint mechanism of the agerncy and the National Institute of Open Schooling. Similarly in Indonesia the Equivalency Education programme tries to leverage the capability of different communities to provide education services to underserved populations. The communities are empowered to carry ouit community-based non-formal educationa services, while the government plays only the role of facilitator. a. b. c. d. e.
Points to Remember in Networking: Take note of the goals and objectives of the possible partner agencies and relate them with the goals and objectives of the communities. Clarify the roles and functions of each agency/ person involved Set a common purpose/goal that all the agencies/ persons could understand and relate to. Maintain the network through regular communication, meetings, etc. Be ready to participate in the agencies other activities. It is not enough that you involve them in your own projects/activities; you should also be willing and available to participate I their activities when needed.
Networking and building linkages are components of social mobilization. Even as a field worker, you can do networking and build linkages even without going through the whole process of social mobilization. Social mobilization, though, results to better participation. Networking Tips for the Field Worker In the EP , the CLC is a venue fo all activities. Here the volunteer or the field worker has to intercat with not just the elarners but also agency representatives, other other partners, members of various Coordination Commmittees etc. Hence the filed woeker should also haver networking skills. Some of the actions for successful networking are as below: a. Prepare the necessary documents as well as yourself for presentation to stakeholders. b. Always think that stakeholders are your co-partners, so it is also important to show courtesy and respect c. You might be a simple individual but you mean a lot to the stakeholders. d. Accept other people‟s opinions and ideas with an open heart and mind, and speak briefly but clearly. e. Always be attentive to issues and concerns f. Always record all agreements made. Areas of Networking and Partnership Building The flexibility in EP allows it to offer a range of courses for the diverse populations A strong EP can be build by consultaions with partners and by making use of vavailable expertise in the area. Some areas where partnerships can be taken up re as under: 1. Development of courses especially skill development courses that are based on local needs – local industry can be involvedapprenticeship programmes can be designed 2. Engaing of faculty for special programmes- experts from industry, education, other sectors can be invited for interaction with learners 3. Training programmes 4. Infrastructure sharing- community halls, playgrounds c can be shared 5. Monitoring - Village elders, community leaders can be involved in overseeing the programme 6. Examination and Certification _ government agencies can be approached for certification of the courses 7. Sponsorships and Awards – learner motivation can be kept high through competitions, games a which can be judged and awarded by sponsors 8. Advocacy- Local media can be kept updated about the develoemnts at the CLC includinfg events and activitieies so that there is publicity and interest in the community about the happenings at the CLC. 9. Research – Feedback studies can be commissioned to external agencies so that there is a study of the programme
BOX Case of Mongolia: In the Uburhangai aimag (province) of Mongolia, the CLC serves as the central CLC. In order to deliver programmes effectively, satellite CLCs were set up. Both the central CLC and satellite CLCs have been supported by the local government directly. The main role of the central CLC is to coordinate the activities of the different satellite CLCs to fully utilize the local resources through agriculture and tourism. Together they developed various programmes for out-of-school children through traditional arts and programmes for women. Among satellite CLCs, they share the resources and personnel to advise each other. Research work including needs was also undertaken jointly. Conclusion Good quality education for young and adults must be linked to community service. The equivalency development plan of action will only be achieved by a comprehensive and multi sectoral approach involving legislative and policy reforms, collaborative and partnership commitment of different resources. Coordinated mechanism is needed in planning, budgeting and implementing. Different assistance and support especially skills enhancement training will enable the whole communities to be empowered and participatory.
Regional Guide on Equivalency Programmes
Module 10 Monitoring and Equality Program Evaluation
Module 10 MONITORING AND EQUALITY PROGRAM EVALUATION Introduction Monitoring and program evaluation is naturally a process of observing, collecting data, processing and analyzing data, and concluding the condition of a program that has been done continuously, started from planning, acting, up until following up. Monitoring and program evauation aims at knowing the real condition of a program ran by an intitution. Referring to the goal of equality education program, that is to improve the quality of the program, various aspects affect it. For example, the role of the government and community leaders, budget condition, human resources, learning material, instrument and infrastructure, and learning process. To know the achievement level, the target, and the success of the program it needs monitoring and evaluation gradually and orderly, so that any problems or obstacles existed in equality education program can be identified early and can be solved appropriately. Remembering that equality education program covers large and complex things, monitoring and program evaluation of equality education contains all the components that affect it. Each of the realization of monitoring and evaluation activity has the procedure, type, and form. However, they relate to each other. Through monitoring and evaluation activity, it is hoped that accurate data and information can be gained which can be used as the instrument to measure the achievement of the success of the program as it is stated. In order that the realization of monitoring and evaluation done structurally, it needs a planned monitoring and evaluation guide as the reference for monitoring and evaluation equality education program. Through monitoring and evaluation activity, hopefully the institutions that hold equality education program have sufficient knowledge and skill in organizing equality education program.
A. Definition 1. The Definition of Monitoring Monitoring is a series of control on the realization of equality education program, done regularly and orderly, both through direct monitoring to the field and by analyzing the document of the program result. 2. The Definition of Evaluation Evaluation of equality education program is an activity done to measure the realization of equality program based on a certain standard.
B. The Aim of the Program The aim of monitoring and evaluation equality education program is: 1. The aim of monitoring a. Collecting data and information as the result of the realisation of equality education. b. Identifying problems faced during the program. c. Developing the of equality education program organizers. d. Recommending the completing of equality education program. 2. The aim of evaluation The aim of evaluation is: a. To measure the learnersâ€&#x; competence level in mastering the competence of equality education. b. To see various equality education programs in the field ran by the institution obviously. c. To motivate the tutor and the learners of equality education in order that they will be motivated more to follow the learning process. d. As the feedback for the government in order to achieve a perfect program in the future. e. To identify the problems in organizing equality education program. f.
To monitor government policy in equality education program.
g. To give technical guidance, supervision, and administration to institution of equality education program in district area. h. To measure the level of ahievement of equality education program goal as stated in program planning.
To know how far the benefit of instrument and infrastructure, both the equipment and the learning material.
To know the tutorâ€&#x;s ability in conducting the teaching learning process of equality education program.
C. The Target of the Program The target of monitoring and evaluation of equality education program is: 1. The officials in non formal institution that handle equality education program. 2. The EP organization 3. The tutor, the speaker, and the facilitator. 4. The learners 5. The organizer of equality education program group. 6. The stakeholder of equality education program. 7. The EP supervisor.
D. The Scope of the Program The scope of monitoring and evaluation equality education program is: 1. To arrange the design and monitoring and evaluation mechanism of equality education program. 2. To develop monitoring and evaluation guide of equality education program. 3. To monitor and evaluate equality education program. 4. To make monitoring and evaluation team of equality education program. 5. To construct the instrumen of monitoring and evaluation of equality education program. 6. To state the place and the time for monitoring and evaluation of equality education program. 7. To arrange the schedule of monitoring and evaluation of equality education program. 8. To analyze the result of monitoring and evaluation of equality education program. 9. To report the activities in monitoring and evaluation of equality education program.
E. The Mechanism of the Program The mechanism of monitoring and evaluation equality education program is: 1. To make a team for monitoring and evaluation equality education program. 2. To make a mandate letter of monitoring and evaluation of equality education program. 3. To make a mission letter for monitoring and evaluation of equality education program. 4. To check and contact thetarget district of monitoring and evaluation equality education program. 5. To prepare the instrument for monitoring and evaluation equality education program. 6. To double the instrument of monitoring and evaluation activities of equality education program. 7. To make report to the education office of the target district before monitoring and evaluation equality education program. 8. To meet with the stakeholder of equality education program facilitated by district education office. 9. To make a field trip to a group of learner of equality education program. 10. To collect the data about anything which relates to equality education program. 11. To analyze the result of monitoring and evaluation activities of equality education program. 12. To make a report of the implementation of montoring and evaluation equality education program. F. The Aspects of Monitoring and Evaluation The success of equality education program can be measured by the achievement of the goal of the program. Therefore, the aspects to monitor and evaluate in equality education program consists of: 1. The involvement of the government and the non-government elements. 2. The budget of the running of equality education program which comes from APBN, APBD I and II or selfsupported.
3. Human resources of equality education program which covers: the learners, the tutor, the organizer, NST, TLD, PB and supervisor. 4. Learning material and media. 5. Instrument and infrastructure for learning. 6. The learning process of equality education program. 7. Evaluation. 8. Administration.
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MONITORING AND EVALUATION A. Preparation of Monitoring and Evaluation 1. The target of monitoring and evaluation The target of monitoring and evaluation covers preparing the program, implementing the program until reporting the result of the equality education program. 2. Monitoring and evaluation method and technique The data resource used in monitoring and evaluation is: a.
The method and technique used in the implementation of monitoring and evaluation is: a. distributing questionnaire b. having discussion and interview c. doing field observation 3. The arrangement of monitoring and evaluation instrumet The arrangement of monitoring and evaluation instrumets that will be used to measure the level of success of equality education program are: a. the instrument that can measure learnersâ€&#x; motivation b. the instrument for learning curriculum c. the instrument of teaching learning process d. the instrument of learning instrument and media e. the instrument that can measure the development and progress of learners f.
the instrument for tutor and learning resource
g. the instrument for equality education program institution h. the instrument for the officials in regional education office and province
B. The implementation of monitoring and evaluation 1. The mechanism of monitoring and evaluation The delivery of the instrument a. Monitoring and evaluation activity is done by delivering the instrument to the target of monitoring and evaluationg that has been determined, coordinated by the local education office. b. Making a report of the implementation of monitoring dan evaluation 2. The location of monitoring and evaluation The location of monitoring and evaluation is the group of learners done by the instituton of equality education program. 3. Respondent a. Learners b. Education official ( Supervisor, TLD, organizer) c. Tutor (Instructors, NST). d. The Head of Department/ Head of sub department of Regional/City non formal education. e. The Head of Department/ Head of sub department Province non formal education. f.
The institution of equality education program (higher education, community organization, self supported organization, and so on)
4. Timing of monitoring and evaluation Monitoring and evaluation is done according to the target of monitoring and evaluation as follows: a. Internal monitoring and evaluation of the organizer is started in July until December, every week and at the end of each unit. b. Monitoring and evaluation by official of district education department (supervisor or TLD) and the Official of regional/city Education department is done in the second month of the program, thta is in August, at least three times during the equality education program. c. Monitoring and evaluation by the official of province education department (the head of sub department of non formal education) is done at least once at the time of the learning process.
d. Monitoring and evaluation in national level is done at the time of learning process or when the program is about to end, that is in the determined month. 5. Data Collection Technique Data and information are gained through: a. Distribution of questionnaire of monitoring and evaluation based on the target of monitoring and evaluation. b. Discussion and interview with the respondent. c. Field observation d. Dig up data through document analysis 6. Product analysis At the end of monitoring and evaluation, whether it is done by the tutor, organizer, and government official, it needs to recapitulate the result of the program. The data from evaluation result is processed, categorized and tabulated. After that, it is discussed and interpreted to get conclusions and recommendation that is used as the guide for the next program. C. Timing The implementation of monitoring and evaluation activity of equality education program is done in the determined month.
D. Expected result The expected result from monitoring and evaluation of equality education program is: 1. The availability of accurate data and information about the implementation of equality education program done. 2. The formulation of recommendation for the organizer of equality education program at cental, province, regional/city, district level and at the organizer level. 3. The implementation of equality education program in accordance with the determined goal. 4. The availability of suggestion for:
a. The formulation of direction and policy of the elimination of illiteracy through equality education program in the future.
b. The improvement of organizing operational fund aids for equality education program which is allocated in the central, province and regional/city level. E. Fund resource Fund resource for monitoring and evaluation activity is from the budget of equality education program in central, province, regional/city level.
MONITORING AND EVALUATION ACTIVITY REPORT Monitoring and evaluation report is arranged based on the following systematic:
Introduction A. Background Describing the background of the importance of monitoring and evaluating equality education program B. Aims The aims that want to be achieved from the implementation of equality education program C. Target The organizer of the program and the stakeholder of equality education program
The Result of Activity A. Data Description 1. Condition and support of equality education program component 2. The availability and readiness of input component 3. The process of the implementation of the program 4. The achievement of the target/result 5. Support from the government and community 6. Problems in equality education program B. The improvement before and after the implementation of equality education program C. Funding responsibility
Closing A. Conclusion (from data analysis) B. Suggestion C. Recommendation
Note: The result of interview, document analysis and observation is analyzed to make a conclusion about the competence achievement of equality education program. It is used as a recommendation to improve competence and enhance the program.
Appendix of Monitoring and evaluation instrument of equality education program Source: Department of Education i.e. sub department of non formal education (Province/Regional/City) Name and position of the resource person: ………………………………………… Description
(Province/Regional/City) 1. How many primary and high school age people who do not go to school are there in the province/regional/city? 2. How many illiterate people aged 7-17 and 18-35 are there? 3. How is the composition of the community? 4. How do you get the data for number 1, 2, 3?
The target 1. Explain the target of equality education program.
Number of target
a. b. c.
Budget 2. How much is the budget for equality education program from APBN? How many target to achieve? 3. How much is the budget for equality education program from APBD? How many target to achieve?
Human Resource 4. How many tutors of EQUALITY EDUCATION PROGRAM who are active in 2007? 5. How many tutors of EQUALITY EDUCATION PROGRAM are funded by APBN and APBD? 6. How much is the payment for the tutor of EQUALITY EDUCATION PROGRAM TLD, and FDI?
7. How is the payment system? 8. How much is the APBN and APBD allocated to pay the tutor of EQUALITY EDUCATION PROGRAM? 9. How many TLD/FDI people who have assigned as the candidate of government employee? How many of the who havenâ€&#x;t assigned?
Learning material 10. What learning material is used in EQUALITY EDUCATION PROGRAM? 11. How is the availability of learning material of EQUALITY EDUCATION PROGRAM (number and quality)?
Resource Person: The Institution that hold EP Program
Name and position of resource person: ................................................................
Target 1. How many target audiences involved in 2009? 2. Where do the learners live? Budget 1. How much is supported budget given by the government and/or local government? 2. How much is the budget of the institution or others?
Human Resource 1. How many tutor of employed by the institution? 2. What are educationa background of the tutor? 3. How much is the salary of the tutor?
Intrument and Infrastructure 1. What learning material is given in EP? 2. How is the condition and the equipment in the learning place?
Resource Person: the tutor
Name and position of resource person: ................................................................
Target 1. How many learners are taught? 2. Where do the learners live? 3. How is the description of the learners? Teaching Learning Process 1. Where is the learning activity done? 2. How long is the learning duration? 3. What learning material is used? 4. What learning method is used? 5. How is evaluation done? 6. Explain the obstacle! 7. Explain the learning advantage of EP done all this time!
Others 1. How much is the salary? 2. How is the salary system? 3. What is your job besides tutoring in the EP?
Resource Person: the learner
Name of resource person: ................................................................
Recruitment 1. How old are you? 2. What is your occupation? 3. Where do you live? 4. What is your marital status? 5. What is your former education? 6. Since when did you take part in EP? 7. Who asked you to follow EP?
Teaching Learning Process 1. Where is the learning activity done? 2. How long is the learning duration? 3. What learning material is used? 4. What learning method is applied? 5. What learning material (book) you get during learning? 6. Do you like activities in EP? 7. What lesson do you like best?